Science.gov

Sample records for international health elective

  1. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  2. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country. PMID:20186283

  3. High Disparity Between Orthopedic Resident Interest and Participation in International Health Electives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Steven; Shultz, Paul; Daniels, Alan; Ackelman, Edward; Kamal, Robin N

    2016-07-01

    Few orthopedic surgical residency programs offer international health electives (IHEs). Efforts to expand these programs have been increasing across medical disciplines. Whether orthopedic residents will participate remains unknown. This study quantified and characterized orthopedic resident interest and barriers to IHEs in US residency programs. A web-based survey was administered to residents from 154 US orthopedic residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2014 to 2015. Questions assessed demographics and program background, previous medical experience abroad, barriers to participation, and level of interest in participating in an international health elective during their training and beyond. Twenty-seven (17.5%) residency programs responded. Chi-square analysis showed that residents who expressed interest in participating were significantly more likely to have experience abroad compared with those who expressed no interest (P<.004). Analysis using Mann-Whitney U test suggested that those who expressed interest were more likely to believe IHEs are important to resident training (P<.0011; mean Likert scale score of 3.7 vs 2.6), provide valuable experience (P<.001; mean Likert scale score of 4.2 vs 3.2), and should be required for orthopedic residencies (P<.001; mean Likert scale score of 2.8 vs 1.9). Residents are strongly interested in participating in IHEs during their training, and many may integrate global health into future practices. Residents perceive lack of funding and scheduling flexibility as barriers preventing them from participating. Prior experience abroad influences level of interest, and international clinical experience may enhance future perception of its value. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e680-e686.]. PMID:27111074

  4. Educational Effects of International Health Electives on U.S. and Canadian Medical Students and Residents: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew J.; Huntington, Mark K.; Hunt, D. Dan; Pinsky, Linda E.; Brodie, Jonathon J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed studies that have assessed the educational effects of international health electives (IHEs) on U.S. and Canadian medical students and residents. IHEs appear to be associated with career choices in underserved or primary care settings and recruitment to residency programs. They also appear to have positive effects on participants' clinical…

  5. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  6. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  7. Student objectives and learning experiences in a global health elective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, David; Zayas, Luis E; Koyfman, Alex

    2012-10-01

    International health electives offer unique experiences for medical students to develop clinical skills and cultural competencies in unique and diverse environments. Medical students have been increasingly pursuing these learning opportunities despite the challenges. However, their goals in pursuing these opportunities and the relation between their learning objectives and actual experiences have not been studied adequately. It is important to assess these programs based on student objectives and whether those objectives are met. Thirty-seven medical students from five cohorts at a US medical school completed pre-post questionnaires regarding their global health elective objectives and learning experiences. The questionnaires included mostly open-ended questions and a Likert-scale rating of their overall experience. Qualitative thematic analysis involved inductive coding and followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Quantitative program evaluation measures yielded descriptive statistics. Five general objectives and four types of learning experiences were identified. Student objectives were: (1) to observe the practice and organization of health care in another country; (2) improve medical/surgical skills; (3) improve language skills; (4) learn about another culture; and (5) deepen knowledge of infectious diseases. All of their objectives were achieved. Moreover, one learning theme, "self-reflection and personal growth," was not a student objective. Quantitative assessment showed that most students had a favorable elective experience. Program challenges were also identified. Students in a global health elective were able to fulfill self-identified learning objectives, while also gaining other unexpected yet important lessons. Students' learning objectives also should be considered in evaluating learning experiences in international health electives. PMID:22367606

  8. Academic affairs and global health: how global health electives can accelerate progress towards ACGME milestones.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Alison Schroth; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Sanson, Tracy; Mowafi, Hani; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2015-12-01

    Global health electives (GHEs) have become a standard offering in many residency programs. Residency electives should aid residents in achieving outcomes in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency domains. In this paper, the authors review existing literature and provide expert opinion to highlight how global health electives can complement traditional training programs to assist residents in achieving ACGME milestones, using emergency medicine residency as an example. Recommendations are provided for identifying exemplary global health electives and for the development of institutional global health elective curricula in order to facilitate milestone achievement. Global health electives can advance progress towards ACGME milestones; however, they may vary greatly in terms of potential for learner advancement. Electives should thus be rigorously vetted to ensure they meet standards that will facilitate this process. Given that milestones are a newly introduced tool for assessing resident educational achievement, very little research is available currently to directly determine impacts, and further study will be needed. PMID:26628320

  9. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... pandemic/avian flu, and tuberculosis. Many countries and health organizations are working together and sharing information on ...

  10. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers. PMID:25395357

  11. Catherine Cesarsky elected President of the International Astronomical Union and Ian Corbett elected Assistant General Secretary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Prague (Czech Republic), has elected the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President for a three-year period (2006-2009). The IAU is a body of distinguished professional astronomers, founded in 1919 to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. It now has almost 10 000 individual members drawn from all continents. Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman to receive this high distinction. At the same General Assembly, Dr. Ian Corbett, ESO's Deputy Director General, was elected Assistant General Secretary for 2006-2009, with the expectation of becoming General Secretary in 2009-2012. ESO PR Photo 32/06 ESO PR Photo 32/06 The New IAU Officers Prof. Ron Ekers, the outgoing IAU President said: "The past few years have been highly productive for astronomy, with many discoveries giving new insights into our Universe which have excited scientists and general public alike. Catherine Cesarsky is internationally honoured as a scientist, and I am delighted that she has agreed to serve the IAU as President. She has already given invaluable service to the IAU and I am confident that she will provide outstanding leadership as President." "It is a great honour and a pleasure for me to be President of the International Astronomical Union for the next three years, especially in view of the proposed International Year of Astronomy in 2009, in which the IAU will play a leading role as a catalyst and a coordinator," said Catherine Cesarsky. "I am very much looking forward to working with my colleagues in the IAU to ensure that this is a great success." Dr. Cesarsky, ESO Director General since 1999, is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma-ray emission. Later, she led the design and construction of

  12. Women's Health Care: A Needed Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A course developed to fill a gap related to women's health issues in the University of Georgia's pharmacy curriculum is described. Specific discussion topics include pregnancy, obstetrics analgesic, drugs in breast milk, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Course objectives and a course outline are appended. (Author/MLW)

  13. Student interest and knowledge concerning global health electives: a USD Sanford School of Medicine study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sarah; Elliott, Amy; Bien, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Due to society's globalization, medical students increasingly pursue electives in global health. Such international experiences hold several inherent benefits for both the student traveler and the sponsoring institution. In order to enhance global health education at the Sanford School of Medicine (SSOM) of the University of South Dakota (USD), the medical student body was surveyed regarding prior international travel experiences, interest in serving globally, prohibitive factors toward embarking on a global health experience, and objective knowledge concerning medical service in an international context. In total, almost 95 percent of students indicated they were either very interested or somewhat interested in serving internationally during medical school or later during their career. The most prohibitive factors were funding concerns, lack of information and travel preparation demands. The survey responses indicate there is a great interest in the development of a cohesive global health curriculum for the SSOM. PMID:23923681

  14. Catherine Cesarsky - President Elect of the International Astronomical Union (IAU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia), has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President Elect for a three-year period (2003-2006). The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents. The IAU General Assembly also elected Prof. Ron Ekers (Australia) as President (2003 - 2006). Dr. Cesarsky will then become President of the IAU in 2006, when the General Assembly next meets in Prague (The Czech Republic). Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman scientist to receive this high distinction. "The election of Catherine Cesarsky as President-Elect of the IAU is an important recognition for a scientist who has made impressive contributions to various areas of modern astrophysics, from cosmic rays to the interstellar medium and cosmology" , commented the outgoing IAU President, Prof. Franco Pacini. "It is also an honour and an important accolade for the European astronomical community in general and ESO in particular." Dr. Cesarsky, who assumed the function as ESO Director General in 1999, was born in France. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp), Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). As Director of DSM (1994 - 1999), she was leading about 3000 scientists, engineers and technicians active within a broad spectrum of basic research programmes in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma

  15. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE) is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152). Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS). Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051). Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS score. Residents with

  16. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118 Section 452.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE...

  17. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118 Section 452.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE...

  18. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118 Section 452.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118 Section 452.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE...

  20. 29 CFR 452.118 - Local unions agents in international elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local unions agents in international elections. 452.118 Section 452.118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE...

  1. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  2. Opening our hearts and minds: the meaning of international clinical nursing electives in the personal and professional lives of nurses.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Cox, Amy Harmer

    2006-06-01

    Although international opportunities are the hallmark of nursing education at a large private university, the meaning of participating in such clinical nursing electives has not been described. The purpose of this phenomenological study of nurses was to examine the personal and professional meaning of participating in international clinical nursing electives during their undergraduate nursing studies. Audiotaped interviews were conducted with 20 former nursing students who had had this opportunity. "Opening our hearts and minds" was described by the study's participants, with the following themes: increasing understanding of other cultures and peoples, increasing understanding of global sociopolitical and health issues, increasing the commitment to make a difference, experiencing personal and professional growth, contributing to professional development in the host country, making interpersonal connexions, and developing cultural competence. This study makes an important contribution to the documentation of the meaning of participating in international nursing clinical experiences. Data are being used for long-term curricular planning in the development and refinement of future international clinical nursing electives and to provide outcomes data for professional accreditation. There are broader implications for the movement beyond individual cultural competence to increasing global consciousness and the improvement of global health care. PMID:16764561

  3. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  4. International occupational health.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety

  5. Encouraging newly elected parliamentarians to take action on animal health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    BVA and its branches developed three manifestos ahead of the May elections in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, aiming to raise awareness of the importance of safeguarding animal health and promoting animal welfare. Public affairs manager, Helena Cotton, encourages members to use the manifestos when speaking to newly elected representatives and stakeholders. PMID:27154947

  6. ESO Director General appointed President-Elect of the International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia) in July, has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President-Elect for the three-year period 2003-2006. The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents.

  7. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  8. Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

  9. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services. PMID:15346681

  10. An Elective Course in Personal Finance for Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To create, implement, and assess an elective course on the principles and applications of personal finance. Design A 1.5 unit (15 hours total) elective course was designed using active-learning pedagogy, lecture, and group discussion. Homework assignments were designed to provide practical tools and materials that students could individualize and apply to their personal financial goals. Assessment Student satisfaction, using a standard course evaluation form, revealed consistent high ratings. Student enrollment increased from 19 students in its initial year to 90 students in its fourth year. Student knowledge, assessed using the Jump$tart Financial Literacy Survey, indicated significant knowledge acquisition. Conclusion Many pharmacy students are ill equipped to effectively handle the complex financial decisions they face after graduation. This course provides students with practical tools to identify appropriate ways to achieve their financial goals and critically evaluate financial advice and advisors. PMID:19513143

  11. Power to the people? An international review of the democratizing effects of direct elections to healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ellen A; Greer, Scott L; Wilson, Iain; Donnelly, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Ensuring that publicly funded health systems are democratically accountable is an enduring challenge in policy and practice. One strategy for enhancing public officials' accountability is to elect members of the public to oversee their performance. Several countries have experimented with direct elections to healthcare organizations. The most directly comparable examples involve some Canadian regional health authorities, New Zealand district health boards, foundation trusts in England and health boards in Scotland. We propose three aspects of the process by which the democratizing effects of elections should be judged: authorization, accountability and influence. Evidence from these countries suggests that the democratization of health systems is a complex task, which cannot be completed simply by introducing elections. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25620785

  12. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    PubMed

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools. PMID:16753723

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April... provide timely notice. 301.6223(e)-2 Section 301.6223(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... In General § 301.6223(e)-2 Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice....

  14. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April... provide timely notice. 301.6223(e)-2 Section 301.6223(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... In General § 301.6223(e)-2 Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice....

  15. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April... provide timely notice. 301.6223(e)-2 Section 301.6223(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... In General § 301.6223(e)-2 Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice....

  16. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April... provide timely notice. 301.6223(e)-2 Section 301.6223(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... In General § 301.6223(e)-2 Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice....

  17. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April... provide timely notice. 301.6223(e)-2 Section 301.6223(e)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... In General § 301.6223(e)-2 Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice....

  18. Ensuring the Health, Safety and Preparedness of U.S. Medical Students Participating in Global Health Electives Overseas.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Bruno, Denise M; Monica Sweeney, M

    2016-04-01

    Global health electives based in resource-poor countries have become extremely popular with medical students from resource rich ones. As the number of such programs and participants increase, so too do the absolute health and safety risks. It is clear from a number of published reports that many institutions provide little or no meaningful preparedness for students and do little to ensure their health and safety. These deficiencies together can affect students, their foreign hosts, and sponsoring institutions. The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, and its predecessor, the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, have sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purposes of this elective are to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health systems in resource-poor countries, provide medical service, and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 386 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 resource-poor countries. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Appropriately preparing students for an overseas global health experience in resource-poor countries requires the investment of much professional and staff time and effort. At the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health, these resources have underpinned our Global Health in Developing Countries elective for many years. As a result, the elective is characterized by meticulous

  19. International surgical residency electives: a collaborative effort from trainees to surgeons working in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Grigorian, Areg; Sicklick, Jason K; Kingham, T Peter

    2014-01-01

    In today's ever-globalizing climate, the academic sector bears a certain responsibility to incorporate global health opportunities into residency training programs. The worldwide unmet surgical need has been growing; it has been estimated by the World Health Organization that by 2030, surgical diseases will contribute significantly to the burden of global health. International electives (IE) offered during training may partially address this growing need. In addition, it can help trainees develop a heightened awareness of the social determinants of health in resource-limited areas, as well as gain insight into different cultures, health beliefs, and pathologic conditions. General surgery residency programs that offer IE may also stand to benefit by attracting a broader applicant pool, as well as by having the ability to train residents to rely less upon expensive tests and equipment, while further developing residents' physical examination and communications skills. The challenges that IE pose for trainees include the required adaptation to an environment devoid of an advanced and modern medical system, and a difficulty in learning a new language, culture, and local customs. However, IE may also be hazardous for home institutions as they may drain local resources and take limited educational experiences away from local providers. Despite the active promotion of international volunteerism by the American Board of Surgery, few surgery residency programs offer IE as part of the curriculum, with cost and supervision being the major obstacles to overcome. Consequently, it may be difficult to generate American surgical leaders in international health. In this article, we outline the steps needed to bring IE to an institution and how general surgery residency programs can help bridge the gap between surgeons in high-income countries and the growing surgical needs of the international community. PMID:24776855

  20. 77 FR 38681 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-day notice and request for comments. ] SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office...

  1. 76 FR 32996 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office...

  2. 76 FR 36582 - Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on July 9, 2010 at Volume 75 FR 39587... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form AGENCY: U.S. Office...

  3. Rethinking elective colectomy for diverticulitis: a strategic approach to population health.

    PubMed

    Simianu, Vlad V; Flum, David R

    2014-11-28

    Diverticulitis is one of the leading indications for elective colon resection. Surgeons are trained to offer elective operations after a few episodes of diverticulitis in order to prevent future recurrences and potential emergency. However, most emergency surgery happens during the initial presentation. After recovery from an episode, much of the subsequent management of diverticulitis occurs in the outpatient setting, rendering inpatient "episode counting" a poor measure of the severity or burden of disease. Evidence also suggests that the risk of recurrence of diverticulitis is small and similar with or without an operation. Accordingly, contemporary evaluations of the epidemiologic patterns of treatments for diverticulitis have failed to demonstrate that the substantial rise in elective surgery over the last few decades has been successful at preventing emergency surgery at a population level. Multiple professional societies are calling to "individualize" decisions for elective colectomy and there is an international focus on "appropriate" indications for surgery. The rethinking of elective colectomy should come from a patient-centered approach that considers the risks of recurrence, quality of life, patient wishes and experiences about surgical and medical treatment options as well as operative morbidity and risks. PMID:25469029

  4. Reducing risk and enhancing education: U.S. medical students on global health electives.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michael J A; Biller, Nancy; Lyon, Sarah M; Reilly, John P; Merlin, Jessica; Dacso, Matthew; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the impact of several interventions, including predeparture simulation training and procedure logs, on incidence needlestick injuries (NSIs) among U.S. medical students on global health (GH) elective in Botswana. Review of NSI incident reports before and after introduction of these interventions demonstrated a reduction in the number of splash and body fluid exposures (n = 5 [6%] vs n = 21 [23%]; P < .001), respectively. Simple predeparture training is highly effective in reducing NSIs among students participating in GH electives. PMID:25465263

  5. A Comparison of Health Risk Behaviors among College Students Enrolled in a Required Personal Health Course vs. an Elective Personal Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

  6. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... post-polio.org. Check out International Ventilator Users Network Post-Polio Health International's mission is to enhance ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  7. A Global Health Elective Course in a PharmD Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arjun; Kovera, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, development, and the first 4 implementations of a Global Health elective course intended to prepare pharmacy students pursue global health careers and to evaluate student perceptions of the instructional techniques used and of skills developed during the course. Design. Following the blended curriculum model used at Touro College of Pharmacy, the Global Health course combined team-based learning (TBL) sessions in class, out-of-class team projects, and online self-directed learning with classroom teaching and discussion sessions. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with TBL sessions, team projects, and class presentations, online quizzes, and final examinations. A precourse and postcourse survey showed improvement in global health knowledge and attitudes, and in the perception of pharmacists’ role and career opportunities in global health. Significant improvement in skills applicable to global health work was reported and students rated highly the instructional techniques, value, and relevance of the course. Conclusion. The Global Health elective course is on track to achieve its intended goal of equipping pharmacy students with the requisite knowledge and applicable skills to pursue global health careers and opportunities. After taking this course, students have gone on to pursue global field experiences. PMID:25657374

  8. Internationally educated health professionals.

    PubMed

    Leatt, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Even as recently as a decade ago, it was not uncommon for many Canadian decision- and policy makers in healthcare and government to ignore the matter of internationally educated healthcare professional (IEHP) integration and retention. With all the talk in the past few years, however, of employee shortages in nearly every healthcare profession and a rapidly aging population that requires more and more care, nobody can afford to neglect this potentially large and highly skilled talent pool. PMID:20523134

  9. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  13. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  14. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  15. The U.S. Presidential Election and Health Care Workforce Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Aiken, Linda H.; Cooper, Richard A.; Miller, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    The candidates for the 2008 presidential election have offered a range of proposals that could bring significant changes in health care. Although few are aimed directly at the nurse and physician workforce, nearly all of the proposals have the potential to affect the health care workforce. Furthermore, the success of the proposed initiatives is dependent on a robust nurse and physician workforce. The purpose of this article is to outline the current needs and challenges for the nurse and physician workforce and highlight how candidates’ proposals intersect with the adequacy of the health care workforce. Three general themes are highlighted for their implications on the physician and nurse workforce supply, including (a) expansion of health care coverage, (b) workforce investment, and (c) cost control and quality improvement. PMID:18436702

  16. Resources and estuarine health: perceptions of elected officials and recreational fishers.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Sanchez, J; McMahon, M; Leonard, J; Lord, C G; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    1999-10-29

    It is important to understand the perceptions of user groups regarding both the health of our estuaries and environmental problems requiring management. Recreational fishers were interviewed to determine the perceptions of one of the traditional user groups of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey), and elected officials were interviewed to determine if the people charged with making decisions about environmental issues in the bay held similar perceptions. Although relative ratings were similar, there were significant differences in perceptions of the severity of environmental problems, and for the most part, public officials thought the problems were more severe than did the fishers. Personal watercraft (often called Jet Skis) were rated as the most severe problem, followed by chemical pollution, junk, overfishing, street runoff, and boat oil. Small boats, sailboats, wind surfers, and foraging birds were not considered environmental problems by either elected officials or fishermen. The disconnect between the perceptions of the recreational fishers and those of the locally elected public officials suggests that officials may be hearing from some of the more vocal people about problems, rather than from the typical fishers. Both groups felt there were decreases in some of the resources in the bay; over 50% felt the number of fish and crabs had declined, the size of fish and crabs had declined, and the number of turtles had declined. Among recreational fishers, there were almost no differences in perceptions of the severity of environmental problems or in changes in the bay. The problems that were rated the most severe were personal watercraft and overfishing by commercial fishers. Recreational fishers ranked sailboats, wind surfers, and fishing by birds as posing no problem for the bay. Most fishers felt there had been recent major changes in Barnegat Bay, with there now being fewer and smaller fish, fewer and smaller crabs, and fewer turtles. The results suggest that the views

  17. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    PubMed Central

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R.; Weaver, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities. PMID:24964783

  18. Health policy in France: a major issue in the 1978 legislative elections.

    PubMed

    Canone, F; Guyot, J C

    1978-01-01

    For the 1978 legislative elections, all French political parties have, for the first time, a relatively detailed health policy. The right-wing parties of the present government concentrate on the reduction of medical expenditure and the maintenance of the free enterprise tradition of French medicine. The left-wing parties concentrate more on the development of public health institutions and suggest nationalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Within the Left, there is, however, a difference of emphasis: the Socialists propose the setting up of medicosocial centers and abolition of the fee-for-service system; the Communists concentrate rather on industrial health and believe that an improved health service can only come from changes in overall social economic policy. None of these policies is particularly adventurous but their mere existence shows that health is now a major political preoccupation in France. Some of these policies are mainly concerned with individual and public welfare and others with the necessity of maintaining a certain social order. The debate surrounding health policy usually turns around these two issues. PMID:681048

  19. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics. PMID:26447024

  20. Waiting times for elective surgery and the decision to buy private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Johar, Meliyanni; Jones, Glenn; Keane, Michael; Savage, Elizabeth; Stavrunova, Olena

    2011-09-01

    More than 45% of Australians buy health insurance for private treatment in hospital. This is despite having access to universal and free public hospital treatment. Anecdotal evidence suggests that avoidance of long waits for public treatment is one possible explanation for the high rate of insurance coverage. In this study, we investigate the effect of waiting on individual decisions to buy private health insurance. Individuals are assumed to form an expectation of their own waiting time as a function of their demographics and health status. We model waiting times using administrative data on the population hospitalised for elective procedures in public hospitals and use the parameter estimates to impute the expected waiting time and the probability of a long wait for a representative sample of the population. We find that expected waiting time does not increase the probability of buying insurance but a high probability of experiencing a long wait does. On average, waiting time has no significant impact on insurance. In addition, we find that favourable selection into private insurance, measured by self-assessed health, is no longer significant once waiting time variables are included. This result suggests that a source of favourable selection may be aversion to waiting among healthier people. PMID:21337454

  1. A global health elective for US medical students: the 35 year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-04-01

    The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of

  2. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  3. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Election. 891.201 Section 891.201... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original period for election by each eligible retired employee was during the months of March and April...

  4. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election. 891.201 Section 891.201... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original period for election by each eligible retired employee was during the months of March and April...

  5. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election. 891.201 Section 891.201... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original period for election by each eligible retired employee was during the months of March and April...

  6. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election. 891.201 Section 891.201... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original period for election by each eligible retired employee was during the months of March and April...

  7. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  8. Chairman-elect designate eyes the future of health care and the AHA. Interview by Mary A. Grayson.

    PubMed

    Warden, G L

    1993-08-01

    Gail L. Warden, president and CEO of Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, has been named chairman-elect of the American Hospital Association. He will become chairman of the board of trustees in January 1995. In many ways, Warden is the right man at the right time to head the AHA. His integrated system is described as light-years ahead of others in health care. This, plus his background as president and CEO of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, makes him one of the field's leading experts on managed care. Warden shared his vision of the future with Mary A. Grayson, Materials Management in Health Care's editorial director. PMID:10127508

  9. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  10. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  11. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning after December...

  12. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  13. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning...

  14. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students. PMID:25700921

  15. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  16. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section... election. (a) By whom election is to be made. Generally, the taxpayer whose tax liability is affected by the election shall make the election. In the case of a partnership, or a corporation electing...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section... election. (a) By whom election is to be made. Generally, the taxpayer whose tax liability is affected by the election shall make the election. In the case of a partnership, or a corporation electing...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section... election. (a) By whom election is to be made. Generally, the taxpayer whose tax liability is affected by the election shall make the election. In the case of a partnership, or a corporation electing...

  19. A Service-Learning Elective to Promote Enhanced Understanding of Civic, Cultural, and Social Issues and Health Disparities in Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Pamela C; Wall, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of an elective service-learning course offered in cooperation with a charitable pharmacy providing services to the surrounding community. Methods The 33 students enrolled in the service-learning elective were given a 23-question preservice survey instrument and a 32-question postservice survey instrument. The survey instruments were designed to measure change in the students’ perceived knowledge and understanding regarding civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities. Results Significant differences in responses on the presurvey and postsurvey instruments suggested changes in students’ attitudes and perceptions about the patients and the community in which they serve. Conclusions Results of the survey indicated that by exposing students to issues affecting individuals and the community during this elective, a positive change in the student's perception of their knowledge and understanding of broader issues facing the community was observed. Service-Learning courses provide additional opportunities for students to develop as competent, engaged, and caring health care professionals. PMID:17429509

  20. MSW Students' Motivations for Taking an International Social Work Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David; Barner, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents motivating factors for taking an international social work course for a sample of graduate students in the United States. Literature on international education, including courses and international field placements, provides a framework for the study. Qualitative themes showed that students were motivated primarily as a result…

  1. Cuba's international cooperation in health: an overview.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the first years after Cuba's 1959 revolution, the island's new government provided international medical assistance to countries affected by natural disasters or armed conflicts. Step by step, a more structural complementary program for international collaboration was put in place. The relief operations after Hurricane Mitch, which struck Central America in 1998, were pivotal. From November 1998 onward, the "Integrated Health Program" was the cornerstone of Cuba's international cooperation. The intense cooperation with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela became another cornerstone. Complementary to the health programs abroad, Cuba also set up international programs at home, benefiting tens of thousands of foreign patients and disaster victims. In a parallel program, medical training is offered to international students in the Latin American Medical School in Cuba and, increasingly, also in their home countries. The importance and impact of these initiatives, however, cannot and should not be analyzed solely in public health terms. PMID:18072320

  2. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election process. 422.60 Section 422.60 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.60 Election process... plan, and in which the MA organization arranges for the employer to process elections for...

  3. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election process. 422.60 Section 422.60 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.60 Election process... plan, and in which the MA organization arranges for the employer to process elections for...

  4. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area. PMID:12162840

  5. Universal health care: the changing international discourse.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited. PMID:24351385

  6. International health program: preventing health problems associated with living abroad.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Carol A

    2004-02-01

    1. The components of the international health program consist of identifying health risks overseas, the availability of the medical resources, the assessment of the medical facility, primary care, as well as the pre-departure health evaluations. 2. The organization should develop and implement standards of care while working toward maintaining and improving those standards to achieve an innovative, effective international medical program. This should be linked by a top down commitment to insure success. 3. The implementation of the emergency response plan will help support employees and their family members while working abroad if a serious illness or injury should occur. PMID:14979618

  7. 26 CFR 1.125-4 - Permitted election changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permitted election changes. 1.125-4 Section 1... election changes. (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in paragraphs (b) through (g)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deemed sale election. 1.1291-10 Section 1.1291... Deemed sale election. (a) Deemed sale election. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(A) (deemed sale election). Under that section, a shareholder (as defined in §...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deemed sale election. 1.1291-10 Section 1.1291... Deemed sale election. (a) Deemed sale election. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(A) (deemed sale election). Under that section, a shareholder (as defined in §...

  10. 26 CFR 1.125-4 - Permitted election changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted election changes. 1.125-4 Section 1... election changes. (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in paragraphs (b) through (g)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1291-10 - Deemed sale election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deemed sale election. 1.1291-10 Section 1.1291... Deemed sale election. (a) Deemed sale election. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(A) (deemed sale election). Under that section, a shareholder (as defined in §...

  12. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. PMID:25813505

  13. [Sociopolitical determinants of international health policies].

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    For decades, two opposing logics dominate the health policy debate: A comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive 'public logic' is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil, and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959, and in Nicaragua -during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health (care) systems do not naturally gravitate towards greater fairness and efficiency, but that they require deliberate policy decisions. PMID:23949517

  14. Migration and health-the international perspective.

    PubMed

    Siem, H

    1997-05-01

    Mass movement of people is not a new phenomenon. There are significant differences, however, between contemporary migration and that of yesterday. Modern communication and transportation makes it possible for people and their health problems to travel further and more quickly than ever before. The Plan of Action produced by the 1994 International Conference on Population in Cairo estimates that there are 125 million migrants world-wide. The cause of concern is not only linked to the numbers, but also to the new patterns and categories of migrants that give the strong feeling that the problem is getting out of control. This presents a challenge which urgently asks for response and action on various levels including health and social services. European states started to develop policies that would link immigration to health care policies. "Health for All" strategies, only towards the end of the 1980s, if at all. There are six areas, where health policies and programmes explicitly should take the needs of the immigrants into consideration: (1) communication and understanding, (2) control of infectious diseases, (3) mother and child care, (4) occupational health, (5) violence and (6) health indicators among migrants. To improve the health status of migrant families immigrant receiving countries need to put ethnic policies high on the public health agenda, they need to provide adequate health services to immigrants and there is a crucial need for training and preparing health professionals to understanding perspectives that differ from their own ethnic orientation, and to provide adequate and effective responses. PMID:9184032

  15. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  16. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  17. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  18. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  19. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall...

  20. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a trust return is required to be filed for the taxable year of the trust for which the election is...

  1. Developments in international/European health law.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription. PMID:19353913

  2. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2012-06-01

    Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices. PMID:22689165

  3. Health risks encountered by Dutch medical students during an elective in the tropics and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical and research electives abroad offer medical students many unique experiences. However, participating in an unfamiliar health-care setting combined with limited medical experience may place students at risk of illness. To improve pre-and post-travel care, we assessed the health risks and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care in a cohort of Dutch medical students returning form an elective abroad. Methods All medical students who had performed an elective in the tropics between July 2006 and December 2008 were sent an informative email asking them to complete a web-based questionnaire. Results 180 of 242 (74%) students completed the questionnaire. Regarding the risk of bloodborne viral infection: 67% of all students and 32% of junior students engaged in procedures that constitute a risk of exposure to bloodborne viral infection, often in countries with high HIV prevalence rates. None of nine students who experienced possible or certain mucosal or percutaneous exposure to potentially infectious body fluids reported the exposure at the time it occurred and none used PEP. Regarding other health risks: 8 of 40 (20%) students stopped using mefloquine due to adverse effects. This left a sizeable proportion unprotected in countries that are hyperendemic for malaria. Post-travel screening for schistosomiasis, tuberculosis (tuberculin skin test) and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) encompassed approximately half of all students who should have been screened. Conclusions Based on the results of this study we have adopted an integral set of measures to reduce the health risks associated with an elective abroad. The pre and post-travel consult has been centralized and standardized as well as the distribution of PEP. In addition we have developed a mandatory module on Global Health for all medical students planning an elective abroad. PMID:21126347

  4. [External and internal financing in health care].

    PubMed

    Henke, Klaus-Dirk

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this contribution is to characterize the functional and institutional features of the German health-care system. This takes place after a short introduction and examination of the ongoing debate on health care in Germany. External funding describes the form of revenue generation. Regarding external funding of the German health care system, one of the favored alternatives in the current debate is the possibility of introducing per capita payments. After a short introduction to the capitation option, focus is on the so-called health fund that is currently debated on and being made ready for implementation in Germany, actually a mixed system of capitation and contributions based on income. On the other hand, internal funding is the method of how different health-care services are purchased or reimbursed. This becomes a rather hot topic in light of new trends for integrated and networked care to patients and different types of budgeting. Another dominating question in the German health-care system is the liberalization of the contractual law, with its "joint and uniform" regulations that have to be loosened for competition gains. After a discussion of the consequences of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in Germany, the article is concluded by a note on the political rationality of the current health-care reform for increased competition within the Statutory Health Insurance and its players as exemplified by the health fund. To sum up, it has to be said that the complexity and specific features of how the German system is financed seem to require ongoing reform considerations even after realization of the currently debated health-care reform law which, unfortunately, is dominated by political rationalities rather than objective thoughts. PMID:17497087

  5. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Health and Illness: An Elective Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilwein, John H.

    1985-01-01

    A course examining the health beliefs and practices of various traditional cultures focuses on the Third World. It includes such course topics as health relevant behavior, systems of folk medicine and the role of drugs in them, and issues in introducing modern health programs to non-industrial societies. (MSE)

  6. Comparative Elections: Building a Basic Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography focuses on resources for the study of international elections and electoral systems and outcomes that will be useful for collection development and for answering reference questions about foreign elections. Discusses comparative politics, comparative elections, and possible electoral reform. (LRW)

  7. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election process. 422.60 Section 422.60 Public... Election process. (a) Acceptance of enrollees: General rule. (1) Except for the limitations on enrollment... process elections for Medicare-entitled group members who wish to enroll under the Medicare contract,...

  8. 42 CFR 422.60 - Election process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Election process. 422.60 Section 422.60 Public... Election process. (a) Acceptance of enrollees: General rule. (1) Except for the limitations on enrollment... process elections for Medicare-entitled group members who wish to enroll under the Medicare contract,...

  9. Elective and isolated carotid endarterectomy: health disparities in utilization and outcomes, but not readmission.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Byron S.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to decrease future ischemic stroke risk in selected patients. However, clinical trials did not examine the risk-benefit ratio for nonwhites, who have a greater ischemic stroke risk than whites. In general, few studies have examined the effects of race on CEA use and complications, and data on race and CEA readmission are lacking. METHODS: This study used administrative data for patients discharged from California hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2000. Selection criteria of cases included: ICD-9 principal procedure code 38.12, principal diagnostic code 433 and diagnosis-related group 5. There were 8,080 white and 1196 nonwhite patients (228 blacks, 643 Hispanics, 325 Asians/Pacific Islanders) identified that underwent an elective and isolated CEA. For both groups, CEA rates were compared. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of race on in-hospital death and stroke, as well as CEA readmission. RESULTS: Rates of CEA use were more than three times greater for whites than nonwhites, although nonwhites were more likely to have symptomatic disease. For all patients, the complication rate was 1.9%. However, the odds of in-hospital death and stroke were greater for nonwhites than whites, but after adjustment for patient and hospital factors, these differences were only significant for stroke (OR = 1.7, P = 0.013). For both outcomes, the final models had good predictive accuracy. Overall, CEA readmission risk was 7%, and no significant racial differences were observed (P = 0.110). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that CEA is performed safely in California. However, nonwhites had lower rates of initial CEA use but higher rates of in-hospital death and stroke than whites. Racial differences in stroke risk persisted after adjustment for patient and hospital factors. Finally, this study found that despite significant racial disparities in initial CEA use, whites and nonwhites were similar

  10. 1984 Presidential election: issues of relevance to child and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mondale, W F; Reagan, R W

    1984-10-01

    To clarify the position of the 2 major candidates for the office of presidency of the US on child and adolescent health issues, the editors of the Journal of School Health requested information about the candidate's positions from the headquarters of Mondale and Reagan. This document presents a summary based on the information received. In reference to defense spending, Mondale said he would cut some defense programs and increase social support programs. Reagan noted that his proposed budget for the next 5 years allocated US$2.6 trillion to human programs compared to US$1.7 trillion for defense. In regard to health card, Mondale placed a high priority on health care cost containment to be achieved by placing limits on physician and hospital fees, increasing competition between health facilities, and streamlining the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Reagan expressed satisfaction with the current health status of the population and said that health care inflation could be controlled through the provision of incentives to increase the efficiency of hospitals. Mondale indicated that he would reverse Regan's current social policies and provide strong support for social programs including Headstart, maternal and child health programs, Medicaid, Aid to Dependent Children, day care programs, child and spouse abuse programs, and several others. Reagan noted that child health indicators improved during the early 1980s, and that spending for child health increased during his 1st term. His administration would focus attention on the health gap between black and white children and on enforcing child support laws. Mondale indicated broad support for family planning including the right of poor women to obtain abortion services and the right to teenagers to receive contraceptive services without parental involvement. Reagan reiterated his belief that abortion is morally wrong and said that federal funds should not be used to pay for abortion services unless the abortion is

  11. Swasti: An International Health Resource Centre

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swasti, an International Health Resource Centre was established in 2002 in India. The objective was to enhance the health and well-being of communities, particularly the marginalized. Swasti’s main focus lies in the areas of primary health, sexual and reproductive health including HIV, communicable and non-communicable diseases, water, sanitation and hygiene and gender based violence. The organization, during the last decade has grown in leaps and bounds reaching out to the most affected communities through policy influence and grassroots level intervention reach. Swasti has an agile, passionate and multi-disciplinary team, who deliver in diverse situations across the development spectrum while integrating community needs, programs and policies. The organization’s focus is on quality support to deliver cutting edge, sustainable solutions. Swasti has a global approach and works with many development partners across many countries. So far it has been involved in over 200 engagements in over 20 countries with partners ranging from Government Departments, Bilateral and Multilateral Donors, Foundations, INGOs, FBOs, CBOs etc. With many awards and recognitions to its credit, Swasti also contributes to policy and is a part of many global platforms for advocacy.

  12. International strategies in children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    van den Hazel, P J

    2007-10-01

    In recent years the fact that children need to be protected against environmental stressors has been widely accepted by decision- and policy-makers. However, there is not yet a good or unified strategy to improve children's health by improving their environment. The Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE) network suggested a range of recommendations to support the development of a strategy on children's environmental health on different levels of authority: international, national, regional, and local. There clearly are indicated bottlenecks in the thematic network approach. Three main challenges for success have been identified; first is data comparability. PINCHE identified the need for standardisation of environmental assessments, classification of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms, and a format for defining diagnostic groups and presentation of data. Second, data accessibility must be addressed. Accessibility of the scientific data to the general public, including health professionals and policy makers, is important and requires translation that is often lacking. Third there is a requirement to harmonise definitions and methods to ensure that scientists and authorities speak the same language. Obstacles are the subsidiarity principle, fragmentation of available knowledge or lack of expertise and purpose at various levels, the lack of political commitment or input and economic issues. PMID:17452127

  13. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deemed dividend election. 1.1291-9 Section 1... dividend election. (a) Deemed dividend election—(1) In general. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(B) (deemed dividend election). Under that section, a shareholder...

  14. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8... elections. (a) By whom election is to be made—(1) In general. Generally, the taxpayer to whom the Act applies will exercise the elections provided therein. In the case of a partnership or a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853... making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal income tax return for the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853...-4 Manner of making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal...

  17. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  18. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  19. 26 CFR 1.1362-2 - Termination of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of election. 1.1362-2 Section 1... Termination of election. (a) Termination by revocation—(1) In general. An election made under section 1362(a) is terminated if the corporation revokes the election for any taxable year of the corporation...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1295-3 - Retroactive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Retroactive elections. 1.1295-3 Section 1.1295-3...) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1295-3 Retroactive elections. (a....1295-1(j), may make a section 1295 election for a taxable year after the election due date, as...

  1. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with... made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same position as a person...

  2. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853...-4 Manner of making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  4. 26 CFR 1.181-2T - Election (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election (temporary). 1.181-2T Section 1.181-2T... Election (temporary). (a) Time and manner of making election. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of...) and (e) of this section, the election must be made by the due date (including extensions) for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  6. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  8. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  9. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deemed dividend election. 1.1291-9 Section 1... dividend election. (a) Deemed dividend election—(1) In general. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(B) (deemed dividend election). Under that section, a shareholder...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1362-2 - Termination of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of election. 1.1362-2 Section 1... Termination of election. (a) Termination by revocation—(1) In general. An election made under section 1362(a) is terminated if the corporation revokes the election for any taxable year of the corporation...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1291-9 - Deemed dividend election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deemed dividend election. 1.1291-9 Section 1... dividend election. (a) Deemed dividend election—(1) In general. This section provides rules for making the election under section 1291(d)(2)(B) (deemed dividend election). Under that section, a shareholder...

  12. Election Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Kids learn by doing, which, experts agree, is the only real way to teach citizenship. This article presents election-year activities that stress action. These activities will show students what it means to be a good citizen. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  13. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at

  14. 26 CFR 1.472-5 - Revocation of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of election. 1.472-5 Section 1.472-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.472-5 Revocation of election. An election made to adopt and...

  15. Evaluation of the UCLA department of medicine Malawi global health clinical elective: lessons from the first five years.

    PubMed

    Shull, Hannah; Tymchuk, Chris; Grogan, Tristan; Hamilton, John; Friedman, Jodi; Hoffman, Risa M

    2014-11-01

    In 2008, the UCLA Department of Medicine established a three-week clinical elective in Malawi, Africa, for Medicine and Medicine/Pediatrics residents. We sought to determine whether the elective resulted in improved medical knowledge, alterations in career trajectory, and whether the opportunity for the elective influenced selection of UCLA for residency. A 29-question survey was distributed to all graduates of the elective from 2009-2013. Surveys were distributed to 40 individuals, with 33 responses (82.5%). Thirty-one participants (93.9%) reported increased medical knowledge and 24 participants (72.7%) reported the rotation altered their career trajectory. Among the 23 residents who came to UCLA after the elective was established, 13 (56.5%) stated it had an influential role in their selection of UCLA for residency. The Malawi elective resulted in self-reported increases in medical knowledge, alterations in career trajectory, and has played an important role in attracting individuals to UCLA for residency. PMID:25223939

  16. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect to reduce coinsurance for any or all APC groups on a calendar year basis. A hospital may not elect...

  17. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  18. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the...

  19. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change of election. (a) When used in this section, “month” includes the 4-week period for which a retired...

  20. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change of election. (a) When used in this section, “month” includes the 4-week period for which a retired...

  1. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  2. Personal health care of internal medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Palabindala, Venkataraman; Foster, Paul; Kanduri, Swetha; Doppalapudi, Avanthi; Pamarthy, Amaleswari; Kovvuru, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Medical residents, as part of their job to balance the demands of their work with caring for themselves so as to be mentally, emotionally, and physically sound to stay clinically competent. While regulatory and legislative attempts at limiting medical resident work hours have materialized but have yet to attain passage, there are fairly little data looking into how residents cope up with their demands and yet attend to their own personal health. Design Anonymous mailed survey. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-seven residents from all internal medicine residency programs within United States. Methods We conducted a survey in the form of a questionnaire that was sent by e-mail to the program directors of various internal medicine residency programs within the United States, and responses were collected between May 19 and June 21, 2009. Response was well appreciated with total number of participants of 337 with even demographical distribution in gender, residency year, AMG/IMG, age group. Seventy-one percent of the residents felt that they would prefer getting admitted to their own hospital for any acute medical or surgical condition. Of the 216 residents who have had received health care in the past, almost half of them chose their own hospital because of the proximity, while 45% did not choose their own hospital despite proximity. Two out of three residents missed their doctors appointments or cancelled them due to demands of medical training. Only half of the residents have a primary care physician and almost 80% of them did not have their yearly health checkup. Close to 30% held back information regarding their social and sexual history from their provider because of privacy and confidentiality concerns. Eighty percent of residents never received information about barriers that physicians may face in obtaining care for their socially embarrassing conditions. Seventy percent felt that their performance then was suboptimal because of that health

  3. Negative attitudes and affect do not predict elective hysterectomy: A prospective analysis from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Carolyn J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Weiss, Gerson E.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Sowers, MaryFran; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between hysterectomy and negative affect. Using prospective data, we examined the associations of negative affect, attitudes toward aging and menopause, premenstrual symptoms and vasomotor symptoms with elective hysterectomy in midlife. Methods Data were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition (n=2,818). Annually reported hysterectomy at visits 2-9 was verified with medical records when available (71%). Anxiety, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, attitudes toward aging and menopause, vasomotor symptoms, and premenstrual symptoms were assessed at baseline using standardized questions. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate these variables to subsequent elective hysterectomy. Covariates included demographic variables, menstrual bleeding problems, body mass index, hormone levels, and self-rated health, also assessed at baseline. Results Elective hysterectomy was reported by 6% of participants (n=168) over an 8-year period. Women with hysterectomy were not higher in negative affect or negative attitudes toward aging and menopause compared to women without hysterectomy. Vasomotor symptoms (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.01, p=.03) and positive attitudes toward aging and menopause (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.93) at baseline predicted hysterectomy over the 8-year period, controlling for menstrual bleeding problems, site, race/ethnicity, follicle stimulating hormone, age, education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Menstrual bleeding problems at baseline were the strongest predictor of hysterectomy (HR 4.30, 95% CI 2.05-9.05). Conclusions In this prospective examination, negative affect and attitudes were not associated with subsequent hysterectomy. Menstrual bleeding problems were the major determinant of elective hysterectomy. PMID:21228728

  4. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Healthy international travel recommendations

    MedlinePlus

    ... html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript Healthy international travel recommendations : 08/08/2016 To use the ... on weekly topics. Some specific recommendations on healthy international travel as well as information to take to ...

  5. Forging e-health partnerships: strategic perspectives from international executives.

    PubMed

    Caro, Denis H J

    2005-01-01

    International executives underscore the key management frontiers of strategic e-health partnerships between information and communication technology and health care sectors for innovative growth, systems integration, and social responsibility. PMID:15923919

  6. The human genome project and international health

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. )

    1990-06-27

    The human genome project is designed to provide common resources for the study of human genetics, and to assist biomedical researchers in their assault on disease. The main benefit will be to provide several kinds of maps of the human genome, and those of other organisms, to permit rapid isolation of genes for further study about DNA structure and function. This article describes genome research programs in developed and developing countries, and the international efforts that have contributed to genome research programs. For example, the large-scale collaborations to study Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis involve collaborators from many nations and families spread throughout the world. In the USA, the US Department of Energy was first to start a dedicated genome research program in 1987. Since then, another major government program has begun at the National Center for Human Genome Research of the National Institutes of Health. Italy, China, Australia, France, Canada, and Japan have genome research programs also.

  7. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong" (Julia…

  8. 26 CFR 1.125-4T - Permitted election changes (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted election changes (temporary). 1.125-4T... Permitted election changes (temporary). (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in...

  9. 26 CFR 1.125-4T - Permitted election changes (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted election changes (temporary). 1.125-4T... Permitted election changes (temporary). (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in...

  10. 26 CFR 1.125-4T - Permitted election changes (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permitted election changes (temporary). 1.125-4T... Permitted election changes (temporary). (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in...

  11. 26 CFR 1.125-4T - Permitted election changes (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permitted election changes (temporary). 1.125-4T... Permitted election changes (temporary). (a) Election changes. A cafeteria plan may permit an employee to revoke an election during a period of coverage and to make a new election only as provided in...

  12. 26 CFR 1.179-5 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.179-5... (continued) § 1.179-5 Time and manner of making election. (a) Election. A separate election must be made for... election applies (whether or not the return is timely) or on an amended return filed within the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.179-5 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.179-5... (continued) § 1.179-5 Time and manner of making election. (a) Election. A separate election must be made for... election applies (whether or not the return is timely) or on an amended return filed within the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.179-5 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.179-5... (continued) § 1.179-5 Time and manner of making election. (a) Election. A separate election must be made for... election applies (whether or not the return is timely) or on an amended return filed within the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  16. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  17. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  18. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... Enrollment § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial coverage election period for MA. The initial coverage election period is the period during which a newly...

  19. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... Enrollment § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial coverage election period for MA. The initial coverage election period is the period during which a newly...

  20. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial coverage election period for MA. The initial coverage election period is the period during which a newly...

  1. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... Enrollment § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial coverage election period for MA. The initial coverage election period is the period during which a newly...

  2. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke the individual's election of hospice care at any time during an election period. (b) To revoke the election of hospice...

  3. The need of community health centers for international medical graduates.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, L D; Konrad, T R; Miller, J S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether community health centers need international medical graduates to fill staff positions. METHODS: The authors surveyed 100 community health center administrators to learn about their perceptions of international medical graduates. RESULTS: Nationally, about one quarter of community health centers depend on international medical graduates to fill physician vacancies; most of these centers foresee unfilled positions in the event of a cutback. CONCLUSIONS: Policies calling for a national reduction in the supply of international medical graduates need to be balanced by an understanding of these individuals' role in reducing local physician shortages. PMID:10511843

  4. Health Curriculum and School Quality: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Looks at health education content in primary schools in Africa and India. Argues that health education is vital because it links home with school. Notes that curriculum planners have difficulty planning and delivering health education because they cannot work across the curriculum and rely on textbooks and examinations. (CAJ)

  5. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  6. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  7. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  8. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Robert J.; Porter, Dennis R.

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this third of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with health manpower planning and assessment. It provides a conceptual and…

  9. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  10. Union certification elections in nursing care facilities.

    PubMed

    Palthe, Jennifer; Deshpande, Satish P

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study examines 387 union certification elections conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in nursing care facilities (North American Industry Classification System 623) from January 1999 to December 2001. Unions won 60% of the elections. Service Employees International Union was involved in 42% of the elections. Bargaining unit size significantly impacted union victory. Unions had a better probability of winning elections in the northeast and midwest than in the south. Unlike other industries, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations affiliated unions did not suffer a big labor image in nursing care facilities. Implications for union organizers and administrators of nursing care facilities are discussed. PMID:14672442

  11. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  12. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  13. [International and Israeli physicians' health--information and action plan].

    PubMed

    Reis, Shmuel; Sayag, Shlomit; Karkabi, Khalid; Alroi, Gideon

    2008-03-01

    Physician health is a matter of interest for patients' physicians and their teams, managers and policy-makers. It has an impact on public health, physician impairment, patient safety, resource allocation and malpractice litigation. International medical literature, unlike Israel publications, is extensively preoccupied with the domain. Based on 2 MD thesis dissertations, Ministry of Health data and a literature search, the present review addresses many issues. It deals with: physicians' physical and mental health internationally and in Israel, prevention and health promotion, burn-out, the professional lifespan and career, health services utilization, legal and administrative aspects, boundaries, physicians' characteristics and vulnerability, interpersonal relations, care provided by physicians, physicians as patients and finally the impaired physician. International recommendations as well as a proposal for a local action plan are presented. PMID:18488866

  14. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    PubMed

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations. PMID:10168708

  15. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election agreements or directed elections... Election agreements or directed elections. (a) Election agreements. Parties are encouraged to enter into election agreements. (b) Regional Director directed election. If the parties are unable to agree...

  16. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election agreements or directed elections... Election agreements or directed elections. (a) Election agreements. Parties are encouraged to enter into election agreements. (b) Regional Director directed election. If the parties are unable to agree...

  17. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election agreements or directed elections... Election agreements or directed elections. (a) Election agreements. Parties are encouraged to enter into election agreements. (b) Regional Director directed election. If the parties are unable to agree...

  18. Exploring International Perspectives in Hearing Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Dolores E. Battle, a professor of speech-language pathology and senior advisor to the president for equity and campus diversity at Buffalo State College. She is a former president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (in 2005) and a very active member of international organizations of both…

  19. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rates and other items. The election shall have no effect on the applicable rate of percentage depletion... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  20. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to defer. 1.616-2 Section 1.616-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of... natural deposit. However, in the case of such expenditures made in the development stage, this election...

  1. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time and form of payment—(1) In general. A plan that is,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1) Corporations subject to restrictions and limitations. If an election by an affiliated group under section...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the provisions of section 1071 shall be in the form of a written statement and shall...

  4. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the provisions of section 1071 shall be in the form of a written statement and shall...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1295-3 - Retroactive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retroactive elections. 1.1295-3 Section 1.1295... Retroactive elections. (a) In general. This section prescribes the exclusive rules under which a shareholder, as defined in § 1.1295-1(j), may make a section 1295 election for a taxable year after the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  8. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1295-3 - Retroactive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retroactive elections. 1.1295-3 Section 1.1295... Retroactive elections. (a) In general. This section prescribes the exclusive rules under which a shareholder, as defined in § 1.1295-1(j), may make a section 1295 election for a taxable year after the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is...

  11. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1295-3 - Retroactive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retroactive elections. 1.1295-3 Section 1.1295... Retroactive elections. (a) In general. This section prescribes the exclusive rules under which a shareholder, as defined in § 1.1295-1(j), may make a section 1295 election for a taxable year after the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.181-2T - Election (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election (temporary). 1.181-2T Section 1.181-2T...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.181-2T Election (temporary). (a) Time and manner of making election. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1... QSub election. (a) Separate existence ignored—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in... general. If an S corporation makes a valid QSub election with respect to a subsidiary, the subsidiary...

  16. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time and form of payment—(1) In general. A plan that is,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is made must...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  19. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time and form of payment—(1) In general. A plan that is,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with respect to a taxable year under the provisions of section 853(a) is, for such year,...

  1. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to defer. 1.616-2 Section 1.616-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of... natural deposit. However, in the case of such expenditures made in the development stage, this election...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a taxpayer makes the election described in paragraph (b) of § 1.9003-1, he shall be deemed to have...

  4. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with respect to a taxable year under the provisions of section 853(a) is, for such year,...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1... QSub election. (a) Separate existence ignored—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in... general. If an S corporation makes a valid QSub election with respect to a subsidiary, the subsidiary...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the provisions of section 1071 shall be in the form of a written statement and shall...

  8. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  9. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... business corporation. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a taxpayer... making cement. (b) Effect on gross income from mining. The election is only determinative of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.58-4... TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-4 Electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section... imposition of the minimum tax on an electing small business corporation with respect to certain capital...

  12. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid... investment company, which has made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same...

  13. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    PubMed

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue. PMID:22159721

  14. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  15. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  16. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  17. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  18. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  19. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving ‘beyond aid’. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes ‘universal health coverage’ as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest? Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a ‘race to the bottom’ due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies – a kind of ‘equalization’ at the international level. The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a ‘convergence to the middle’. However, the ‘middle’ where ‘convergence’ of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check. The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to ‘convergence’ of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed

  20. An international health and nursing informatics module for distance education.

    PubMed

    Goossen, W; Timmons, S; Mol, M

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes why a module about health and nursing informatics is a necessary component for nursing education. Several developments in society and health care force health providers to manage the large amount of health data adequately. A module about health and nursing informatics was developed in international cooperation by three schools of nursing from Germany, The Netherlands and the UK. The content and learning activities of the realized example module for distance learning are described. Future plans include making this course material available in different languages on the World Wide Web. PMID:9726501

  1. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect to reduce coinsurance for any or all APC groups on a calendar year basis. A hospital may...

  2. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect to reduce coinsurance for any or all APC groups on a calendar year basis. A hospital may...

  3. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect to reduce coinsurance for any or all APC groups on a calendar year basis. A hospital may...

  4. 42 CFR 403.724 - Valid election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valid election requirements. 403.724 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.724 Valid election requirements. (a) General requirements. An election statement must be made by the Medicare beneficiary or his or her legal representative. (1)...

  5. 42 CFR 403.724 - Valid election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valid election requirements. 403.724 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.724 Valid election requirements. (a) General requirements. An election statement must be made by the Medicare beneficiary or his or her legal representative. (1)...

  6. 42 CFR 403.724 - Valid election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valid election requirements. 403.724 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.724 Valid election requirements. (a) General requirements. An election statement must be made by the Medicare beneficiary or his or her legal representative. (1)...

  7. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  8. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  9. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  10. Application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Functional Health and Disability.

    PubMed

    Švestková, Olga; Sládková, Petra; Kotková, Karla

    2016-03-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a common language for different professions in the health, social, educational and vocational systems for lawyers, decision makers and politicians. It deals with how to describe health conditions, functional health and disability. It gives detailed operational definitions of different functions that constitute health. From body function and body structure to activities of daily living and participation in society. ICF has brought international consensus on definitions and provided a framework to describe public health and disability. PMID:27070974

  11. AGU’s Upcoming Election

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Timothy L.

    2009-11-01

    The 2010-2012 election, which runs from 4 January 2010 to 3 February 2010, marks the first time members will be asked to elect the AGU Board of Directors, which includes the Union officers, as well as section officers of the new AGU Council. The addition of a Board of Directors is new in AGU governance. In light of this, it may be helpful for you to know a bit more about the responsibilities of the Board and the Council and the kind of characteristics we are seeking in the member volunteers who will represent you in these bodies. The elected members of the Board of Directors are the president, president-elect, general secretary (who also serves as treasurer), international secretary, and six members elected by the Union's membership. Up to two members may be nominated by the Union president and approved by the Board. The immediate past president, vice chair of the Council, the Development Board chair, and the executive director are ex officio, meaning they are members of the board by virtue of the positions they hold.

  12. AGU election FAQs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  13. Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice – involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes – as a possible avenue into this work. PMID:25729409

  14. Health benefits from devolution in England: international lessons.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Yvonne; Johnstone, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Chancellor of the Exchequer's recent announcements to devolve decision making power from Whitehall to 30 English regions provide a challenge to use devolution to deliver more favourable health outcomes. However evaluation of devolved health models internationally is scarce, because it is rarely considered. Evidence from countries with long-standing experience of devolution finds that the best approaches are holistic, seeking fiscal freedoms to sustain the environment, promote health, well-being and citizen engagement. Overall, international outcomes are mixed, with some evidence of greater efficiency of care delivery but little hard evidence of better clinical outcomes or health status. Handling specialised services in a devolved health system is challenging. Regulation by national authorities is important to avoid gaming of the system by providers. Information from the devolved area is important in demonstrating equitable access. We present an evaluation framework and recommend that evaluation continues through governance of these deals during implementation. PMID:26908880

  15. Glucose-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by metal vapour synthesis are electively internalized in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line expressing GLUT1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Gandin, Valentina; Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  16. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  17. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1.1361-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-4 Effect of QSub election. (a) Separate existence ignored—...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1295-1 - Qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified electing funds. 1.1295-1 Section 1.1295-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... partnership that, in turn, holds an interest in stock of a PFIC makes the section 1295 election with...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1295-1 - Qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified electing funds. 1.1295-1 Section 1.1295-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... partnership that, in turn, holds an interest in stock of a PFIC makes the section 1295 election with...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1295-1 - Qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified electing funds. 1.1295-1 Section 1.1295-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... partnership that, in turn, holds an interest in stock of a PFIC makes the section 1295 election with...

  1. 26 CFR 1.148-1 - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1 Section 1.148-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.148-1 Definitions and elections. (a) In general....

  2. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  3. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  4. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  5. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section 1.9005-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-4 Manner of exercising election....

  9. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  11. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of exercising election....

  12. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  13. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If...

  14. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of exercising election....

  15. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    PubMed

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility. PMID:21082357

  16. 26 CFR 301.9100-19T - Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations. 301.9100-19T Section 301.9100-19T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION General Rules Application...

  17. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  19. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  20. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  1. Echinococcosis--an international public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, P R; Budke, C M

    2003-06-01

    This review aims to summarise some of the recent studies that have been undertaken on parasites of the genus Echinococcus and the diseases which they cause. Although the adult parasite, which inhabits the intestine of various carnivore species is not pathogenic, the larval or metacestode stages can be highly pathogenic, causing economic losses to livestock and various forms of echinococcosis in humans, some of which have a high fatality rate. There is growing evidence that there are at least 5 species of Echinococcus rather than the generally accepted 4 species. Within these species there are a number of genotypes or strains. This can have implications for surveillance and control. In some wealthy countries, cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been successfully controlled or indeed eradicated. However, in most parts of the world it remains a serious threat to human health. In the former Soviet Union, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence after the end of communist administration. Human alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, is more sporadic. However, in some Chinese communities there is a disturbingly high human prevalence and in Europe there has been an increase in the detection rate of E. multilocularis in animals in the last 10 years. Echinococcosis can present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the definitive host in areas of low endemicity. Much of the recent work relating to the use of coproantigen and PCR to overcome these difficulties is summarized. New ideas for controlling the parasite are becoming available and these include both the use of vaccination and the application of mathematical models to determine the most cost effective means of control. Effective measures that are affordable are vital if the parasite is to be controlled in poor countries. PMID:12726737

  2. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E

    1999-03-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. PMID:10076494

  3. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. Images p400-a p401-a p402-a p403-a PMID:10076494

  4. Congressional Election Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Beck, Michael S.; Rice, Tom W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the growing literature on the forecasting of elections, providing an example in the form of 1988 congressional election predictions. Briefly discusses the history of election outcome prediction and outlines two scientific forecasting models which, the authors state, are appropriate for use in the classroom. (GEA)

  5. Indiana Kids' Election. [Resource Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This manual guides K-12 teachers through a two-week study of the election process in Indiana culminating in a school-based election. Election procedure is followed from voter registration through election returns. Indiana law mandates the study of elections during election years; this manual was created to facilitate the process. Grade levels and…

  6. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    PubMed

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. PMID:25529375

  7. From Shanghai to Durban: International Rural Health Conferences.

    PubMed

    Strasser, R

    1997-08-01

    The First International Conference on Rural Medicine held at Shanghai, China in May 1996 was a turning point in the growing international rural health movement. The first 3 days of the conference were held in the Shanghai Science Hall followed by 3 days in Fengxian County, including site visits and seminars about health services in that part of rural China. There were approximately 300 participants in the conference, which included presentations from 70 invited speakers and over 50 free-standing poster/papers involving personnel from 22 countries. Group discussions during the conference developed recommendations that were considered by plenary sessions and subsequently adopted as the final resolutions of the whole conference. It is remarkable that, despite the great differences between developed and developing countries, many issues of concern in rural practice and rural health services are the same around the world. The Second World Rural Health Congress will be held in Durban, South Africa, 14-17 September 1997. PMID:9437945

  8. 26 CFR 1.615-6 - Election to deduct under section 615.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election to deduct under section 615. 1.615-6 Section 1.615-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-6 Election to deduct under section 615. (a) General rule. The election to...

  9. 26 CFR 1.856-8 - Revocation or termination of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation or termination of election. 1.856-8 Section 1.856-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-8 Revocation or termination of election. (a) Revocation of an election to be...

  10. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility...

  11. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing..., Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility plan,...

  12. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., Election, and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs...

  13. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., Election, and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs...

  14. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility...

  15. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility...

  16. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., Election, and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs...

  17. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends

    PubMed Central

    HATANAKA, Takashi; EGUCHI, Narumi; DEGUCHI, Mayumi; YAZAWA, Manami; ISHII, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan’s healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan’s universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  18. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  19. Implementing a Comprehensive Health Education Program for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbudimpka, Jerry Emeka; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the implementation of the University of Illinois' health education and illness prevention programs for the international student community. Though challenged by language differences, financial difficulties, and other factors, the program succeeded because of cooperation of campus and community organizations. (SM)

  20. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development. PMID:9843123

  1. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  2. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  3. Implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005) Through Cooperative Bioengagement

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Claire J.; Sorrell, Erin M.; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E.; Katz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative bioengagement efforts, as practiced by U.S. government-funded entities, such as the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, the State Department’s Biosecurity Engagement Program, and parallel programs in other countries, exist at the nexus between public health and security. These programs have an explicit emphasis on developing projects that address the priorities of the partner country as well as the donor. While the objectives of cooperative bioengagement programs focus on reducing the potential for accidental or intentional misuse and/or release of dangerous biological agents, many partner countries are interested in bioengagement as a means to improve basic public health capacities. This article examines the extent to which cooperative bioengagement projects address public health capacity building under the revised International Health Regulations and alignment with the Global Health Security Agenda action packages. PMID:26528463

  4. Ethical concerns in international occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Kisting, Sophia

    2002-01-01

    The number of preventable occupational health and safety (OHS) tragedies that occur yearly requires a deeper examination of the ethics that inform health and safety policies and practices. This article selects a few industrial sectors for closer examination to illustrate challenges and opportunities. Topics addressed include: equitable distribution of resources, ethically acceptable global standards for OHS for all workers, and international use of pesticides and the export of banned chemicals. The authors focus on the relationship between less developed and developed countries and attempt to identify areas of collaboration and potentially positive channels for addressing shortcomings. The agricultural sector is examined in particular because of the major role this sector plays in developing countries. Finally, the authors examine the impact of globalization on the international ethical practice of OHS, especially in relation to vulnerable and marginalized groups such as women, children, and informal sector workers, and conclude with recommendations for working towards more equitable global ethical standards in international OHS. PMID:12225928

  5. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities. PMID:24218792

  6. Associations between disease severity, coping and dimensions of health-related quality of life in patients admitted for elective coronary angiography – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulvik, Bjørg; Nygård, Ottar; Hanestad, Berit R; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Wahl, Astrid K

    2008-01-01

    Background In patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), the overall aim was to analyse the relationships between disease severity and both mental and physical dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) using a modified version of the Wilson and Cleary model. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 753 patients (74% men), mean age 62 years, referred for elective cardiac catheterisation were included. The measures included 1) physiological factors 2) symptoms (disease severity, self-reported symptoms, anxiety and depression 3) self-reported functional status, 4) coping, 5) perceived disease burden, 6) general health perception and 7) overall quality of life. To analyse relationships, we performed linear and ordinal logistic regressions. Results CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly associated with symptoms of angina pectoris and dyspnea. CAD was not related to symptoms of anxiety and depression, but less depression was found in patients with low LVEF. Angina pectoris and dyspnea were both associated with impaired physical function, and dyspnea was also negatively related to social function. Overall, less perceived burden and better overall QOL were observed in patients using more confronting coping strategy. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that data from cardiac patients to a large extent support the suggested model by Wilson and Cleary. PMID:18510727

  7. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products. PMID:26470463

  8. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  9. The changing role of internal auditors in health care.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D E; Kusel, J; Oxner, T H

    2000-08-01

    Two surveys of directors of internal auditing in health care conducted in 1990 and 1998 found that healthcare internal auditors are spending proportionately more time on management and operational improvement activities and less time on traditional financial/compliance activities. The average staff size has remained relatively constant, but salaries at all levels of experience have risen. More importantly, the tenure of healthcare internal auditors has increased significantly since 1990. The profile of the healthcare internal auditing director also has changed. The director is older, more experienced, and has held the position for twice as long as was the case in 1990. On the other hand, the director is more stressed and less satisfied with compensation. PMID:11010199

  10. International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done

    PubMed Central

    Kasowski, Eric; Arthur, Ray R.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Dowell, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome highlighted the need to detect and control disease outbreaks at their source, as envisioned by the 2005 revised International Health Regulations (IHR). June 2012 marked the initial deadline by which all 194 World Health Organization (WHO) member states agreed to have IHR core capacities fully implemented for limiting the spread of public health emergencies of international concern. Many countries fell short of these implementation goals and requested a 2-year extension. The degree to which achieving IHR compliance will result in global health security is not clear, but what is clear is that progress against the threat of epidemic disease requires a focused approach that can be monitored and measured efficiently. We developed concrete goals and metrics for 4 of the 8 core capacities with other US government partners in consultation with WHO and national collaborators worldwide. The intent is to offer an example of an approach to implementing and monitoring IHR for consideration or adaptation by countries that complements other frameworks and goals of IHR. Without concrete metrics, IHR may waste its considerable promise as an instrument for global health security against public health emergencies. PMID:22709593

  11. Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The process of acculturation often results in changes in the health behavior of international students. This study employed an open-ended, qualitative approach in an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the acculturation process for physical activity, diet, and drinking behavior among international students. Eighteen undergraduate international students (average age 19.20, standard deviation 1.21) were interviewed for 45-60 min. Most of the international students became more physically active after they arrived in the United States. Facilitators included accessibility, weight management, free time, and role modeling. Most international students were unsatisfied with the food on campus. Their strategies for adjusting to this included ordering food from restaurants, visiting supermarkets, and moving off campus. Most international students felt uncomfortable with the drinking culture in the United States, although some of them felt drinking was a good way to socialize with Americans and explore American culture. Colleges and universities should adopt strategies to better help their international students build lifelong healthy behaviors. PMID:26273820

  12. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens. PMID:12507261

  13. Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23388302

  14. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  15. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  16. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  17. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  18. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. PMID:21269674

  19. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. PMID:22386615

  20. Report on the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development.

    PubMed Central

    Dines, G B

    1990-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) provide rescue, field stabilization, transportation to medical facilities, and definitive care for persons experiencing medical emergencies. In order to advance worldwide development and refinement of EMS systems, and their integration with emergency preparedness and response programs, the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development was held in Crystal City, Arlington, VA, August 15-19, 1989. The conference was supported by the Department of Health and Human Services and its Health Resources and Services Administration; the Department of Transportation and its National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration; and the Pan American Health Organization. Objectives of the conference were to clarify linkages between various levels of emergency response, to present methods for developing or improving EMS systems within societies with different resources, to demonstrate processes by which EMS systems have been developed, and to propose international emergency health care development goals. Topics included development of services in developing nations, case studies of underdeveloped countries' responses to natural disasters, and a method for updating disaster response through use of available medical resources. PMID:1968669

  1. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  2. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. PMID:24834850

  3. International trade, animal health and veterinary epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Ruppanner, R

    2001-03-29

    The link between international trade, animal health and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization demands that sanitary and phytosanitary measures be scientifically based, placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related animal health and trade. This paper analyses the interactions between international trade of animals (and animal products) and epidemiology with discussion on the inputs of epidemiology in surveillance, risk analysis and regionalization. PMID:11259819

  4. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  5. International research needs for improving sleep and health of workers.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2005-01-01

    Research needs in identifying preventive measures dealing with working time arrangements and associated sleep problems are reviewed. These needs are based on the recognition of a range of risk factors for health involving disturbed circadian rhythms leading to various levels of sleep deficits. The review takes account of recent joint change approaches that address both working time arrangements and various relevant intervening factors. As examples of such approaches, voluntary industry-based guidelines for improving shift work are examined. Also reviewed is evidence indicating the effects of improved working time arrangements and sleep hygiene on the tolerance of workers working irregular shifts. Trends in action-oriented risk assessment are further discussed as the effects on health and sleep of these workers may be modified by complex aspects related to working situations, family and social conditions, personal characteristics and social support. Generally relevant are not only the relationships between sleep-affecting factors and health, but also advances in taking the various support measures. The effective use of participatory steps is found important in dealing with working time arrangements and associated health and sleep problems together. It is thus considered important to study (a) the efficacy of joint change approaches addressing complex sleep and health factors, (b) effective procedures for action-oriented health risk assessment in various work life situations, and (c) the relevance of innovative participatory steps to improving health and tolerance of workers. Future research topics mentioned by the participants of the international symposium on night and shift work held in Santos in 2003 are presented, and international efforts to promote research into these aspects in field conditions are discussed. Interactive research involving local people appears crucial. PMID:15732307

  6. International comparison of health care systems using resource profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Anell, A.; Willis, M.

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently used bases for comparing international health care resources are health care expenditures, measured either as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP) or per capita. There are several possible reasons for this, including the widespread availability of historic expenditure figures; the attractiveness of collapsing resource data into a common unit of measurement; and the present focus among OECD member countries and other governments on containing health care costs. Despite important criticisms of this method, relatively few alternatives have been used in practice. A simple framework for comparing data underlying health care systems is presented in this article. It distinguishes measures of real resources, for example human resources, medicines and medical equipment, from measures of financial resources such as expenditures. Measures of real resources are further subdivided according to whether their factor prices are determined primarily in national or global markets. The approach is illustrated using a simple analysis of health care resource profiles for Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Comparisons based on measures of both real resources and expenditures can be more useful than conventional comparisons of expenditures alone and can lead to important insights for the future management of health care systems. PMID:10916914

  7. Building international genomics collaboration for global health security

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-12-07

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  8. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-01-01

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries. PMID:26697418

  9. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election. (a) General rule. Subject to the time period prescribed in section 2056A(d), the election to treat...

  10. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time and form of payment—(1) In general. A plan that is, or constitutes part of,...

  11. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election. (a) General rule. Subject to the time period prescribed in section 2056A(d), the election to treat...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election. (a) General rule. Subject to the time period prescribed in section 2056A(d), the election to treat...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election. (a) General rule. Subject to the time period prescribed in section 2056A(d), the election to treat...

  14. Predicting elections: child's play!

    PubMed

    Antonakis, John; Dalgas, Olaf

    2009-02-27

    In two experiments, children and adults rated pairs of faces from election races. Naïve adults judged a pair on competence; after playing a game, children chose who they would prefer to be captain of their boat. Children's (as well as adults') preferences accurately predicted actual election outcomes. PMID:19251621

  15. Student Simulated Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Guidelines for a school-wide simulated election on the state, county, or local level to be conducted by high school social studies or political science classes are provided. The objective is to prepare students for observation of and participation in a real political campaign in the community. Details for the election, establishing political…

  16. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  17. 2012 election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2012-10-01

    On 4 October 2012, AGU members completed voting for the 2013-2014 leadership term. Union officers, Board members, section and focus group officers, and student and early career representatives to the Council were elected. All members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 were eligible to vote in this year's leadership election. The vote was held electronically, and access to voting was provided to all eligible voters for a period of 31 days. The voting was conducted by Survey and Ballot Systems, Inc. (SBS). SBS, which offers election planning and management services, provided unique login credentials and other support services for eligible voters throughout the election. Voting results were certified by SBS on 8 October and by the AGU Tellers Committee on 9 October. The overall participation rate was 21.9%, an increase over previous AGU elections.

  18. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  19. 26 CFR 1.6013-6 - Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to treat nonresident alien individual...-6 Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States. (a) Election for... spouse is a nonresident alien. The effect of the election is that each spouse is treated as a resident...

  20. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  1. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  2. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  3. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  4. The Centre for International Mental Health Approach to Mental Health System Development

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181

  5. The Centre for International Mental Health approach to mental health system development.

    PubMed

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to develop mental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer... election period. Revocation of the waiver is an election of COBRA continuation coverage. However, if...

  7. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver. PMID:20528456

  8. The relation of the new international economic order to health.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1983-06-01

    Despite national independence, hunger, illiteracy, the extremes of ill health, and other manifestations of poverty continue for the bulk of the population of most 3rd world countries. Additionally, the countries of the 3rd world remain heavily dependent upon economic and political decisions made in Europe and North America. It is estimated that about 2/3 of the world's people are poor, and that 1/4 live in absolute poverty or destitution. In regard to mortality, the single most striking fact is that despite the massive economic growth and technological progress of the post World War 2 period, the same basic complex of infectious, parasitic, and respiratory diseases, compounded by nutritional deficiencies, remain responsible for most of the world's deaths. From the end of World War 2 until the late 1960s the solution to 3rd world underdevelopment was seen to lie in a relatively rapid growth of national product. "Nonproductive" expenditures such as those for health were to be limited to the greatest degree possible, and in practice they always were. The 1950s and 1960s were relatively successful in terms of economic development. During this period little attention was given to the question of the distribution of this growth, both between and within countries. A most important change of this period was the rapid growth of populations, mostly because of falling infant and child mortality rates. The decline was generally argued to be because of public health measures such as the international smallpox and malaria campaigns, the increasing availability of supplies of clean water, and improved nutritonal status. By the middle and the late 1960s there was increasing disillusionment with "growthmanship" as the appropriate development model, and during the 1970s the strategy became that of meeting basic needs (BN) of the world's population. Most 3rd world countries maintain that a new international economic order (NIEO) is intimately linked to their own potential for

  9. 26 CFR 1.9005-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9005-2 Section 1.9005-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a... according to the number of days during the taxable year that each such price was in effect. (c)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1... tax for each corporation, unless a different apportionment of the $100,000 amount is adopted...

  11. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1... tax for each corporation, unless a different apportionment of the $100,000 amount is adopted...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1362-5 - Election after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election after termination. 1.1362-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-5 Election after termination. (a) In general. Absent the Commissioner's consent, an S corporation whose...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1362-5 - Election after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election after termination. 1.1362-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-5 Election after termination. (a) In general. Absent the Commissioner's consent, an S corporation whose...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1362-5 - Election after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election after termination. 1.1362-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-5 Election after termination. (a) In general. Absent the Commissioner's consent, an S corporation whose...

  15. 26 CFR 1.48-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.48-5... business corporations. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an electing small business corporation (as... business corporation. The bases of all new section 38 properties which have a useful life falling within...

  16. 26 CFR 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.58-4... TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-4 Electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section... business corporation among the shareholders of such corporation. Section 58(d)(2) provides rules for...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9004-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9004-2 Section 1.9004-2...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a taxpayer... products sold during the taxable year (computed without allowance for depletion). (b) Effect on...

  18. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business... small business corporation and ending with the date of the disposition or cessation. In making...

  19. 26 CFR 1.48-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.48-5... business corporations. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an electing small business corporation (as... small business corporation on the last day of the taxable year of such corporation, for his taxable...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-4 Effect of... section 581. X owns 100 percent of Y and Z, corporations for which valid QSub elections are in effect....

  1. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  2. Reproductive health: a right for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    PubMed

    Austin, Judy; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; McGinn, Therese; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Continued political and civil unrest in low-resource countries underscores the ongoing need for specialised reproductive health services for displaced people. Displaced women particularly face high maternal mortality, unmet need for family planning, complications following unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence, as well as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Relief and development agencies and UN bodies have developed technical materials, made positive policy changes specific to crisis settings and are working to provide better reproductive health care. Substantial gaps remain, however. The collaboration within the field of reproductive health in crises is notable, with many agencies working in one or more networks. The five-year RAISE Initiative brings together major UN and NGO agencies from the fields of relief and development, and builds on their experience to support reproductive health service delivery, advocacy, clinical training and research. The readiness to use common guidance documents, develop priorities jointly and share resources has led to smoother operations and less overlap than if each agency worked independently. Trends in the field, including greater focus on internally displaced persons and those living in non-camp settings, as well as refugees in camps, the protracted nature of emergencies, and an increasing need for empirical evidence, will influence future progress. PMID:18513603

  3. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election to defer. 1.616-2 Section 1.616-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of taking a deduction under section 616(a), in...

  4. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention.

    PubMed

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Helderman, Wim van Palenstein

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and education related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many countries, intensified efforts are required. We present the Fit for School Action Framework as a realistic and tested approach that helps to make schools places of public health for children and wider communities. PMID:22389644

  5. Toward international collaboration on credentialing in health promotion and health education: the Galway Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, John P; Barry, Margaret M; Auld, M Elaine; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Taub, Alyson

    2009-06-01

    The interest in competencies, standards, and quality assurance in the professional preparation of public health professionals whose work involves health promotion and health education dates back several decades. In Australia, Europe, and North America, where the interest in credentialing has gained momentum, there have been rapidly evolving efforts to codify competencies and standards of practice as well as the processes by which quality and accountability can be ensured in academic professional preparation programs. The Galway Consensus Conference was conceived as a first step in an effort to explore the development of an international consensus regarding the core competencies of health education specialists and professionals in health promotion and the commonalities and differences in establishing uniform standards for the accreditation of academic professional preparation programs around the world. This article describes the purposes, objectives, and process of the Galway Consensus Conference and the background to the meeting that was convened. PMID:19447942

  6. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention

    PubMed Central

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Palenstein Helderman, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and education related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many countries, intensified efforts are required. We present the Fit for School Action Framework as a realistic and tested approach that helps to make schools places of public health for children and wider communities. PMID:22389644

  7. Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Allyn L.

    2002-01-01

    The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy. PMID:12571727

  8. Reinventing public health: A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians and its international impact

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Study objective To examine the Canadian origins of the Lalonde Report and its impact on British and American health promotion activities. Design: A brief history of the development of key Canadian documents and their use by politicians and public health activists in the United Kingdom and United States. Setting: This paper focuses on the impact of the Canadian model on Canada, the United Kingdom and United States. Main results: This paper argues that internal political and economic forces are as important as international trends in determining healthcare policy initiatives. Conclusions: In the 1970s all the English‐speaking developed nations were facing deficits as curative costs rose. Adopting health promotion policies permitted them to shift responsibility back to local governments and individuals while limiting their expenditures. Health and community activists, however, used this concept to broaden their focus to include the social, economic and political determinants of health and thus reinvented public health discourse and practice for the 21st century. PMID:17933952

  9. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah A; Fischer, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in February 2014 capped over a decade of global efforts to develop new approaches to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases-part of the growing recognition that disease events, whether natural, accidental, or intentional, threaten not just public health, but national, regional, and global security interests. In 2005, the United States, along with other Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. The IHR (2005) conferred new responsibilities on WHO and the global health community to coordinate resources for capacity building and emergency response, and on the now-196 States Parties to develop the core capacities required to detect, assess, report, and respond to potential public health emergencies of international concern. Both GHSA and the IHR aim to elevate political attention and encourage participation, coordination, and collaboration by multiple stakeholders, while leveraging previously existing commitments and multilateral efforts. GHSA and the IHR (2005) are platforms for action; how efforts under each will complement each other remains unclear. Mechanisms that measure progress under these 2 overlapping frameworks will aid in focusing resources and in sustaining political momentum for IHR implementation after 2016. PMID:25254911

  10. Electives in undergraduate medical education: AMEE Guide No. 88.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Andrew; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    This Guide outlines the scope and potential roles an elective can contribute to undergraduate medical training and identifies ways to maximize learning opportunities, including within global health. The types of educational activity available for electives range from meeting individual educational need through to exploration of potential career pathways, with many factors influencing choice. Key areas of organization underpinning a successful elective before, during and after the placement include developing clarity of the intended educational outcomes as well as addressing practicalities such as travel and accommodation. Risk management including the implications for the participating schools as well as the student and their elective supervisors is crucial. This Guide would not be complete without some discussion around ethics and professional conduct during an elective, with consideration of the impact of elective placements, particularly in low-middle income countries. PMID:24787526

  11. Basic Health, Women’s Health, and Mental Health Among Internally Displaced Persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Glen; Torbay, Rabih; Lawry, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed basic health, women’s health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur. Methods. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents’ households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents’ mental health, opinions on women’s rights, and the health status of household members. Results. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women. Conclusions. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population’s basic needs. However, mental and women’s health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health. PMID:17138925

  12. Report From the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Consultants' Meeting on Elective Nodal Irradiation in Lung Cancer: Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    SciTech Connect

    Belderbos, Jose; Martel, Mary K.; Videtic, Gregory; Jeremic, Branislav

    2008-10-01

    Lymphatic spread is an important pathway of progression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), along with local spread and distant metastasis. The probability of lymph node (LN) involvement is dependent on the site of the primary tumor, stage, and histology. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is the irradiation of clinical and radiological uninvolved LN to account for microscopic tumor invasion in these LNs because we have not been able to determine the extent of LN spread accurately. The clinical value of ENI is uncertain. The impact of ENI is dependent on many (staging-, treatment-, and patient-related) factors. The purpose of this report is to analyze the current status of ENI and to provide comprehensive in-depth analysis and guidance on how to generally approach this issue in NSCLC.

  13. Voters and the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M

    2014-11-13

    In this analysis of data from 27 public opinion polls, the authors examine the role of the Affordable Care Act in the 2014 congressional elections. The outcome of the elections is likely to influence implementation of the ACA and future U.S. health care policy. PMID:25353968

  14. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may...

  15. 26 CFR 1.125-4 - Permitted election changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the date of D's adoption. (ii) M's cafeteria plan may permit A to change A's salary reduction election... change in status, and the election of family coverage is consistent with that change in status. Thus... obtaining family health coverage under N's plan. (ii) M's cafeteria plan may permit E to change E's...

  16. Building international genomics collaboration for global health security

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-12-07

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installationmore » of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.« less

  17. Understanding informed consent for participation in international health research.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-08-01

    To participate in health research, there is a need for well-administered informed consent. Understanding of informed consent, especially in international health research, is influenced by the participants' understanding of information and the meaning attached to the information communicated to them regarding the purpose and procedure of the research. Incorrect information and the power differential between researcher and participants may lead to participants becoming victims of harmful research procedures. Meningitis epidemics in Kano in early 1996 led to a response from drug companies, especially Pfizer, as well as humanitarian workers from Médecins Sans Frontiers, which resulted in an unethical trial. Pfizer's drug trial during the epidemics has left a lasting controversy, which has yet to be resolved. This paper examines the key issues surrounding the controversy, discusses the context of informed decision-making, the ethical issues and implications of the incident, and concludes with some recommendations. Relevant texts, journals, Internet materials, newspaper articles and documentary materials on the conduct of the Pfizer's Trovan trial have been consulted. Four types of action (act intuitively, act rationally, act ignorantly, and act contextually - based on information provided) are identified as possible options for decision making. Participants most likely acted in ignorance due to poor understanding of the information contained in the verbal informed consent administered, thereby raising ethical issues. It is concluded that health research ethics committees have an important role to play nationally and locally in overseeing research, and in avoiding future occurrences. PMID:18637943

  18. 26 CFR 12.8 - Elections with respect to net leases of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections with respect to net leases of real... Elections with respect to net leases of real property. (a) In general. The elections described in this section are available for determining whether real property held by the taxpayer is subject to a net...

  19. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-2 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.669(b)-2... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-2 Manner of exercising election. (a) By whom election is to be made. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, a taxpayer whose tax liability...

  20. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-2 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affected by the election shall make the election provided in section 669(a). In the case of a partnership... shall be exercised by the partnership or such corporation. (b) Time and manner of making election. The... the taxpayer files his tax return (or the Director of International Operations where appropriate)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange... consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect of election. (1) Section 631 (a) provides an election to certain taxpayers to treat the difference between the actual cost or other basis of certain timber...

  2. 26 CFR 1.195-1T - Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures... Corporations (continued) § 1.195-1T Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary). (a) In general. Under section 195(b), a taxpayer may elect to amortize start-up expenditures as defined in section...

  3. 26 CFR 1.50A-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50A-5... business corporations. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by a corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business...

  4. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business... be apportioned separately. In determining who are shareholders of an electing small...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6037-1 - Return of electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Return of electing small business corporation... Records § 301.6037-1 Return of electing small business corporation. For provisions relating to requirement of return of electing small business corporation, see § 1.6037-1 of this chapter (Income...

  6. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business... be apportioned separately. In determining who are shareholders of an electing small...

  7. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6037-1 - Return of electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of electing small business corporation... Records § 301.6037-1 Return of electing small business corporation. For provisions relating to requirement of return of electing small business corporation, see § 1.6037-1 of this chapter (Income...

  9. 26 CFR 1.50A-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50A-5... business corporations. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by a corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business...

  10. Improving health for elderly people: an international health promotion and disease prevention agenda.

    PubMed

    Besdine, Richard W; Wetle, Terrie Fox

    2010-06-01

    Across the world, there are substantial but missed opportunities for promoting health of older persons and extending the healthy life span. Current approaches to health care rely on late detection and treatment of disease, and some of the most expensive systems of care have population health outcomes that are poor to mediocre. A majority of deaths and disability result from progression of preventable chronic diseases for which human behaviors are major contributing factors. An organized and aggressive agenda in health promotion and disease prevention emerges as an important part of the strategy to both promote health and control costs. After reviewing data on determinants of health and contribution of behavioral factors to morbidity and mortality, this paper presents the evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of specific behavioral and clinical interventions to reduce risk for many of the problems accounting for death and disability among elders. We address tobacco use, lack of exercise, inadequate nutrition, hypertension, delirium, obesity, falls, cancer screening, poor oral health, osteoporosis, immunizations and medication safety. Strategies for implementation of effective interventions present an international challenge. PMID:20634645

  11. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  12. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization

    PubMed Central

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term “pharmaceuticalization” in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health. PMID:25431535

  13. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  14. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  15. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  16. Serious crisis in the practice of international health by the World Health Organization: the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is the latest effort by the World Health Organization to improve health and narrow health inequalities through action on social determinants. The CSDH does not note that much work has already been done in this direction, does not make a sufficient attempt to analyze why earlier efforts failed to yield the desired results, and does not seem to have devised approaches to ensure that it will be more successful this time. The CSDH intends to complement the work of the earlier WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which has not had the desired impact, and it is unclear how the CSDH can complement work that suffers from such serious infirmities. Inadequacies of both commissions reflect a crisis in the practice of international health at the WHO, stemming from a combination of unsatisfactory administrative practices and lack of technical competence to provide insights into the problems afflicting the most needy countries. Often the WHO has ended up distorting the rudimentary health systems of the poor countries, by pressuring them into accepting health policies, plans, and programs that lack sound scientific bases. The WHO no longer seems to take into account historical and political factors when it sets out to improve the health situation in low-income countries--which is supposed to be the focus of the CSDH. An alternative approach is suggested. PMID:17175839

  17. 26 CFR 1.125-4 - Permitted election changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permitted election changes. 1.125-4 Section 1.125-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... definition of qualifying individual under section 21(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code. Accordingly,...

  18. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to the conditions set forth...

  19. A Critical-Holistic Analysis of Nursing Faculty and Student Interest in International Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Korniewicz, Denise M.; Zerbe, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 211 undergraduate and 23 graduate nursing students and 38 faculty revealed substantial interest in international health. Faculty had numerous international experiences; many students had traveled abroad and one-third considered international health a career priority. The need for a broad interdisciplinary framework rather than…

  20. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of... and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to adjust the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  3. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust.... (b) Time and method of making election. (1) An election under section 754 and this section to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1020-1 - Election as to amounts allowed in respect of depreciation, etc., before 1952.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 CFR (1939) 39.113(b)(1)-1 (Regulations 118). (d) Validity of elections or revocation of elections... depreciation, etc., before 1952. 1.1020-1 Section 1.1020-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.1020-1 Election as to amounts allowed in respect of depreciation, etc., before 1952. (a)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.613A-5 - Election under section 613A(c)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election under section 613A(c)(4). 1.613A-5 Section 1.613A-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613A-5 Election under section 613A(c)(4). The election under section 613A(c)(4) is...

  6. Building global environmental health capacity through international scientific cooperation and partnerships.

    PubMed

    Bridbord, Kenneth; Breman, Joel G; Primack, Aron; Schonwalder, Christopher; Rouse, Melanie; Ferreira, Maria; Hrynkow, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored by the Fogarty International Center, the NIEHS, and NIOSH, the International Training and Research Program in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) supports training of health professionals worldwide. The program grants awards to U.S. academic institutions, which partner with institutions in low- and middle-income countries to address health threats of regional importance. PMID:17168215

  7. Global Health: The Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health: Vision and Mission, Programs, and Accomplishments

    PubMed Central

    Breman, Joel G.; Bridbord, Kenneth; Kupfer, Linda E.; Glass, Roger I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health has supported long-term (>6 months) basic, clinical and applied research training and research for over 3,600 future leaders in science and public health from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); tens of thousands more persons have received short-term training. FIC started these programs in 1988 with the flagship HIV/AIDS International Training and Research Program (AITRP) in response to the global pandemic. More than 23 extramural training and research programs plus an intramural program are now operating – all in collaboration with other Institutes and Centers at NIH, U.S. government agencies, foundations, and partner institutions in LMICs and the U.S. While infectious diseases still reign mightily in Sub-Saharan African and South East Asian countries, non-communicable diseases are emerging globally, including in LMICs. Newer FIC training programs are addressing chronic, non-communicable diseases and strengthening the quality of medical schools and health care provider training, in addition to expanding expertise in infectious diseases. The model for successful training is based on long-term commitments, institutional strengthening, “twinning” of research centers, focus on local problems, and active mentoring. Trainees from Africa, Asia, and Latin America have made notable scientific contributions to global health, attained leadership positions, and received special recognition nationally and internationally. As the FIC programs are institutional-strengthening partnerships and candidates are carefully selected and mentored, close to 90% of FIC trainees return to their countries of origin. After returning home the FIC-trained leaders have continued to mentor and train thousands of individuals in their home countries. PMID:21896356

  8. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  9. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electing COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-6 Section 54.4980B-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-6 Electing COBRA continuation coverage. The following...

  10. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange. 1.631-1 Section 1.631-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-1 Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect...

  11. 26 CFR 1.195-1T - Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary). 1.195-1T Section 1.195-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.195-1T Election to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1.195-1 Section 1.195-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... (continued) § 1.195-1 Election to amortize start-up expenditures. For further guidance, see § 1.195-1T....

  13. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1.195-1 Section 1.195-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.195-1 Election to amortize...

  14. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay net increase in tax in installments. 1.9002-4 Section 1.9002-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay...

  15. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-11 - Election with respect to bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to bonds. 11.412(c)-11 Section 11.412(c)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-11 Election with respect to bonds. (a) In general. Section 412(c)(2)(B)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-2 - Electing the expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing the expenditure test. 1.501(h)-2 Section 1.501(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-2 Electing the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-2 - Electing the expenditure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing the expenditure test. 1.501(h)-2 Section 1.501(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(h)-2 Electing the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.615-6 - Election to deduct under section 615.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election to deduct under section 615. 1.615-6 Section 1.615-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-6 Election to deduct under...

  19. 26 CFR 1.615-3 - Election to defer pre-1970 exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election to defer pre-1970 exploration expenditures. 1.615-3 Section 1.615-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-3 Election to defer pre-1970 exploration expenditures. (a)...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. 1.1293-1 Section 1.1293-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. (1)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.179-1 - Election to expense certain depreciable assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to expense certain depreciable assets. 1.179-1 Section 1.179-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.179-1 Election to expense...

  2. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating...

  3. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12.4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1971 § 12.4 Election of Class Life Asset...

  4. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  5. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  6. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  7. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating...

  8. 26 CFR 1.336-2 - Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election. 1.336-2 Section 1.336-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF....336-2 Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election. (a) Availability...

  9. 26 CFR 1.248-1T - Election to amortize organizational expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to amortize organizational expenditures (temporary). 1.248-1T Section 1.248-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.248-1T Election to amortize...

  10. 26 CFR 12.3 - Investment credit, public utility property elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment credit, public utility property elections. 12.3 Section 12.3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Investment credit, public utility property elections. (a) Elections—(1) In general. Under section...

  11. Student perspectives on the value of rural electives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg have the opportunity to do electives at the end of the first and third years of a four-year graduate-entry medical programme. Upon their return they are required to write a short portfolio report. Over the period 2005 to 2011, 402 students chose to do rural electives. Aim and setting To understand the value of rural electives from the perspective of medical students in the Faculty of Health Sciences at Wits, as derived from their assessment reports. Methods A review was conducted of 402 elective reports. Common themes were identified through repeated reading of the reports, and then content analysis was undertaken using these themes. Results Major themes identified were the reasons for choosing a rural facility for the elective, including going to a home community; benefits of the elective, especially in terms of clinical skills and personal growth; relationship issues; the multiple roles of the rural doctor, who is often a role model working in difficult conditions; and the challenges of rural electives. Conclusion The electives were overwhelmingly positive and affirming experiences for students, who developed clinical skills and also learnt about both themselves and their chosen career. PMID:26245614

  12. International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n = 158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

  13. International school mental health: global approaches, global challenges, and global opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan

    2012-01-01

    School mental health programs from developed countries demonstrate that both the practice and research are becoming more important to policy makers, educators, health providers, parents, and other stakeholders. Some United Nations agencies and other international organizations have begun work to advance school mental health internationally. School-based mental health programming needs to be considered as part of usual child and youth mental health policies and plans, whether those are national or other jurisdictional in nature. Currently, a paucity of evidence-based and cost effective child and youth global mental health policies/programs exist, limiting school-based mental health programs being developed, implemented, or sustained. PMID:22137808

  14. 2009 Elections: The Candidates Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the candidates for the 2009 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) election and their statements. The candidates are: (1) Andy Gibbons (President-Elect); (2) Barbara B. Lockee (President-Elect); (3) Mary Jean Bishop (At-Large Representative); and (4) Deepak Subramony (At-Large Representative). In…

  15. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  16. 2006 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Amanda C.; Given, Holly K.; McDonough, William F.

    2006-02-01

    The voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2006-2008 term was completed on 10 January. Voting was conducted electronically through the Internet using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the elections was managed by AGU staff using the Web-Surveyor software. The results of the voting are listed below.

  17. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  18. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  19. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit a contribution election to his...

  20. The Forgotten World on Campus: Acculturation and Health Issues of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Behjat A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed international college students regarding their health conditions and student-health-center utilization motives and patterns. Significant gender differences existed in perceptions of health status and health behaviors. Many students had sleep-related problems. Language barriers was the main problem in making educational and sociocultural…

  1. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    PubMed

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice. PMID:25648120

  2. Inadequacies in Health Recommendations Provided for International Travelers by North American Travel Health Advisors.

    PubMed

    Keystone; Dismukes; Sawyer; Kozarsky

    1994-06-01

    The rise of international travel has increased the need for more, improved travel advice from physicians and public health facilities. The quality of the health information given has not been examined on a large-scale basis by many studies, however. Surveys in Canada, Switzerland, and the United States, for example, report that only 20% to 50% of practitioners could give accurate information regarding immunization and prophylaxis about travel-related disease. Anonymous surveys were sent to 1165 American and 96 Canadian public health units and travel clinics. Using five scenarios on travel to developing countries, each source was asked to complete a standardized form giving their recommendations for immunization, antimalarials, travelers' diarrhea, and other travel issues. Of the American respondents, 60% were physicians equally distributed among private practice, university, and corporate clinics; nurses comprised 75% of the Canadian respondents, primarily from public health clinics. The number of travelers counseled per year ranged from 3 to 40,000 (American mean, 448; Canadian mean, 2180). Depending on the scenario, 20 to 75% of the immunization groups recommended were inadequate or inappropriate: most frequently, lack of tetanus/polio boosters; indiscriminant use of yellow fever/cholera vaccines; haphazard advice about meningococcal, rabies, and typhoid vaccines; and a lack of consideration of measles in young adults. Of the antimalarial recommendations given, 20 to 60% were incorrect, including prescribing medication for nonrisk areas, failure to recognize chloroquine-resistant areas, and failure to understand the use of, or contraindications to, mefloquine. Frequently, acclimatization, altitude sickness, sunscreens, and safe-sex issues were omitted. The prevention and treatment of travelers' diarrhea were adequately covered, however. Pre-travel advice given by North American health advisors shows a considerable variability in the accuracy and extent necessary

  3. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing. PMID:26790403

  4. Modeling health impact of global health programs implemented by Population Services International

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global health implementing organizations benefit most from health impact estimation models that isolate the individual effects of distributed products and services - a feature not typically found in intervention impact models, but which allow comparisons across interventions and intervention settings. Population Services International (PSI), a social marketing organization, has developed a set of impact models covering seven health program areas, which translate product/service distribution data into impact estimates. Each model's primary output is the number of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by an intervention within a specific country and population context. This paper aims to describe the structure and inputs for two types of DALYs averted models, considering the benefits and limitations of this methodology. Methods PSI employs two modeling approaches for estimating health impact: a macro approach for most interventions and a micro approach for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and behavior change communication (BCC) interventions. Within each intervention country context, the macro approach determines the coverage that one product/service unit provides a population in person-years, whereas the micro approach estimates an individual's risk of infection with and without the product/service unit. The models use these estimations to generate per unit DALYs averted coefficients for each intervention. When multiplied by program output data, these coefficients predict the total number of DALYs averted by an intervention in a country. Results Model outputs are presented by country for two examples: Water Chlorination DALYs Averted Model, a macro model, and the HIV Condom DALYs Averted Model for heterosexual transmission, a micro model. Health impact estimates measured in DALYs averted for PSI interventions on a global level are also presented. Conclusions The DALYs averted models offer implementing organizations practical measurement solutions for

  5. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of exercising...

  9. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section 1.9005-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-4 Manner of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section 1.9005-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-4 Manner of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1295-1 - Qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified electing funds. 1.1295-1 Section 1.1295-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1295-1 Qualified...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1295-1 - Qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified electing funds. 1.1295-1 Section 1.1295-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses §...

  20. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62 Section 422.62 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and...

  1. What can we learn from international comparisons of health systems and health system reform?

    PubMed Central

    McPake, B.; Mills, A.

    2000-01-01

    Most commonly, lessons derived from comparisons of international health sector reform can only be generalized in a limited way to similar countries. However, there is little guidance as to what constitutes "similarity" in this respect. We propose that a framework for assessing similarity could be derived from the performance of individual policies in different contexts, and from the cause and effect processes related to the policies. We demonstrate this process by considering research evidence in the "public-private mix", and propose variables for an initial framework that we believe determine private involvement in the public health sector. The most influential model of public leadership places the private role in a contracting framework. Research in countries that have adopted this model suggests an additional list of variables to add to the framework. The variables can be grouped under the headings "demand factors", "supply factors", and "strength of the public sector". These illustrate the nature of a framework that could emerge, and which would help countries aiming to learn from international experience. PMID:10916918

  2. Cost Sharing, Health Care Expenditures, and Utilization: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Perkowski, Patryk; Rodberg, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Health systems implement cost sharing to help reduce health care expenditure and utilization by discouraging the use of unnecessary health care services. We examine cost sharing in 28 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development from 1999 through 2009 in the areas of medical care, hospital care, and pharmaceuticals. We investigate associations between cost sharing, health care expenditures, and health care utilization and find no significant association between cost sharing and health care expenditures or utilization in these countries. PMID:26545706

  3. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants’ health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants’ social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3–6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  4. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  5. Promoting Health Behaviors Using Peer Education: A Demonstration Project between International and American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Finn, Kevin; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bent, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer education has the potential to promote health behaviors and cultural competence for both international and domestic college students. Purpose: The present study examined a peer education program aimed at promoting cultural competence and health behaviors among international and American students in a university setting. Methods:…

  6. The Environment in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapireau, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has adopted two classifications relating to disability, one was published in 1980 and the more recent one in 2001. Although the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) was drafted as a revision of the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps…

  7. Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005): Chinese lessons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang

    2015-06-01

    As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China. PMID:26029897

  8. Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005): Chinese lessons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China. PMID:26029897

  9. Trajectories of Mental Health and Acculturation among First Year International Graduate Students from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakar, Dhara Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    From 2001-2007, students from India have consistently comprised the largest ethnic group of international students on college campuses across the United States (Open Doors: Report on International Educational Exchange, 2007). Despite a number of studies that have researched the mental health of international students in the U.S., none have done so…

  10. The health policy implications of international trade in alcohol and tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Powell, M

    1989-10-01

    The aim of national alcohol and tobacco preventive health policy is to reduce consumption in order to reduce harm. However, the level of domestic consumption depends upon the interaction of international demand and supply and the development of international trade policy. Trade policy may conflict with or act as a constraint on the implementation of preventive health policy. Trends in alcohol and tobacco trade and developments in international trade policy affecting these products are examined in this paper in relation to health policy goals. Economic models of the links between trade flows, quantities consumed and health effects are then outlined as a preliminary step towards identifying the complex interaction between alcohol and tobacco trade and production, consumption, health and welfare. It is shown that consideration of the economic trade links are an important factor in the development of international and domestic health policy. PMID:2819273

  11. Upcoming Leadership Elections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Mike

    2014-05-01

    AGU continues to evolve into a stronger, more innovative organization thanks to the dedication of volunteer leaders working in partnership with AGU staff. The Board and Council, which form the core of AGU's bicameral governance structure, provide guidance for the organization within the framework of its stakeholder-driven strategic plan. Members elected to Board and Council leadership positions are critically important to AGU's continued success.

  12. AGU elects 1986 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eighteen distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of AGU. The total number of Fellows elected each year may not exceed 0.1% of the total membership at the time of election.The newly elected Fellows are John D. Bossier, Office of Charting and Geodetic Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Md.Ian S. Carmichael, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley.Paul J. Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany.Dieter H. Ehhalt, Institute of Atmospheric Chemistry, Jülich, and Department of Geophysics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany.Thomas C. Hanks, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.C. G. A. Harrison, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.Stanley R. Hart, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.Charles W. Howe, Department of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder.Charlotte E. Keen, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.T. J. Kukkamäki, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Helsinki.Ronald T. Merrill, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle.Pearn P. Niiler, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.Mervyn S. Paterson, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.Joseph Pedlosky, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.W. R. Peltier, Department of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.Raymond G. Roble, Solar Variability Section, High-Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.David J. Stevenson, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.David A. Woolhiser, Southwest Watershed Research Center, Tucson, Ariz.

  13. International cooperation and health. Part I: issues and concepts

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Gilmore, A.; Schwalbe, N.

    2005-01-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference. PMID:16020637

  14. International cooperation and health. Part I: Issues and concepts.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Gilmore, Anna B; Schwalbe, Nina

    2005-08-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference. PMID:16020637

  15. Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Keivan; Ghazaee, Sepideh Parchami; Zavarehee, Abbas; Abdi, Seifollah; Shakerian, Farshad; Salehi, Negar; Firouzi, Ata

    2013-01-01

    Regardless of the diabetic status of patients with coronary artery disease, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are adversely associated with cardiovascular events. The relationship between glucose levels and increased mortality risk in acute myocardial infarction has been shown through various glucose metrics; however, there is a dearth of multivariate analysis of the relationship between elective coronary angioplasty and preprocedural blood glucose levels. We evaluated the relationship between preprocedural blood glucose levels and myocardial injury in 1,012 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The patients were classified into 4 glycemic groups on the basis of blood glucose levels measured immediately before the procedure: hypoglycemic, euglycemic, mildly hyperglycemic, and hyperglycemic. Samples for troponin I and creatine kinase–MB fraction were collected before each procedure and at 8, 16, and 24 hours after each procedure. Bivariate analysis revealed that postprocedural troponin I levels were significantly higher in the hyperglycemic group (P=0.027). Although postprocedural levels of creatine kinase–MB fraction rose insignificantly in the hypoglycemic patients, our results showed that these patients were more likely to have postprocedural levels 2 to 5 times the upper limit of normal (P=0.013). We tentatively conclude that abnormally low preprocedural plasma glucose levels—together with a recent history of smoking—are associated with an increased incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24082370

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. PMID:22560564

  17. 26 CFR 1.177-1 - Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... expenditures. 1.177-1 Section 1.177-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations (continued) § 1.177-1 Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures. (a) In general. (1) Section 177 provides that a taxpayer may elect to treat any trademark or trade name...

  18. 26 CFR 1.177-1 - Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expenditures. 1.177-1 Section 1.177-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations (continued) § 1.177-1 Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures. (a) In general. (1) Section 177 provides that a taxpayer may elect to treat any trademark or trade name...

  19. 26 CFR 1.177-1 - Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... expenditures. 1.177-1 Section 1.177-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations (continued) § 1.177-1 Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures. (a) In general. (1) Section 177 provides that a taxpayer may elect to treat any trademark or trade name...

  20. 26 CFR 1.177-1 - Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expenditures. 1.177-1 Section 1.177-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations (continued) § 1.177-1 Election to amortize trademark and trade name expenditures. (a) In general. (1) Section 177 provides that a taxpayer may elect to treat any trademark or trade name...

  1. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election with respect to life estate transferred... Deductions § 25.2523(f)-1 Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse. (a) In general... estate tax return. The election, once made, is irrevocable. (c) Qualifying income interest for...

  2. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election with respect to life estate transferred... Deductions § 25.2523(f)-1 Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse. (a) In general... estate tax return. The election, once made, is irrevocable. (c) Qualifying income interest for...

  3. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to life estate... Deductions § 25.2523(f)-1 Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse. (a) In general... estate tax return. The election, once made, is irrevocable. (c) Qualifying income interest for...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election with respect to life estate... Deductions § 25.2523(f)-1 Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse. (a) In general... estate tax return. The election, once made, is irrevocable. (c) Qualifying income interest for...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election with respect to life estate... Deductions § 25.2523(f)-1 Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse. (a) In general... estate tax return. The election, once made, is irrevocable. (c) Qualifying income interest for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6013-6 - Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election to treat nonresident alien individual... Statements § 1.6013-6 Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States. (a... the other spouse is a nonresident alien. The effect of the election is that each spouse is treated...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1272-3 - Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election by a holder to treat all interest on a... Gains and Losses § 1.1272-3 Election by a holder to treat all interest on a debt instrument as OID. (a... to the election is treated as if— (i) The instrument is issued for the holder's adjusted...

  9. Health care expenditure in Sweden--an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Jönsson, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyses health care expenditure in Sweden and compares this with the corresponding expenditure in OECD countries. The definition and measurement problems of health care expenditure are discussed, new figures for the development of health care expenditure are presented and different measures of health care expenditure are provided. We found that health care expenditure has increased by about 20% in constant prices for Sweden between 1980 and 1988, but that health care expenditure as a share of the GDP has dropped during the same period in current prices. Health care expenditure disaggregated on different age groups show for Sweden that in the age group 15-64 years, health care expenditure has not increased in constant prices between 1976 and 1985, but in the oldest age group, health care expenditure has increased considerable during this period. Health care expenditure in Sweden is as high as would be expected, taking into account the degree of economic development and the growth of expenditure during the 80s, and has followed that in comparable OECD countries. However, the relative price is lower, which means that the input of real resources are greater than in other countries. PMID:10115993

  10. International Health Regulations, Ebola, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions. PMID:26691130

  11. International Health Regulations, Ebola, and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Aldighieri, Sylvain; John, Ronald St.; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization’s determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations’ core capacities and health systems’ preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions. PMID:26691130

  12. International Aspects of Mental Health Work with Refugees and Future Directions: A European Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauff, Edvard

    This paper describes past and present European efforts to address the mental health needs of refugees. It begins with a brief historical survey of mental health services for refugees after the Second World War and delineates the policy recommendations from the 1948 International Congress on Mental Health. The next section describes current…

  13. The Health and Wellbeing of International Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen Anne; Russell, Jean; Thomson, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A representative sample of undergraduate and postgraduate international students at a large Australian university (n=979, 64% females) completed a mail-back survey of their health and wellbeing. Most students evaluated their current and previous physical and mental health positively. Health-related risk practices such as unprotected sexual…

  14. Stuttering and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently presented a multidimensional classification scheme for describing health status and the experience of disablement. This new framework, the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health" (ICF; WHO, 2001), is a revision of WHO's prior framework for describing the consequences of…

  15. International health financing and the response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Samuel; Gottret, Pablo; Yeh, Ethan; de Beyer, Joy; Oelrichs, Robert; Zewdie, Debrework

    2009-11-01

    Efforts to finance HIV responses have generated large increases in funding, catalyzed activism and institutional innovation, and brought renewed attention to health issues and systems. The benefits go well beyond HIV programs. The substantial increases in HIV funding are a tiny percentage of overall increases in health financing, with other areas also seeing large absolute increases. Data on health funding suggest an improved "pro-poor" distribution, with Africa benefiting relatively more from increased external flows. A literature review found few evidence-based analyses of the impact of AIDS programs and funding on broader health financing. Conceptual frameworks that would facilitate such analysis are summarized. PMID:19858937

  16. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...This document contains amendments to interim final regulations implementing the requirements regarding internal claims and appeals and external review processes for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. These rules are intended to respond to feedback from a wide range of stakeholders on the interim......

  17. An exploration of conceptual and temporal fallacies in international health law and promotion of global public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti

    2007-01-01

    In February 2007, Indonesia withheld sharing H5N1 viral samples in order to compel the World Health Organization and Member States to guarantee future access to vaccines for States disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. This article explores conceptual and temporal fallacies in the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, as relates to global public health preparedness. Recommendations include adopting laws to facilitate non-pharmaceutical interventions; securing the rights of affected populations; and fostering inter-State collaborations to promote intra-State public health capacity building. PMID:18076510

  18. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  19. 26 CFR 1.585-7 - Elective cut-off method of changing from the reserve method of section 585.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elective cut-off method of changing from the... § 1.585-7 Elective cut-off method of changing from the reserve method of section 585. (a) General rule...)) may elect to use the cut-off method set forth in this section. Any such election must be made at...

  20. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects. PMID:26521384

  1. International and Transracial Adoptions: A Mental Health Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; And Others

    The key dependent variable in adoption research is the child's mental health, in the short and the long term. Defining mental health as the development of basic ego strength and a feeling of self-worth, which enable an individual to cope with stresses later in life, this book focuses on how well adolescents and young adults have fared in adoption.…

  2. Private health insurance: an international overview and considerations for Canada.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Irfan

    2007-01-01

    Since the passage of the Canada Health Act in 1984 and its prohibition of extra-billing, there has been an extremely limited role for private health insurance in Canada as a mechanism to pay for medically necessary physician or hospital services. In the aftermath of the landmark Supreme Court decision Chaoulli v. Québec, this may change. PMID:18274001

  3. NASA Now: Biology: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint, a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her team develop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  4. NASA Now Minute: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint,a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her teamdevelop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  5. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    PubMed Central

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  6. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    PubMed

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  7. 5 CFR 2422.29 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inconclusive elections. 2422.29 Section... elections. (a) Inconclusive elections. An inconclusive election is one where challenged ballots are not sufficient to affect the outcome of the election and one of the following occurs: (1) The ballot provides...

  8. 39 CFR 955.9 - Hearing election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing election. 955.9 Section 955.9 Postal... CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.9 Hearing election. As directed by Board order, each party shall inform the Board... elected, the election should state where and when the electing party desires the hearing to be...

  9. 22 CFR 1422.22 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Inconclusive elections. 1422.22 Section 1422.22... PROCEEDINGS § 1422.22 Inconclusive elections. (a) An inconclusive election is one in which none of the choices... results of the election, the Regional Director may declare the election a nullity and may order...

  10. 32 CFR 48.205 - Election form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Election form. 48.205 Section 48.205 National... SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.205 Election form. The form for making election after October 31, 1968, is prescribed as Election of Options, Retired Serviceman's Family...

  11. 22 CFR 1422.22 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inconclusive elections. 1422.22 Section 1422.22... PROCEEDINGS § 1422.22 Inconclusive elections. (a) An inconclusive election is one in which none of the choices... results of the election, the Regional Director may declare the election a nullity and may order...

  12. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  13. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  14. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS, CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS, AND AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT PROGRAM Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit...

  15. 5 CFR 1600.12 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1600.12 Section... ELECTIONS, CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS, AND AUTOMATIC ENROLLMENT PROGRAM Elections § 1600.12 Contribution elections. (a) An employee may make a contribution election at any time. (b) A participant must submit...

  16. 22 CFR 1422.22 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Inconclusive elections. 1422.22 Section 1422.22... PROCEEDINGS § 1422.22 Inconclusive elections. (a) An inconclusive election is one in which none of the choices... results of the election, the Regional Director may declare the election a nullity and may order...

  17. 5 CFR 1604.3 - Contribution elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1604.3 Contribution elections. A service member may make contribution elections as described in 5 CFR... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contribution elections. 1604.3 Section... incentive pay when the contribution election is made); those elections will take effect when the...

  18. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...

  19. 5 CFR 2422.29 - Inconclusive elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inconclusive elections. 2422.29 Section... elections. (a) Inconclusive elections. An inconclusive election is one where challenged ballots are not sufficient to affect the outcome of the election and one of the following occurs: (1) The ballot provides...

  20. 25 CFR 90.37 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election notices. 90.37 Section 90.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE Elections § 90.37 Election notices. The election notice shall set forth the place, date and time for...