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Sample records for international joint study

  1. 77 FR 39560 - International Joint Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced today that it is inviting public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation:...

  2. Reactive arthritis in relation to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Bodil; Holmlund, Anders; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah; Rosén, Annika

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if reactive arthritis was involved in the aetiology of chronic closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by looking for bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane of the TMJ, and by studying the antibody serology and carriage of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 in patients with chronic closed lock. Patients with reciprocal clicking and healthy subjects acted as controls. We studied a total of 43 consecutive patients, 15 with chronic closed lock, 13 with reciprocal clicking, and 15 healthy controls with no internal derangements of the TMJ. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects for measurement of concentrations of HLA tissue antigen and serology against Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Samples of synovial tissue from patients with closed lock and reciprocal clicking were obtained during discectomy and divided into two pieces, the first of which was tested by strand displacement amplification for the presence of C trachomatis, and the second of which was analysed for the presence of species-specific bacterial DNA using 16s rRNA pan-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of antibodies against M pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. or Y enterocolitica. No patient had antibodies towards C trachomatis or C jejuni. We found no bacterial DNA in the synovial fluid from any patient. The HLA B27 antigen was present in 2/15 subjects in both the closed lock and control groups, and none in the reciprocal clicking group. In conclusion, reactive arthritis does not seem to be the mechanism of internal derangement of the TMJ. PMID:25957137

  3. 77 FR 41877 - International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake Osoyoos The International Joint Commission (IJC) is inviting the public to comment on recommendations for the renewal of its... of the International Joint Commission's Osoyoos Lake Order now posted on the IJC Web site at...

  4. Joint EM-NE-International Study of Glass Behavior over Geologic Time Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Ebert, W. L.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-03-30

    Vitrification has been chosen as the best demonstrated available technology for waste immobilization worldwide. To date, the contributions of physical and chemical processes controlling the long-term glass dissolution rate in geologic disposal remain uncertain; leading to a lack of international consensus on a glass corrosion rate law. Existing rate laws have overcome the uncertainty through conservatism, but a thorough mechanistic understanding of waste form durability in geologic environments would improve public and regulator confidence, as well as lead to cost savings if it is possible to take credit for the true durability of the waste form itself in system evaluations. To this end, six nations have joined together to formulate a joint plan for collaborative research into the mechanisms controlling the long-term corrosion of glass. This report highlights the technical program plan behind the US portion of this effort, with an emphasis on the current understanding (and limitations) of several mechanistic theories for glass corrosion. Some recent results are presented to provide an example of the ongoing research.

  5. A prospective study of midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation in treatment of rigid pes cavus deformity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Midfoot osteotomy has been previously confirmed to be a good method to correct pes cavus. How to fix the osteotomy and which point to choose for the procedure has been a focus for most surgeons. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of a series of patients who had been treated for pes cavus deformity using midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation. Materials and methods Between 2008 and 2012, 17 patients with a mean age of 16.8 years (12–36 years) were tracked after treatment by midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation with three cannulated screws between the Lisfranc line and Cyma line. Clinical outcomes were assessed by measuring improvements of appearance and function, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, and radiographic changes. Results The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months (range, 10–50). The mean healing time from the osteotomy was 7.8 weeks (range, 6–12). The appearance and weight-bearing function were significantly improved in all patients. At a final follow-up, the mean AOFAS score was 75.8/100 points (range, 63–90). The mean Meary's angle, calcaneal pitch angle, tibiotalar angle, and Hibb's angle values improved from 26.3 to 5.5, 44.5 to 28.3, 133.1 to 100.8 and 66.9 to 41.1, respectively. Adjacent joints presented no obviously arthritic degeneration at the follow-up. Subjectively, 94.1% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with minor reservations. Objective outcomes were excellent or good in 88.2% of feet. Conclusion For the treatment of rigid pes cavus deformity, extra-articular midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation is effective and safe. This surgical technique is especially effective with low rates of arthritic degeneration and joint stiffness in the adjacent joints and little reduction of ankle and foot flexibility. PMID:24898481

  6. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  7. Selection of Partners for International Joint Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates the selection of partner institutions for international joint degree programs at the graduate level utilizing Knight's (2008) challenges to the development of such partnerships which are: Academic Alignment, Mobility and Language concerns, and Recognition and Legitimacy concerns. This study focuses on the criteria used…

  8. Study of joint designing on composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazushi, Haruna

    In this paper, strength design techniques of CFRP mechanical joints and adhesively bonded joints were examined. Remarkable stress concentration generates at the mechanical hole edge and the adhesive edge, therefore an unskillful design of joints often causes a reduction in the strength of composite structures. In mechanical joints, a study on predicting the joint strength has been performed, but bearing failure that is most important failure mode for designing joints can not be predicted. So in this paper, the strength prediction method in consideration with bearing failure was examined. On the other hand, the criterion using the intensity of stress singularity was suggested in adhesive joints, but it was clarified in this paper, that this method can not be applied the prediction of the final failure strength. So the critical stress distribution of single-lap adhesive bonded carbon/epoxy joints was examined to obtain the failure criterion of the final failure. Moreover the simulation method for an internal stress generated by cure shrinkage of adhesive was also examined. In the proposed method for mechanical joint, 2-parameter criterion, that is combined the characteristic length with the Yamada-Sun criterion, was applied and the characteristic length for compression was determined from "bearing failure test" that was newly conceived to take bearing failure into consideration. In case of adhesive joints, it was thought that 2-parameter criterion was effective. So the prediction method using 2-parameter criterion was applied to other adhesive joints. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results in both mechanical and adhesive joints. And it was cleared that an internal stress could be simulated by the proposed method. Moreover, in mechanical joints, the most suitable stacking sequence, the reduction technique of interlaminar stress, and the elevation of joint strength by application of high toughness matrix were also shown. Consequently

  9. Temporomandibular joint internal derangements: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Vogler, J.B. III; Morrish, R.B. Jr.; Goldman, S.M.; Capra, R.E.; Proctor, E.

    1984-08-01

    Two hundred patients with suspected displaced temporomandibular joint meniscus were studied with computed tomography. In 75 cases confirmation of the CT diagnosis was subsequently obtained via surgery or arthrography; correlation was found in 73 cases (97%), with one false-negative and one false-positive examination. When meniscus displacement was graded as mild, moderate, or severe, those cases diagnosed as moderate or severe were more likely to require surgery. The technique and interpretation of this technique is described; in most cases CT can replace arthrography in diagnosing displaced temporomandibular joint menisci.

  10. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.21 International... of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  11. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.21 International... of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  12. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.21 International... of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  13. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.21 International... of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  14. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.21 International... of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  15. Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

  16. Global energy perspectives: A summary of the joint study by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and World Energy Council

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N. |; Jefferson, M.

    1996-03-01

    This article reports a study on Global Energy Perspectives to 2050 and Beyond conducted jointly by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC). All together three cases of economic and energy developments were developed that sprawl into six scenarios of energy supply alternatives extending until the end of the 21st century. The international consistency of the scenarios was assessed with the help of formal energy models. The study took close account of world population prospects, economic growth, technological advance, the energy resource base, environmental implications from the local to the global level, financing requirements, and the future prospects of both fossil and nonfossil fuels and industries. Although no analysis can turn an uncertain future into a sure thing, the study identifies patterns that are robust across a purposely broad range of scenarios. The study also enables one to relate alternative near-term research and development, technology, economic, and environmental policies to the possible long-term divergence of energy systems structures. Due to the long lead times involved in the turnover of capital stock and infrastructures of the energy system, policy would need to be implemented now in order to initiate long-term structural changes in the energy system that would, however, become significant only after the year 2020. 23 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  18. Body posture evaluations in subjects with internal temporomandibular joint derangement.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify possible relationships between global body posture and temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMJ-id), by comparing 30 subjects presenting typical TMJ-id signs to 20 healthy subjects. Body posture was assessed using the analysis of muscle chains on several photographs. Results show a higher frequency of lifted shoulders (p=0.04) and of changes in the antero-internal hip chain (p=0.02) in the test group, but no further differences were found significant between the control and test groups. The test group was then divided into three subgroups according to the Helkimo index of temporomandibular disorder severity. Again, no significant differences were found between the subgroups. However, there was a trend noticed in the group with the most severe dysfunction, to present a forward head and shoulders posture. Results are discussed in light of previous studies using the same sample. PMID:19891257

  19. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, Michael James; Brake, Matthew Robert; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Ewins, David J.

    2013-08-01

    The Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures was held from August 16th to 17th, 2012, in Chicago Illinois, following the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Thirty two researchers from both the United States and international locations convened to discuss the recent progress of mechanical joints related research and associated efforts in addition to developing a roadmap for the challenges to be addressed over the next five to ten years. These proceedings from the workshop include the minutes of the discussions and follow up from the 2009 workshop [1], presentations, and outcomes of the workshop. Specifically, twelve challenges were formulated from the discussions at the workshop, which focus on developing a better understanding of uncertainty and variability in jointed structures, incorporating high fidelity models of joints in simulations that are tractable/efficient, motivating a new generation of researchers and funding agents as to the importance of joint mechanics research, and developing new insights into the physical phenomena that give rise to energy dissipation in jointed structures. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a predictive model of joint mechanics.

  20. Harmonization of animal clinical pathology testing in toxicity and safety studies. The Joint Scientific Committee for International Harmonization of Clinical Pathology Testing.

    PubMed

    Weingand, K; Brown, G; Hall, R; Davies, D; Gossett, K; Neptun, D; Waner, T; Matsuzawa, T; Salemink, P; Froelke, W; Provost, J P; Dal Negro, G; Batchelor, J; Nomura, M; Groetsch, H; Boink, A; Kimball, J; Woodman, D; York, M; Fabianson-Johnson, E; Lupart, M; Melloni, E

    1996-02-01

    Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies using dose levels not substantially lower than those used in the long-duration studies. For repeated-dose studies in nonrodent species, clinical pathology testing is recommended at study termination and at least once at an earlier interval. For studies of 2 to 6 weeks in duration in nonrodent species, testing is also recommended within 7 days of initiation of dosing, unless it compromises the health of the animals. If a study contains recovery groups, clinical pathology testing at study termination is recommended. The core hematology tests recommended are total leukocyte (white blood cell) count, absolute differential leukocyte count, erythrocyte (red blood cell) count, evaluation of red blood cell morphology, platelet (thrombocyte) count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit (or packed cell volume), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. In the absence of automated reticulocyte counting capabilities, blood smears from each animal should be prepared for reticulocyte counts. Bone marrow cytology slides should be prepared from each animal at termination. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (or appropriate alternatives) and platelet count are the minimum recommended laboratory tests of hemostasis. The core clinical chemistry tests recommended are glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, calculated globulin, calcium, sodium, potassium, total cholesterol, and appropriate hepatocellular and hepatobiliary tests. For hepatocellular

  1. Critical Values of Facet Joint Angulation and Tropism in the Development of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: An International, Large-Scale Multicenter Study by the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Goss, Ben; Sham, Phoebe; Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  An international, multicenter cross-sectional image-based study performed in 33 institutions in the Asia Pacific region. Objective  The study addressed the role of facet joint angulation and tropism in relation to L4–L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods  The study included 349 patients (63% females; mean age: 61.8 years) with single-level DS; 82 had no L4–L5 DS (group A) and 267 had L4–L5 DS (group B). Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized to assess facet joint angulations and tropism (i.e., asymmetry between facet joint angulations) between groups. Results  There was a statistically significant difference between group A (left mean: 46.1 degrees; right mean: 48.2 degrees) and group B (left mean: 55.4 degrees; right mean: 57.5 degrees) in relation to bilateral L4–L5 facet joint angulations (p < 0.001). The mean bilateral angulation difference was 7.4 and 9.6 degrees in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.025). A critical value of 58 degrees or greater significantly increased the likelihood of DS if unilateral (adjusted OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5; p = 0.021) or bilateral facets (adjusted OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2.7 to 13.2; p < 0.001) were involved. Facet joint tropism was found to be relevant between 16 and 24 degrees angulation difference (adjusted OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 26.1; p = 0.027). Conclusions  In one of the largest studies assessing facet joint orientation in patients with DS, greater sagittal facet joint angulation was associated with L4-L5 DS, with a critical value of 58 degrees or greater increasing the likelihood of the condition for unilateral and bilateral facet joint involvement. Specific facet joint tropism categories were noted to be associated with DS. PMID:27433424

  2. The relationships between muscle, external, internal and joint mechanical work during normal walking

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Neptune, Richard R.; Kautz, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Muscle mechanical work is an important biomechanical quantity in human movement analyses and has been estimated using different quantities including external, internal and joint work. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between these traditionally used estimates of mechanical work in human walking and to assess whether they can be used as accurate estimates of musculotendon and/or muscle fiber work. A muscle-actuated forward dynamics walking simulation was generated to quantify each of the mechanical work measures. Total joint work (i.e. the time integral of absolute joint power over a full gait cycle) was found to underestimate total musculotendon work due to agonist–antagonist co-contractions, despite the effect of biarticular muscle work and passive joint work, which acted to decrease the underestimation. We did find that when the net passive joint work over the gait cycle is negligible, net joint work (i.e. the time integral of net joint power) was comparable to the net musculotendon work (and net muscle fiber work because net tendon work is zero over a complete gait cycle). Thus, during walking conditions when passive joint work is negligible, net joint work may be used as an estimate of net muscle work. Neither total external nor total internal work (nor their sum) provided a reasonable estimate of total musculotendon work. We conclude that joint work is limited in its ability to estimate musculotendon work, and that external and internal work should not be used as an estimation of musculotendon work. PMID:19218526

  3. Proceedings of the International Consensus on Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, J; Gehrke, T; Chen, A F

    2013-11-01

    Louis Pasteur once said that: "Fortune favours the prepared mind." As one of the great scientists who contributed to the fight against infection, he emphasised the importance of being prepared at all times to recognise infection and deal with it. Despite the many scientific discoveries and technological advances, such as the advent of antibiotics and the use of sterile techniques, infection continues to be a problem that haunts orthopaedic surgeons and inflicts suffering on patients. The medical community has implemented many practices with the intention of preventing infection and treating it effectively when it occurs. Although high-level evidence may support some of these practices, many are based on little to no scientific foundation. Thus, around the world, there is great variation in practices for the prevention and management of periprosthetic joint infection. This paper summaries the instigation, conduct and findings of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:24151261

  4. Investigation Leads to Improved Understanding of Space Shuttle RSRM Internal Insulation Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Bolton, Doug E.; Hicken, Steve V.; Allred, Larry D.; Cook, Dave J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses an internal insulation J-joint design for the mated insulation interface between two assembled RSRM segments. In this assembled (mated) segment configuration, this J-joint design serves as a thermal barrier to prevent hot gases from affecting the case field joint metal surfaces and O-rings. A pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) provides some adhesion between the two mated insulation surfaces. In 1995, after extensive testing, a new ODC-free PSA (free of ozone depleting chemicals) was selected for flight on RSRM-55 (STS-78). Post-flight inspection revealed that the J-joint, equipped with the new ODC-free PSA, did not perform well. Hot gas seeped inside the J-joint interface. Although not a flight safety threat, the J-joint hot gas intrusion on RSRM-55 was a mystery to the investigators since the PSA had previously worked well on a full-scale static test. A team was assembled to study the J-joint and PSA further. All J-joint design parameters, measured data, and historical performance data were re-reviewed and evaluated by subscale testing and analysis. Although both the ODC-free and old PSA were weakened by humidity, the ODC-free PSA strength was lower to start with. Another RSRM full-scale static test was conducted in 1998 and intentionally duplicated the gas intrusion. This test, along with many concurring tests, showed that if a J-joint was 1) mated with the new ODC-free PSA, 2) exposed to a history of high humidity (Kennedy Space Center levels), and 3) also a joint which experienced significant but normal joint motion (J-joint deformation resulting from motor pressurization dynamics) then that J-joint would open (allow gas intrusion) during motor operation. When all of the data from the analyses, subscale tests, and full-scale tests were considered together, a theory emerged. Most of the joint motion on the RSRM occurs early in motor operation at which point the J-joints are pulled into tension. If the new

  5. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case-hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A farreaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that the anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage, astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  6. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  7. A joint coordinate system proposal for the study of the trapeziometacarpal joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheze, L; Dumas, R; Comtet, J J; Rumelhart, C; Fayet, M

    2009-06-01

    The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) has recommended a standardisation for the motion reporting of almost all human joints. This study proposes an adaptation for the trapeziometacarpal joint. The definition of the segment coordinate system of both trapezium and first metacarpal is based on functional anatomy. The definition of the joint coordinate system (JCS) is guided by the two degrees of freedom of the joint, i.e. flexion-extension about a trapezium axis and abduction-adduction about a first metacarpal axis. The rotations obtained using three methods are compared on the same data: the fixed axes sequence proposed by Cooney et al., the mobile axes sequence proposed by the ISB and our alternative mobile axes sequence. The rotation amplitudes show a difference of 9 degrees in flexion-extension, 2 degrees in abduction-adduction and 13 degrees in internal-external rotation. This study emphasizes the importance of adapting the JCS to the functional anatomy of each particular joint. PMID:18853290

  8. Comparative study in patients with symptomatic internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: analgesic outcomes of arthrocentesis with or without intra-articular morphine and tramadol.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, A; Satilmis, T; Basa, S

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to find out whether pain was better controlled if morphine or tramadol was injected intra-articularly after arthrocentesis with Ringer's lactate in patients with painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ). This placebo-controlled, double-blind study involved 30 patients who had not responded to conservative treatment and who were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 patients each. All patients had arthrocentesis, and the drugs were given as intra-articular injections immediately after the procedure. One group was give 5% Ringer's lactate 1ml, the second morphine 1mg, and the third tramadol 50mg. Visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain were recorded at maximum mouth opening and at rest before intra-articular injection and after 15 and 30min; at 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48h; and at 1, 3, and 6 monthly follow-up. The mean (SD) VAS decreased from 6.90 (1.45) to 2.6 (2.5) in the control group, from 7.30 (1.64) to 1.20 (0.79) in the morphine group (p=0.005), and from 7.10 (1.73) to 1.50 (1.78) in the tramadol group (p=0.005). We conclude that morphine given by intra-articular injection after arthrocentesis gives a significant, sustained (6 months) improvement in pain relief compared with simple arthrocentesis alone. The effect was similar with tramadol except that it was shorter lived. PMID:25623934

  9. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  10. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  11. PREFACE: Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas was once more a great meeting. The programme covers a wide variety of topics, namely turbulence, MHD, edge physics and RF wave heating. The broad spectrum of skills involved in this meeting, from fundamental to applied physics, is striking. The works published in this special issue combine mathematics, numerics and physics at various levels - confirming the increasing integration of expertise in our community. As an incentive to read this cluster, let us mention a few outstanding results. Several papers address fundamental issues in turbulent transport, in particular the dynamics of structures. It is quite remarkable that this subject is now mature enough to propose signatures that can be tested by measurements. Linear and non linear MHD was also at the forefront. Several works illustrate the increasing level of realistic description of a fusion device, in particular by implementing complicated wall geometries. Moreover some noticeable progress has been made in the understanding of reconnection processes in collisionless regimes. The activity on radio-frequency heating and current drive is well represented, driven by the future operation of W7-X, ITER, and DEMO on a longer time scale. Finally the development of innovative numerical techniques, an old tradition of the conference, has driven several nice articles. The programme committee is traditionally keen in promoting young scientists. A number of senior scientists also attend the meeting on a regular basis, so that the attendance was nicely balanced. We believe that these efforts have been particularly fruitful this year. The number of young (and less young) faces was particularly impressive and this special issue illustrates this feature. The success of the 2014 edition brings evidence that the joint Varenna-Lausanne is the right place for presenting th The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the

  12. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  13. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  14. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  15. An International Research Strategy: Towards a Joint IGBP/IHDP/WCRP Global Carbon Cycle Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.

    2001-05-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have agreed upon a joint project that integrates the biological, ecological, social, and physical climate communities is crucial towards understanding the Earth's global carbon system. This joint science project will provide a platform to address the needs of the assessment, observing, and other scientific research communities. The aim is to address the necessary science needs while keeping in mind the policy relevance for carbon management strategies. The Joint Carbon Cycle has several fundamental drivers: first, the human-environment system is intimately linked with the biophsysical carbon cycle; second, it is clear that the terrestrial and ocean biosphere respond variably over space and time to fluctuations in atmospheric CO2, however, the patterns and processes that drive these responses in a coupled human-biophysical Earth's systems are largely unknown; and third, to predict and understand a linked human-biophysical carbon cycle, a multiple constraint approach must be utilized that integrates process studies, manipulative experiments, observations and models. Finally, an international Project is necessary to facilitate and coordinate cooperation between national and regional programmes and governments to fit the pieces of the global carbon puzzle in a coherent manner. A central problem in carbon cycle research is the synthesis of a wide variety of different measurements to provide the best possible information about the space-time distribution of carbon fluxes and stores in the human, oceanic and terrestrial biospheres. Three key strategies will be employed to address our uncertainties in global carbon sources and sinks: (1) To constrain global carbon fluxes and stores from multiple sources by integrating process studies, experiments, models, observations and case studies; (2) To incorporate institutions as

  16. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-07-28

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry.

  17. Evaluation of body posture in individuals with internal temporomandibular joint derangement.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Marques, Amélia Pasqual; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli

    2005-10-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMD) comprise a great number of disruptions that may affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the masticatory muscles, or both. TMJ internal derangement is a specific type of TMD, of which the etiology and physiopathology are broadly unknown, but have been suggested to be linked to head, neck, and body posture factors. This study aimed at verifying possible relationships between body posture and TMJ internal derangements (TMJ-id), by comparing 30 subjects presenting typical TMJ-id signs to 20 healthy subjects. Subjects' clinical evaluations included anamnesis, stomatognatic system evaluation, and plotting analysis on body posture photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups. Results do not support the assertion that body posture plays a role in causing or enhancing TMD; however, these results should be cautiously considered because of the small number of subjects evaluated and the many posture variables submitted to statistical procedures that lead to high standard deviations. PMID:16353467

  18. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  19. Internally supported flexible duct joint. [device for conducting fluids in high pressure systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An internally supported, flexible duct joint for use in conducting fluids under relatively high pressures in systems where relatively large deflection angles must be accommodated is presented. The joint includes a flexible tubular bellows and an elongated base disposed within the bellows. The base is connected through radiating struts to the bellows near mid-portion and to each of the opposite end portions of the bellows through a pivotal connecting body. A motion-controlling linkage is provided for linking the connecting bodies, whereby angular displacement of the joint is controlled and uniformity in the instantaneous bend radius of the duct is achieved as deflection is imposed.

  20. Abstracts from the 2016 Joint Meeting of the International Confocal Group (ICG), the International Dermoscopy Society (IDS), and the International Society for Digital Imaging of the Skin (ISDIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    What follows are the abstracts presented at the Joint Meeting of the International Confocal Group (ICG), the International Dermoscopy Society (IDS), and the International Society for Digital Imaging of the Skin (ISDIS). The meeting was held on March 5, 2016, in Washington, DC, USA, in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology (Figure 1). The abstracts appear in the order in which they were presented.

  1. Parametric Study of Smooth Joint Parameters on the Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaaddini, M.; Hagan, P. C.; Mitra, R.; Hebblewhite, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to study the shear behaviour of rock joints in a direct shear test using the particle flow code PFC2D. In this numerical approach, the intact rock is simulated by densely packed circular particles that are bonded together at their contact points; joint surfaces can be explicitly simulated using the modified smooth joint (SJ) model. In the modified SJ model for simulation of direct shear test, micro-scale slip surfaces (smooth joint contacts) are applied at contacts between the particles of the upper and lower blocks of the shear box and the mechanical behaviour of the joints is controlled by the micro-scale properties of the smooth joint contacts. Two joint profiles of standard JRC 10-12 and a sawtooth triangular joint with a base angle of 15° were selected for testing. The results of direct shear tests under different normal stresses on these two profiles show that for the sawtooth triangular joints under a normal stress of 1 MPa, the shearing mechanism is purely sliding, and for the JRC 10-12 profile under a normal stress of 4 MPa, the shearing of first-order asperities controls the shearing mechanism. A parametric study of the micro-properties of the smooth joints under these two different shearing mechanisms was undertaken. The results of this study show that the SJ normal stiffness and the SJ shear stiffness have insubstantial effect on the peak shear strength in sliding mode, but that the SJ normal stiffness has a significant effect on the dilation rate in both sliding and shearing modes.

  2. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  3. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  4. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection of Adhesive Joints: a Parametric Study for a Step-Lap Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthillath, Padma Kumar; Kannajosyula, Haraprasad; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Adhesively bonded joints are used to connect structural members in aircraft. When subject to loads and environmental conditions these joints undergo deterioration. Being load bearing members, it becomes critical to develop reliable and non-destructive methods for inspecting these adhesive joints. Ultrasonic guided waves, with their mode and frequency tuning possibilities, form an attractive tool for such inspections. Guided wave behavior as observed through dispersion phenomena is dependent on the waveguide dimensions. Since actual structural joints in aircraft involve adherends of different thicknesses and materials, and joints of varied overlap lengths, a robust inspection methodology needs to be tunable for all conditions. A parametric study showing the effect that some key joint parameters, that is the thickness of the adhesive, overlap length, and material parameters, have on the ultrasonic guided wave behavior is presented in this paper. In addition, the influence of defects like cohesive weakness, delamination and kissing bonds and their location on guided wave propagation is investigated. The transmission of ultrasonic guided wave energy is used as a guideline to select optimal conditions for joint inspection.

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  6. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  7. The innervation of canine hip joint capsule: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, C H; Hou, S M; Yeh, L S

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the contributions of the nerves supplying the canine hip joint capsule for clinical application, cadaver study of six healthy mongrel dogs was performed. The pelvises and hindlimbs of cadavers were dissected and fixed in formaldehyde. Innervation of the joint capsule was investigated with the aid of an operative microscope. As a result, the canine hip joint capsule receives multiple innervations from articular branches of four nerves. They are articular nerve fibres of femoral, obturator, cranial gluteal and sciatic nerves from the cranioventral, caudoventral, craniolateral and dorsolateral directions of the joint, respectively. No branch originating from the caudal gluteal nerve was observed innervating the hip joint capsule. Our data provides useful information for research on the canine hip joint, including pain analysis with hip disorders and surgical nerve blockade to relieve pain. PMID:23410229

  8. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: diagnosis by direct sagittal computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Manzione, J.V.; Katzberg, R.W.; Brodsky, G.L.; Seltzer, S.E.; Mellins, H.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The authors performed direct sagittal computed tomography (CT) on 4 cadaver temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and examined 51 TMJs in 47 patients clinically. The results were correlated with cadaver anatomical sections and clinical arthrographic findings. A fat plane between the bellies of the lateral pterygoid muscles, termed the ''lateral pterygoid fat pad,'' served as the anatomical basis for detection of internal derangements by CT. CT was 94% accurate in detecting meniscal derangements and 96% accurate in detecting degenerative arthritis. The authors suggest that CT rather than arthrography be employed as the primary TMJ imaging modality when internal derangement or arthritis is suspected.

  9. 76 FR 45311 - International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... water quality, water quantity, and related issues in the international Lake of the Woods and Rainy River... International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and Rainy River... International Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force report to...

  10. Arthroscopic Resection of Osteochondroma of Hip Joint Associated with Internal Snapping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heung-Tae; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Jeon, Yoo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year old male patient visited the hospital complaining of inguinal pain and internal snapping of right hip joint. In physical examination, the patient was presumed to be diagnosed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tear. In radiologic evaluation, FAI and acetabular labral tear were identified and bony tumor associated with internal snapping was found on the posteromedial portion of the femoral neck. Despite of conservative treatment, there was no symptomatic improvement. So arthroscopic labral repair, osteoplasty and resection of bony tumor were performed. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as osteochondroma through biopsy and all symptoms improved after surgery. There was no recurrence, complication or abnormal finding during 1 year follow up. Osteochondroma located at posteromedial portion of femoral neck can be a cause of internal snapping hip and although technical demands are challenging, arthroscopic resection can be a good treatment option.

  11. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  12. Impact of joint contractures on functioning and social participation in older individuals – development of a standard set (JointConFunctionSet): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Joint contractures are frequent in older individuals in geriatric care settings. Even though they are used as indicator of quality of care, there is neither a common standard to describe functioning and disability in patients nor an established standardized assessment to describe and quantify the impact of joint contractures on patients’ functioning. Thus, the aim of our study is (1) to develop a standard set for the assessment of the impact of joint contractures on functioning and social participation in older individuals and (2) to develop and validate a standardized assessment instrument for describing and quantifying the impact of joint contractures on the individuals’ functioning. Methods The standard set for joint contractures integrate the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development of this set follows the methodology to develop an International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set and involves a formal decision-making and consensus process. Evidence from four preparatory studies will be integrated including qualitative interviews with patients, a systematic review of the literature, a survey with health professionals, and a cross sectional study with patients affected by joint contractures. The assessment instrument will be developed using item-response-theory models. The instrument will be validated. Discussion The standard set for joint contractures will provide a list of aspects of functioning and health most relevant for older individuals in geriatric care settings with joint contractures. This list will describe body functions, body structures, activities and participation and related environmental factors. This standard set will define what aspects of functioning should be assessed in individuals with joint contractures and will be the basis of the new assessment instrument to evaluate the impact of joint contractures on

  13. The injuries to the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joints: A review of the surgical management by internal fixation, arthrodesis and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Pang, Qing-jiang; Yu, Guang-rong

    2013-01-01

    The surgical management to the injuries of the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints is controversial. We briefly review the anatomical characteristics to the injuries, the diagnosis, as well as the individualized treatment of the injuries of the fourth and fifth TMT joints by open reduction and internal fixation, TMT arthrodesis and arthroplasty. We conclude that open reduction and internal fixation is the recommended option for acute injuries, while arthrodesis can be used in cases of malunion of the fourth and fifth TMT joints with gross pain or arthritic changes and obvious structural deformity. Arthroplasty is an effective salvage operation mainly used in high-demand patients with severe TMT arthritis. Finally, we propose a recommended treatment algorithm (based on the literature and our experience), taking into account the specific indications for internal fixation, TMT arthrodesis and arthroplasty to optimize the individualized treatment. Data sources/Study selection Data from survey reports, descriptive, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies published from 2002 to 2012 on the topic of the injuries to the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joint on human and radiography studies were included. Data Extraction The data was extracted from online resources of American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, US National Library of Medicine, The MEDLINE. Conclusion It is important to comprehend the specific anatomical characteristics and grasp the strict indications, advantages and disadvantages of the ORIF, TMT arthrodesis and arthroplasty to optimize the individualized treatment of the fourth and fifth TMT joints injuries in a maximum extent. PMID:24353608

  14. Effect of Joint Commission International Accreditation on the Nursing Work Environment in a Tertiary Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ilya; Farkash-Fink, Naomi; Fish, Miri

    2016-01-01

    How might a tertiary hospital's nursing staff respond to the huge improvement effort required for external accreditation if they are encouraged to lead the change process themselves? This article reports the results of a concurrent evaluation of the nursing work climate at ward level, before and after accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Physician-nurse relations improved; the involvement of social workers, dieticians, and physiotherapists increased; support services responded more quickly to requests; and management-line staff relations became closer. PMID:27096904

  15. A study of joint damping in metal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Scott J. I.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Cunningham, Paul

    2009-07-01

    For satellite applications the determination of the correct dynamic behaviour and in particular the structural damping is important to assess the vibration environment for the spacecraft subsystems and ultimately their capability to withstand the launch vibration environment. Therefore, the object of this investigation is to experimentally analyse a range of aluminium panel configurations to study the effect of joints on the damping of the complete structure. The paper begins with a full description of the experimental method used to accurately determine the modal loss factors for each of the panel configurations analysed. Nine different panels were used in the experimental tests, six of which incorporate lap joints variations. The joint parameters investigated include fastener type, bolt torque, fastener spacing, overlap distance and the effect of stiffeners. The damping results of ten different joint variants are presented for each of the first twelve modes of vibration. This data is directly compared to the damping factors of an equivalent monolithic panel. Various specific conclusions are made with respect to each of the joint parameters investigated. However, the primary conclusion is that the mode shape combined with the joint stiffness and joint location can be suggestive as to the likely magnitude increase of the modal loss factor.

  16. Experimental study of the subtalar joint axis: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zographos, S; Chaminade, B; Hobatho, M C; Utheza, G

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study of the subtalar joint has been conducted with the aim of establishing its axis of movement as well as analysing the associated movement. For description of the axis, CT data for five positions of a single foot were reconstructed using a 3D programme, the 3D data was processed by Patran software. Measures of angular displacements were made from three amputated feet placed in a specially constructed foot frame. Four instantaneous axes of movement could be defined. Calculation of displacements showed an important rolling of the calcaneus (45 degrees). Tacking was evident in inversion, with an opposite displacement between the front and rear part of the calcaneus, whereas during eversion tacking affected only the rear part of the bone: these results were confirmed by 3D reconstructions. Henke's axis was described as that for the talonavicular joint, but acceptable for the subtalar joint. Several authors investigating the coordinates of this axis have reported large differences and described screw-like movements, the latter being incompatible with a fixed axis: instantaneous axes, however are compatible with a screw-like movement. The subtalar joint appears to work as a pivot joint during inversion and as a plane joint during eversion. Although Henke's axis has pedagogical value the subtalar joint has a series of instantaneous axes. PMID:11236321

  17. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  18. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  19. In Vivo Kinematics of the Tibiotalar and Subtalar Joints in Asymptomatic Subjects: A High-Speed Dual Fluoroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Roach, Koren E; Wang, Bibo; Kapron, Ashley L; Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Saltzman, Charles L; Bo Foreman, K; Anderson, Andrew E

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of joint kinematics are essential to understand the pathomechanics of ankle disease and the effects of treatment. Traditional motion capture techniques do not provide measurements of independent tibiotalar and subtalar joint motion. In this study, high-speed dual fluoroscopy images of ten asymptomatic adults were acquired during treadmill walking at 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s and a single-leg, balanced heel-rise. Three-dimensional (3D) CT models of each bone and dual fluoroscopy images were used to quantify in vivo kinematics for the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Dynamic tibiotalar and subtalar mean joint angles often exhibited opposing trends during captured stance. During both speeds of walking, the tibiotalar joint had significantly greater dorsi/plantarflexion (D/P) angular ROM than the subtalar joint while the subtalar joint demonstrated greater inversion/eversion (In/Ev) and internal/external rotation (IR/ER) than the tibiotalar joint. During balanced heel-rise, only D/P and In/Ev were significantly different between the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Translational ROM in the anterior/posterior (AP) direction was significantly greater in the subtalar than the tibiotalar joint during walking at 0.5 m/s. Overall, our results support the long-held belief that the tibiotalar joint is primarily responsible for D/P, while the subtalar joint facilitates In/Ev and IR/ER. However, the subtalar joint provided considerable D/P rotation, and the tibiotalar joint rotated about all three axes, which, along with translational motion, suggests that each joint undergoes complex, 3D motion. PMID:27455417

  20. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  1. A study of discrete and continuum joint modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Brown, S.R.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental study in which finite element and discrete element techniques were used to analyze a layered polycarbonate plate model subjected to uniaxial compression. Also, the two analysis techniques were used to compute the response of an eight meter diameter drift in jointed-rock. The drift was subjected to in-situ and far-field induced thermal stresses. The finite element analyses used a continuum rock model to represent the jointed-rock. A comparison of the analyses showed that the finite element continuum joint model consistently predicted less joint slippage than did the discrete element analyses, although far-field displacements compared well.

  2. BLUE JOINT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA, AND BLUE JOINT ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    During field studies of the Blue Joint Wilderness Study Area, Montana, and the Blue Joint Roadless Area, Idaho, areas of substantiated resource potential for epithermal precious-metal vein deposits were identified in areas of hydrothermal alteration and fossil hot springs activity in the Eocene volcanic rocks. Areas with substantiated resource potential for cobalt, copper, silver, and barite resources of the sediment-hosted type were identified in the Proterozoic quartz schist of the eastern part of the area. Probable potential exists for molybdenum in a prophyry system; anomalously high molybdenum values are coincident with high values for precious and base metals and uranium in some places. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  3. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI)

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Motamedi, Maryam; Etemad, Mania; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Kaghazchi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED) accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI) standards. Methods: This cohort study with a four-month follow up was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in 2013. The standard evaluation checklist of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards) included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005). Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data

  4. Neurology of the temporomandibular joints: an experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments on anaesthetized cats are described in which the reflex effects of stimulation of the mechanoreceptors in the temporomandibular joints on the ipsilateral and contralateral mandibular muscles were studied. The effects on this reflex activity and on dynamic manidublar muscle activity of the production of temporary and permanent dysfunction of the mechanoreceptors in different regions of the joint capsule were also studied. The significance of the findings in relation to the maintenance of normal jaw posture and the disturbance of mandibular muscular function by trauma, disease, and malocclusion is discussed. PMID:1259326

  5. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This

  6. Coracoclavicular joint: osteologic study of 1020 human clavicles

    PubMed Central

    Gumina, S; Salvatore, M; De Santis, P; Orsina, L; Postacchini, F

    2002-01-01

    We examined 1020 dry clavicles from cadavers of Italian origin to determine the prevalence of the coracoclavicular joint (ccj), a diarthrotic synovial joint occasionally present between the conoid tubercle of the clavicle and the superior surface of the horizontal part of the coracoid process. Five hundred and nine clavicles from individuals of different ages were submitted to X-ray examination. Using radiography, we measured the entire length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve, on which the distance between the conoid tubercle and the coracoid process depends. We also used radiography to record the differences in prevalence of arthritis in two neighbouring joints, the acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints. Of the 1020 clavicles, eight (0.8%) displayed the articular facet of the ccj. No statistical correlation was found between clavicular length and the index of sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve. The prevalence of arthritis in clavicles with ccj was higher than that revealed in clavicles without ccj. The prevalence of ccj in the studied clavicles is lower than that observed in Asian cohorts. Furthermore, ccj is not conditioned by either length or sinuosity of the anterior lateral curve of the clavicle. Finally, the assumption that ccj is a predisposing factor for degenerative changes of neighbouring joints is statistically justified. PMID:12489763

  7. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  8. MP I joint giving way--a case study.

    PubMed

    Lohrer, H

    2001-02-01

    A case history of a 26 year old international class female 400 m hurdle sprinter is presented. While sprinting she felt a sudden and very intensive pain at her left hallux. After this she was unable to run and had episodes of giving way in the MP I joint elicited by minor activity. Operative investigation revealed a broad disruption of the MP I medial collateral ligament. After periosteal flap repair and early functional aftertreatment she returned to full high level sports ability. PMID:11249227

  9. Educational Destruction and Reconstruction in Disrupted Societies. Final Report and Case Studies of the Workshop Held on 15-16 May 1997, Geneva, Switzerland, Organized Jointly by the International Bureau of Education and the University of Geneva.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi, Ed.

    This volume addresses the dual problems of providing rapid educational responses in global conflict and crisis situations and assessing the role of education in the root causes of these conflicts. Education and training are key components of international relief responses to emergencies resulting from conflicts. Even more important, rehabilitation…

  10. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1989-02-01

    A 3-year long study was conducted in central Oregon to determine the possible effects of a +-500-kV d-c transmission line on cattle and crops. Two herds totaling 100 beef cows and 6 bulls were confined in pens beneath the d-c line. The cows were paired and the other members of the pairs were maintained in two herds in control pens 2000 ft west of the line. The management facilities under the power line were duplicated in the control area. There were no significant differences in consumption of feed, minerals or water between the line and control herds. Also, no effects were found on breeding, conception, calving, calf birth date, calving interval, average daily gain, adjusted weaning weight, cow weight, condition, carcass weight, and mortality. Differences were found between years for calf birth date, average daily gain, adjusted weaning weight, and cow weight. These differences were attributed to condition and age of the cows entering the study and their adjustment to pen confinement. 67 refs., 50 figs., 106 tabs.

  11. A frictional study of total hip joint replacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, S. C.; Unsworth, A.; Goldsmith, A. A. J.

    2000-12-01

    Polymeric wear debris produced by articulation of the femoral head against the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene socket of a total hip replacement has been implicated as the main cause of osteolysis and subsequent failure of these implants. Potential solutions to this problem are to employ hard bearing surface combinations such as metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic prostheses. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in lubrication modes and friction of a range of material combinations using synthetic and biological fluids as the lubricants. The experimental results were compared with theoretical predictions of film thicknesses and lubrication modes. A strong correlation was observed between experiment and theory when employing carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) fluids as the lubricant. Under these conditions the ceramic-on-ceramic joints showed full fluid film lubrication while the metal-on-metal, metal-on-plastic, diamond-like carbon-coated stainless steel (DLC)-on-plastic and ceramic-on-plastic prostheses operated under a mixed lubrication regime. With bovine serum as the lubricant in the all ceramic joints, however, the full fluid film lubrication was inhibited due to adsorbed proteins. In the metal-on-metal joints this adsorbed protein layer acted to reduce the friction while in the ceramic coupling the friction was increased. The use of bovine serum as the lubricant also significantly increased the friction in both the metal-on-plastic and ceramic-on-plastic joints. The friction produced by the DLC-on-plastic joints depended on the quality of the coating. Those joints with a less consistent coating and therefore a higher surface roughness gave significantly higher friction than the smoother, more consistently coated heads.

  12. Duplex Doppler ultrasound study of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Stagnitti, A.; Marini, A.; Impara, L.; Drudi, F.M.; Lo mele, L.; Lillo Odoardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy and physiology of the temporomandibular joint can be studied clinically and by diagnostic imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) have thus for many years contributed to the study of the kinetics in the mandibular condyle. However, also duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) examination is widely used in the study of structures during movement, particularly vascular structures. Materials and methods A total of 30 patients were referred by the Department of Orthodontics to the Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “La Sapienza”. All patients underwent duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) examination of the temporomandibular joint using Toshiba APLIO SSA-770A equipment and duplex Doppler multi-display technique, which allows simultaneous display of US images and color Doppler signals. A linear phased array probe with crystal elements was used operating at a basic frequency of 6 MHz during pulsed Doppler spectral analysis and 7.5 MHz during US imaging. Results In normal patients a regular alternation in the spectral Doppler waveforms was obtained, while in patients with temporomandibular joint meniscus dysfunction there was no regularity in the sum of the Fourier series with an unsteady waveform pattern related to irregular movements of the temporomandibular joint. Conclusions In all cases duplex Doppler US examination proved able to differentiate between normal and pathological patients and among the latter this technique permitted identification of the most significant aspects of the dysfunctional diseases. PMID:23397016

  13. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  14. 78 FR 40260 - International Joint Commission: Public Comment on a Proposal for Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission: Public Comment on a Proposal for Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River Regulation... the water levels and flows in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River that will continue to contribute... health of Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River. Since 1960, the IJC has managed the flow...

  15. Acoustic characteristics of sounds from temporomandibular joints with and without effusion: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Widmalm, S E; Westesson, P L; Yamaga, T; Yamamoto, M; Takahashi, K; Michi, K I; Okano, T

    2002-02-01

    Joint effusion has been associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain but can only be diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For screening of patients with suspected effusion a simple and less expensive method would be desirable. We recorded joint sounds during jaw opening and closing movement from 34 TMJs with internal derangement (ID). Seventeen joints had joint effusion seen on MRI. Spectrograms of the sounds were displayed as waterfall plots showing profiles of the consecutive Hamming windows. If the profiles were similar, as judged by initial evaluation, the displayed pattern was classified as stable. If some profiles were distinctly deviating in their pattern, this was classified as unstable. Joints with effusion showed unstable sound pattern more often than joints without effusion (P < 0.001). It was concluded that TMJ sound analyses have a potential to identify joints with effusion based on their unstable sound pattern. PMID:11856395

  16. A 1-piece shape-metal nitinol intramedullary internal fixation device for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in neuropathic patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2009-06-01

    A common complication associated with diabetes is the development of a rigid structural lesser toe contracture, which, when combined with peripheral sensory neuropathy, can lead to ulceration, infection, and amputation. Surgical correction of lesser toe contractures in persons with diabetes has been advocated to decrease the potential for ulceration and amputation. Lesser toe proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis employing myriad joint preparation and fixation methods is commonly performed to correct a rigid structural toe contracture. The author performed a retrospective, observational, cohort study involving 10 patients (30 toes) with diabetes, dense peripheral neuropathy, and rigid structural toe contracture treated with a 1-piece shape-memory Nitinol intramedullary internal fixation device for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Successful fusion was achieved in 28 of 30 toes (93%), with a stable nonunion achieved in the remainder. Complications that arose occurred early in the author's experience with this implant and consisted of secondary contracture of the distal interphalangeal joint (23%), displaced fixation (13%), and malunion (7%). No patient developed ulceration, and no additional surgery has been required to date. When properly performed, the use of this implant for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in neuropathic patients with diabetes appears safe and reliable. PMID:19825764

  17. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The space shuttle [Space Transportation System (STS)] and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place that allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods in which the space shuttle is docked to the ISS, known as "joint docked operations," the space shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period, an elevated amount of CO2 is produced through the combined metabolic activity of the STS and ISS crews. This elevated CO2 production, together with the large effective atmosphere created by collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe individual CO2 control plans implemented by STS and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. The paper will also discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  18. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Hayley, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Manned space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place to allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods where the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, known as joint docked operations, the Space Shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period there is an elevated production of CO2 caused by the combined metabolic activity of the Space Shuttle and ISS crew. This elevated CO2 production, combined with the large effective atmosphere created by the collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe the individual CO2 control plans implemented by the Space Shuttle and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. In addition, the paper will discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  19. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Wuertz, Karin; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  20. Effect of Resistance Training Maintaining the Joint Angle-torque Profile Using a Haptic-based Machine on Shoulder Internal and External Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonghun; Lee, Kunwoo; Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Park, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyengnam; Hong, Daehie; Shin, Inshik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to present an individualized resistance training method to enable exercise while maintaining an exercise load that is set according to an individual’s joint angle-torque using a haptic-based resistance training machine. [Methods] Five participants (machine group) performed individualized shoulder internal and external rotation training with a haptic resistance training machine, while another five participants performed general dumbbell-based shoulder internal and external rotation training for eight weeks. Internal and external rotation powers of subjects were measured using an isokinetic machine before and after training. [Results] The average powers of both shoulder internal and external rotation has been improved after training (25.72%, 13.62%). The improvement in power of external rotation in the machine group was significantly higher than that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study proposes a haptic-based individualized rotator cuff muscle training method. The training protocol maintaining the joint angle-torque profile showed better improvement of shoulder internal/external rotation than dumbbell training. PMID:24764626

  1. Experimental Study on Peak Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Rong, Guan; Hou, Di; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of a rock joint has a great impact on its shear behavior. To study the relationship between the 3D morphological characteristics and the peak shear strength, several tilt tests were conducted on four groups of tensile fractures and direct shear tests were carried out under different constant normal loads (CNL). The normal load ranges from 0.325 to 8.0 MPa. In this study, fresh tensile fractures which were splitted from granite and sandstone samples were used. The morphology of each tensile fracture was measured before direct shear tests. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints is proposed using two 3D morphological parameters which are termed as the maximum apparent dip angle θ_{max}^{*} and the roughness parameter C. The calculated peak strengths using the proposed criterion match well with the observed values. In addition, a comparison of the proposed model with the Grasselli's model (2003) and Xia's model (2014) shows that the proposed model is easier in the form and gives a rational improvement. At last, direct shear test data of tensile fractures which are collected from Grasselli (2003) are used to verify the proposed model. It is seen that the proposed model has a reliable estimate of the peak shear strength of tensile fractures and presumably for rock joints.

  2. Joint Antarctic School Expedition - An International Collaboration for High School Students and Teachers on Antarctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, J.; Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.; Reed, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Antarctic School Expedition (JASE) is an international collaboration program between high school students and teachers from the United States and Chile aimed at providing the skills required for establishing the scientific international collaborations that our globalized world demands, and to develop a new approach for science education. The National Antarctic Programs of Chile and the United States worked together on a pilot program that brought high school students and teachers from both countries to Punta Arenas, Chile, in February 2014. The goals of this project included strengthening the partnership between the two countries, and building relationships between future generations of scientists, while developing the students' awareness of global scientific issues and expanding their knowledge and interest in Antarctica and polar science. A big component of the project involved the sharing by students of the acquired knowledge and experiences with the general public. JASE is based on the successful Chilean Antarctic Science Fair developed by Chile´s Antarctic Research Institute. For 10 years, small groups of Chilean students, each mentored by a teacher, perform experimental or bibliographical Antarctic research. Winning teams are awarded an expedition to the Chilean research station on King George Island. In 2014, the Chileans invited US participation in this program in order to strengthen science ties for upcoming generations. On King George Island, students have hands-on experiences conducting experiments and learning about field research. While the total number of students directly involved in the program is relatively small, the sharing of the experience by students with the general public is a novel approach to science education. Research experiences for students, like JASE, are important as they influence new direction for students in science learning, science interest, and help increase science knowledge. We will share experiences with the

  3. [International project--MGTX study].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroaki

    2007-11-01

    MGTX Study is a multi-center, international, single-blinded, randomized trial to determine whether extended transsternal thymectomy (ETTX) for patients with myasthenia gravis receiving the prednisone protocol confers added benefits to the prednisone protocol alone. The aims of the study are answering following three questions. 1) Does ETTX combined with prednisone result in a greater improvement in myasthenic weakness, compared to prednisone alone? 2) Does ETTX combined with prednisone result in a lower total dose of prednisone, thus decreasing the likelihood of concurrent and long-term toxic effects, compared to prednisone alone? 3) Does ETTX combined with prednisone enhance quality of life by reducing adverse events and symptoms associated with the therapies, compared to prednisone alone? Primary outcome measure is consists with 1) Comparison of the prednisone protocol alone to prednisone protocol plus ETTX, based on the clinical response to therapy measured over the 3 year trial period by the Area Under the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) Weakness Score (AUQMG), and 2) Testing the difference in the total prednisone used over the 3 year trial period measured by pill count from blister packs (Area Under the Prednisone Dose Time Curve, AUDTC), conditional on the results of comparing AUQMG. PMID:18210825

  4. Internal Model Deficits Impair Joint Action in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Riem, Madelon; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Bekkering, Harold; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative differences in social interaction and communication are diagnostic hallmarks in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study investigated the hypothesis that impaired social interaction in ASD reflects a deficit to internally model the behavior of a co-actor. Children and adolescents with ASD and matched controls performed a…

  5. The Effect of Excessive Glenhumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Subacromial Joint Space and Forward Scapular Posture among Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Laudner, Kevin G.; Wong, Regan; Latal, Jim; Meister, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Baseball pitchers frequently present with varying levels of glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) in their throwing arms when compared to their non-throwing arms. However, excessive bilateral differences in internal rotation motion have been associated with several shoulder pathologies including both subacromial and internal impingement. Additionally, patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement commonly present with decreased subacromial joint space and increased forward scapular posture. These characteristics have not been, as of yet, evaluated and associated to those pitchers who present with excessive GIRD. The purpose of this study was to determine if a group of baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD have differences in subacromial joint space and forward scapular posture when compared to a control group. Methods: Twenty-five asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers with excessive GIRD were matched with 25 pitchers with acceptable levels of GIRD. Excessive GIRD was classified as an amount greater than 10% of the total arc of motion (i.e. dominant shoulder total arc=160°; 0.10x160°=16°; excessive GIRD=>16°). A digital inclinometer was used to measure glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion with participants in a supine position and their scapula stabilized. Diagnostic ultrasound was used to measure the distance of the subacromial joint space with the throwing arm resting at the side of the participant’s body (0° abduction). Bilateral forward scapular posture was assessed with each participant standing against a wall and then the distance between the wall and their anterior acromion was measured using the double square technique. The bilateral difference between these measurements was used to determine the amount of forward scapular posture for the throwing arm. Separate t-tests were run to determine significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Results: Results are summarized in Figure 1. The total arc of

  6. [The bionic artificial joint capsule study (1)--mechanics simulation].

    PubMed

    Su, Shihu; Zhang, Jianhua; Tao, Dehua

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model was created for bionic artificial joint with joint capsule. Finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate and simulate mechanics distribution of the joint capsule under different thickness of the joint capsule, different loading, and different angular displacements. The results of the simulation show that the maximum stress is created in the joint area between artificial joint capsule. And the effect of the thickness of the artificial joint capsule on the stress magnitude and distribution is depend on motion model. On standing situation, the maximum stress decreases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. However, on walking situation, the maximum stress increases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. Whatever conditions simulated, the maximum stress of the artificial joint capsule is not over the limit of the material strength (9.97 megapascals). All the large stress, which gained from the simulation under different situations, locates at the interface between the capsule and the artificial joint. This is because the artificial joint and the capsule transfer loading each other at the interface. At the same time, supporting area of the capsule at the location of the interface is minimum for the whole vesicle. The stress concentration is inevitable at the interface due to the model structure. This result will offer guidance for the optimum joint structure of the capsule and the artificial joint. PMID:17333904

  7. Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess the amount of settlement after abutment fixation, a 30-Ncm tightening torque was applied, then the change in length before and after tightening the abutment screw was measured, and the preload exerted was recorded. The compressive bending strength was measured under the ISO14801 conditions. In order to determine whether there were significant changes in settlement, preload, and compressive bending strength before and after abutment fixation depending on abutment materials, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was performed. RESULTS Group TA exhibited the smallest mean change in the combined length of the implant and abutment before and after fixation, and no difference was observed between groups T3 and T4 (P>.05). Group TA exhibited the highest preload and compressive bending strength values, followed by T4, then T3 (P<.001). CONCLUSION The abutment material can influence the stability of the interface in internal conical connection type implant systems. The strength of the abutment material was inversely correlated with settlement, and positively correlated with compressive bending strength. Preload was inversely proportional to the frictional coefficient of the abutment material. PMID:25551010

  8. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  9. PREFACE: Theory of Fusion Plasmas, 13th Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The 2012 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas has been very fruitful. A broad variety of topics were addressed, as usual covering turbulence, MHD, edge physic, RF wave heating and a taste of astrophysics. Moreover the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, in particular in the context of ITER construction. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may quote for instance the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of the meeting is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance MHD modes are now currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are more and more included in MHD stability analysis, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is the proof of cross-fertilization and it is certainly a healthy sign in our community. Finally introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent us from respecting the traditions of the meeting. As usual a good deal of the presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne conference, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the 26 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all refereed. We would also like to mention another set of 20 papers to be published in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue of JPCS and the one to come in PPCF. Xavier Garbet and Olivier Sauter October 26, 2012

  10. Development and application of a photogrammetric endoscopic system for measurement of misalignment and internal profile of welded joints in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.; Hofmann, Allan C.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Santos, João M. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new optical system to measure internal cylindrical surfaces combining photogrammetry and fringe projection. The device uses two identical cameras, equipped with spherical and conical lenses, facing each other and aligned with the optical axis. A 360° helical fringe projector is used to project a sequence of phase shifted helical fringe pattern in the inner surface to be measured. The phase patterns are used to identify corresponding points and to reconstruct the surface in a regular cylindrical mesh using an alternative approach. A prototype was built, calibrated and tested. The paper presents the results of an application where two welded joints were measured in a 150 mm (6") diameter pipe. The goal was to inspect for defects in the internal part of the welding seams and to measure the transversal misalignment between the jointed parts.

  11. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards. PMID:22481765

  12. Parameter studies on impact in a lap joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Amir M.; Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    2015-03-01

    To represent a loose lap joint, a beam impacting four springs with gaps is modeled. Modal analysis with base excitation is solved, and time histories of contact points are closely monitored. Using the impulse during steady state response, six influential parameters are studied: damping ratio, contact stiffness, intermediate contact position, gap, excitation amplitude and beam height. For all parameters, the system response is highly controlled by modes with two contacting springs. Each parameter's effect on system response is presented including unstable regions, unique trend behaviours result. Recommendations for structural designers are also noted.

  13. Joint USAF/NASA hypersonic research aircraft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, F. S.; Jones, R. A.; Buck, M. L.; Zima, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    A joint USAF/NASA study has developed a conceptual design for a new high-speed research airplane (X-24C) and identified candidate flight research experiments in the Mach 3 to 6 speed range. Four major categories of high priority research experiments are described as well as the X-24C design concept. The vehicle, a rocket-boosted, delta planform aircraft, is air launched from a B-52 and is capable of forty seconds of rocket cruise at Mach 6 with a research scramjet. Research provisions include a dedicated 10-foot long research experiments section, removable fins and strakes, and provisions for testing integrated airbreathing propulsion systems.

  14. Joint Analysis of Multiple Traits in Rare Variant Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenchuan; Wang, Xuexia; Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2016-05-01

    The joint analysis of multiple traits has recently become popular since it can increase statistical power to detect genetic variants and there is increasing evidence showing that pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex diseases. Currently, the majority of existing methods for the joint analysis of multiple traits test association between one common variant and multiple traits. However, the variant-by-variant methods for common variant association studies may not be optimal for rare variant association studies due to the allelic heterogeneity as well as the extreme rarity of individual variants. Current statistical methods for rare variant association studies are for one single trait only. In this paper, we propose an adaptive weighting reverse regression (AWRR) method to test association between multiple traits and rare variants in a genomic region. AWRR is robust to the directions of effects of causal variants and is also robust to the directions of association of traits. Using extensive simulation studies, we compare the performance of AWRR with canonical correlation analysis (CCA), Single-TOW, and the weighted sum reverse regression (WSRR). Our results show that, in all of the simulation scenarios, AWRR is consistently more powerful than CCA. In most scenarios, AWRR is more powerful than Single-TOW and WSRR. PMID:26990300

  15. Computer-Assisted International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Jonathan

    1983-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary college level program which uses computer simulation exercises to teach about foreign policy and global issues. In the foreign policy simulation, political science and foreign language students role play national decision makers. In the international futures simulation, students debate demographic, economic, energy,…

  16. International Study of Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liander, Bertil, Ed.

    The International Marketing Federation (IMF), supported by the Marketing Science Institute, has surveyed IMF member countries and a representative scattering of others to determine the current state and future trends in marketing education. This volume presents the findings of the survey of 21 countries--Argentina, Australia, Canada, Denmark,…

  17. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  18. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-C7-TC13 was organised by the University of Genova - DIME/MEC, Measurement Laboratory, Italy, on 4-6 September 2013. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: TC1 Education and Training in Measurement and Instrumentation TC7 Measurement Science TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine This is in keeping with the tradition set by the previous events of this well established series. There has been a special focus on measurement across physical and behavioural sciences, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and of promoting constructive interactions with scientists in other disciplines. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in psychophysics, psychometrics and quantum physics. The symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Australia and Japan, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume, organised according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Genova, which was the European Capital of Culture in 2004, and took place in Palazzo Ducale, an important historical building whose construction started in the 13th century, and that has been the house of the Duke of Genova from the 14th century. Genova, whose name comes from the Latin word 'Janua' (meaning 'door', as January is the door month of the year), has been regarded over the centuries as a door connecting Europe with the different countries and cultures of the Mediterranean basin and thus was an appropriate site for an international symposium involving different and new scientific visions and approaches to

  19. Development of Joint Climate and Discharge Projections for the International Rhine River Basin - the CHR RheinBlick2050 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgen, K.; Pfister, L.

    2008-12-01

    The anticipated climate change will lead to modified hydro-meteorological regimes that influence discharge behaviour and hydraulics of rivers. This has variable impacts on managed (anthropogenic) and unmanaged (natural) systems, depending on their sensitivity and vulnerability (ecology, economy, infrastructure, transport, energy production, water management, etc.). Decision makers in these contexts need adequate adaptation strategies to minimize adverse effects of climate change, i.e. an improved knowledge on the potential impacts including uncertainties means an extension of the informed options open to users. The goal of the highly applied study presented here is the development of joint, consistent climate and discharge projections for the international Rhine River catchments (Switzerland, France, Germany, Netherlands) in order to assess future changes of hydro-meteorological regimes in the meso- and macroscale Rhine River catchments and to derive and improve the understanding of such impacts on hydrologic and hydraulic processes. The RheinBlick2050 project is an international effort initiated by the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine Basin (CHR) in close cooperation with the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine. The core experiment design foresees a data-synthesis, multi-model approach where (transient) (bias- corrected) regional climate change projections are used as forcing data for existing calibrated hydrological (and hydraulic) models at a daily temporal resolution over mesoscale catchments of the Rhine River. Mainly for validation purposes, hydro-meteorological observations from national weather services are compiled into a new consistent 5 km x 5 km reference dataset from 1961 to 2005. RCM data are mainly used from the ENSEMBLES project and other existing dynamical downscaling model runs to derive probabilistic ensembles and thereby also access uncertainties on a regional scale. A benchmarking is helping to

  20. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  1. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Nozzle Joint 2 Gas Path Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Hyer, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Each Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle contains five joints. By design, each nozzle joint utilizes room-temperature vulcanized (RTV) rubber as a thermal barrier to protect the nozzle metal parts and O-rings from heat degradation due to motor combustion gas. Typically, combustion gas does not penetrate through the RTV in nozzle Joints. However, Joint currently experiences gas penetration through the RTV over 90 percent of the time. The occurrence of Joint gas paths is a very complex phenomenon with several known contributors such as the unique geometry of the joint, motor pressure, nozzle vectoring, manufacturing induced RTV voids. RTV material capability, and joint skip (relative radial displacement of joint components). The occurrence of Joint gas paths appears to be a combination of these causes. To better understand the causes of gas paths in Joint, the circumferential locations of gas paths in the RTV were identified and correlated with nozzle vectoring, RTV closeour locations (where the RTV backfill is completed), and X-ray low-density. anomaly (LDA) indications. Results that no specific cause was determined.

  2. Shared parenting after separation and divorce: a study of joint custody.

    PubMed

    Abarbanel, A

    1979-04-01

    Intensive case studies of four families in which divorced parents have maintained joint custody of their children suggest that this arrangement works well under certain conditions. Components of a successful joint custody arrangement are considered, limitations are discussed, and support is urged for divorcing parents interested in establishing joint custody. PMID:434126

  3. A comparative study of the effects of vein-joints on the mechanical behaviour of insect wings: I. Single joints.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Darvizeh, A; Dirks, J-H; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2015-10-01

    The flight performance of insects is strongly affected by the deformation of the wing during a stroke cycle. Many insects therefore use both active and passive mechanisms to control the deformation of their wings in flight. Several studies have focused on the wing kinematics, and plenty is known about the mechanism of their passive deformability. However, given the small size of the vein-joints, accurate direct mechanical experiments are almost impossible to perform. We therefore developed numerical models to perform a comparative and comprehensive investigation of the mechanical behaviour of the vein-joints under external loading conditions. The results illustrate the effect of the geometry and the presence of the rubberlike protein resilin on the flexibility of the joints. Our simulations further show the contribution of the spikes to the anisotropic flexural stiffness in the dorsal and ventral directions. In addition, our results show that the cross veins, only in one joint type, help to transfer the stress to the thicker longitudinal veins. The deformation pattern and the stress distribution in each vein-joint are discussed in detail. This study provides a strong background for further realistic modelling of the dragonfly wing deformation. PMID:26292260

  4. Experimental study of non-linear effects in a typical shear lap joint configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwigsen, C. J.; Song, Y.; McFarland, D. M.; Bergman, L. A.; Vakakis, A. F.

    2004-10-01

    Although mechanical joints are integral parts of most practical structures, their modelling and their effects on structural dynamics are not yet fully understood. This represents a serious impediment to accurate modelling of the dynamics and to the development of reduced-order, finite element models capable of describing the effects of mechanical joints on the dynamics. In this work we provide an experimental study to quantify the non-linear effects of a typical shear lap joint on the dynamics of two structures: a beam with a bolted joint in its center; and a frame with a bolted joint in one of its members. Both structures are subjected to a variety of dynamical tests to determine the non-linear effects of the joints. The tests reveal several important influences on the effective stiffness and damping of the lap joints. The possibility of using Iwan models to represent the experimentally observed joint effects is discussed.

  5. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY-METHODS AND INTERPRETATION' SESSION AT THE JOINT MEETING OF SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report of the 'Quantitative Toxicologic Pathology - Methods and Interpretation' session at the Joint meeting of Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists, Orlando, Florida, USA, June 24-28, 2001. Douglas C. Wolf,...

  6. Experimental Study on the Shear Strength of Sandy Clay Infilled Regular Rough Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanian, Homayoun; Sadaghiani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-05-01

    Infill materials in rock joints usually cause a reduction in the joint shear strength. The shear behavior of rock discontinuities depends upon whether they are clean and unfilled or filled, so this concern invites accurate understanding of the shear behavior and strength of infilled joints. A series of constant normal load direct shear tests was performed to investigate the shear strength of artificial samples with infilled rough joint surfaces having different asperity and infill characteristics. The current study focuses on the effects of factors that influence the shear strength of infilled rock joints samples, with emphasis on forward and reverse shearing. In the forward cycle, the front joint wall is compressed and possibly sheared, and the back side fill is unbonded from the joint surface and slightly disturbed. In the reverse cycle, the disturbed and weakened back side fill is under shearing. The effect of the normal stress on the joint is studied, as this factor plays an important role on the shear behavior of infilled rock joint samples. The results show that joints with low asperity angle exhibit higher shear strength during the forward shearing cycle than the reverse cycle, but in joints with steeper asperity angle, the reverse cycle exhibits greater shear strength. In the reverse cycle, the joint infill has less influence compared to the effect of the rougher surface and higher asperity inclination, even in higher normal stress.

  7. Chopart joint injury: a study of outcome and morbidity.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Karin B; de Vries, Mark R; van der Elst, Maarten; Schepers, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Injuries involving the Chopart joint complex are relatively rare and frequently missed or misdiagnosed, often leading to a poor functional outcome. This study was performed to determine the outcome and morbidity in patients with Chopart joint injuries, and to increase awareness of this severe injury. Patients with a Chopart dislocation or fracture-dislocation, treated between January 2004 and January 2010, were identified using the appropriate diagnosis code and reviewing all radiographs of patients diagnosed with hindfoot or midfoot injuries treated at our institution. Data on patient characteristics, trauma mechanism, delay, and treatment were collected using patient files, operation reports, and by reviewing radiographs. Outcome was determined using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society midfoot score and a visual analog scale satisfaction score, in patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Nine patients (1.5 per year) were identified, including 6 women. The mean patient age was 41.6 ± 25.1 years. The trauma mechanism was sprain or sports injury in 5 (55.6%), motor vehicle accident in 3 (33.33%), and a fall from height in 1 (11.11%) case. Seven patients with an average follow-up of 31.3 ± 19.2 months reported a mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society midfoot score of 72 (range, 32-100) points and a mean visual analog scale score of 7.1 (range, 5-10). Four (57.14%) patients still experienced pain or had limitations in daily activities at the time of the final follow-up. This study supports the conclusion of previous studies, which stated that a higher level of awareness is needed to prevent permanent disability. PMID:21035040

  8. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  9. Building the Global Community: Joint Statement on the Role of Community Colleges in International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This joint statement by the American Association of Community Colleges and the Association of Community College Trustees describes the economic, cultural, and social value of global education in community colleges. Through bullet points, the statement describes how community colleges, including their Boards and CEOs, can promote global competency.…

  10. Failure Analysis in Space: International Space Station (ISS) Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, V. S.; Wright, M. C.; McDanels, S. J.; Lubas, D.; Tucker, B.; Marciniak, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the debris analysis of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), a mechanism that is designed to keep the solar arrays facing the sun. The goal of this was to identify the failure mechanism based on surface morphology and to determine the source of debris through elemental and particle analysis.

  11. Analytical Study for Stress Wave Interaction with Rock Joints Having Unequally Close-Open Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Zhao, X. B.; Li, H. B.; Chai, S. B.; Zhao, Q. H.

    2016-08-01

    Stress wave interaction with rock joints during wave propagation is usually dependent on the dynamic response of the joints. During wave propagation, joints may be closed and open under the effects of the stress wave and the in situ stress. A joint in nature can only resist load during close process. In this paper, the close and open behaviors of rock joints are considered to be different. The joints are assumed to be linearly elastic in close status but turn into free surfaces in open status. Wave propagation equation across joints with unequally close-open behavior is first derived and expressed as a time-differential form based on the displacement discontinuity method. SHPB test recording is then adopted to verify the present approach, which is also compared with the results from existing methods for joints with equally close-open behavior. Next, analysis is conduced for wave propagation across a single joint and a set of parallel joints with unequally close-open behavior, respectively. From the analysis, effects of unequally close-open behavior of a joint on wave propagation and the dynamic response of the joint are studied finally.

  12. Study of simple CFRP-metal joint failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingquan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Emerson, Nicolas; Symmes, Arthur

    2008-07-01

    In millimeter wavelength telescope design and construction, there have been a number of mysterious failures of simple CFRF-metal joints. Telescope designers have not had satisfactory interpretations of these failures. In this paper, factors which may influence the failure of joints are discussed. These include stress concentration, material creep, joint fatigue, reasons related to chemical process and manufacture process. Extrapolation formulas for material creep, joint fatigue, and differential thermal stresses are derived in this paper. Detailed chemical and manufacturing factors are also discussed. All these issues are the causes of a number of early failures under a loading which is significantly lower than the strength of adhesives used. For ensuring reliability of a precision instrument structure joint, the designer should have a thorough understanding of all these factors.

  13. Analysis and experimental study of the spherical joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Hu, Penghao; Bao, Xinxin; Li, Shuaipeng

    2013-10-01

    The spherical joint clearance is a key error factor, which influenced and restricted the application of parallel mechanism in high precision field. This paper discusses the regularity of the spherical joint clearance in the parallel mechanism and its influence on the accuracy of the parallel mechanism in both theoretical and experimental aspects. A spherical joint clearance measuring instrument is introduced and used to measure the joint clearance. And the relationship between the clearance and its work pose is revealed. Based on the theoretical and experimental analysis, it is concluded that the clearance of the spherical joint is near-linear proportional to the applied load as well as the clearances in different poses obey the Rayleigh distribution approximately under the same load.

  14. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, ESA and NASA performed joint studies of two highly capable scientific missions to the outer planets: the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM). Joint Science Definition Teams (JSDTs) were formed with U.S. and European membership to guide study activities that were conducted collaboratively by engineering teams working on both sides of the Atlantic. EJSM comprises the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) that would be provided by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) that would be provided by ESA. Both spacecraft would be launched independently in 2020, and arrive 6 years later for a 3-4 year mission within the Jupiter System. Both orbiters would explore Jupiter's system on trajectories that include flybys of Io (JEO only), Europa (JEO only), Ganymede and Callisto. The operation of JEO would culminate in orbit around Europa while that of JGO would culminate in orbit around Ganymede. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: the montgolfière and the lake lander. The mission would launch in 2020 and arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfière would last at least 6-12 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a ~2-year orbit around Titan. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned between the orbiter and in situ elements. The ESA contribution to this joint endeavor will be implemented as the first Cosmic Vision Large-class (L1) mission; the NASA contribution will be implemented as the Outer Planet Flagship Mission. The contribution to each mission is being reviewed and

  15. Effect of Retrograde Reaming for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis on Subtalar Joint Destruction: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Routh, Lucas K; Leary, Jeffrey T; Buzhardt, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Recent published data have suggested successful union of subtalar and tibiotalar joints without formal debridement during tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion procedures. Although previous studies have reported on the importance of the proper guidewire starting point and trajectory to obtain appropriate hindfoot alignment for successful fusion, to our knowledge, no studies have quantified the amount of articular damage to the subtalar joint with retrograde reaming. We hypothesized that reaming would destroy >50% of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint. The bilateral lower extremities of 5 cadavers were obtained and the subtalar joints exposed. Retrograde TTC nail guidewires were inserted, and a 12-mm reamer was passed through the subtalar and ankle joints. Pre- and postreaming images of the subtalar joint were obtained to compare the amount of joint destruction after reaming. We found an average of 5.89% articular destruction of the talar posterior facet and an average of 4.01% articular destruction of the posterior facet of the calcaneus. No damage to the middle facets of the subtalar joint was observed. TTC nailing is a successful procedure for ankle and subtalar joint fusion. Published studies have reported successful subtalar union using TTC nailing without formal open debridement of the subtalar joint, preserving the soft tissue envelope. TTC nail insertion using a 12-mm reamer will destroy 5.89% and 4.01% of the respective talar and calcaneal posterior facets of the subtalar joint. PMID:26372551

  16. NREL Case Study Leads to International Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, NREL analysts produced a case study, "Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience," which drew upon dozens of interviews with international experts involved in crafting effective policies and markets. The report proposed a cross-cutting initiative to transform the world's power systems by implementing two complementary strategies: the large‐scale deployment of renewable energy, and a combination of comprehensive energy efficiency and smarter grids. This recommendation led to the launch of the 21st Century Power Partnership in April 2012, and its membership has since grown to include Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. NREL, together with its affiliated Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, are the operating agents.

  17. Comparative Study on Strength of Knee Joint Using Various Material Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengzhi; Ding, Zhiwei; Liu, Zishun; Swaddiwudhipong, Somsak; Tan, Yi Min; Lee, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we adopt different material models to study the strength and stiffness of menisci of the knee joint using finite element method. The three-dimensional (3-D) knee joint finite element model is constructed based on the Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of a human knee joint, and the strength of menisci is analyzed under a specific vertical loading case. In this paper we categorize and implement three types of appropriate material properties, namely isotropic linearly elastic, transversely isotropic elastic and isotropic hyperelastic for menisci of the knee joint. Different strain energy models are also studied and compared under hyperelastic category. The comparative study demonstrates that the hyperelastic model with Ogden form is more appropriate in modeling menisci of the knee joint. By referring to the test data of different material properties from earlier studies by various researchers, we hope to provide a comparative study leading to appropriate menisci material models and properties for finite element analyses of knee joint structures.

  18. Effect of biomechanical disturbance of the temporomandibular joint on the prevalence of internal derangement in mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Buranastidporn, B; Hisano, M; Soma, K

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between biomechanical changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and internal derangement (ID) symptoms in mandibular asymmetry. Posteroanterior cephalograms (PA) of 140 patients with TMJ ID associated with mandibular asymmetry were used to investigate the inclination of the frontal occlusal plane (FOP), and were analysed in conjunction with the results of a report providing information on ID symptoms. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) of the entire mandible was created to investigate the distribution of TMJ forces during clenching. The inclination of the FOP was modified to simulate various degrees of vertical asymmetry. The stresses on the TMJ on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides were analysed and their values were compared with those of the standard model. The results showed that the symptomatic sides were significantly related to the degree of inclination of the FOP. Increasing its angulation resulted in a decrease of the symptoms on the ipsilateral side and an increase of those on the contralateral side. The analysis showed that stress-distribution patterns and overall stresses of the articular disc were influenced by the angulation of inclination of the FOP. These mechanical changes exhibited a distinct relationship with the prevalence of ID in the patients. These results suggest that disturbances in the stresses either in amount or direction due to occlusal inclination can be responsible for ID. Therefore, an attempt to establish a flat occlusal plane is an important orthodontic treatment objective in maintaining the normal health and structure of the TMJ. PMID:16230327

  19. International Trade Curriculum. A Joint Vocational Education Curriculum Project of Alaska, Oregon & Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This document is intended to help instructors and administrators develop secondary and postsecondary instructional programs on international trade that are based on competencies identified as those needed in international business by companies in Alaska, Oregon, and Washington. The first section introduces competency-based curriculum and includes…

  20. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  1. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  2. Joint venture versus outreach: a financial analysis of case studies.

    PubMed

    Forsman, R W

    2001-01-01

    Medical centers across the country are facing cost challenges, and national commercial laboratories are experiencing financial declines that necessitate their capturing market share in any way possible. Many laboratories are turning to joint ventures or partnerships for financial relief. However, it often is in the best interest of the patient and the medical center to integrate laboratory services across the continuum of care. This article analyzes two hypothetical joint ventures involving a laboratory management agreement and full laboratory outsourcing. PMID:11490651

  3. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulins improve the function and ameliorate joint involvement in systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, F; Righi, A; Conforti, M L; Miniati, I; Fiori, G; Martinovic, D; Melchiorre, D; Sapir, T; Blank, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Pignone, A Moggi; Cerinic, M Matucci

    2007-01-01

    Background In systemic sclerosis (SSc), joint involvement may reduce the functional capacity of the hands. Intravenous immunoglobulins have previously been shown to benefit patients with SSc. Aim To verify the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins on joint involvement and function in SSc. Patients and methods 7 women with SSc, 5 with limited and 2 with diffuse SSc, with a severe and refractory joint involvement were enrolled in the study. Methotrexate and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy did not ameliorate joint symptoms. Hence, intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was prescribed at a dosage of 2 g/kg body weight during 4 days/month for six consecutive courses. The presence of joint tenderness and swelling, and articular deformities (due to primary joint involvement and not due to skin and subcutaneous changes) were evaluated. Before and after 6 months of treatment, patients were subjected to (1) Ritchie Index (RI) evaluation of joint involvement; (2) Dreiser Algo‐Functional Index (IAFD) evaluation of hand joint function; (3) pain visual analogue scale (VAS) to measure joint pain; (4) Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) to evaluate the limitations in everyday living and physical disability; and (5) modified Rodnan Skin Score for skin involvement. Results After 6 months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy, joint pain and tenderness, measured with the VAS, decreased significantly (p<0.03), and hand function (IAFD) improved significantly (p<0.02), together with the quality of life (HAQ; p<0.03). All patients significantly improved, except for one. The skin score after 6 months of intravenous immunoglobulins therapy was significantly reduced (p<0.003). Conclusion This pilot study suggests that intravenous immunoglobulins may reduce joint pain and tenderness, with a significant recovery of joint function in patients with SSc with severe and refractory joint involvement. The cost of intravenous immunoglobulins might limit their use only to patients who

  5. Effects of internal viscous damping on the stability of a rotating shaft driven through a universal joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, A. J.; Scott, R. A.

    2003-08-01

    A rotating flexible shaft, with both external and internal viscous damping, driven through a universal joint is considered. The mathematical model consists of a set of coupled, linear partial differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Use of Galerkin's technique leads to a set of coupled linear differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Using these differential equations some effects of internal viscous damping on parametric and flutter instability zones are investigated by the monodromy matrix technique. The flutter zones are also obtained on discarding the time-dependent coefficients in the differential equations which leads to an eigenvalue analysis. A one-term Galerkin approximation aided this analysis. Two different shafts ("automotive" and "lab") were considered. Increasing internal damping is always stabilizing as regards to parametric instabilities. For flutter type instabilities it was found that increasing internal damping is always stabilizing for rotational speeds v below the first critical speed, v1. For v> v1, there is a value of the internal viscous damping coefficient, Civ, which depends on the rotational speed and torque, above which destabilization occurs. The value of Civ ("critical value") at which the unstable zone first enters the practical range of operation was determined. The dependence of Civ critical on the external damping was investigated. It was found for the automotive case that a four-fold increase in external damping led to an increase of about 20% of the critical value. For the lab model an increase of two orders of magnitude of the external damping led to an increase of critical value of only 10%. For the automotive shaft it was found that this critical value also removed the parametric instabilities out of the practical range. For the lab model it is not always possible to completely stabilize the system by increasing the internal damping. For this model using Civ critical, parametric instabilities are

  6. Glenohumeral Joint Range of Motion in Elite Male Golfers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meria, Erik; Nee, Bob; Davidson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Background Shoulder injuries account for up to 17% of all golf related musculoskeletal injuries. One cause may be the repetitive stresses applied to the lead shoulder during the backswing and follow-through phases, which may contribute to the frequency of these injuries. The “elite” golfer may be pre-disposed to developing a shoulder injury based upon the reported adaptations to the glenohumeral joint. Objective To examine and compare bilateral glenohumeral joint rotational range of motion in elite golfers using standard goniometric procedures. Methods Twenty-four “elite” male golfers were recruited for this study. Glenohumeral internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) passive range of motion was measured bilaterally at 90° of abduction using a standard universal goniometer. Paired t-tests were utilized to statistically compare the rotational range of motion patterns between the lead and the trailing shoulder. Results No statistical differences existed between each shoulder for mean IR or mean ER measures. This finding was consistent throughout different age groups. External rotation measurements were greater than IR measurements in both extremities. Discussion and Conclusion Unlike other sports requiring repetitive shoulder function, the “elite” golfers sampled in this pilot investigation did not demonstrate a unique passive range of motion pattern between the lead and trailing shoulders. Factors, including subjects' age, may have confounded the findings. Further studies are warranted utilizing cohorts of golfers with matching age and skill levels. Additional shoulder range of motion measures should be evaluated. PMID:21509130

  7. Progress and interim results of the INPRO joint study on assessment of INS based on closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, Vladimir; Raj, Baldev; Vasile, Alfredo

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to review interim results of the Joint Study on assessment of an Innovative Nuclear System based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors (INS CNFC-FR). This study is a part of the IAEA international project for innovative reactors and fuel cycle technologies (INPRO). Now it is being implemented by Canada, China, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, and Ukraine. A report on results of implementation of the first phase of the Joint Study was presented to the INPRO Steering Committee meeting in December 2006. It was also agreed by the Joint Study participants to reveal these results to broader discussion at scientific conferences and meetings. The authors' interpretation of the Joint Study findings and issues is presented in the paper. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen effects in duplex stainless steel welded joints - electrochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, J.; Łabanowski, J.; Ćwiek, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this work results on the influence of hydrogen on passivity and corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) welded joints are described. The results were discussed by taking into account three different areas on the welded joint: weld metal (WM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and parent metal. The corrosion resistance was qualified with the polarization curves registered in a synthetic sea water. The conclusion is that, hydrogen may seriously deteriorate the passive film stability and corrosion resistance to pitting of 2205 DSS welded joints. The presence of hydrogen in passive films increases corrosion current density and decreases the potential of the film breakdown. It was also found that degree of susceptibility to hydrogen degradation was dependent on the hydrogen charging conditions. WM region has been revealed as the most sensitive to hydrogen action.

  9. Risk mitigation for ITER by a prolonged and joint international operation of JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, Antonius J.; Cowley, Steve; Jones, Timothy; Litaudon, Xavier; JET Team; CCFE Team

    2015-11-01

    Prolonged operation of the Joint European Torus (JET) in a set-up involving all ITER partners will be beneficial for ITER. Experiments at JET with its ITER-like wall and using a D-T plasma mixture will help to mitigate risks in the ITER research plan. Training of the ITER operators, technicians and engineers at JET will save valuable time when ITER comes into operation. Moreover, the way in which the future ITER experiments will be organized can already be experienced at JET, by imposing a similar organisational structure. This paper will present arguments in favour of an extension of JET and additionally briefly discuss a number of enhancements that will make experiments on JET even more relevant for ITER.

  10. Role of markets, governments and international bodies in joint implementation with the south

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, J.K.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) opens up `markets` for carbon emission reduction projects of all cost categories spread throughout the World. Projects commissioned in the developing countries by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) suggest that the cost of CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged from US 20 cents per tonne to $42 per tonne on the basis of incremental costs. These costs are much lower than those indicated in the literature referring to the costs in the industrial countries (IC). Even if the costs are similar, the markets for cheaper credits will be widened by the inclusion of more countries. Thus, JI requires a thorough analysis as it could serve as a potential vehicle to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a cost effective manner.

  11. Study on the Constitutive Model for Jointed Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis. PMID:25885695

  12. International Students at Chinese Joint Venture Universities: Factors Influencing Decisions to Enrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsman, Andrys

    2013-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has determined to assume a respected place amongst the world's foremost higher education providers. Its short term strategy is multi-pronged: attracting world-class scholars; attracting international students and encouraging Chinese universities to run branches overseas. As well, a small number of select…

  13. Experimental Studies on the Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Joints with Various Openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Mitra, R.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical behaviour of rough joints is markedly affected by the degree of joint opening. A systematic experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the initial opening on both normal and shear deformations of rock joints. Two types of joints with triangular asperities were produced in the laboratory and subjected to compression tests and direct shear tests with different initial opening values. The results showed that opened rock joints allow much greater normal closure and result in much lower normal stiffness. A semi-logarithmic law incorporating the degree of interlocking is proposed to describe the normal deformation of opened rock joints. The proposed equation agrees well with the experimental results. Additionally, the results of direct shear tests demonstrated that shear strength and dilation are reduced because of reduced involvement of and increased damage to asperities in the process of shearing. The results indicate that constitutive models of rock joints that consider the true asperity contact area can be used to predict shear resistance along opened rock joints. Because rock masses are loosened and rock joints become open after excavation, the model suggested in this study can be incorporated into numerical procedures such as finite-element or discrete-element methods. Use of the model could then increase the accuracy and reliability of stability predictions for rock masses under excavation.

  14. An Outline for a Course of Study; Joint Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.; Reno, Jack

    Joint training of rehabilitation counselors and social caseworkers has the potential for developing and improving professional techniques to increase the number of handicapped welfare recipients who can be rehabilitated. A regional curriculum for Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia, this joint…

  15. Dietary studies in the joint US-Russian space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    Metabolic experiments in the joint US-Russian space program involve analysis of food records, which include weighed foods, stable-isotope turnover, and biochemical samples collected before, during, and after the flights. This article describes the methods of monitoring dietary intake for this program.

  16. On the separation of internal and boundary damage in slender bars using longitudinal vibration frequencies and equivalent linearization of damaged bolted joint response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, Ivan; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of detecting localized large-scale internal damage in structures with imperfect bolted joints is considered. The proposed damage detection strategy utilizes the structural damping and an equivalent linearization of the bolted lap joint response to separate the combined boundary damage from localized large-scale internal damage. The frequencies are found approximately using asymptotic analysis and a perturbation technique. The proposed approach is illustrated on an example of longitudinal vibrations in a slender elastic bar with both ends clamped by bolted lap joints with different levels of damage. It is found that while the proposed method allows for the estimation of internal damage severity once the crack location is known, it gives multiple possible crack locations so that other methods (e.g., mode shapes) are required to obtain a unique crack location.

  17. Integrated earth system studies. Joint research efforts of global change

    SciTech Connect

    Rosswall, T.; Ojima, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The physical, chemical and biological studies which have documented the changes to the Earth system and investigated the critical processes which couple the biosphere and the geosphere have increased our understanding of the natural variation in the Earth`s dynamics and of how human activities have modified these processes. This effort has been fundamental in furthering our understanding of what controls the Earth`s energy budget, global biogeochemistry including atmospheric composition of radiatively active gases and the hydrological cycle. This research has necessitated unprecedented international collaboration among various scientific disciplines and led to the development of major research programs like the World Climate Research Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme. Through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change a continuous assessment is carried out and provides the much needed bridge between science and policy making manifested in the development of a Framework Convention of Climate Change. The challenge now facing the global change science community is to maintain the interest in elucidating the functioning of the global system when political interest may move elsewhere. To understand the functioning of the Earth system is a daunting scientific challenge and a necessity for the necessary stewardship of planet Earth.

  18. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer. PMID:26637681

  19. Sagittal plane compensations for artificially induced limitation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine; Nester, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether reduced dorsiflexion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint affects sagittal plane kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip. Twenty individuals with symptom-free metatarsophalangeal joints were studied as they walked with and without an insole designed to restrict first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion. Sagittal plane kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip were compared in the two conditions. When walking with the insole, the ankle was more dorsiflexed during late midstance and less plantarflexed during propulsion, the knee was more flexed during midstance, and the hip was less extended during late midstance. This evidence of a link between the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the kinematics of the proximal joints demonstrates the potential for the clinical entities of hallux rigidus and hallux limitus to influence gait and justifies more detailed study of this relationship. PMID:15153589

  20. A Further Study on Wave Propagation Across a Single Joint with Different Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Li, Jian Chun; Cai, M. F.; Zou, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2016-07-01

    As a key dynamic feature of the rock mass, joint results in wave attenuation when a stress wave propagates across it. An experimental study has obtained the relation between the transmission coefficient and the contact area ratio of joints with different thicknesses (Chen et al. (doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0716-z)). However, the spatial geometry of the contact surface also determines the dynamic behavior of the discontinuous masses. Thus, the present study is focused on the effects of distribution and dimension of the sawn notches on the contact surface of the joint, which lead to the different spatial geometry. The joint matching coefficient (JMC) was used in this study to define the contact condition. Using a modified SHPB apparatus, all the bars and specimens were aluminum, and the artificial joint formed a rough surface of the specimen contacted to the output bar. Based on the wave separation method, the incident, reflected and transmitted waves across the joint were acquired from the records of the strain gauges on pressure bars. Then the transmission coefficient and specific stiffness of the joint were obtained. Comparisons of them were made on different JMCs, spatial geometries and thicknesses of the joint.

  1. Families and Family Study in International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert N.

    2004-01-01

    Many changes are occurring in the world's families. Some observers feel that the changes are destructive, whereas others see them as leading to new opportunities and understanding. Issues in international family studies include regional limitations and the various aspects of doing research cross-culturally. Knowledge regarding certain categories…

  2. Loneliness and International Students: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Deumert, Ana; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    In a study of international student security, consisting of 200 intensive interviews with students, resident onshore in Australia, it was found that two thirds of the group had experienced problems of loneliness and/or isolation, especially in the early months. According to Weiss, students experience both "personal loneliness" because of the loss…

  3. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  4. Experimental Study on Wave Propagation Across a Rock Joint with Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Li, J. C.; Cai, M. F.; Zou, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2015-11-01

    Joints are an important mechanical feature of rock masses. Their effect on wave propagation is significant in characterizing dynamic behaviors of discontinuous rock masses. An experimental study on wave propagation across artificial rock joint was carried out to reveal the relation between the transmission coefficient and the contact situation of the joint surface. The modified split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus was used in this study while all the bars and specimens were norite cored from the same site. One surface of the specimens with a number of notches was adopted to simulate the artificial rough joint. Two strain gauges were mounted on each pressure bar at a specific spacing. The incident, reflected and transmitted waves across the joints were obtained using a wave separation method. Comparisons of the transmission coefficients were made under two different conditions: with the same joint thickness but different contact area ratios, and with the same contact area ratio but different joint thicknesses. The results show the effects of contact area ratio and thickness of joints on wave transmission.

  5. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  6. Evaluation of a joint Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics international course in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H; Hansen, Jacquelyn R; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Garcia, Patricia J; Wolf, Fredric M; Fuller, Sherrilynne; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background New technologies that emerge at the interface of computational and biomedical science could drive new advances in global health, therefore more training in technology is needed among health care workers. To assess the potential for informatics training using an approach designed to foster interaction at this interface, the University of Washington and the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia developed and assessed a one-week course that included a new Bioinformatics (BIO) track along with an established Medical/Public Health Informatics track (MI) for participants in Peru. Methods We assessed the background of the participants, and measured the knowledge gained by track-specific (MI or BIO) 30-minute pre- and post-tests. Participants' attitudes were evaluated both by daily evaluations and by an end-course evaluation. Results Forty-three participants enrolled in the course – 20 in the MI track and 23 in the BIO track. Of 20 questions, the mean % score for the MI track increased from 49.7 pre-test (standard deviation or SD = 17.0) to 59.7 (SD = 15.2) for the post-test (P = 0.002, n = 18). The BIO track mean score increased from 33.6 pre-test to 51.2 post-test (P < 0.001, n = 21). Most comments (76%) about any aspect of the course were positive. The main perceived strength of the course was the quality of the speakers, and the main perceived weakness was the short duration of the course. Overall, the course acceptability was very good to excellent with a rating of 4.1 (scale 1–5), and the usefulness of the course was rated as very good. Most participants (62.9%) expressed a positive opinion about having had the BIO and MI tracks come together for some of the lectures. Conclusion Pre- and post-test results and the positive evaluations by the participants indicate that this first joint Bioinformatics and Medical/Public Health Informatics (MI and BIO) course was a success. PMID:18194533

  7. Report on the SNL/AWE/NSF international workshop on joint mechanics, Dartington, United Kingdom, 2729 April 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The SNL/AWE joint mechanics workshop, held in Dartington Hall, Totnes, Devon, UK 26-29 April 2009 was a follow up to another international joints workshop held in Arlington, Virginia, in October 2006. The preceding workshop focused on identifying what length scales and interactions would be necessary to provide a scientific basis for analyzing and understanding joint mechanics from the atomistic scale on upward. In contrast, the workshop discussed in this report, focused much more on identification and development of methods at longer length scales that can have a nearer term impact on engineering analysis, design, and prediction of the dynamics of jointed structures. Also, the 2009 meeting employed less technical presentation and more break out sessions for developing focused strategies than was the case with the early workshop. Several 'challenges' were identified and assignments were made to teams to develop approaches to address those challenges.

  8. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  9. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Arthroscopic eminoplasty for habitual dislocation of the temporomandibular joint: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Segami, N; Kaneyama, K; Tsurusako, S; Suzuki, T

    1999-12-01

    A unique surgical technique, arthroscopic eminoplasty was undertaken in 16 joints of 11 patients with habitual dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). There were 10 joints with subluxation and 6 joints with complete dislocation in 4 male and 7 female patients with a mean age of 33 +/- 20 years. The procedure consisted of conventional diagnostic arthroscopy, followed by shaving of approximately 3 to 5 mm in height of the articular eminence with an electric motorized shaver with bone files, depending on the bone thickness as detected by preoperative imaging. The arthroscopic eminoplasty was accomplished without any peri- or postoperative complication. During the postoperative follow-up period of 19 months on average (6-36 months), all patients were free of dislocation of the TMJ, except for one joint. The patients could open their mouth 42 +/- 6 mm without arthralgia 2 weeks after surgery, and finally 47 +/- 7 mm without any subjective symptom but small joint noises (clicking or crepitus) in 10 joints. On postoperative radiographs only minor changes of the mandibular condyle were apparent in four joints. Arthroscopic eminoplasty might become a significant procedure for habitual dislocation of the TMJ and seems to produce results comparable to open arthrotomy. Further study will be required to assess this method as an acceptable modality in the future. PMID:10870759

  11. Effects of glucosamine-chondroitin combination on synovial fluid IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 levels in internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emin; Tatli, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of glucosamine-chondroitin sulphate combination on internal derangements of temporomandibular joint in clinical and biochemical manners. Material and Methods This randomized clinical study included 31 cases reporting joint tenderness, in which disc displacement was detected on MR imaging. In all patients, synovial fluid sampling was performed under local anesthesia. In the study group, the patients were prescribed a combination of 1500 mg glucosamine and 1200 mg chondroitin sulphate, while patients in the control group were only prescribed 50 mg tramadol HCl (twice daily) for pain control. After 8 weeks, synovial fluid sampling was repeated in the same manner. The levels of pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), synovial fluid IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 measured before and after pharmacological intervention were compared. Results The reduction in pain levels was significant in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of pain reduction. The improvement in MMO was significant in the study group but it was not in the control group. The MMO improvement was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. In the study group, significant decrease was observed in PGE2 level, while the decreases in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were not significant. In the control group, no significant decrease was observed in any of the inflammatory cytokines after 8 weeks, moreover IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were increased. Alterations of IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were significant in study group while TNF-α and PGE2 levels were not, compared to control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results might suggest that glucosamine-chondroitin combination significantly increases the MMO and decreases the synovial fluid IL1β and IL6 levels in internal derangements of TMJ compared to tramadol. The modifications of synovial fluid TNF-α and PGE2 levels do not reach

  12. Indentation and oxidation studies on silicon nitride joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, M.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Thomas, G. |

    1996-05-01

    Si nitride ceramics have been joined with a Y oxide-SiO{sub 2} interlayer. A 1:2 molar ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to SiO{sub 2} was chosen to obtain the desired Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} stoichiometry, which should give the interlayer better oxidation resistance compared to other interlayer materials. Mechanical characterization of the joints performed by indentation shows it to have good room temperature strength.

  13. Joint document concerning geological studies from 1971 - 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In 1971, a joint Soviet-Americam Working Group on Remote Sensing of the Natural Environment was established. It was organized into a number of discipline panels, one of which was on geology. Membership on this panel came from the Geological Survey of the United States and from the Institute of Geology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and Ministry Geology of the U.S.S.R.. During the period 1971-1975, this panel conducted coordinated research in the use of space remote sensing data in the field of geology. A summary of that coordinated research effort is presented.

  14. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  15. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  16. International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Failure Analysis: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Basta, Erin A.; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS configurations spanning ISS Stage 12A. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models used to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve its fatigue life prediction. On-Orbit dynamic responses were measured during the ISS configurations throughout ISS Stage 12A by the two main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). These nominal on-orbit events include Russian vehicle docking and undockings. Also, the ISS photogrammetric system recorded the movements of the 2A and 4A solar arrays during a modified ISS maneuver. Modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shapes. Correlation and comparisons between the test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the ISS configurations under consideration.

  17. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S.; Cher, Daniel J.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Kovalsky, Don A.; Lockstadt, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption. PMID:27099817

  18. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Kovalsky, Don A; Lockstadt, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption. PMID:27099817

  19. The experience of children in a joint-custody arrangement: a report of a study.

    PubMed

    Steinman, S

    1981-07-01

    The psychological experience of 32 children living in a joint-custody arrangement with their parents is examined. This report is part of a larger study, begun in 1978, of 24 families in which parents have shared childrearing responsibilities and physical custody of their children following marital separation. Findings suggest that joint custody is not a simple solution, and that the reaction of children is highly individual. The need for further study is emphasized. PMID:7258306

  20. Evaluation of biomarkers following autologous osteochondral transplantation in the equine stifle joint - An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tuska, Pál; Tóth, Balázs; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Papp, Miklós; Bodó, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in biomarker and synovial parameters following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in the equine stifle joint, to test the hypothesis whether synovial parameters would show significant differences at selected time points following the surgery (at days 3, 14, 60 and 180) compared to baseline level (at day 0). Surgical intervention was performed in both stifles of nine horses (n = 18). The joints were randomly assigned to operated and sham-operated groups. Grafts 8.5 mm in diameter were harvested from the femoropatellar (FP) joint under arthroscopic control and the medial femorotibial (MFT) joints had AOT using mosaicplasty (MP) instrumentation, while the sham FP and sham MFT joints underwent arthroscopy and miniarthrotomy without transplantation, respectively. Synovial fluid (SF) parameters were evaluated at days 4, 14, 60 and 180. Data were analysed by two-way repeated- measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and P < 0.05 was considered significant. During the first 10-14 days after surgery, lameness of degree 2-3/5 [American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) scores] was present, which disappeared after 60 days. Joints with transplantation showed significant increases in synovial white blood cell count (WBC), total protein (TP), substance P, C1,2C and CS846 epitope concentration at day 3 compared to baseline and shamoperated joints (P < 0.05). These parameters returned to the baseline values by two months after surgery and remained within normal levels at 6 months postoperatively. PMID:27342088

  1. Management of open bite that developed during treatment for internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Won; Nakaoka, Kazutoshi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment performed for open bite caused by internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A Japanese woman, aged 31 years and 11 months, referred to our department by an oral surgeon had an open bite with clockwise rotation of the mandible and degeneration of the condyle. The overbite was corrected through intrusion of the maxillary and mandibular molars using mini-screw implants to induce counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. Then, the mandibular second premolars were extracted and comprehensive orthodontic treatment was performed to establish a Class I molar relationship with distalization of the maxillary arch and to eliminate anterior crowding. Following treatment, her facial profile improved and a functional and stable occlusion was achieved without recurrence of the TMJ symptoms. These results suggest that orthodontic intrusion of the molars is one of the safer and less stressful alternatives for the management of open bite due to degeneration of the condyles caused by ID and OA of TMJ. PMID:26023542

  2. Critical temperature gradient length signatures in heat wave propagation across internal transport barriers in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Casati, Alessandro; Eester, D. van; Marinoni, A.; Ryter, F.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.

    2007-09-15

    New results on electron heat wave propagation using ion cyclotron resonance heating power modulation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)] plasmas characterized by internal transport barriers (ITBs) are presented. The heat wave generated outside the ITB, and traveling across it, always experiences a strong damping in the ITB layer, demonstrating a low level of transport and loss of stiffness. In some cases, however, the heat wave is strongly inflated in the region just outside the ITB, showing features of convective-like behavior. In other cases, a second maximum in the perturbation amplitude is generated close to the ITB foot. Such peculiar types of behavior can be explained on the basis of the existence of a critical temperature gradient length for the onset of turbulent transport. Convective-like features appear close to the threshold (i.e., just outside the ITB foot) when the value of the threshold is sufficiently high, with a good match with the theoretical predictions for the trapped electron mode threshold. The appearance of a second maximum is due to the oscillation of the temperature profile across the threshold in the case of a weak ITB. Simulations with an empirical critical gradient length model and with the theory based GLF23 [R. E. Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas, 4, 2482 (1997)] model are presented. The difference with respect to previous results of cold pulse propagation across JET ITBs is also discussed.

  3. Critical temperature gradient length signatures in heat wave propagation across internal transport barriers in the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Alessandro; Mantica, P.; Van Eester, D.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Marinoni, A.; Ryter, F.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.; De Vries, P.

    2007-09-01

    New results on electron heat wave propagation using ion cyclotron resonance heating power modulation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)] plasmas characterized by internal transport barriers (ITBs) are presented. The heat wave generated outside the ITB, and traveling across it, always experiences a strong damping in the ITB layer, demonstrating a low level of transport and loss of stiffness. In some cases, however, the heat wave is strongly inflated in the region just outside the ITB, showing features of convective-like behavior. In other cases, a second maximum in the perturbation amplitude is generated close to the ITB foot. Such peculiar types of behavior can be explained on the basis of the existence of a critical temperature gradient length for the onset of turbulent transport. Convective-like features appear close to the threshold (i.e., just outside the ITB foot) when the value of the threshold is sufficiently high, with a good match with the theoretical predictions for the trapped electron mode threshold. The appearance of a second maximum is due to the oscillation of the temperature profile across the threshold in the case of a weak ITB. Simulations with an empirical critical gradient length model and with the theory based GLF23 [R. E. Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas, 4, 2482 (1997)] model are presented. The difference with respect to previous results of cold pulse propagation across JET ITBs is also discussed.

  4. Management of open bite that developed during treatment for internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Arai, Chihiro; Choi, Jae Won; Nakaoka, Kazutoshi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-05-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment performed for open bite caused by internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A Japanese woman, aged 31 years and 11 months, referred to our department by an oral surgeon had an open bite with clockwise rotation of the mandible and degeneration of the condyle. The overbite was corrected through intrusion of the maxillary and mandibular molars using mini-screw implants to induce counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. Then, the mandibular second premolars were extracted and comprehensive orthodontic treatment was performed to establish a Class I molar relationship with distalization of the maxillary arch and to eliminate anterior crowding. Following treatment, her facial profile improved and a functional and stable occlusion was achieved without recurrence of the TMJ symptoms. These results suggest that orthodontic intrusion of the molars is one of the safer and less stressful alternatives for the management of open bite due to degeneration of the condyles caused by ID and OA of TMJ. PMID:26023542

  5. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (PWR-Vol. 34). Volume 2: Power

    SciTech Connect

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Hayes, R.H.; McMullen, R.

    1999-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Benefits of software application in plant optimization; Combined cycle power plants; Recent improvements in power generation operations; Efficiency and capacity improvements for steam turbines; Condenser and heat exchange performance and fouling; Performance testing, monitoring and evaluation; Steam turbine/generator system--maintance, life assesments and upgrades; System design evaluations; Steam generators; Turbines for combined cycle and cogeneration; Case studies on steam turbine/generator problems and solutions; Condenser and feedwater heater operation and maintenance; Risked based and reliability programs for plant applications; Improving operating flexibility of steam turbine/generators (minimizing startup time, load changing, etc.); New techniques and innovations in heat transfer systems; Case studies in reliability based maintenance; and Risk analysis applied to steam turbine/generator systems. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  6. 2nd International Joint Topical Meeting on Emergency Preparedness and Response and Robotic and Remote Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Po-Yung; Thomas, Richard D.; Wassom, John S.

    2008-01-01

    It is desirable for the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration emergency preparedness and response community to have available every resource to enhance its capabilities for assessing the health effects of environmental agents. Such resources will aid DOE/NNSA in achieving its goal of protecting the health and safety of workers, the public, and environment in event of the release of radiological, chemical, or biological agents into the environment. Studies are reported in this paper where composite data analyses were done for the chemicals included in DOE's Protective Action Criteria (PACs) database. PACs define the concentration of airborne chemicals at which protective actions are required. They are used by DOE/NNSA in developing Emergency Preparedness Procedures and for Operational Emergencies. Data analyses were conducted to discern structure-activity relationship patterns among PAC chemicals by assigned classification schemes based on the 30 accepted categories used by the EPA Gene-Tox Program. PAC chemicals were scored according to their frequency of distribution, severity of toxicity index, and structural classification. These studies yielded results that could be helpful in assessing the toxicity of new chemicals. It is suggested that provisions be made to include chemical structural information in the PAC database.

  7. Vortical flow in human elbow joints: a three-dimensional computed tomography modeling study.

    PubMed

    Adikrishna, Arnold; Kekatpure, Aashay L; Tan, Jun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Deslivia, Maria Florencia; Jeon, In-Ho

    2014-10-01

    The human elbow joint has been regarded as a loose hinge joint, with a unique helical motion of the axis during extension-flexion. This study was designed to identify the helical axis in the ulnohumeral joint during elbow extension-flexion by tracking the midpoint between the coronoid tip and the olecranon tip of the proximal ulna in a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image model. The elbows of four volunteers were CT-scanned at four flexion angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 130°) at neutral rotation with a custom-made holding device to control any motion during scanning. Three-dimensional models of each elbow were reconstructed and a 3D ulnohumeral joint at 45°, 90°, and 130° was superimposed onto a fully extended joint (0°) by rotating and translating each 3D ulnohumeral joint along the axes. The midpoints of the olecranon and coronoid tips were interpolated using cubic spline technique and the dynamic elbow motion was plotted to determine the motion of the helical axis. The means and standard deviations were subsequently calculated. The average midpoint pattern of joint motion from extension to flexion was elliptical-orbit-like when projected onto a sagittal plane and continuously translated a mean 2.14 ± 0.34 mm (range, 1.83-2.52 mm) to the lateral side during elbow extension-flexion. In 3D space, the average midpoint pattern of the ulnohumeral joint resembles a vortical flow, spinning along an imaginary axis, with an inconsistent radius from 0° to 130° flexion. The ulnohumeral joint axis both rotates and translates during elbow extension-flexion, with a vortex-flow motion occurring during flexion in 3D model analysis. This motion should be considered when performing hinged external fixation, total elbow replacement and medial collateral ligament reconstruction surgery. PMID:25100632

  8. Experimental study on tunnel lining joints temporarily strengthened by SMA bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Ou, Yunlong

    2014-12-01

    Shield tunnels have been widely used in city metros all over the world. During the long-term period of the metro operation, the joints of shield tunnel’s neighboring segments may degrade due to some environmental factors, leading to the increasing of the joint opening and some resulting adverse consequences. In this paper, a temporary strengthening method by using shape memory alloy (SMA) bolts is proposed and experimentally studied for the joints of neighboring segments, and a revised electric heating method which suits with the strengthening method is presented and experimentally validated for the SMA bolts. The purpose of the proposed temporary strengthening method is to create favorable conditions for the following permanent strengthening. Test results show that: (a) for the joints of shield tunnel’s neighboring segments, the strengthening method can effectively reduce the joint opening, joint deflection, concrete strain in joint’s compression zone, and strain of joint’s steel bolts; (b) the revised electric heating method can be used to heat the SMA rod to a temperature higher than the SMA’s austenite finish temperature quickly, and the average heating rate related to Type 2 inner resistance element is larger than that related to Type 1 inner resistance element; and (c) the reduction percentages of the joint opening increment, joint deflection, concrete strain in joint’s compression zone, and strain of joint’s steel bolts for Specimen I are all larger than those for Specimen II, implying that the less the joint opening is, the more significant the strengthening effect is.

  9. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. Results The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. Conclusion The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:23525363

  10. Study of flexible fin and compliant joint stiffness on propulsive performance: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kancharala, A K; Philen, M K

    2014-09-01

    The caudal fin is a major source of thrust generation in fish locomotion. Along with the fin stiffness, the stiffness of the joint connecting the fish body to the tail plays a major role in the generation of thrust. This paper investigates the combined effect of fin and joint flexibility on propulsive performance using theoretical and experimental studies. For this study, fluid-structure interaction of the fin has been modeled using the 2D unsteady panel method coupled with nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The compliant joint has been modeled as a torsional spring at the leading edge of the fin. A comparison of self-propelled speed and efficiency with parameters such as heaving and pitching amplitude, oscillation frequency, flexibility of the fin and the compliant joint is reported. The model also predicts the optimized stiffnesses of the compliant joint and the fin for maximum efficiency. Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of fin and joint stiffness on propulsive performance. Digital image correlation has been used to measure the deformation of the fins and the measured deformation is coupled with the hydrodynamic model to predict the performance. The predicted theoretical performance behavior closely matches the experimental values. PMID:24737004

  11. Analysis of methodological deficiencies of studies reporting surgical outcome following cemented total-joint arthroplasty of trapezio-metacarpal joint of the thumb

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Arif; Priyanka, P

    2006-01-01

    Cemented total-joint arthroplasty has been increasingly used in the treatment of end stage arthritis of the thumb trapeziometacarpal joint. Evidence supporting its use in the treatment of trapeziometacarpal disorders in the literature is very limited. Most hand surgeons agree that there are concerns about the methodological quality of the limited literature available. In this study, we analysed the methodological quality of the outcome studies on cemented total-joint arthroplasty of the thumb. We included all the outcome studies published in the English literature on cemented total-joint arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal joint of thumb. We analysed these studies for methodological deficiencies and quality of outcome reporting based on the recommendations given by Coleman et al. Our study revealed that there were no uniform standards of outcome reporting. The mean Coleman score for the studies dealing with cemented total-joint arthroplasty of the thumb was 42.9. Major deficiencies were identified in areas like subject selection criteria (0/15), type of study (5.7/15), description of surgical procedure (3.7/5), description of the rehabilitation protocol (2/10), outcome measures (4.4/10) and outcome assessment (3.9/15). The methodological quality of the studies published within the last 10 years (49.9±9.7) was found to be slightly better than the studies published over 10 years ago (39.7±7.8). Our study highlights the need for more evidence in the form of randomised controlled prospective studies conducted with good methodological quality, comparing the cemented total-joint arthroplasty of the thumb to other procedures available for the treatment of disorders of the thumb. Further, to improve the standards of reporting, journal editors should try to standardise the outcome of the reporting by following the surgical procedures on the thumb. PMID:17021833

  12. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-pil; Yamaga, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis with LCP demonstrated low postoperative infection rates. Gross and histological evaluations revealed considerable destruction of the articular cartilage in the LCP/SurD/TE-treated joints. In contrast, almost no destruction of the cartilage was observed in the LCP-treated joints. Our results suggest that the LCP technique alone is not sufficient for PIP joint arthrodesis and that the LCP/SurD/TE technique may be useful for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses. PMID:25392547

  13. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong-pil; Yamaga, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis with LCP demonstrated low postoperative infection rates. Gross and histological evaluations revealed considerable destruction of the articular cartilage in the LCP/SurD/TE-treated joints. In contrast, almost no destruction of the cartilage was observed in the LCP-treated joints. Our results suggest that the LCP technique alone is not sufficient for PIP joint arthrodesis and that the LCP/SurD/TE technique may be useful for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses. PMID:25392547

  14. Experimental Study of the Compression Response of Fluted-Core Composite Panels with Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Guzman, J. Carlos; McCarville, Douglas; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Fluted-core sandwich composites consist of integral angled web members spaced between laminate face sheets, and may have the potential to provide benefits over traditional sandwich composites for certain aerospace applications. However, fabrication of large autoclave-cured fluted-core cylindrical shells with existing autoclaves will require that the shells be fabricated in segments, and joined longitudinally to form a complete barrel. Two different longitudinal fluted-core joint designs were considered experimentally in this study. In particular, jointed fluted-core-composite panels were tested in longitudinal compression because longitudinal compression is the primary loading condition in dry launch-vehicle barrel sections. One of the joint designs performed well in comparison with unjointed test articles, and the other joint design failed at loads approximately 14% lower than unjointed test articles. The compression-after-impact (CAI) performance of jointed fluted-core composites was also investigated by testing test articles that had been subjected to 6 ft-lb impacts. It was found that such impacts reduced the load-carrying capability by 9% to 40%. This reduction is dependent on the joint concept, component flute size, and facesheet thickness.

  15. A Global Study of International Teacher Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    International teacher recruiting is a complex, high stakes process that is crucial to schools' success. Competition for teachers is intensifying as the number of international schools increases globally. The number of international schools has more than doubled in recent years. With candidates and schools scattered throughout the world,…

  16. 2012 Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas (Varenna, Italy, 27-31 August 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    The 2012 Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas was very fruitful. A broad variety of topics was addressed, covering turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), edge physics, and radio frequency (RF) wave heating. Moreover, the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, some of them triggered by the construction of ITER and JT-60SA. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may refer to, for instance, the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of these workshops is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance, MHD modes are currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are included in MHD stability analysis more and more, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is proof of cross-fertilization and is certainly a healthy sign for our community. Finally, introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent from us respecting old traditions. As usual, many presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne Workshop, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific output from this workshop is shown in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion; a further 26 papers have already appeared in Journal of Physics: Conference Series in December 2012. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue, and find therein knowledge and inspiration.

  17. Loads in the hip joint during physically demanding occupational tasks: A motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Varady, Patrick Aljoscha; Glitsch, Ulrich; Augat, Peter

    2015-09-18

    Epidemiologic studies of osteoarthritis of the hip indicate a possible connection between work related activities and the pathogenesis of the disease. This study investigated the hip joint contact forces for physically demanding occupational tasks (lifting, carrying, transferring of a weight (mass: 25 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg); stair climbing without and with additional load of 25 kg; ladder climbing) and compared these with everyday activities (level gait, sitting down and getting up). The hip joint contact force was calculated with the human multibody simulation software AnyBody employing motion capture and ground reaction force measurements by force plates and an instrumented staircase and ladder. Although the results for 11 male test subjects showed individual variations, a general trend could be observed in regards of force curves' characteristics and maxima. The largest joint contact forces calculated were (637 ± 148)%-body weight for horizontal transfer of a 50 kg weight. For several of the occupational activities the computed hip joint contact forces were significantly larger compared to the investigated examples of activities of daily living. This study provides original data of simulated hip joint contact forces for physically demanding activities. PMID:26187677

  18. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  19. An International Study of Research Misconduct Policies

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Rasmussen, Lisa M.; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Research misconduct is an international concern. Misconduct policies can play a crucial role in preventing and policing research misconduct, and many institutions have developed their own policies. While institutional policies play a key role in preventing and policing misconduct, national policies are also important to ensure consistent promulgation and enforcement of ethical standards. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about research misconduct policies across the globe. We found that twenty-two of the top forty research and development funding countries (55%) had a national misconduct policy. Four countries (18.2%) are in the process of developing a policy, and four (18.2%) have a national research ethics code but no misconduct policy. All twenty-two countries (100%) with national policies included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in the definition of misconduct, but beyond that there was considerable diversity. Unethical authorship was mentioned in 54.6% of the misconduct definitions, followed by unethical publication practices (36.4%), conflict of interest mismanagement (36.4%), unethical peer review (31.8%), misconduct related to misconduct investigations (27.3%), poor record keeping (27.3%), other deception (27.3%), serious deviations (22.7%), violating confidentiality (22.7%), and human or animal research violations (22.7%). Having a national policy was positively associated with research and development funding ranking and intensiveness. To promote integrity in international research collaborations, countries should seek to harmonize and clarify misconduct definitions and develop procedures for adjudicating conflicts when harmonization does not occur. PMID:25928177

  20. Studies on the Performance of RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened Using Different Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheela, S.; Anu Geetha, B.

    2012-02-01

    Many reinforced concrete structures in our country are in a deteriorated or distressed state. Hence strengthening such structures or reducing the load limit on them is becoming necessary to extend their service life. Beam-column joint is the crucial zone in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame since it is subjected to large forces during severe ground shaking. In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the cost-effective composite material and optimum number of layers of composite material for strengthening beam-column joints. Specimens were strengthened using ferrocement, glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) and studied their behaviour under static as well as cyclic loading. It was found that the rotation at ultimate moment of all the strengthened beam-column joints were greater than that of the control specimens. The specimens strengthened with more number of layers of strengthening material showed better moment-rotation characteristics. The joints strengthened using GFRP showed better performance in terms of ultimate load, moment rotation characteristics, ductility, energy absorption capacity and strength-to-cost ratio, when compared to that of the specimens strengthened with other composite materials. However, CFRP strengthened specimens showed good ductility and better cracking characteristics and prevented the failure at the joint.

  1. Using Post-Study-Abroad Experiences to Enhance International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kevin W.; Jendzurski, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad experiences offer opportunities for a broadened global perspective gleaned from interpersonal engagement with cultural others in an international setting. Unfortunately, and far too often, the campus majority who do not have this firsthand travel experience remain disengaged and might feel excluded. This article contends that…

  2. Statistic study on developing condition of horizontal columnar joints in Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Kim, Y.; Geologic Structure; Geohazard Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Unusual patterns of columnar joints are developed in Tertiary volcanic rocks along the Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea. The columnar joints represent various features in shape and orientation, including horizontal and inclined column distribution. The shape and orientation of columnar joints were statistically analyzed to understand the causes of the unusual column patterns. For this purpose, the shape of the column face perpendicular to the column direction and the trend and plunge of the column are analyzed. Most columnar joints in the study areas have five or six column faces, and the column diameter perpendicular to the column direction is in a range of between 30 to 50 cm. Columnar joints generally develop vertically due to cooling from both top and bottom surfaces. However, unusual horizontal and inclined columnar joints are observed in the study areas. Therefore, the horizontal and inclined columnar joints developed in the study areas may suggest abnormal cooling condition. The volcanic rocks in the study areas intruded or extruded in late Miocene (22-16 Ma), which coincides with a period of high sea level in the Miocene. The sea level is almost the same as the present sea level. This may suggest that the unusual columnar joint patterns that have developed in the study areas may have been affected by sea water. Therefore, if the characteristics of these columnar joints are more intensively studied on a morphological, petrological, geochemical, and chronological level, we can better understand the developing mechanism of horizontal columnar joints.

  3. Study of the effect of bolt diameter and washer on damping in layered and jointed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, B. K.

    2006-03-01

    In the present work, the mechanism of damping in layered and jointed structures with connecting bolts and washers have been extensively studied. A lot of experiments have been conducted on a number of specimens with connecting bolts of various diameters to study its effect on the damping capacity of the layered and jointed structures and to establish the authenticity of the theory developed. Intensity of interface pressure, diameter of the connecting bolts, washers, number of layers, kinematic coefficient of friction at the interfaces and frequency and amplitude of excitation are found to play a major role on the damping capacity of such structures. It is established that the damping capacity of structures jointed with connecting bolts can be improved substantially by increasing the number of layers connected with bolts of smaller diameters along with use of washers.

  4. Programs of Study: Year 2 Joint Technical Report. Research Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center for Career and Technical Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January 2010, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) issued a progress report on three studies being conducted by the Center that examine the implementation and outcomes of Programs of Study (POS), which were required in the 2006 reauthorization of the federal legislation for career and technical education…

  5. A Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Grade 91 Steel A-TIG Weld Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arivazhagan, B.; Vasudevan, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, A-TIG welding was carried out on grade 91 steel plates of size 220 × 110 × 10 mm using the in-house developed activated flux to produce butt-joints. The room-temperature impact toughness of the A-TIG as-welded joint was low due to the presence of untempered martensite matrix despite the low microinclusion density caused by activated flux and also low δ-ferrite (<0.5 %) content. Toughness after postweld heat treatment (PWHT) at 760 °C-2 h was 20 J as against the required value of 47 J as per the specification EN: 1557:1997. However, there was a significant improvement in impact toughness after PWHT at 760 °C for 3 h. The improvement in toughness was attributed to softening of martensite matrix caused by precipitation of carbides due to tempering reactions. The precipitates are of type M23C6, and they are observed at grain boundary as well as within the grains. The A-TIG-processed grade 91 steel weld joint was found to meet the toughness requirements after PWHT at 760 °C-3 h. Observations of fracture surfaces using SEM revealed that the as-welded joint failed by brittle fracture, whereas post-weld heat-treated weld joints failed by decohesive rupture mode.

  6. Numerical Model for the Study of the Strength and Failure Modes of Rock Containing Non-Persistent Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Maximiliano R.; Van Sint Jan, Michel; Lorig, Loren

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of rock containing parallel non-persistent joint sets was studied using a numerical model. The numerical analysis was performed using the discrete element software UDEC. The use of fictitious joints allowed the inclusion of non-persistent joints in the model domain and simulating the progressive failure due to propagation of existing fractures. The material and joint mechanical parameters used in the model were obtained from experimental results. The results of the numerical model showed good agreement with the strength and failure modes observed in the laboratory. The results showed the large anisotropy in the strength resulting from variation of the joint orientation. Lower strength of the specimens was caused by the coalescence of fractures belonging to parallel joint sets. A correlation was found between geometrical parameters of the joint sets and the contribution of the joint sets strength in the global strength of the specimen. The results suggest that for the same dip angle with respect to the principal stresses; the uniaxial strength depends primarily on the joint spacing and the angle between joints tips and less on the length of the rock bridges (persistency). A relation between joint geometrical parameters was found from which the resulting failure mode can be predicted.

  7. Joint shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beam-column joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Jagadeesan; Kumaran, Ganapathy

    2011-03-01

    An assessment of the joint shear strength of exterior concrete beam-column joints reinforced internally with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) reinforcements under monotonically increasing load on beams keeping constant load on columns is carried out in this study. Totally eighteen numbers of specimens are cast and tested for different parametric conditions like beam longitudinal reinforcement ratio, concrete strength, column reinforcement ratio, joint aspect ratio and influence of the joint stirrups at the joint. Also finite element analysis is performed to simulate the behaviour of the beam-column joints under various parametric conditions. Based on this study, a modified design equation is proposed for assessing the joint shear strength of the GFRP reinforced beam-column specimens based on the experimental results and the review of the prevailing design equations.

  8. Investigating the neural basis of cooperative joint action. An EEG hyperscanning study.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Vogel, P; Mattia, D; Babiloni, F; Ciaramidaro, A; Siniatchkin, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the neurophysiological basis of the cognitive functions underlying the execution of joint actions, by means of the recent technique called hyperscanning. Neuroelectrical hyperscanning is based on the simultaneous recording of brain activity from multiple subjects and includes the analysis of the functional relation between the brain activity of all the interacting individuals. We recorded simultaneous high density electroencephalography (hdEEG) from 16 pairs of subjects involved in a computerized joint action paradigm, with controlled levels of cooperation. Results of cortical connectivity analysis returned significant differences, in terms of inter-brain functional causal links, between the condition of cooperative joint action and a condition in which the subjects were told they were interacting with a PC, while actually interacting with another human subject. Such differences, described by selected brain connectivity indices, point toward an integration between the two subjects' brain activity in the cooperative condition, with respect to control conditions. PMID:25571089

  9. Segmentation and measurement of collagen fibers for shoulder and joint therapy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio, L.

    1994-11-15

    Various shoulder instabilities are debilitating, especially in individuals who perform overhead activities. Thermal modification of soft tissues in joints may allow precise alteration of these tissues` mechanical and/or structural properties to enhance joint function without inducing cell death or an inflammatory response. Several studies have evaluated laser energy for tissue welding. The collective findings are promising, and the next step is to identify the mechanisms responsible for laser-induced capsular tissue alternation, and the short- and long-term effects of non-ablative laser energy on joint capsular tissue. One step toward this goal is to compare the effect of three laser energy densities on the histologic properties of the tissue evaluating the architecture of the collagen (including density, fibril diameter distribution, and interfibrillar space) in sheep at various time intervals after surgery. The specific computer algorithms that are being used to make these measurements will be described.

  10. Coracoclavicular joint, an osteological study with clinical implications: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakas, Marios-Efstathios; Stoltidou, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The presence of an anomalous coracoclavicular joint was studied in a human male skeleton aged 73 years old from the Osteology Collection of our Department. Case presentation We describe the exact morphology of this variation that is occasionally reported as an anatomical or radiological curiosity in the literature (0.55-21%). Conclusion Although coracoclavicular diarthrosis is of no significance other than academic, it is important to recognize this variation and the clinical symptoms that may occur, as it is a cause of shoulder pain and arthritis in this or the adjacent sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joint. Consequently, it is vital to apply the appropriate treatment. PMID:19918399

  11. Burden of Restraint, Disablement and Ethnic Identity: A Case Study of Total Joint Replacement for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities in total joint replacement have been documented based on gender and ethnicity in multiple countries. Absent are studies exploring the meaning of the procedures among diverse women, which is necessary to fully understand the impact of the disparity. Drawing on ethnographic data from a life course exploration of disablement among Mexican American women with mobility impairments, one woman’s reasons for forgoing a joint replacement are considered. It is suggested that inequalities in disablement cannot be understood without considering the mulitple cultural conflicts and loyalties that push and pull women in multiple directions. PMID:21767094

  12. The Impact of Conflict on International Student Mobility: A Case Study of International Students Studying in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of conflict on international student mobility. Through an examination of undergraduate, international students studying in Israel, this case study questions how and if a situation of ongoing violent conflict affects international student travel decisions to study in a host country. Contrary to assumptions of…

  13. Computer Simulation in the Teaching of Translation and International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the National Simulation in International Studies and Translation Program which links international studies and foreign languages programs at a number of universities. This program provides a natural context for the exercise of translation for the language student and an authenticity of experience for students of international politics.…

  14. Characterizing Teaching Effectiveness in the Joint Action Theory in Didactics: An Exploratory Study in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of two consecutive reading sessions conducted in primary school by two different teachers. Our purpose is twofold. From a theoretical viewpoint, we propose a tentative set of conditions of teaching effectiveness by relying on the Joint Action Theory in Didactics. From a methodological viewpoint, drawing on…

  15. Joint Action in Didactics and Classroom Ecology: Comparing Theories Using a Case Study in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amade-Escot, Chantal; Venturini, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the respective contribution of two theoretical approaches to teaching and learning: the classroom ecology (CE) framework from Anglo-American research and the joint action in didactics (JAD) framework, which is part of French "didactique" research. This theoretical comparison is grounded in data from a case study in a…

  16. A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A JOINT COMPUTER CENTER FOR FIVE WASHINGTON, D.C. UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PARKER, RALPH

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A JOINT COMPUTER CENTER AND TO ANALYZE THE POTENTIAL FOR SUCH A CENTER TO BECOME PART OF LONG RANGE PLANS FOR REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COMPUTER NETWORKS. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE BASES FOR FRUITFUL INTERLIBRARY COOPERATION WITHIN THE CONSORTIUM ALREADY EXIST, IT IS NECESSARY TO CREATE…

  17. Joint EPA/NASA/USAF Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental regulations such as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are drivers for the implementation of environmentally compliant methodologies in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. In 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the NESHAP for the Aerospace Manufacture and Rework (Aerospace NESHAP) industry. Affected facilities were to be in compliance by September 1998. Several aerospace manufacturing operations are regulated within the Aerospace NESHAP including Depainting operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), EPA, and United States Air Force (USAF) combined resources to evaluate the performance of nine alternative depainting processes. The seven alternative depainting processes were: (1) Chemical stripping (non-methylene chloride); (2) Carbon Dioxide Blasting; (3) Xenon Flashlamp; (4) Carbon Dioxide Laser Stripping; (5) Plastic Media Blasting; (6) Sodium Bicarbonate Wet Stripping; and (7) Waterjet Blasting and Wheat Starch Blasting. All epoxy primer and polyurethane top coat system was applied to 2024-T3 clad and non-clad aluminum test specimens. Approximately 200 test specimens were evaluated in this study. Each coupon was subjected to three, four, or five complete depainting cycles. This paper discusses the conclusions from the study including the test protocol, test parameters, and achievable strip rates for the alternative depainting processes. Test data includes immersion corrosion testing, sandwich corrosion testing and hydrogen embrittlement testing for the non-methylene chloride chemical strippers. Additionally, the cumulative effect of the alternative depainting processes on the metallurgical integrity of the test substrate is addressed with the results from tensile and fatigue evaluations.

  18. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  19. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  20. Xrt And Shinx Joint Flare Study: Ar 11024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.

    2010-05-01

    From 12:00 UT on July 3 through July 7, 2009 SphinX (Solar Photometer IN X-rays) observes 130 flares with active region (AR) 11024 being the only AR on disk. XRT (X-Ray Telescope) is able to observe 64 of these flare events. The combination of both instruments results in a flare study revealing (1) a relationship between flux emergence and flare rate, (2) that the presence of active region loops typically results in different flare morphologies (single and multiple loop flares) then when there is a lack of an active region loop environment where more cusp and point-like flares are observed, (3) cusp and point-like flares often originate from the same location, and (4) a distribution of flare temperatures corresponding to the different flare morphologies. The differences between the observed flare morphologies may occur as the result of the heated plasma through the flaring process being confined by the proximity of loop structures as for the single and multiple loop flares, while for cusp and point-like flares they occur in an early-phase environment that lack loop presence. The continuing flux emergence of AR 11024 likely provides different magnetic interactions and may be the source responsible for all of the flares.

  1. Evaluation of knee joint proprioception and balance of young female volleyball players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Neşe; Bianco, Antonino; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main purpose of our study was the evaluation of the effects of long-term volleyball practice on knee joint proprioception and balance of young female athletes. [Subjects and Methods] An observational case-control study was performed. The study enrolled 19 female volleyball players in the experimental group and 19 sedentary counterparts as controls. A Biodex balance system and dynamometer were used for the evaluations. The paired t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the performance of athletes and controls. [Results] The knee proprioception analysis showed a significant difference at 60° joint position in active and passive tests. A similar trend, but without significance, was found for the 20° joint position. In the postural stability tests both groups showed similar results with no significant differences between them. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results indicate a significant influence on joint proprioception is elicited by long-term exposure to a team sport like volleyball. However, the postural stability indexes showed similar trends in both groups, highlighting the analogous ontogenesis of the subjects investigated and the low influence of volleyball practice on postural stability. PMID:25729185

  2. Local Joint Testing Improves Power and Identifies Hidden Heritability in Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brielin C; Price, Alkes L; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Zaitlen, Noah

    2016-07-01

    There is mounting evidence that complex human phenotypes are highly polygenic, with many loci harboring multiple causal variants, yet most genetic association studies examine each SNP in isolation. While this has led to the discovery of thousands of disease associations, discovered variants account for only a small fraction of disease heritability. Alternative multi-SNP methods have been proposed, but issues such as multiple-testing correction, sensitivity to genotyping error, and optimization for the underlying genetic architectures remain. Here we describe a local joint-testing procedure, complete with multiple-testing correction, that leverages a genetic phenomenon we call linkage masking wherein linkage disequilibrium between SNPs hides their signal under standard association methods. We show that local joint testing on the original Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data set leads to the discovery of 22 associated loci, 5 more than the marginal approach. These loci were later found in follow-up studies containing thousands of additional individuals. We find that these loci significantly increase the heritability explained by genome-wide significant associations in the WTCCC data set. Furthermore, we show that local joint testing in a cis-expression QTL (eQTL) study of the gEUVADIS data set increases the number of genes containing significant eQTL by 10.7% over marginal analyses. Our multiple-hypothesis correction and joint-testing framework are available in a python software package called Jester, available at github.com/brielin/Jester. PMID:27182951

  3. A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Junji; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices. The purposes of this study are first to understand the kinematics of the knee joint during flexion, and second to characterize the mechanics of the knee joint under anterior-posterior loading. A finite element model of the knee joint, extracted from the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS), was used to analyze the mechanism. The model was validated against kinematics and mechanical responses of the human knee joint. By tracking the relative positions and angles between the patella and the tibia in a knee flexing simulation, the magnitude of the tibial anterior protuberance was described as a function of the knee joint angle. The model revealed that the mechanics of the knee joint was characterized as a combination of stiffness of the patella-femur structure and the PCL It was also found that the magnitude of the tibial anterior protuberance determined the amount of initial stretch of the PCL in anterior-posterior loading. Based on the knee joint kinematics and mechanics, an interference boundary was proposed for different knee flexion angles, so

  4. Experimental study of bolted connections using light gauge channel sections and packing plates at the joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Ravindra B.; Vaghe, Vishal M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold-formed structural members are being used more widely in routine structural design as the world steel industry moves from the production of hot-rolled section and plate to coil and strip, often with galvanized and/or painted coatings. Steel in this form is more easily delivered from the steel mill to the manufacturing plant where it is usually cold-rolled into open and closed section members. In the present experimental study, the use of packing plate at the joints in cold-formed channel sections may increase the load carrying capacity and also reduce the buckling of unconnected cold form channel steel plate at joints. The present study focuses on examining the experimental investigation to use mild steel as a packing plate with cold-formed channel sections by bolted connection at the joints and the connection subjected to axial tension. Series of tests are carried out with increase in the thickness of packing plate and results are observed and analyzed. Total Twelve experimental tests have been carried out on cold-formed channel tension members fastened with single as well as three numbers of bolts at the connection and from the observations the strength of the joint is increased by increasing the various thicknesses of packing plates and also the buckling of unconnected leg of channel specimen is reduced. It is analyzed by plotting the entire load versus elongation path, so that the behavior of the connection is examined.

  5. Experimental study of bolted connections using light gauge channel sections and packing plates at the joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Ravindra B.; Vaghe, Vishal M.

    2014-09-01

    Cold-formed structural members are being used more widely in routine structural design as the world steel industry moves from the production of hot-rolled section and plate to coil and strip, often with galvanized and/or painted coatings. Steel in this form is more easily delivered from the steel mill to the manufacturing plant where it is usually cold-rolled into open and closed section members. In the present experimental study, the use of packing plate at the joints in cold-formed channel sections may increase the load carrying capacity and also reduce the buckling of unconnected cold form channel steel plate at joints. The present study focuses on examining the experimental investigation to use mild steel as a packing plate with cold-formed channel sections by bolted connection at the joints and the connection subjected to axial tension. Series of tests are carried out with increase in the thickness of packing plate and results are observed and analyzed. Total Twelve experimental tests have been carried out on cold-formed channel tension members fastened with single as well as three numbers of bolts at the connection and from the observations the strength of the joint is increased by increasing the various thicknesses of packing plates and also the buckling of unconnected leg of channel specimen is reduced. It is analyzed by plotting the entire load versus elongation path, so that the behavior of the connection is examined.

  6. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: ICILS 2013 User Guide for the International Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Michael, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), studied how students in different countries develop the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, dispositions, and skills that comprise computer and information literacy (CIL). The aim…

  7. The origin of islands in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea: joint work of internal and external geodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosevich, Natalia; Romanovskaya, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The modern White Sea basin is a part of the encounter zone between the East European Platform and of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kandalaksha Gulf in its northwest lies on the Mesoarchean-Paleoproterozoic structure known as the White Sea Shift Belt. In the Oligocene, it entered its neotectonic stage. Geologically, there are two structural storeys beneath the seafloor of the Kandalaksha Gulf: 1) crystalline bedrock of the Archean White Sea complex; 2) a cover of sediment consisting of three layers: Riphean sandstones, terrigenous Vendian deposits; a cloak of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits and sediments - glacial drifts, transitional glaciomarine sediments and purely marine sediments. The modern White Sea is a young basin formed just 10 to 12 ka. The geological and geomorphic history of the White Sea region was very complicated, with various and often conflicting tectonic movements. Besides the postglacial isostatic rise of Scandinavia amounted to some 100 meters in the White Sea area. The White Sea has numerous islands that are very different in the geological-geomorphological and genetic senses because their origin is the result of interactions between various endogenous and exogenous processes. Large and detailed scale geological and morphological researches of the islands at the southern and northern coast of the Kandalaksha Gulf have been carried out. Landforms of the islands were produced by the joint effects of such processes as (1) glacial-tectonic effects and marine wave action, (2) tidal and surge effects; (3) glacial-tectonic, marine, and gravity effects, and (4) glacial-tectonic, marine, lake, and biogenic effects (Kosevich, 2015). The relief structure of the islands has the following regularities: 1) structures of the northern coast islands are more often landforms that are composed of loose deposits with small sites of structural denudation residual outcrops; 2) the structures of the southern coast islands are typically combinations of loose

  8. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  9. Internal anal sphincter: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Uz, A; Elhan, A; Ersoy, M; Tekdemir, I

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the internal anal sphincter and surrounding structures was investigated in 24 cadavers using a surgical microscope (6-25 x magnification). An understanding of the anatomy of the internal anal sphincter is helpful in avoiding complications during surgical procedures in the anorectal region. The external anal sphincter was composed of three ellipsoid rings of skeletal muscle (subcutaneous, superficial, and deep) that encircle the anal canal; in contrast, we found that the internal anal sphincter was composed of flat rings of smooth muscle bundles stacked one on top of the other, like the slats of a Venetian blind. In each anal canal, the average number of ring-like slats observed was 26.33 +/- 2.93 (range = 20-30) and each was covered by its own fascia. The smooth muscle fibers and fascia coalesced at three equidistant points around the anal canal to form three columns that extended distally into the lumen and differed in form from the other anal columns. When viewed from an anterior position, the columns were located anteriorly at the observer's right (5 o'clock position), posteriorly at the right (1 o'clock position), and laterally at the left (9 o'clock position). This heretofore unreported anatomy of the internal anal sphincter may play an important role in closing off the lumen of the anal canal and maintaining bowel continence. PMID:14695582

  10. A Study and Simulation of International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica; Skrentny, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates a fifth grade teaching unit on international economics. Gives suggestions for use at the lower elementary and primary grades and points out that incorporation of economics into the elementary education curriculum can produce economically literate citizens in a cost-effective way. (GG)

  11. The Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Fumarate Lessens Contracture Severity and Myofibroblast Hyperplasia: A Study of a Rabbit Model of Posttraumatic Joint Contractures

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The propensity of the elbow to become stiff after trauma is widely appreciated and in this setting, the joint capsule is commonly recognized as the major motion-limiting anatomical structure. Affected joint capsules become fibrotic, characterized by myofibroblast hyperplasia and excessive collagen deposition. Mast cell hyperplasia is common within fibrotic tissue and mast cells are known to synthesize many profibrotic mediators. We have hypothesized that mast cell inhibition after skeletal injury will lessen the degree of contracture severity and will reduce myofibroblast hyperplasia within the joint capsule. Methods Posttraumatic contractures of the knee were created using a combination of intra-articular injury coupled to internal immobilization in skeletally mature, New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operative control group (CON), an operative contracture group (ORC) and two-operative groups treated with a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen fumarate at doses of 0.5mg/kg (KF0.5) and 1.0mg/kg (KF1.0) twice daily, respectively. After 8 weeks of immobilization, flexion contractures were measured biomechanically and the posterior joint capsule was harvested for quantification of myofibroblast and mast cell numbers. Results Flexion contractures developed in the ORC group (58 ± 14°) and the severity of contracture was significantly reduced in both groups treated with Ketotifen (KF0.5: 42 ± 17° and KF1.0: 45 ± 10°, p<0.02). Joint capsule myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly increased within the operative contracture group (p<0.001). In both surgical groups treated with Ketotifen, myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Conclusions The use of a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen was effective in reducing the biomechanical and cellular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of posttraumatic joint contracture. This is suggestive that an inflammatory pathway

  12. Can discrete joint action be synergistic? Studying the stabilization of interpersonal hand coordination.

    PubMed

    Romero, Veronica; Kallen, Rachel; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The human perceptual-motor system is tightly coupled to the physical and informational dynamics of a task environment. These dynamics operate to constrain the high-dimensional order of the human movement system into low-dimensional, task-specific synergies-functional groupings of structural elements that are temporarily constrained to act as a single coordinated unit. The aim of the current study was to determine whether synergistic processes operate when coacting individuals coordinate to perform a discrete joint-action task. Pairs of participants sat next to each other and each used 1 arm to complete a pointer-to-target task. Using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis for the first time in a discrete joint action, the structure of joint-angle variance was examined to determine whether there was synergistic organization of the degrees of freedom employed at the interpersonal or intrapersonal levels. The results revealed that the motor actions performed by coactors were synergistically organized at both the interpersonal and intrapersonal levels. More importantly, however, the interpersonal synergy was found to be significantly stronger than the intrapersonal synergies. Accordingly, the results provide clear evidence that coacting individuals can become temporarily organized to form single synergistic 2-person systems during performance of a discrete joint action. PMID:26052696

  13. Can Discrete Joint Action Be Synergistic? Studying the Stabilization of Interpersonal Hand Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Kallen, Rachel; Riley, Michael A.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The human perceptual-motor system is tightly coupled to the physical and informational dynamics of a task environment. These dynamics operate to constrain the high-dimensional order of the human movement system into low-dimensional, task-specific synergies—functional groupings of structural elements that are temporarily constrained to act as a single coordinated unit. The aim of the current study was to determine whether synergistic processes operate when coacting individuals coordinate to perform a discrete joint-action task. Pairs of participants sat next to each other and each used 1 arm to complete a pointer-to-target task. Using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis for the first time in a discrete joint action, the structure of joint-angle variance was examined to determine whether there was synergistic organization of the degrees of freedom employed at the interpersonal or intrapersonal levels. The results revealed that the motor actions performed by coactors were synergistically organized at both the interpersonal and intrapersonal levels. More importantly, however, the interpersonal synergy was found to be significantly stronger than the intrapersonal synergies. Accordingly, the results provide clear evidence that coacting individuals can become temporarily organized to form single synergistic 2-person systems during performance of a discrete joint action. PMID:26052696

  14. A Normative Study of the Synovial Fluid Proteome from Healthy Porcine Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid in an articulating joint contains proteins derived from the blood plasma and proteins that are produced by cells within the joint tissues, such as synovium, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. The proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid and the cellular origins of many synovial fluid components are not fully understood. Here, we present a normative proteomics study using porcine synovial fluid. Using our optimized method, we identified 267 proteins with high confidence in healthy synovial fluid. We also evaluated mRNA expression data from tissues that can contribute to the synovial fluid proteome, including synovium, cartilage, blood, and liver, to better estimate the relative contributions from these sources to specific synovial fluid components. We identified 113 proteins in healthy synovial fluid that appear to be primarily derived from plasma transudates, 37 proteins primarily derived from synovium, and 11 proteins primarily derived from cartilage. Finally, we compared the identified synovial fluid proteome to the proteome of human plasma, and we found that the two body fluids share many similarities, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. Knowing the synovial fluid proteome of a healthy joint will help to identify mechanisms that cause joint disease and pathways involved in disease progression. PMID:25160569

  15. A microstructural study of creep and thermal fatigue deformation in 60Sn-40Pb solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Tribula, D.

    1990-06-02

    Thermal fatigue failures of solder joints in electronic devices often arise from cyclic shear strains imposed by the mismatched thermal expansion coefficients of the materials that bind the joint as temperature changes are encountered. Increased solder joint reliability demands a fundamental understanding of the metallurigical mechanisms that control the fatigue to design accurate accelerated probative tests and new, more fatigue resistant solder alloys. The high temperatures and slow strain rates that pertain to thermal fatigue imply that creep is an important deformation mode in the thermal fatigue cycle. In this work, the creep behaviour of a solder joint is studied to determine the solder's microstructural response to this type of deformation and to relate this to the more complex problem of thermal fatigue. It is shown that creep failures arise from the inherent inhomogeneity and instability of the solder microstructure and suggest that small compositional changes of the binary near-eutectic Pn-Sn alloy may defeat the observed failure mechanisms. This work presents creep and thermal fatigue data for several near-eutectic Pb-Sn solder compositions and concludes that a 58Sn-40Pb-2In and a 58Sn-40Pb-2Cd alloy show significantly enhanced fatigue resistance over that of the simple binary material. 80 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comprehensive joint feedback control for standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation-a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Kirsch, Robert F; Triolo, Ronald J

    2010-12-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, 3-D computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  17. Effects of distal radius malunion on distal radioulnar joint mechanics--an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Moore, Douglas C; Marai, G Elisabeta; Laidlaw, David H; Akelman, Edward; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Wolfe, Scott W

    2007-04-01

    Patients with a malunited distal radius often have painful and limited forearm rotation, and may progress to arthritis of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). The purpose of this study was to determine if DRUJ congruency and mechanics were altered in patients with malunited distal radius fractures. In nine subjects with unilateral malunions, interbone distances and dorsal and palmar radioulnar ligament lengths were computed from tomographic images of both forearms in multiple forearm positions using markerless bone registration (MBR) techniques. The significance of the changes were assessed using a generalized linear model, which controlled for forearm rotation angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees ). In the malunited forearm, compared to the contralateral uninjured arm, we found that ulnar joint space area significantly decreased by approximately 25%, the centroid of this area moved an average of 1.3 mm proximally, and the dorsal radioulnar ligament elongated. Despite our previous findings of insignificant changes in the pattern of radioulnar kinematics in patients with malunited fractures, we found significant changes in DRUJ joint area and ligament lengthening. These findings suggest that alterations in joint mechanics and soft tissues may play an important role in the dysfunction associated with these injuries. PMID:17262830

  18. Comprehensive Joint Feedback Control for Standing by Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation – a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  19. Understanding the joint behavior of temperature and precipitation for climate change impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Qin, Yueyue

    2016-04-01

    The multiple downscaled scenario products allow us to assess the uncertainty of the variations of precipitation and temperature in the current and future periods. Probabilistic assessments of both climatic variables help better understand the interdependence of the two and thus, in turn, help in assessing the future with confidence. In the present study, we use ensemble of statistically downscaled precipitation and temperature from various models. The dataset used is multi-model ensemble of 10 global climate models (GCMs) downscaled product from CMIP5 daily dataset using the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, generated at Portland State University. The multi-model ensemble of both precipitation and temperature is evaluated for dry and wet periods for 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Thereafter, copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables on multi-model ensemble data. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the change in trends of said variables in future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given change. The joint distribution trends vary, but certainly positive, for dry and wet periods in sub-basins of CRB. Dry season, generally, is indicating a higher positive change in precipitation than temperature (as compared to historical) across sub-basins with wet season inferring otherwise. Probabilities of changes in future, as estimated from the joint distribution, indicate varied degrees and forms during dry season whereas the wet season is rather constant across all the sub-basins.

  20. Comparative study on submillimeter flaws in stitched T-joint carbon fiber reinforced polymer by infrared thermography, microcomputed tomography, ultrasonic c-scan and microscopic inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai; Hassler, Ulf; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Robitaille, Francois; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Joncas, Simon; Maldague, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Stitching is used to reduce dry-core (incomplete infusion of T-joint core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it may cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. Microscopic inspection, ultrasonic c-scan, pulsed thermography, vibrothermography, and laser spot thermography are used to investigate the internal flaws in a stitched T-joint carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Then, a new microlaser line thermography is proposed. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is used to validate the infrared results. A comparison between microlaser line thermography and microCT is performed. It was concluded that microlaser line thermography can detect the internal submillimeter defects. However, the depth and size of the defects can affect the detection results. The microporosities with a diameter of less than 54 μm are not detected in the microlaser line thermography results. Microlaser line thermography can detect the microporosity (a diameter of 0.162 mm) from a depth of 90 μm. However, it cannot detect the internal microporosity (a diameter of 0.216 mm) from a depth of 0.18 mm. The potential causes are given. Finally, a comparative study is conducted.

  1. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  2. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  3. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  4. Report on the SNL/NSF International Workshop on Joint Mechanics, Arlington, Virginia, 16-18 October 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2007-11-01

    The NSF/SNL joint mechanics workshop, held in Arlington, Virginia, 16-18 October, 2006, attempted to assess the current state of the art for modeling joint mechanics for the purpose of structural dynamics calculation, to identify the underlying physics issues that must be addressed to advance the field, and to propose a path forward. Distinguished participants from several countries representing research communities that focus on very different length and time scales identified multiple challenges in bridging those scales. Additionally, two complementary points of view were developed for addressing those challenges. The first approach - the 'bottom-up' perspective - attempts to bridge scales by starting from the smallest length scale and working up. The other approach starts at the length scale of application and attempts to deduce mechanics at smaller length scales through reconciliation with laboratory observation. Because interface physics is a limiting element of predictive simulation in defense and transportation, this issue will be of continuing importance for the foreseeable future.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of the Articulinx Intercarpometacarpal Cushion for the First CMC Joint: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Fiente J. C.; White, David N.; Dapper, Mattie M. L.; Griot, J. Peter W. don; Ritt, Marco P. J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Intercarpometacarpal Cushion (ICMC; Articulinx, Cupertino, CA, USA) is an implantable spacer designed as a less invasive surgical treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC-1). Description of Technique Following local anesthesia and exposure of the joint capsule the ICMC, attached to a needle and suture tethers, is guided into the joint space under fluoroscopic visualization through a dorsal approach. The needle is pulled through the thenar eminence to the opposite side of the hand and, once proper device placement is confirmed, cut free and the joint capsule closed. Patients and Methods Eight female patients (median age 56 years; range, 42-83) were treated and followed for 6 to 24 months. Safety of the implant procedure was evaluated intraoperatively. Pain, joint function, and strength were evaluated at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, the QuickDASH inventory, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and pinch and grip strength measurements. Results At 2 years (n = 6), mean VAS pain scores decreased from 6.3 (± 1.5) to 2.2 (± 1.1) (p < 0.001), mean QuickDASH scores improved from 47 (± 15) to 31 (± 11) (p < 0.10), mean COPM performance scores improved from 5.0 (± 1.2) to 5.5 ( ± 1.3) (p = NS). Mean pinch and grip strength measurements also improved compared with baseline. No serious adverse events occurred. Two device removals occurred, associated with a traumatic event and Stage IV OA with device displacement, at 6 and 9 months respectively. Conclusion The ICMC can be implanted safely. Effectiveness needs to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:24436828

  6. Clinical Evaluation of the Articulinx Intercarpometacarpal Cushion for the First CMC Joint: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Fiente J C; White, David N; Dapper, Mattie M L; Griot, J Peter W Don; Ritt, Marco P J F

    2013-08-01

    Background The Intercarpometacarpal Cushion (ICMC; Articulinx, Cupertino, CA, USA) is an implantable spacer designed as a less invasive surgical treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC-1). Description of Technique Following local anesthesia and exposure of the joint capsule the ICMC, attached to a needle and suture tethers, is guided into the joint space under fluoroscopic visualization through a dorsal approach. The needle is pulled through the thenar eminence to the opposite side of the hand and, once proper device placement is confirmed, cut free and the joint capsule closed. Patients and Methods Eight female patients (median age 56 years; range, 42-83) were treated and followed for 6 to 24 months. Safety of the implant procedure was evaluated intraoperatively. Pain, joint function, and strength were evaluated at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, the QuickDASH inventory, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and pinch and grip strength measurements. Results At 2 years (n = 6), mean VAS pain scores decreased from 6.3 (± 1.5) to 2.2 (± 1.1) (p < 0.001), mean QuickDASH scores improved from 47 (± 15) to 31 (± 11) (p < 0.10), mean COPM performance scores improved from 5.0 (± 1.2) to 5.5 ( ± 1.3) (p = NS). Mean pinch and grip strength measurements also improved compared with baseline. No serious adverse events occurred. Two device removals occurred, associated with a traumatic event and Stage IV OA with device displacement, at 6 and 9 months respectively. Conclusion The ICMC can be implanted safely. Effectiveness needs to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:24436828

  7. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  8. Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Li, Yan-Xia; Liu, Wei-Tong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To study the correlation of the results obtained from different proprioception test methods, namely, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method, and the force sense reproduction method, performed on the same subjects’ knees. [Subjects and Methods] Different proprioception test methods, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method were used to test the knees of 30 healthy young men. [Results] Correlations were found in the following descending order from strong to weak: the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the force sense reproduction method (correlation coefficient of 0.41), the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the motion minimum threshold measurement method (correlation coefficient of 0.29), the correlation between the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduce method (correlation coefficient of 0.15). [Conclusion] No correlation was found among the results obtained using the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method. Therefore, no correlation was found among the position sense, the motion sense and the force sense represented by these methods. Using the results of only one of the test methods to represent proprioception is one-sided. Force sensation depends more on the sensory input of information from the Golgi tendon organs, motion sense depends more on the input information of the muscle spindles, and position sense relies on the double input information of the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs. PMID:27065533

  9. Adaptation of Rural and Foreign Workers to Industry, International Joint Seminar (Wiesbaden, December 10-13, 1963). Final Report. International Seminars 1963-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The major purpose of a seminar held in Wiesbaden, Germany, was to exchange experiences and views on the methods of expediating adjustment of rural and foreign workers to industry. Major presentations for discussion were "Internal Migration" by Magda Talamo, and "International Migration" by Elie Dimitras. Some conclusions were: (1) Movement of the…

  10. Comparison of Hallux Interphalangeal Joint Arthrodesis Fixation Techniques: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Thorud, Jakob C; Jolley, Tyler; Shibuya, Naohiro; Lew, Eric; Britt, Matthew; Butterfield, Ted; Boike, Alan; Hardy, Mark; Brancheau, Steven P; Motley, Travis; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complications that occur after hallux interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. The present study evaluated complications in 152 patients aged 18 to 80 years from 2005 to 2012 from 4 different academic institutions after hallux interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. Overall, 65.8% of the patients had ≥1 complication. Infections occurred in 16.5%, dehiscence in 12.5%, and reoperations in 27.0%. The clinical nonunion rate was ≥17.8%, and the radiographic nonunion rate was ≥13.8%. After logistic regression analysis, only the study site and peripheral neuropathy were associated with having ≥1 complication (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). Single screw fixation compared with other fixation did not have a statistically significant influence on the postoperative complications. However, when fixation was expanded to 4 categories, single screw fixation had lower infection and reoperation rates than either crossed Kirschner wires or other fixation category but not compared with crossed screws on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although additional studies are warranted, the findings from the present study might aid in both the prognosis of complications and the support of the use of a single screw over crossed Kirchner wire fixation in hallux interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. PMID:25960055

  11. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  12. Effects of Neoprene Wrist/Hand Splints on Handwriting for Students with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome: A Single System Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Lauren; Wesley, Alison; Wallen, Margaret; Bundy, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pain associated with hypermobility of wrist and hand joints can contribute to decreased handwriting output. This study examined the effectiveness of a neoprene wrist/hand splint in reducing pain and increasing handwriting speed and endurance for students with joint hypermobility syndrome. Methods: Multiple baseline, single system design…

  13. Effects of Joint Attention Mediated Learning for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Initial Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Odom, Samuel L.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Sideris, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of the Joint Attention Mediated Learning (JAML) intervention on acquisition of joint attention and other early social communication competencies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-three parents and their toddlers were randomly assigned to JAML or a control condition.…

  14. Lumbar Zygapophysial Joint Radiofrequency Denervation: a Long-Term Clinical Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Manejias, Elizabeth Marie; Hu, Jason; Tatli, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Zygapophysial joint (z-joint) pain has long been suggested to be one of the sources of low back pain. Radiofrequency denervation of the medial branches of the dorsal rami to treat z-joint pain is an outpatient minimally invasive treatment option. There have been many short-term studies to determine the outcome of the procedure, but few long-term studies have been conducted. Our goal is to clarify whether radiofrequency denervation has any long-term clinical benefit. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 42 patients (25 women and 17 men), with an average follow-up of 3.5 years, with clinical signs of zygapophysial joint involvement who had failed conservative treatment (pre-procedure symptom duration mean 6.03 years; range 5 months to 48 years) and had a favorable response to a diagnostic medial branch block or zygapophysial joint injection, were identified. The identified subjects underwent radiofrequency denervation at the Hospital for Special Surgery Physiatry Department from 1998 to 2006. Patient’s records were reviewed, and a questionnaire was provided, completed on phone call follow-up, or mailed by the patient. The success of this intervention in providing improvement in pain and function was analyzed using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS)—11, North American Spine Society (NASS) four-point satisfaction index, and a modified Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Fifty-two percent of patients reported a successful outcome with improved function at a minimum follow-up period of 2 years (mean 3.5 years, range 2–8.8 years). Patients in the failure group were more likely to be older and have moderate to severe neuroforaminal stenosis (77.8%) compared to patients in the success group (24.2%). Radiofrequency denervation in selected patients with chronic zygapophysial joint-mediated low back pain provides long-term reduction in pain and improved function with minimum morbidity. PMID:18815863

  15. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  16. Arthroscopically Assisted Reconstruction of Acute Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocations: Anatomic AC Ligament Reconstruction With Protective Internal Bracing—The “AC-RecoBridge” Technique

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Kaywan; Jaeger, Martin; Ogon, Peter; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Maier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    An arthroscopically assisted technique for the treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations is presented. This pathology-based procedure aims to achieve anatomic healing of both the acromioclavicular ligament complex (ACLC) and the coracoclavicular ligaments. First, the acromioclavicular joint is reduced anatomically under macroscopic and radiologic control and temporarily transfixed with a K-wire. A single-channel technique using 2 suture tapes provides secure coracoclavicular stabilization. The key step of the procedure consists of the anatomic repair of the ACLC (“AC-Reco”). Basically, we have observed 4 patterns of injury: clavicular-sided, acromial-sided, oblique, and midportion tears. Direct and/or transosseous ACLC repair is performed accordingly. Then, an X-configured acromioclavicular suture tape cerclage (“AC-Bridge”) is applied under arthroscopic assistance to limit horizontal clavicular translation to a physiological extent. The AC-Bridge follows the principle of internal bracing and protects healing of the ACLC repair. The AC-Bridge is tightened on top of the repair, creating an additional suture-bridge effect and promoting anatomic ACLC healing. We refer to this combined technique of anatomic ACLC repair and protective internal bracing as the “AC-RecoBridge.” A detailed stepwise description of the surgical technique, including indications, technical pearls and pitfalls, and potential complications, is given. PMID:26052493

  17. Experimental Studies on Permeability of Intact and Singly Jointed Meta-Sedimentary Rocks Under Confining Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Li, Diyuan; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Three different types of permeability tests were conducted on 23 intact and singly jointed rock specimens, which were cored from rock blocks collected from a rock cavern under construction in Singapore. The studied rock types belong to inter-bedded meta-sandstone and meta-siltstone with very low porosity and high uniaxial compressive strength. The transient pulse water flow method was employed to measure the permeability of intact meta-sandstone under a confining pressure up to 30 MPa. It showed that the magnitude order of meta-sandstone's intrinsic permeability is about 10-18 m2. The steady-state gas flow method was used to measure the permeability of both intact meta-siltstone and meta-sandstone in a triaxial cell under different confining pressures spanning from 2.5 to 10 MPa. The measured permeability of both rock types ranged from 10-21 to 10-20 m2. The influence of a single natural joint on the permeability of both rock types was studied by using the steady-state water flow method under different confining pressures spanning from 1.25 to 5.0 MPa, including loading and unloading phases. The measured permeability of both jointed rocks ranged from 10-13 to 10-11 m2, where the permeability of jointed meta-siltstone was usually slightly lower than that of jointed meta-sandstone. The permeability of jointed rocks decreases with increasing confining pressure, which can be well fitted by an empirical power law relationship between the permeability and confining pressure or effective pressure. The permeability of partly open cracked specimens is lower than that of open cracked specimens, but it is higher than that of the specimen with a dominant vein for the meta-sandstone under the same confining pressure. The permeability of open cracked rock specimens will partially recover during the unloading confining pressure process. The equivalent crack (joint) aperture is as narrow as a magnitude order of 10-6 m (1 μm) in the rock specimens under confining pressures

  18. International photonics training: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan; Massa, Nicholas; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna

    2007-06-01

    From 2004, the Center for Science Education and Training (CSET) participated to the European Union-funded educational network "Hands-on Science". The aim of the Romanian team was to transform teachers and students from end-users of educational aids to active designers and developers of instructional materials. Several science fields were identified, including photonics. The team at CSET is now focusing on: lasers and their applications, optical fiber communications, solar energy as a sustainable source, and the use of optical spectroscopy in physics and chemistry. CSET initiated an international collaboration with the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) in Boston, Mass., when the Center enrolled an experienced Romanian high school science teacher in a twelve-week "Introduction to Photonics" laboratory-based professional development course. The course was developed by NEBHE through an Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program grant from National Science Foundation and is designed for high school and community college educators from both science and technology instructional areas. The paper reports the experience of this international participation which was made possible since the course is delivered via the Internet by Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, Conn. Its impact on photonics education in Romania and the USA is analyzed, as the participant teacher shares her experiences with teachers and faculty in the "Introduction to Photonics" course and with those enrolled into the Romanian "Hands-on-Science" program.

  19. A study of strength evaluations of EDNi/EDCu/NARloy-Z bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Dissimilar material interfaces can be found in many materials and structural bonds such as composite materials, welded parts, inclusion in matrix, bond between metallic and ceramic materials, and so forth. One of such structural bonds can be seen in the main combustion chamber (MCC) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). In this study, from a practical sense, the primary concern is to understand the systems response of EDNi/EDCu/NARloy-Z bonded joints using stress values approximated by the finite element method to determine an influence of the variation of structural bond parameters on the bonded joints, and consequently main combustion chamber of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The results presented in this study could be an appropriate indicator for a good bond of EDNi/DECu/NARloy-Z layers with the desired thickness of copper deposition in the SSME MCC manufacturing process. Furthermore, the results from this study appear to be applicable to any bonded joints that can be characterized by the parameters and assumptions used in this analysis.

  20. Safety profile of sural nerve in posterolateral approach to the ankle joint: MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ellapparadja, Pregash; Husami, Yaya; McLeod, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The posterolateral approach to ankle joint is well suited for ORIF of posterior malleolar fractures. There are no major neurovascular structures endangering this approach other than the sural nerve. The sural nerve is often used as an autologous peripheral nerve graft and provides sensation to the lateral aspect of the foot. The aim of this paper is to measure the precise distance of the sural nerve from surrounding soft tissue structures so as to enable safe placement of skin incision in posterolateral approach. This is a retrospective image review study involving 64 MRI scans. All measurements were made from Axial T1 slices. The key findings of the paper is the safety window for the sural nerve from the lateral border of tendoachilles (TA) is 7 mm, 1.3 cm and 2 cm at 3 cm above ankle joint, at the ankle joint and at the distal tip of fibula respectively. Our study demonstrates the close relationship of the nerve in relation to TA and fibula in terms of exact measurements. The safety margins established in this study should enable the surgeon in preventing endangerment of the sural nerve encountered in this approach. PMID:24158742

  1. Knee joint position sense of roller hockey players: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, João; Lopes, Diogo; Lourenço, Joaquim; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare knee joint position sense of roller hockey players with an age-matched group of non-athletes. Forty-three male participants voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study: 21 roller hockey players (mean age: 23.2 ± 4.2 years old, mean weight: 81.8 ± 9.8 kg, mean height: 180.5 ± 4.1 cm) and 22 age-matched non-athletes (mean age: 23.7 ± 3.9 years old, mean weight: 85.0 ± 6.2 kg, mean height: 181.5 ± 5.0 cm). Knee joint position sense of the dominant limb was evaluated using a technique of open-kinetic chain and active knee positioning. Joint position sense was reported using absolute, relative and variable angular errors. The main results indicated that the group of roller hockey players showed significantly lower absolute (2.4 ± 1.2º vs. 6.5 ± 3.2º, p ≤ 0.001) and relative (1.7 ± 2.1º vs. 5.8 ± 4.4º, p ≤ 0.001) angular errors in comparison with the non-athletes group. In conclusion, the results from this present study suggest that proprioceptive acuity, assessed by measuring joint position sense, is increased in roller hockey players. The enhanced proprioception of the roller hockey players could contribute to injury prevention and improved performance during sporting activities. PMID:27111126

  2. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions. PMID:26927688

  3. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Ibanez, Lisa V; Henderson, Heather A; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2015-12-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of facial positive affect (N290/P400, Nc) at 9 months and their relation to joint attention at 15 months. Group differences were most pronounced for subtle facial expressions, in that the low-risk group exhibited relatively longer processing (P400 latency) and greater attention resource allocation (Nc amplitude). Exploratory analyses found associations between ERP responses and later joint attention, suggesting that attention to positive affect cues may support the development of other social competencies. PMID:25056131

  4. Ibuprofen in the treatment of acute ankle joint injuries. A double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Fredberg, U; Hansen, P A; Skinhøj, A

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-eight patients who presented to the casualty ward with acute ankle joint injuries were studied to examine the effect of ibuprofen on pain and ankle swelling. Thirty-two patients were treated with placebo tablets and 36 with 600 mg ibuprofen tablets taken four times a day for 4 to 6 days. All of the patients were immobilized and requested to keep the foot elevated. The results showed that ibuprofen had no effect on the ankle swelling. The need for additional analgesics was not influenced by treatment with ibuprofen, which means that ibuprofen has no effect on pain. The time elapsed from occurrence of the injury to arrival at the casualty ward was negatively correlated to the reduction of ankle joint swelling during the treatment period. Treatment with ice-sprays, icebags, or cold water during the acute stage of injury did not influence the reduction of swelling during the treatment period. PMID:2675651

  5. Study on technology of double parallel-joints coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Guisuo; Liao, Cheng; Yu, Runqiao; Fu, Yanjun

    2013-10-01

    The research of the high accuracy coordinate measuring machine is now playing a more and more considerable role in heightening the technical level of equipment manufacturing industry. With reference to the characteristics of foreign ScanMax coordinate measuring machine, this paper introduces the development of a double parallel-joint coordinate measuring machine with our own dependent intellectual property. This paper details the structural design, the calibration method and the evaluation for the uncertainty measurement of a prototype. The prototype has several advantages when compared with foreign instruments: first, decrease of Abbe error; second, enlargement of the measuring range; third, improvement of the rigidity of the instrument. The measurement test indicates that the measurement uncertainty (when K=2) of special random distance is 10.2 μm. The double parallel-joint coordinate measuring machine studied by this paper is of great academic value and the developed prototype is highly practical and worthy of being popularized.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  7. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  8. Language and International Studies: The Rhetoric of Friction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Rose L.

    This paper outlines the ways in which natural, functional areas in international studies overlap with foreign language proficiencies. An overview of international studies and language developments is given along with contrasts between needs and realities, showing that educational practice in this area is out-of-phase. Today, the situation is…

  9. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  10. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Denervation for Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven P.; Hurley, Robert W.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Kurihara, Connie; Morlando, Benny; Dragovich, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint pain is a challenging condition accounting for approximately 20% of cases of chronic low back pain. Currently, there are no effective long-term treatment options for sacroiliac joint pain. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 28 patients with injection-diagnosed sacroiliac joint pain. Fourteen patients received L4-5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation using cooling-probe technology following a local anesthetic block, and 14 patients received the local anesthetic block followed by placebo denervation. Patients who failed to respond to placebo injections crossed over and were treated with radiofrequency denervation using conventional technology. Results One, 3 and 6-months post-procedure, 11 (79%), 9 (64%) and 8 (57%) of radiofrequency treated patients experienced ≥ 50% pain relief and significant functional improvement. In contrast, only 2 (14%) patients in the placebo group experienced significant improvement at their 1-month follow-up, and none experienced benefit 3-months post-procedure. In the crossover group (n=11), 7 (64%), 6 (55%) and 4 (36%) patients experienced improvement 1, 3 and 6-months post-procedure. One year after treatment, only 2 (14%) patients in the treatment group continued to demonstrate persistent pain relief. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that L4 and L5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation may provide intermediate-term pain relief and functional benefit in selected patients with suspected sacroiliac joint pain. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results, and determine the optimal candidates and treatment parameters for this poorly understood disorder. PMID:18648237