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Sample records for international kupffer cell

  1. Kupffer Cell Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Lefebvre, Anh Thu; Horuzsko, Anatolij

    2015-01-01

    Kupffer cells are resident liver macrophages and play a critical role in maintaining liver functions. Under physiological conditions, they are the first innate immune cells and protect the liver from bacterial infections. Under pathological conditions, they are activated by different components and can differentiate into M1-like (classical) or M2-like (alternative) macrophages. The metabolism of classical or alternative activated Kupffer cells will determine their functions in liver damage. Special functions and metabolism of Kupffer cells suggest that they are an attractive target for therapy of liver inflammation and related diseases, including cancer and infectious diseases. Here we review the different types of Kupffer cells and their metabolism and functions in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26937490

  2. Kupffer Cells in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Laura J.; Barnes, Mark; Tang, Hui; Pritchard, Michele T.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells are a critical component of the mononuclear phagocytic system and are central to both the hepatic and systemic response to pathogens. Kupffer cells are reemerging as critical mediators of both liver injury and repair. Kupffer cells exhibit a tremendous plasticity; depending on the local metabolic and immune environment, then can express a range of polarized phenotypes, from the proinflammatory M1 phenotype to the alternative/M2 phenotype. Multiple M2 phenotypes can be distinguished, each involved in the resolution of inflammation and wound healing. Here, we have provided an update on recent research that has contributed to the developing delineation of the contribution of Kupffer cells to different types of liver injury, with an emphasis on alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. These recent advances in our understanding of Kupffer cell function and regulation will likely provide new insights into the potential for therapeutic manipulation of Kupffer cells to promote the resolution of inflammation and enhance wound healing in liver disease. PMID:23720329

  3. Effects of carbendazim on Kupffer cell functioning.

    PubMed

    Viktorov, A V; Yurkiv, V A

    2013-02-01

    Carbendazim inhibited LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and NO in the primary culture of rat Kupffer cells. At the same time, phagocytosis evaluated by latex particles engulfment significantly decreased after cell preincubation with carbendazim. PMID:23486575

  4. Characterisation of Kupffer cells in some Amphibia

    PubMed Central

    CORSARO, CONCETTA; SCALIA, MARINA; LEOTTA, NICOLA; MONDIO, FILIPPO; SICHEL, GIOVANNI

    2000-01-01

    A study on the Kupffer cells (KCs) of Amphibia was undertaken in order to compare these cells with those of endothermic animals. Liver tissue and isolated and cultured KCs were studied by light microscopy and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We have shown that amphibian KCs can be divided into 2 principal types: ‘small’ and ‘large’. Both cell types possess the distinctive KC morphology. They show nonspecific esterase activity, weak endogenous peroxidase activity in the nuclear envelope and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the ability to engulf naturally present cell debris or experimentally administered zymosan or latex particles. The principal difference between the small and the large cells consists in the substantial quantity of inclusion bodies that exist only in the latter. We conclude that amphibian KCs, apart from their ability to build melanosomes and synthesise melanins, are very similar to mammalian KCs. PMID:10739021

  5. High-affinity binding of fibronectin to cultured Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, P.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.; McKeown-Longo, P.J.; Saba, T.M.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Dias, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Hepatic Kupffer cells are a major component of the reticuloendothelial or macrophage system. They were the first phagocytic cell type whose phagocytosis was shown to be influenced by plasma fibronectin, a dimeric opsonic glycoprotein. In the current study, the binding of soluble radioiodinated fibronectin purified from rat serum to isolated rat hepatic Kupffer cells was investigated using a cultured Kupffer cell monolayer technique. Binding was specific, since unlabeled purified fibronectin competed in a dose-dependent manner with the 125I-fibronectin for binding to the Kupffer cells. Addition of gelatin enhanced the binding of 125I-fibronectin to Kupffer cells. The phagocytosis of gelatinized-coated red cells by Kupffer cells was increased either by preopsonizing the target particles with purified fibronectin or by the addition of purified fibronectin to the culture medium. In contrast, exposure of the Kupffer cells to medium containing purified fibronectin followed by wash-removal of the fibronectin did not increase the uptake of gelatin-coated red blood cells, even though fibronectin was detected on the surface of the Kupffer cells by immunofluorescence. Trypsinized monolayers expressed decreased capacity to bind 125I-fibronectin as well as fibronectin-coated sheep erythrocytes. The binding of 125I-fibronectin-gelatin complexes was inhibited by excess unlabeled fibronectin. We calculated that specific high-affinity (Kd = 7.46 x 10(-9) M) binding sites for fibronectin exist on Kupffer cells. There are approximately 2,800-3,500 binding sites or putative fibronectin receptors per Kupffer cell. These sites appear to mediate the enhanced phagocytosis of gelatin-coated particles opsonized by fibronectin.

  6. [Ethanol changes sensitivity of Kupffer cells to endotoxin].

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro

    2003-10-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin plays an important role in alcoholic liver injury. Intestinal sterilization with antibiotics (polymyxin B and neomycin) or inactivation of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride can prevent early alcohol-induced liver injury in the Tsukamoto-French model. Although short-term administration of alcohol enhances endotoxin hepatotoxicity, a majority of studies report that short-term ethanol inactivates Kupffer cells. It is therefore paradoxical that Kupffer cells are involved in alcoholic liver injury based on in vivo data with gadolinium chloride and antibiotics, yet ethanol blunts activation of isolated Kupffer cells. Accordingly, this review focuses on understanding this paradox by studying the temporal effect of ethanol in vivo on the response of subsequently isolated Kupffer cells. Mice were given ethanol intragastrically, and LPS was injected later. One hour after ethanol treatment, serum transaminases after LPS were 60% of control, while ethanol increased these parameters about 3-fold 21 hours after ethanol. Pretreatment with antibiotics blocked these effects of ethanol. Two hours after ethanol administration, the LPS-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentration and TNF alpha release by Kupffer cells was diminished by 50% of control, and these parameters were reciprocally enhanced two-fold at 24 hours. Sterilization of the gut with antibiotics blocked both effects of ethanol on intracellular calcium concentration and TNF alpha release. Twenty-four hours after ethanol, CD14 in Kupffer cells was elevated to about five-fold. In Kupffer cells from mice treated with ethanol 1 hour earlier, IRAK expression and activity and NF kappa B were decreased to 50-60% of control. In contrast, in Kupffer cells from mice treated with ethanol 21 hours earlier, LPS-induced TNF alpha production, expression and activity of IRAK were increased 1.5-fold over controls, while NF kappa B activation was elevated 3-fold. Kupffer cells isolated from rodents early after ethanol exhibited tolerance to LPS, whereas sensitization was observed later. In conclusion, acute ethanol alters the expression of endotoxin receptors and intracellular signaling molecules, and causes both tolerance and sensitization of Kupffer cells to endotoxin. It is postulated that tolerance of Kupffer cells contributes to the impairment of innate immune system in alcoholism, while sensitization to endotoxin enhances progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:14639920

  7. Endocytosis of heat-denatured albumin by cultured rat Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Purified Kupffer cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation of sinusoidal cells isolated by pronase treatment of the rat liver. The endocytosis of radioactively labeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin (CA /sup 125/I) was investigated in maintenance cultures of the purified Kupffer cells. The endocytic capacity of the cells was studied during 4 days of culture. Maximum uptake was observed after 24 hr of culture, with a gradual decline during the following days. When the uptake was measured after incubation with increasing concentrations of CA /sup 125/I, a saturation effect was observed. This finding and the observed high rate of uptake are strong indications that receptor sites on the cell membrane are involved in the mechanism of endocytosis. The uptake of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was inhibited by the metabolic inhibitors fluoride and antimycin A, indicating that endocytosis of CA /sup 125/I is dependent on energy derived from both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism of internalization may also require the action of microfilaments as well as intact microtubules, since both cytochalasin B and colchicine inhibited the uptake of CA /sup 125/I. The intracellular degradation of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by chloroquine but not by colchicine. The degradation of ingested CA /sup 125/I occurred within the Kupffer cell lysosomes.

  8. Effective delivery of chemotherapeutic nanoparticles by depleting host Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yusuke; Oda, Tatsuya; Yamada, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Shinji; Akashi, Yoshimasa; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Ryoko; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2012-11-15

    Although chemotherapeutic nanoparticles would confer various advantages, the majority of administrated nanoparticles are known to be spoiled by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Intending to more effectively deliver therapeutic nanoparticles to target regions in vivo, host RES, especially Kupffer cells in the liver, have been depleted ahead of drug administration. To demonstrate this hypothesis, clodronate liposomes were preinjected into BALB/c nude mice for depletion of Kupffer cells 2 days before, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) at the doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg was administered. As a result, doxorubicin accumulation in the liver was decreased from 36 to 26% injected dose/organ by the Kupffer cells depletion, and consequently, the plasma concentration of doxorubicin was significantly enhanced threefold (from 11 to 33 μg/mL) on day 1 at 1.25 mg/kg-dose group. Doxorubicin accumulation in the tumor was increased from 0.78 to 3.0 μg/g-tissue on day 3, and tumor growth inhibition by Doxil was significantly boosted (tumor volumes from 751 to 482 mm(3) on day 24) by the Kupffer cells depletion. In conclusion, Kupffer cells depletion by clodronate liposomes enhanced the plasma concentration and antitumor effects of Doxil, and would be widely applicable for various clinical cancer chemotherapies using nanoparticles. PMID:22362271

  9. Kupffer cell structure in the juvenile Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus.

    PubMed

    van Wilpe, Erna; Groenewald, Hermanus Bernardus

    2014-01-01

    The morphology of Kupffer cells was examined in the liver of the juvenile Nile crocodile using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Pleomorphic Kupffer cells were located in the sinusoids, in the space of Disse, in the hepatic parenchyma and often connected adjacent sinusoids. The cell surfaces were irregular due to the presence of filopodia and lamelliapodia with phagocytosis of white blood cells, red blood cells and thrombocytes being evident. The cells were in close contact with endothelial cells and pit cells in the sinusoidal lumen and with stellate cells in the space of Disse. The cytoplasm contained large phagosomes comprising a combination of ceroid pigment, melanosomes and siderosomes. The nuclei were often indented and eccentrically placed due to the presence of the phagosomes. Conspicuous clusters of membrane-bound tubular organelles with a filamentous or crystalline interior were observed in the cytoplasm. The clusters were sometimes separated into smaller groups around phagosomes. A clear zone existed between the limiting membrane and the interior of these tubular organelles with the electron-dense interior profiles being, respectively, circular, angular or divided. The tubular organelles have not previously been described in Kupffer cells and possibly represent lysosomes with specialized functions. Mitochondria, microtubules, Golgi profiles, granular and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and a few cytoplasmic lipid droplets were also present. The presence of the tubular organelles and the occurrence of the Kupffer cells in different locations in the liver of the juvenile Nile crocodile are indicative of particularly active and mobile cells. PMID:24142864

  10. Biliary decompression promotes Kupffer cell recovery in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, W D; McCaigue, M; Erwin, P; Halliday, I; Rowlands, B J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jaundiced patients undergoing surgical procedures have an increased risk of Gram negative sepsis with potential morbidity and mortality. Depressed Kupffer cell clearance capacity (KCCC) predisposes jaundiced patients to endotoxaemia and its sequelae. Biliary decompression remains the main therapeutic strategy in obstructive jaundice. AIMS: This study investigates the efficacy of internal (ID) and external biliary drainage (ED) on KCCC in an experimental model of extrahepatic biliary obstruction. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were assigned to one of six groups: sham operated, where the bile duct was mobilised but not divided; bile duct ligation (BDL) for three weeks, and sham operated or BDL for three weeks followed by a second laparotomy and further 21 days of ID or ED, by way of choledochoduodenostomy or choledochovesical fistula respectively. KCCC was measured using an isolated hepatic perfusion technique with FITC labelled latex particles (0.75 mu) as the test probe. Plasma was assayed for bilirubin, endotoxin, and anticore glycolipid antibody (ACGA) concentrations. RESULTS: Jaundiced rats had reduced KCCC (p < 0.001), increased concentrations of ACGA (p < 0.001), and endotoxin (p < 0.001) compared with controls. Biliary drainage for three weeks produced a recovery in KCCC and normalisation of endotoxin and ACGA concentrations, however, external drainage was less effective than ID (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that endotoxaemia and its mediated effects are integral in the pathophysiology of jaundice. Furthermore, a short period of internal biliary drainage is a useful therapeutic strategy in restoring Kupffer cell function and negating systemic endotoxaemia and consequent complications in biliary obstruction. Images Figure 3 PMID:8984035

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis: The pivotal role of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Duminda B; Weeratunga, Ashley N; Hu, Robert W; Pandol, Stephen J; Hu, Richard

    2015-11-15

    Kupffer cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). It is believed that alcohol increases the gut permeability that results in raised levels of serum endotoxins containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds to LPS-binding proteins and presents it to a membrane glycoprotein called CD14, which then activates Kupffer cells via a receptor called toll-like receptor 4. This endotoxin mediated activation of Kupffer cells plays an important role in the inflammatory process resulting in alcoholic hepatitis. There is no effective treatment for AH, although notable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the underlying mechanism of alcoholic hepatitis. We specifically review the current research on the role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of AH and the treatment strategies. We suggest that the imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and the anti-inflammatory process as well as the increased production of reactive oxygen species eventually lead to hepatocyte injury, the final event of alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:26600966

  12. Alcoholic hepatitis: The pivotal role of Kupffer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suraweera, Duminda B; Weeratunga, Ashley N; Hu, Robert W; Pandol, Stephen J; Hu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Kupffer cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). It is believed that alcohol increases the gut permeability that results in raised levels of serum endotoxins containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS binds to LPS-binding proteins and presents it to a membrane glycoprotein called CD14, which then activates Kupffer cells via a receptor called toll-like receptor 4. This endotoxin mediated activation of Kupffer cells plays an important role in the inflammatory process resulting in alcoholic hepatitis. There is no effective treatment for AH, although notable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the underlying mechanism of alcoholic hepatitis. We specifically review the current research on the role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of AH and the treatment strategies. We suggest that the imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and the anti-inflammatory process as well as the increased production of reactive oxygen species eventually lead to hepatocyte injury, the final event of alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:26600966

  13. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Gill, Amy F.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animals examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. PMID:24074569

  14. Dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine selectively modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced Kupffer cell activation.

    PubMed

    Oneta, C M; Mak, K M; Lieber, C S

    1999-11-01

    Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC), a mixture of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines extracted from soybeans, protects against alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver injury. Because Kupffer cells mediate liver injury, we hypothesized that PPC may modulate their activation. The activation of Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to an enhanced production of cytokines. Among these, tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) exerts mainly a hepatotoxic effect, whereas interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) appears to be hepatoprotective. The present study evaluated whether dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), the main component of PPC (40% to 52%), affects LPS-induced Kupffer cell activation in vitro. For comparison, palmitoyl-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PLPC), the other major component of PPC (23% to 24%), and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC), the saturated counterpart of DLPC, were also tested. Rat Kupffer cells were cultured in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium containing 10 micromol/L of either DLPC, PLPC, or DSPC in the presence or absence of LPS (1 microg/mL). After 20 hours in culture, the media were collected for cytokine measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. LPS significantly stimulated TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production by 62% and 328%, respectively. Treatment of Kupffer cells with LPS plus DLPC decreased the production of TNF-alpha by 23% (12.17+/-1.83 pg/ng DNA vs 15.72 +/-2.74 pg/ng DNA, P < .05, n = 6) and increased that of IL-1beta by 17% (1.80 +/- 0.16 pg/ng DNA vs 1.54 +/- 0.08 pg/ng DNA, P< .05, n = 6). No effect of PLPC or DSPC on LPS-induced TNF-alpha or IL-1beta generation was observed, thereby illustrating the selective effect of DLPC in this process. Thus DLPC selectively modulates the LPS-induced activation of Kupffer cells by decreasing the production of the cytotoxic TNF-alpha while increasing that of the protective IL-1beta. This dual action of DLPC on cytokines may provide a mechanism for the protective effect against liver injury, but its significance still needs to be determined by in vivo studies. PMID:10560939

  15. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    SciTech Connect

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-11-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated ( SVI)albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function.

  16. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Gill, Amy F.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-11-15

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animals examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. - Highlights: • Kupffer cells increase in the liver of SIV-infected macaques. • Increased proliferation and apoptosis of Kupffer cells occurs in SIV infection. • Productively infected cells are rarely detected in the liver. • The liver is not a major site for SIV replication.

  17. The Role of IL-1 Family Members and Kupffer Cells in Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanhui; Hu, Jianjun; Yu, Xiaolan; Guan, Wen; Lu, Huili; Yu, Yan; Yu, Yongsheng; Zang, Guoqiang; Tang, Zhenghao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family and Kupffer cells are linked with liver regeneration, but their precise roles remain unclear. IL-1 family members are pleiotropic factors with a range of biological roles in liver diseases, inducing hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as liver regeneration. Kupffer cells are the main source of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), the key members of IL-1 family. This systemic review highlights a close association of IL-1 family members and Kupffer cells with liver regeneration, although their specific roles are inconclusive. Moreover, IL-1 members are proposed to induce effects on liver regeneration through Kupffer cells. PMID:27092311

  18. Effect of aging on cytoskeleton system of Kupffer cell and its phagocytic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen-Bing; Han, Ben-Li; Peng, Zhi-Ming; Li, Kun; Ji, Qiang; Chen, Juan; Wang, Huai-Zhi; Ma, Rui-Liang

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the age-related alterations of cytoskeleton system in liver Kupffer cell and their relation to the changed phagocytic function. METHODS: The phagocytic function of Kupffer cells from rats of various ages (6 mo, 12 mo,18 mo and 24 mo) were quantitatively evaluated by phagocytosis of polystyrene beads. The actin distribution and measurement of Kupffer cell were determined by a phalloidin-TRITC method; and the myosin and vimentin distribution and measurement with indirect immunochemical staining. RESULTS: Aging resulted in significant alterations of actin, myosin and vimentin distributions and reductions in Kupffer cell; the 3 cytoskeleton components of 24-mo-old Kupffer cell were significantly decreased to 68.0%, 84.9% and 75.5%, respectively of these of 6-mo-old Kupffer cell(P < 0.01,0.01 and 0.01). And these decreases had significant positive relations with the damaged phagocytosis of the aged Kupffer cell. ? values were 0.96(P < 0.05), 0.99(P < 0.01) and 0.95 (P < 0.05) respectively. CONCLUSION: The cytoskeleton system of the aged Kupffer cell presents an evident state of senescence, which may be an important mechanism of decreased phagocytosis of the aged Kupffer cell. PMID:11819239

  19. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages that are responsible for screening and clearing blood of pathogens and foreign particles. It has recently been shown that Kupffer cells interact with platelets, through an adhesion based mechanism, to aid in pathogen clearance and then these platelets re-enter the general systemic circulation. Thus, a mechanism has been identified that relates liver inflammation to possible changes in the systemic circulation. However, the role that Kupffer cells play in cardiovascular disease initiation/progression has not been elucidated. Thus, our objective was to determine whether or not Kupffer cells are responsive to a classical cardiovascular risk factor and if these changes can be transmitted into the general systemic circulation. If Kupffer cells initiate inflammatory responses after exposure to classical cardiovascular risk factors, then this provides a potential alternative/synergistic pathway for cardiovascular disease initiation. We aimed to elucidate the prevalence of this potential pathway. We hypothesized that Kupffer cells would initiate a robust inflammatory response after exposure to tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette products and that the inflammatory response would have the potential to antagonize other salient cells for cardiovascular disease progression. To test this, Kupffer cells were incubated with tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts or pure nicotine. Complement deposition onto Kupffer cells, Kupffer cell complement receptor expression, oxidative stress production, cytokine release and viability and density were assessed after the exposure. We observed a robust inflammatory response, oxidative stress production and cytokine release after Kupffer cells were exposed to tobacco or e-cigarette extracts. We also observed a marginal decrease in cell viability coupled with a significant decrease in cell density. In general, this was not a function of the extract formulation (e.g. tobacco vs. e-cigarette products or the formulation of the cigarette product). These results indicate that Kupffer cells are responsive to classical cardiovascular risk factors and that an inflammatory response is initiated that may pass into the general systemic circulation. PMID:26072673

  20. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  1. Pro-Inflammatory Activated Kupffer Cells by Lipids Induce Hepatic NKT Cells Deficiency through Activation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. Aims The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Methods Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. Results High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusion High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD. PMID:24312613

  2. Transport of ferritin from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells. Morphological and immunocytochemical observations.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Seno, S

    1991-04-01

    In attempting to determine the pathway of ferritin from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells, anionic iron colloid particles of a ferric hydroxide-potassium polyvinyl sulfate complex (Fe-PVS) were injected intravenously into blood-depleted anemic rats. After iron loading, the process of ferritin formation and the daily change in the latter's distribution in the liver were studied by ultrastructural-immunocytochemical techniques. Three days after Fe-PVS injection, a mass of reaction products of ferritin was found in Kupffer cells, though not in the sinusoidal endothelial or parenchymal cells. Four days post-Fe-PVS injection, however, reaction products in Kupffer cells disappeared, while appearing in parenchymal cells. Observations at 3.5 days after the injection revealed heavy deposition of reaction products in the sinusoid and Disse's spaces as well. Electron microscopic observation of tissue sections treated with bismuth subnitrate taken at this stage revealed diffuse dispersion of ferritin particles in the cytoplasmic matrix of parenchymal cells as well as in the sinusoid and Disse's spaces. Ferritin particles were not found in the coated pits and vesicles of the Kupffer cells and parenchymal cells. Four days after injection, ferritin particles were found in clusters in the cytoplasm of the parenchymal cells and also in their lysosomal bodies. The results indicate that ferritin synthesized in Kupffer cells is released into sinusoidal and Disse's spaces and then accumulated in parenchymal cells. PMID:1747451

  3. How Inflammation Impinges on NAFLD: A Role for Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Nádia; Coelho, Inês C.; Patarrão, Rita S.; Almeida, Joana I.; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Macedo, M. Paula

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most prevalent cause of liver disease worldwide and afflicts adults and children as currently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Even though lately some advances have been made to elucidate the mechanism and causes of the disease much remains unknown about NAFLD. The aim of this paper is to discuss the present knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of the disease aiming at the initial steps of NAFLD development, when inflammation impinges on fat liver deposition. At this stage, the Kupffer cells attain a prominent role. This knowledge becomes subsequently relevant for the development of future diagnostic, prevention, and therapeutic options for the management of NAFLD. PMID:26090470

  4. Ultrastructural study of Kupffer cells in teleost liver under normal and experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Sesso, A

    1981-01-01

    The Kupffer cells in the liver of the teleost fish, Pimelodus maculatus, are attached by desmosomes to the endothelial cells lining the sinusoids. These provide a strong attachment allowing them to resist the passage of blood. Following perfusion with India ink, both endothelial and Kupffer cells ingest India ink particles by pinocytosis and micropinocytosis. It is suggested that both cell types may represent two different functional states of the same cell. PMID:7296637

  5. Repopulation of murine Kupffer cells after intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T.; Naito, M.; Moriyama, H.; Umezu, H.; Matsuo, H.; Kiwada, H.; Arakawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Kupffer cells were selectively eliminated in mice by the intravenous administration of liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate. At 5 days, small peroxidase-negative and acid-phosphatase-weakly-positive macrophages appeared, increased in number, and differentiated into peroxidase- and acid-phosphatase-positive Kupffer cells. Repopulating small macrophages actively proliferated, and the number of Kupffer cells returned to the normal level by day 14. The numbers of macrophage precursors in the liver as detected by the monoclonal antibodies ER-MP20 and ER-MP58 increased after liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate injection. ER-MP58-positive cells proliferated and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells and eventually into BM8-positive Kupffer cells in the liver. Bone-marrow-derived ER-MP58-positive cells were also detectable in the liver and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells, but they did not become BM8-positive macrophages. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA expression was enhanced in the liver 1 day after injection. The administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not shorten the period of Kupffer cell depletion but increased the number and the proliferative capacity of repopulating Kupffer cells. These findings implied that repopulating Kupffer cells are derived from a macrophage precursor pool in the liver rather than from bone-marrow-derived monocytes. Local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the liver plays a crucial role in the differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 18 PMID:8863675

  6. An efficient method to isolate and culture mouse Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-zhi; Li, Jin-zheng; Li, Min; Gong, Jian-ping; He, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) play an essential role in the physiological and pathological functions of the liver. Although the isolation methods of KCs have been well-described, most of them are sophisticated and time-consuming. In addition, these methods are mainly used for isolating the KCs of the human and rat. In this study, a three-step procedure was applied to isolate KCs in sufficient number and purity from mouse liver, including the techniques of enzymatic tissue treatment, gradient centrifugation, and selective adherence. F4/80 immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used for cell identification. The combination method resulted in a satisfactorily high yield of 5-6×10(6) KCs per liver, over 92.0% positive for F4/80 and 98.5% viable cells. After 24h of culturing, the KCs showed typical macrophage morphologic features such as irregular shape, transparent cytoplasm and kidney-like nucleus. The phagocytic assay showed that the isolated cells exhibited strong phagocytosis activity. The KCs we isolated were functionally intact and exhibited a concentration dependent TNF-α production induced by LPS. The method we described is an effective method to isolate mouse KCs in high purity and yield, which consuming fewer collagenase and time without altering the functional capacity of the KCs. PMID:24333337

  7. Differential production of TNF by Kupffer cells after phagocytosis of E. coli and C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Olynyk, J K; Matuschak, G M; Lechner, A J; Britton, R S; Tredway, T L; O'Neill, R; Bacon, B R

    1994-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) of hepatic origin is thought to play a pivotal role early in the genesis of the septic shock syndrome, regardless of microbial etiology. To determine if production of TNF by Kupffer cells varies with microbial taxonomic class, we measured TNF secretory responses in primary cultures of rat Kupffer cells to numerically equivalent gram-negative bacterial or fungal phagocytic challenges. After a 30-min exposure to media, latex beads, soluble Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; serotype 055:B5), live or Formalin-fixed E. coli (serotype 055:B5), live or Formalin-fixed yeast-phase Candida albicans, or live hyphal-phase Candida, samples of culture supernatant were assessed at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min and at 24 h for TNF bioactivity by L929 cell cytotoxicity. Compared with media and latex bead controls, TNF levels progressively increased for up to 240 min after either LPS and equivalently in live E. coli or Formalin-fixed E. coli groups (P < 0.05). Formalin-fixed yeast-phase and live extracellular hyphal-phase C. albicans failed to stimulate production of TNF at any time point (6.9 +/- 0.7 and 8.7 +/- 0.4 U/ml, respectively, at t = 240 min; P < 0.05 vs. E. coli). In contrast, internalization of live yeast-phase C. albicans with subsequent hyphal formation and growth within Kupffer cells was accompanied by a rise in supernatant TNF levels (14.5 +/- 1.8 U/ml at t = 240 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8074222

  8. Hepatic Mrp4 induction following acetaminophen exposure is dependent on Kupffer cell function

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah N.; Johnson, Rachel; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Goedken, Michael J.; van Rooijen, Nico; Scheffer, George L.; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, José E.

    2008-01-01

    During acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity, increased expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2, 3, and 4 (Mrp2-4) occurs. Mrp4 is the most significantly upregulated transporter in mouse liver following APAP treatment. Although the expression profiles of liver transporters following APAP hepatotoxicity are well characterized, the regulatory mechanisms contributing to these changes remain unknown. We hypothesized that Kupffer cell-derived mediators participate in the regulation of hepatic transporters during APAP toxicity. To investigate this, C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with clodronate liposomes (0.1 ml iv) to deplete Kupffer cells and then challenged with APAP (500 mg/kg ip). Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase and hepatic transporter protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate increased susceptibility to APAP hepatotoxicity. Although increased expression of several efflux transporters was observed after APAP exposure, only Mrp4 was found to be differentially regulated following Kupffer cell depletion. At 48 and 72 h after APAP dosing, Mrp4 levels were increased by 10- and 33-fold, respectively, in mice receiving empty liposomes. Immunohistochemistry revealed Mrp4 staining confined to centrilobular hepatocytes. Remarkably, Kupffer cell depletion completely prevented Mrp4 induction by APAP. Elevated plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were also prevented by Kupffer cell depletion. These findings show that Kupffer cells protect the liver from APAP toxicity and that Kupffer cell mediators released in response to APAP are likely responsible for the induction of Mrp4. PMID:18556419

  9. Mouse CD11b+Kupffer Cells Recruited from Bone Marrow Accelerate Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Ikarashi, Masami; Kinoshita, Manabu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Aosasa, Suefumi; Seki, Shuhji; Yamamoto, Junji

    2015-01-01

    TNF and Fas/FasL are vital components, not only in hepatocyte injury, but are also required for hepatocyte regeneration. Liver F4/80+Kupffer cells are classified into two subsets; resident radio-resistant CD68+cells with phagocytic and bactericidal activity, and recruited radio-sensitive CD11b+cells with cytokine-producing capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these Kupffer cells in the liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice. The proportion of Kupffer cell subsets in the remnant liver was examined in C57BL/6 mice by flow cytometry after PHx. To examine the role of CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ, mice were depleted of these cells before PHx by non-lethal 5 Gy irradiation with or without bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or the injection of a CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) antagonist, and liver regeneration was evaluated. Although the proportion of CD68+Kupffer cells did not significantly change after PHx, the proportion of CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ and their FasL expression was greatly increased at three days after PHx, when the hepatocytes vigorously proliferate. Serum TNF and MCP-1 levels peaked one day after PHx. Irradiation eliminated the CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ for approximately two weeks in the liver, while CD68+Kupffer cells, NK cells and NKT cells remained, and hepatocyte regeneration was retarded. However, BMT partially restored CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ and recovered the liver regeneration. Furthermore, CCR2 antagonist treatment decreased the CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ and significantly inhibited liver regeneration. The CD11b+Kupffer cells/Mφ recruited from bone marrow by the MCP-1 produced by CD68+Kupffer cells play a pivotal role in liver regeneration via the TNF/FasL/Fas pathway after PHx. PMID:26333171

  10. Isoferritins in rat Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages. Biosynthesis in cell suspensions and cultures in response to iron

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.L.; Richter, G.W.

    1981-12-01

    Cultures of Kupffer cells and of hepatocytes, prepared from single rat livers, synthesized ferritin protein equally efficiently. In culture but not in suspension, both sorts of cells responded significantly to stimulation with iron by increased ferritin synthesis. As determined by isoelectric focusing, the isoferritin profiles of newly synthesized /sup 14/-labeled Kupffer cell and hepatocyte ferritin were identical, each having three bands. However, unlabeled ferritin, extracted from nonparenchymal liver cells (mainly Kupffer and endothelial cells) of iron-loaded rats, contained an acidic isoferritin that was not present in hepatocyte ferritin. Investigation of ferritin synthesis in cultured peritoneal and alveolar macrophages yielded similar results. The isofocusing profile of newly synthesized peritoneal macrophage ferritin was indistinguishable from the profile of fresh Kupffer cell or hepatocyte ferritin. Thus, the three isoferritins common to Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages are neither cell- nor tissue-specific. However, modifications on intracellular storage may affect the isofocusing properties. The findings, although consistent with the LnH24-n subunit model of ferritin protein, indicate identical restrictive genomic control of the H:L ratios in these sorts of cells. Further, they make it probable that Kupffer cell ferritin iron, originating by endogenous synthesis, is the principal source of Kupffer cell hemosiderin iron.

  11. Liver injury in hypervitaminosis A: Evidence for activation of Kupffer cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, W.L.W.

    1988-01-01

    The most important and novel finding of this work was enhanced liver Kupffer cell phagocytic and metabolic function by hypervitaminosis A. An animal model of hypervitaminosis A was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged with 250,000 I.U. retinol/kg body weight/day for 3 weeks. Presence of hypervitaminosis A was indicated by characteristic changes in the fur coat, presence of brittle bones and spontaneous fractures and a significant increase in plasma and liver concentrations of retinyl palmitate while retinol levels remained the same as in controls. Hypervitaminosis A did not cause severe liver abnormalities as reflected by normal plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity and bilirubin. The main change was a marked increase in size of the fat or Vitamin A storing cells. Measurement of clearance from blood of indocyanine green and {sup 99m}Tc-disofenin indicated this hepatocyte function was normal. Kupffer cell phagocytic function was enhanced in hypervitaminosis A as determined by clearance from blood of {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid. In vitro, there was also evidence that treatment with high doses of Vitamin A activated or enhanced Kupffer cell function. Kupffer cells from control and Vitamin A treated rats were isolated by enzymatic dispersion, purified by centrifugal elutriation, and placed in culture. Activation was indicated by (1) increased phagocytosis of {sup 51}Cr-labeled opsonized sheep red blood cells (2) enhanced release of superoxide anion and (3) enhanced production of tumor cytolytic factor by Kupffer cells from Vitamin A treated rats.

  12. Interactions between macrophage/Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in surgical sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of Kupffer cell/macrophage interactions with hepatocytes in modulating liver function during infections using direct in vitro cocultivation of rat macrophages or Kupffer cells with rat hepatocytes. Protein synthesis was assayed as a sensitive indicator of integrated hepatocellular function by measuring {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into hepatocyte protein. Septic stimuli such as lipoploysaccharide and killed bacteria were added to cocultures of hepatocytes and macrophages or Kupffer cells and the responses compared to hepatocytes alone. Information about the types of proteins synthesized by hepatocytes under various culture conditions was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. These experiments showed that septic stimuli alter the amount and type of protein synthesized by hepatocytes and had no direct effect on hepatocytes in the absence of macrophages or Kupffer cells. The mediator(s) appears to be a heat labile, soluble monokine(s) which is distinct from interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor. The important role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in mediating alterations in hepatocellular function in sepsis may ultimately improve patient care.

  13. Kupffer cells promote lead nitrate-induced hepatocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Pagliara, Patrizia; Carlà, Emanuela C; Caforio, Sonia; Chionna, Alfonsina; Massa, Silvia; Abbro, Luigi; Dini, Luciana

    2003-01-01

    Background Apoptosis and its modulation are crucial factors for the maintenance of liver health, allowing hepatocytes to die without provoking a potential harmful inflammatory response through a tightly controlled and regulated process. Since Kupffer cells play a key role in the maintenance of liver function, the aim of this study was to verify whether Kupffer cells are involved in the induction of liver apoptosis after i.v. injection of Pb(NO3)2 likely by secretion mechanisms. Results The in vivo hepatic apoptosis, induced by Pb(NO3)2 was prevented by a pre-treatment with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a Kupffer cells toxicant, that suppresses Kupffer cell activity and reduces to a half the apoptotic rate. In addition, in vivo Pb(NO3)2 administration deprives hepatocytes of reduced glutathione, whereas the loss of this important oxidation-preventing agent is considerably mitigated or abolished by pre-treatment with GdCl3. However, incubation of isolated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and HepG2 cells with Pb(NO3)2 for 24 hours induced necrotic but not apoptotic cells. Apoptosis of hepatocytes and HepG2 cells was observed only after the addition of conditioned medium obtained from Kupffer cells cultured for 24 hours with Pb(NO3)2, thus indicating the secretion of soluble mediators of apoptosis by Kupffer cells. Apoptosis in the HepG2 cells was observed upon 24-hours incubation of HepG2 cells with 1 mM buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione depleting agent, thus showing that there is an oxidative apoptogenic pathway in HepG2 cells. Conclusion Pb(NO3)2 has, at most, a direct necrotic (but not apoptogenic) effect on hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, giving a clue about the regulatory role of Kupffer cells in the induction of liver apoptosis after a single Pb(NO3)2 injection without pre-treatment with GdCl3, probably via secreting soluble factors that trigger oxidative stress in target cells. PMID:12921539

  14. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarrete, Giuliana; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; Aguirre-García, Jesús; Ledezma-Soto, Yadira; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Gudiño-Zayas, Marco; Guzmán, Carolina; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Hernández-Ruíz, Joselín; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Kershenobich, David; Terrazas, Luis I.; Escobedo, Galileo

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc) larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis. PMID:22110380

  15. Kupffer cells-dependent inflammation in the injured liver increases recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Liang, Lei; Zong, Chen; Lai, Fobao; Zhu, Pengxi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lu; Ye, Fei; Zhao, Qiudong; Li, Rong; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair tissue injury and may be used to treat immune associated diseases. In carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury murine model, we administered MSCs. When MSCs were transmitted to young and old mice with liver injury, more MSCs were recruited in old mice. In old mice, inflammation, characterized by TNF-α and IL-6, was increased due to hyper-activation and hyper-function of Kupffer cells. Blocking Kupffer cells decreased MSCs migration in old mice. In vitro, Kupffer cells isolated from old mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thus, hyper-activation of Kupffer cells in old mice increased recruitment of MSCs after their therapeutic administration. PMID:26716516

  16. Kupffer cells-dependent inflammation in the injured liver increases recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Chen; Lai, Fobao; Zhu, Pengxi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lu; Ye, Fei; Zhao, Qiudong; Li, Rong; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair tissue injury and may be used to treat immune associated diseases. In carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury murine model, we administered MSCs. When MSCs were transmitted to young and old mice with liver injury, more MSCs were recruited in old mice. In old mice, inflammation, characterized by TNF-α and IL-6, was increased due to hyper-activation and hyper-function of Kupffer cells. Blocking Kupffer cells decreased MSCs migration in old mice. In vitro, Kupffer cells isolated from old mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Thus, hyper-activation of Kupffer cells in old mice increased recruitment of MSCs after their therapeutic administration. PMID:26716516

  17. Colloidal carbon stimulation of Kupffer cells triggers Nrf2 activation in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Bárbara; Vargas, Romina; Castillo, Iván; Videla, Luis A

    2012-06-01

    Activation of transcription factor Nrf2 was investigated in the isolated perfused rat liver infused with 0.5 mg of colloidal carbon (CC)/ml for 5-15 min to stimulated Kupffer cell function. Infusion of CC enhanced liver O(2) consumption over basal levels, with a time-dependent increase in CC-induced O(2) uptake, at constant rates of CC phagocytosis by Kupffer cells, as assessed histologically, and adequate viability conditions of the livers, as shown by the marginal (0.34 %) total sinusoidal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux over intrahepatic LDH activity. Under these conditions, cytosolic protein levels of Nrf2 (Western blot) and inhibitor of Nrf2 Keap1 progressively declined by CC infusion, those of nuclear Nrf2 increased, leading to enhancement in the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratios. It is concluded that the respiratory burst of CC-stimulated Kupffer cells triggers Nrf2 activation in the perfused liver, a response that may afford cellular protection under pro-oxidant conditions underlying Kupffer cell stimulation. PMID:22461194

  18. Cross-Activating Invariant NKT Cells and Kupffer Cells Suppress Cholestatic Liver Injury in a Mouse Model of Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Duwaerts, Caroline C.; Sun, Eric P.; Cheng, Chao-Wen; van Rooijen, Nico; Gregory, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Both Kupffer cells and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells suppress neutrophil-dependent liver injury in a mouse model of biliary obstruction. We hypothesize that these roles are interdependent and require iNKT cell-Kupffer cell cross-activation. Female, wild-type and iNKT cell-deficient C57Bl/6 mice were injected with magnetic beads 3 days prior to bile duct ligation (BDL) in order to facilitate subsequent Kupffer cell isolation. On day three post-BDL, the animals were euthanized and the livers dissected. Necrosis was scored; Kupffer cells were isolated and cell surface marker expression (flow cytometry), mRNA expression (qtPCR), nitric oxide (NO.) production (Griess reaction), and protein secretion (cytometric bead-array or ELISAs) were determined. To address the potential role of NO. in suppressing neutrophil accumulation, a group of WT mice received 1400W, a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, prior to BDL. To clarify the mechanisms underlying Kupffer cell-iNKT cell cross-activation, WT animals were administered anti-IFN-γ or anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 antibody prior to BDL. Compared to their WT counterparts, Kupffer cells obtained from BDL iNKT cell-deficient mice expressed lower iNOS mRNA levels, produced less NO., and secreted more neutrophil chemoattractants. Both iNOS inhibition and IFN-γ neutralization increased neutrophil accumulation in the livers of BDL WT mice. Anti-LFA-1 pre-treatment reduced iNKT cell accumulation in these same animals. These data indicate that the LFA-1-dependent cross-activation of iNKT cells and Kupffer cells inhibits neutrophil accumulation and cholestatic liver injury. PMID:24260285

  19. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; van Rooijen, Nico; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, José E.

    2015-01-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH. PMID:19371622

  20. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; Rooijen, Nico van; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2009-04-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH.

  1. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Kupffer cell phagosomal motility, bacterial clearance, and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christa Y; Molina, Ramon M; Louzada, Andressa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO ENPs) have potential as nanomedicines due to their inherent properties. Studies have described their pulmonary impact, but less is known about the consequences of ZnO ENP interactions with the liver. This study was designed to describe the effects of ZnO ENPs on the liver and Kupffer cells after intravenous (IV) administration. Materials and methods First, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine the tissue distribution of neutron-activated 65ZnO ENPs post-IV injection in Wistar Han rats. Then, a noninvasive in vivo method to assess Kupffer cell phagosomal motility was employed using ferromagnetic iron particles and magnetometry. We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serum and liver tissues were collected to assess liver-injury biomarkers and histological changes, respectively. Results We found that the liver was the major site of initial uptake of 65ZnO ENPs. There was a time-dependent decrease in tissue levels of 65Zn in all organs examined, refecting particle dissolution. In vivo magnetometry showed a time-dependent and transient reduction in Kupffer cell phagosomal motility. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa 24 hours post-ZnO ENP injection showed an initial (30 minutes) delay in vascular bacterial clearance. However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ENP injection, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum were significantly increased. Histological evidence of hepatocyte damage and marginated neutrophils were observed in the liver. Conclusion Administration of ZnO ENPs transiently inhibited Kupffer cell phagosomal motility and later induced hepatocyte injury, but did not alter bacterial clearance from the blood or killing in the liver, spleen, lungs, or kidneys. Our data show that diminished Kupffer cell organelle motion correlated with ZnO ENP-induced liver injury. PMID:26170657

  2. Derangement of Kupffer cell functioning and hepatotoxicity in hyperthyroid rats subjected to acute iron overload.

    PubMed

    Boisier, X; Schön, M; Sepúlveda, A; Basualdo, A; Cornejo, P; Bosco, C; Carrión, Y; Galleano, M; Tapia, G; Puntarulo, S; Fernández, V; Videla, L A

    1999-01-01

    Liver oxidative stress, Kupffer cell functioning, and cell injury were studied in control rats and in animals subjected to L-3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and/or acute iron overload. Thyroid calorigenesis with increased rates of hepatic O2 uptake was not altered by iron treatment, whereas iron enhanced serum and liver iron levels independently of T3. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactants formation increased by 5.8-, 5.7-, or 11.0-fold by T3, iron, or their combined treatment, respectively. Iron enhanced the content of protein carbonyls independently of T3 administration, whereas glutathione levels decreased in T3- and iron-treated rats (54%) and in T3Fe-treated animals (71%). Colloidal carbon infusion into perfused livers elicited a 109% and 68% increase in O2 uptake in T3 and iron-treated rats over controls. This parameter was decreased (78%) by the joint T3Fe administration and abolished by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) pretreatment in all experimental groups. Hyperthyroidism and iron overload did not modify the sinusoidal efflux of lactate dehydrogenase, whereas T3Fe-treated rats exhibited a 35-fold increase over control values, with a 54% reduction by GdCl3 pretreatment. Histological studies showed a slight increase in the number or size of Kupffer cells in hyperthyroid rats or in iron overloaded animals, respectively. Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia with presence of inflammatory cells and increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity were found in T3Fe-treated rats. It is concluded that hyperthyroidism increases the susceptibility of the liver to the toxic effects of iron, which seems to be related to the development of a severe oxidative stress status in the tissue, thus contributing to the concomitant liver injury and impairment of Kupffer cell phagocytosis and particle-induced respiratory burst activity. PMID:10731099

  3. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Kagota, S; Shinozuka, K; Kunitomo, M

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the effect of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on Kupffer cell function in rats. Rats were received a single i.v. injection of a colloidal carbon solution and then the clearance rate from the blood were measured. The rats had been daily administered with WECS, p.o. at a dose of 200 mg/kg for 25 days until the day before the injection of colloidal carbon. The half-life of the colloidal carbon in the blood of rats administered WECS 200 mg/kg was significantly shorter than that of the control rats. This suggests that accelerated function of Kupffer cells is partially involved in the anti-metastatic action of WECS. PMID:10361894

  4. GPBAR1/TGR5 mediates bile acid-induced cytokine expression in murine Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Guiyu; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Xianghui; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yan-Dong; Van Ness, Carl; Yu, Donna; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA) diet was blunted in JNK-/- mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation. PMID:24755711

  5. GPBAR1/TGR5 Mediates Bile Acid-Induced Cytokine Expression in Murine Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Guiyu; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Xianghui; Meng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yan-Dong; Van Ness, Carl; Yu, Donna; Xu, Rongzhen; Huang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein–coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA) diet was blunted in JNK−/− mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation. PMID:24755711

  6. Kupffer cell-mediated exacerbation of methimazole-induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Akai, Sho; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Oda, Shingo; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Methimazole (MTZ), an anti-thyroid drug, is known to cause liver injury in humans. It has been demonstrated that MTZ-induced liver injury in Balb/c mice is accompanied by T helper (Th) 2 cytokine-mediated immune responses; however, there is little evidence for immune responses associated with MTZ-induced liver injury in rats. To investigate species differences in MTZ-induced liver injury, we administered MTZ with a glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), to F344 rats and subsequently observed an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which are associated with hepatic lesions. The hepatic mRNA expression of innate immune-related genes significantly increased in BSO- and MTZ-treated rats, but the change in Th2-related genes was not much greater than the change observed in the previous mouse study. Moreover, an increase in Kupffer cells and an induction of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins were accompanied by an increase in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, indicating that Kupffer cell activation occurs through HMGB1-TLR4 signaling. To elucidate the mechanism of liver injury in rats, gadolinium chloride, which inactivates the function of Kupffer cells, was administered before BSO and MTZ administration. The gadolinium chloride treatment significantly suppressed the increased ALT, which was accompanied by decreased hepatic mRNA expression related to innate immune responses and ERK/JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, Kupffer cell-mediated immune responses are crucial factors for the exacerbation of MTZ-induced liver injury in rats, indicating apparent species differences in the immune-mediated exacerbation of liver injury between mice and rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26177832

  7. CD18/ICAM-1-dependent oxidative NF-kappaB activation leading to nitric oxide production in rat Kupffer cells cocultured with syngeneic hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kurose, I; Saito, H; Miura, S; Ebinuma, H; Higuchi, H; Watanabe, N; Zeki, S; Nakamura, T; Takaishi, M; Ishii, H

    1997-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) released from Kupffer cells modulates biological viability of cocultured hepatoma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanisms by which Kupffer cells synthesize and release NO in reponse to cocultured hepatoma cells. Kupffer cells isolated from male Wistar rats were cocultured with rat hepatoma cell line, AH70 cells. The sum of nitrite and nitrate levels increased in the culture medium of Kupffer cells with AH70 cells as compared with those of Kupffer cells or AH70 cells alone. Increased expressions of iNOS and iNOS mRNA in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells were detected by an immunofluorescence staining and a fluorescence in situ hybridization study, respectively. A fluorescence in situ DNA-protein binding assay revealed that NF-kappaB activation occurs in Kupffer cells and activated NF-kappaB moved into the nuclei preceding to an increased production of NO. Oxidative stress indicated by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was observed in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells. An increased calcium mobilization indicated as increased fluo-3-associated fluorescence was also induced in Kupffer cells after coculture with AH70 cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against rat CD18 and ICAM-1, as well as TMB-8, a calcium inhibitor, prevented the calcium mobilization, active oxygen production, and NF-kappaB activation in addition to the increased production of NO. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of oxidative NF-kappaB activation, diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, NF-kappaB activation, and NO production. Therefore, this study suggests that CD18/ICAM-1-dependent cell-to-cell interaction with hepatoma cells causes calcium mobilization and oxidative activation of NF-kappaB, which may lead to the increased production of NO in Kupffer cells. PMID:9062344

  8. Gadolinium chloride, a Kupffer cell inhibitor, attenuates hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Ali; Payabvash, Seyedmehedi; Pasalar, Parvin; Morteza, Afsaneh; Zandieh, Basira; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to elucidate the effect of Kupffer cells inhibition on hepatic injury induced by chronic cholestasis. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham operation and were treated with either saline solution or gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3), a specific Kupffer cell inhibitor, 20 mg/kg i.p. daily). Serum and liver samples were collected after 28 days. Direct and total bilirubin concentrations and serum enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) increased following BDL (p < 0.01). On the contrary to bilirubin concentrations and AST activity, GdCl(3) partially prevented the elevation in ALP, ALT and GGT enzyme activities (p < 0.05). GdCl(3) alleviated lipid peroxidation (reflected by malondialdehyde [MDA] concentration) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in liver samples after BDL (p < 0.05). Fibrosis, ductular proliferation and portal inflammation were also scored in liver samples. Among morphological changes appeared following BDL (i.e. marked fibrosis, portal inflammation and ductular proliferation); only ductular proliferation was not alleviated by GdCl(3). Therefore, Kupffer cells inhibition has beneficial effects against the development of hepatic injury induced by chronic cholestasis. PMID:21339256

  9. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min; Zeng Zhaochong; Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan; Zhang Zhengyu; Zeng Haiying; Liu Zhongshan

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  10. Cell collectivity regulation within migrating cell cluster during Kupffer's vesicle formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bessho, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although cell adhesion is thought to fasten cells tightly, cells that adhere to each other can migrate directionally. This group behavior, called “collective cell migration,” is observed during normal development, wound healing, and cancer invasion. Loss-of-function of cell adhesion molecules in several model systems of collective cell migration results in delay or inhibition of migration of cell groups but does not lead to dissociation of the cell groups, suggesting that mechanisms of cells staying assembled as a single cell cluster, termed as “cell collectivity,” remain largely unknown. During the formation of Kupffer's vesicle (KV, an organ of laterality in zebrafish), KV progenitors form a cluster and migrate together toward the vegetal pole. Importantly, in this model system of collective cell migration, knockdown of cell adhesion molecules or signal components leads to failure of cell collectivity. In this review, we summarize recent findings in cell collectivity regulation during collective migration of KV progenitor cells and describe our current understanding of how cell collectivity is regulated during collective cell migration. PMID:26000276

  11. Nuclear receptor atlas of female mouse liver parenchymal, endothelial, and Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaosha; Kruijt, J Kar; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Hoekstra, Menno

    2013-04-01

    The liver consists of different cell types that together synchronize crucial roles in liver homeostasis. Since nuclear receptors constitute an important class of drug targets that are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes, we have composed the hepatic cell type-specific expression profile of nuclear receptors to uncover the pharmacological potential of liver-enriched nuclear receptors. Parenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes) and liver endothelial and Kupffer cells were isolated from virgin female C57BL/6 wild-type mice using collagenase perfusion and counterflow centrifugal elutriation. The hepatic expression pattern of 49 nuclear receptors was generated by real-time quantitative PCR using the NUclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) program resources. Thirty-six nuclear receptors were expressed in total liver. FXR-α, EAR2, LXR-α, HNF4-α, and CAR were the most abundantly expressed nuclear receptors in liver parenchymal cells. In contrast, NUR77, COUP-TFII, LXR-α/β, FXR-α, and EAR2 were the most highly expressed nuclear receptors in endothelial and Kupffer cells. Interestingly, members of orphan receptor COUP-TF family showed a distinct expression pattern. EAR2 was highly and exclusively expressed in parenchymal cells, while COUP-TFII was moderately and exclusively expressed in endothelial and Kupffer cells. Of interest, the orphan receptor TR4 showed a similar expression pattern as the established lipid sensor PPAR-γ. In conclusion, our study provides the most complete quantitative assessment of the nuclear receptor distribution in liver reported to date. Our gene expression catalog suggests that orphan nuclear receptors such as COUP-TFII, EAR2, and TR4 may be of significant importance as novel targets for pharmaceutical interventions in liver. PMID:23362145

  12. Toll-like receptor-4 signaling and Kupffer cells play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Chantal A.; Adegboyega, Patrick; van Rooijen, Nico; Tagalicud, Arlene; Allman, Monique; Wallace, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Studies in animal models and humans suggest a link between endotoxemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Since Kupffer cells are responsible for clearing endotoxin and are activated via endotoxin interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), we examined the relationship between hepatic TLR-4 expression and Kupffer cell content during the genesis of steatohepatitis. METHODS Male C57BL/6, C3H/HouJ and TLR-4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice were fed control or methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCDD). In one group of C57BL/6 mice, Kupffer cells were depleted by weekly intravenous injections of clodronate liposomes. After 3 weeks, serum ALT activity and portal endotoxin levels were measured. Real-time PCR was used to examine mRNA expression of TLR-4, TLR-2, CD14, MD-2, TGFβ, TNFα CD36 PPAR-α, liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and collagen α1. RESULTS We observed histological evidence typical of steatohepatitis, portal endotoxemia and enhanced TLR-4 expression in wild type mice fed MCDD. In contrast, injury and lipid accumulation markers were significantly lower in TLR-4 mutant mice. Destruction of Kupffer cells with clodronate liposomes blunted histological evidence of steatohepatitis and prevented increases in TLR-4 expression. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate the importance of TLR-4 signaling and underscore a direct link between TLR-4 and Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. PMID:17644211

  13. The role of Kupffer cell activation and viral gene expression in early liver toxicity after infusion of recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, A; He, C Y; Meuse, L; Schowalter, D; Kirillova, I; Winther, B; Kay, M A

    1997-01-01

    Systemic application of first-generation adenovirus induces pathogenic effects in the liver. To begin unraveling the mechanisms underlying early liver toxicity after adenovirus infusion, particularly the role of macrophage activation and expression of viral genes in transduced target cells, first-generation adenovirus or adenovirus vectors that lacked most early and late gene expression were administered to C3H/HeJ mice after transient depletion of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride treatment. Activation of NF-kappaB, and the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied in correlation with liver damage, apoptosis, and hepatocellular DNA synthesis. While Kupffer cell depletion nearly eliminated adenovirus-induced TNF release, it resulted in a more robust IL-6 release. These responses were greatly reduced in animals receiving the deleted adenovirus. Although there were quantitative differences, NF-kappaB activation was observed within minutes of first-generation or deleted adenovirus vector administration regardless of the status of the Kupffer cells, suggesting that the induction is related to a direct effect of the virus particle on the hepatocyte. Early liver toxicity as determined by serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase elevation and inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared to be dependent on adenovirus-mediated early gene expression and intact Kupffer cell function. Kupffer cell depletion had little effect on adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis but did increase hepatocellular DNA synthesis. Finally, Kupffer cell depletion decreased the persistence of transgene (human alpha1-antitrypsin [hAAT]) expression that was associated with a more pronounced humoral immune response against hAAT. The elucidation of these events occurring after intravenous adenovirus injection will be important in developing new vectors and transfer techniques with reduced toxicity. PMID:9343240

  14. LIGHT/TNFSR14 Can Regulate Hepatic Lipase Expression by Hepatocytes Independent of T Cells and Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chellan, Bijoy; Koroleva, Ekaterina P.; Sontag, Timothy J.; Tumanov, Alexei V.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Getz, Godfrey S.; Reardon, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    LIGHT/TNFSF14 is a costimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells for activation and maintenance of T cell homeostasis. LIGHT over expressed in T cells also down regulates hepatic lipase levels in mice through lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) signaling. It is unclear whether LIGHT regulates hepatic lipase directly by interacting with LTβR expressing cells in the liver or indirectly by activation of T cells, and whether Kupffer cells, a major cell populations in the liver that expresses the LTβR, are required. Here we report that LIGHT expression via an adenoviral vector (Ad-LIGHT) is sufficient to down regulate hepatic lipase expression in mice. Depletion of Kupffer cells using clodronate liposomes had no effect on LIGHT-mediated down regulation of hepatic lipase. LIGHT-mediated regulation of hepatic lipase is also independent of LIGHT expression by T cells or activation of T cells. This is demonstrated by the decreased hepatic lipase expression in the liver of Ad-LIGHT infected recombination activating gene deficient mice that lack mature T cells and by the Ad-LIGHT infection of primary hepatocytes. Hepatic lipase expression was not responsive to LIGHT when mice lacking LTβR globally or only on hepatocytes were infected with Ad-LIGHT. Therefore, our data argues that interaction of LIGHT with LTβR on hepatocytes, but not Kupffer cells, is sufficient to down regulate hepatic lipase expression and that this effect can be independent of LIGHT’s costimulatory function. PMID:23355893

  15. CRACC-CRACC interaction between Kupffer and NK cells contributes to poly I:C/D-GalN induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangxi; Cao, Guoshuai; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wang, Jun; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang; Sun, Rui

    2013-01-01

    CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cells (CRACC) is known as a critical activating receptor of natural killer (NK) cells. We have previously reported that NK cells contribute to Poly I:C/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis. Since natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) is considered critical but not the only activating receptor for NK cells, we investigated the role of CRACC in this model. We found that CRACC was abundant on hepatic NK cells but with low expression levels on Kupffer cells under normal conditions. Expression of CRACC on NK cells and Kupffer cells was remarkably upregulated after poly I:C injection. Hepatic CRACC mRNA levels were also upregulated in Poly I:C/D-GalN-treated mice, and correlated positively with the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. CRACC expression on Kupffer cells was specifically silenced by nano-particle encapsulated siRNA in vivo, which significantly reduced Poly I:C/D-GalN-induced liver injury. In co-culture experiments, it was further verified that silencing CRACC expression or blockade of CRACC activation by mAb reduced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Collectively, our findings suggest that CRACC-CRACC interaction between NK cells and resident Kupffer cells contributes to Poly I:C/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatitis. PMID:24098802

  16. Liver Resident Macrophages (Kupffer Cells) Share Several Functional Antigens in Common with Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Kimura, A; Kanki, K; Nakatani, S; Nagahara, Y; Hiraga, M; Watanabe, Y

    2016-02-01

    The identification and specific functions of Kupffer cells (KCs), a liver resident macrophage subpopulation, are still unclear. We compared KCs with peritoneal macrophages using cDNA microarray analysis and found that these cells share some antigens with endothelial cells. KCs highly express VCAM-1 and VEGF receptors (VEGF-Rs) at transcriptional and protein levels. VCAM-1 mediates the functional binding of KCs with lymphocytes and induces KC activation. Among the VEGF receptors, VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3 were expressed on the KCs, while VEGF-R1 was expressed on other tissue macrophage subsets. VEGF120, a ligand of both VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2, transduced strong survival and chemotactic signals through the KCs, when compared to PIGF, a VEGF-R1 ligand, indicating that VEGF-R2 plays significant roles in regulating KC activities. Expression of the VEGF-Rs was regulated by TLR4 signalling. These results suggest that the function of KCs is partly regulated by the common antigens shared with endothelial cells. PMID:26678711

  17. Differential uptake of liposomes varying in size and lipid composition by parenchymal and Kupffer cells of mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Patel, K.R.; Lau, E.H.; Wright, B.J.

    1982-11-08

    Using liposomes differing in size and lipid composition, we have studied the uptake characteristics of the liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. Desferal labeled with iron-59 was chosen as a radiomarker for the liposomal content, because Desferal in its free form does not cross cellular membranes.At various time intervals after an intravenous injection of liposomes into mice, the liver was perfused with collagenase, and the cells were separated in a Percoll gradient. It was found that large multilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.5 ..mu..m) were mainly taken up by the Kupffer cells. For these large liposomes, the rate of uptake by Kupffer cells was rapid, with maximum uptake at around 2 hours after liposme injection. Unexpectedly, small unilamellar liposomes (diameter of about 0.08 ..mu..m) were less effectively taken up by Kupffer cells, and the rate of uptake was slow, with a maximum uptake at about 10 hours after liposome injection. In contrast, parenchymal cells were more effective in taking up small liposmes and the uptake of large liposomes was negligible. In addition, liposomes made with a galactolipid as part of the lipid constituents appeared to have higher affinity to parenchymal cells than liposomes made without the galactolipid. These findings should be of importance in designing suitable liposomes for drug targeting.

  18. Establishment of c-myc-immortalized Kupffer cell line from a C57BL/6 mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Chisato; Takenouchi, Takato; Sato, Mitsuru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Yamanaka, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated in several mammalian species, a novel procedure to obtain liver-macrophages (Kupffer cells) in sufficient numbers and purity using a mixed primary culture of hepatocytes. In this study, we applied this method to the C57BL/6 mouse liver and established an immortalized Kupffer cell line from this mouse strain. The hepatocytes from the C57BL/6 adult mouse liver were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and cultured in T25 culture flasks. Similar to our previous studies, the mouse hepatocytes progressively changed their morphology into a fibroblastic appearance after a few days of culture. After 7-10 days of culture, Kupffer-like cells, which were contaminants in the hepatocyte fraction at the start of the culture, actively proliferated on the mixed fibroblastic cell sheet. At this stage, a retroviral vector containing the human c-myc oncogene and neomycin resistance gene was introduced into the mixed culture. Gentle shaking of the culture flask, followed by the transfer and brief incubation of the culture supernatant, resulted in a quick and selective adhesion of Kupffer cells to a plastic dish surface. After selection with G418 and cloning by limiting dilutions, a clonal cell line (KUP5) was established. KUP5 cells displayed typical macrophage morphology and were stably passaged at 4-5 days intervals for more than 5 months, with a population doubling time of 19 h. KUP5 cells are immunocytochemically positive for mouse macrophage markers, such as Mac-1, F4/80. KUP5 cells exhibited substantial phagocytosis of polystyrene microbeads and the release of inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Taken together, KUP5 cells provide a useful means to study the function of Kupffer cells in vitro. PMID:25379377

  19. Bone marrow-derived monocytes give rise to self-renewing and fully differentiated Kupffer cells

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Charlotte L.; Zheng, Fang; De Baetselier, Patrick; Martens, Liesbet; Saeys, Yvan; De Prijck, Sofie; Lippens, Saskia; Abels, Chloé; Schoonooghe, Steve; Raes, Geert; Devoogdt, Nick; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beschin, Alain; Guilliams, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages are thought to be exclusively derived from embryonic progenitors. However, whether circulating monocytes can also give rise to such macrophages has not been formally investigated. Here we use a new model of diphtheria toxin-mediated depletion of liver-resident Kupffer cells to generate niche availability and show that circulating monocytes engraft in the liver, gradually adopt the transcriptional profile of their depleted counterparts and become long-lived self-renewing cells. Underlining the physiological relevance of our findings, circulating monocytes also contribute to the expanding pool of macrophages in the liver shortly after birth, when macrophage niches become available during normal organ growth. Thus, like embryonic precursors, monocytes can and do give rise to self-renewing tissue-resident macrophages if the niche is available to them. PMID:26813785

  20. Cytochrome P4502E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole, decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat Kupffer cells with ethanol treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the role of Cytochrome P4502E1 in sensitizing Kupffer cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation after ethanol induction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid ethanol diet, control diet or ethanol diet supplemented with CYP2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole (CMZ), for 4'week...

  1. The activation of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome on Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Ren, Meimei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Tong, Dewen; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Weimin; He, Mengmeng; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-11-20

    Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL), a potent immunological pharmaceutical preparation, was investigated for the immunomodulatory activity on Kupffer cells (KCs) in vitro. The results showed that EPL could significantly induce the secretion of chemokines (RANTES and MCP-1), promote the production of nitric oxide and induced nitric oxide synthase, improve the pinocytic and phagocytic activity of KCs, promote the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and enhance the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD11b and CD68) in KCs compared with Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone (EP) at 30-7.5μg/mL. In addition, the abilities of KCs on stimulating lymphocytes proliferation and antigen presenting were significantly enhanced after stimulated with EPL compared with EP. These results suggested that EPL could activate KCs and possessed the stronger immunomodulatory effect, which provided the theoretical basis for further studying the mechanism of EPL on improving the immune response. PMID:26344320

  2. Targeting Kupffer cells in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Why and how?

    PubMed Central

    Lanthier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development are under investigation in an era of increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Previous findings have pointed to the role of adipose tissue, adipose tissue macrophages and their secretory products in the development of a chronic inflammatory status inducing insulin resistance and a higher risk of liver steatosis called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The activation of resident macrophages [Kupffer cells (KC)] and the recruitment of blood derived monocytes/macrophages into the diseased liver have now been identified as key elements for disease initiation and progression. Those cells could be activated through gut flora modifications and an altered gut barrier function but also through the internalization of toxic lipid compounds in adjacent hepatocytes or in KC themselves. Due to the role of activated KC in insulin resistance, fibrosis development and inflammation amplification, they became a target in clinical trials. A shift towards an anti-inflammatory KC phenotype through peroxisome proliferator activator-receptorδ agonists, an inhibition of macrophage recruitment through anti-C-C chemokine receptor 2 action and a specific blocking of internalization of toxic lipoxidation or glycation compounds into KC by galectin-3 receptor inhibitors are now under investigation in human NASH. PMID:26380042

  3. Protective effect of vitamin E on age-related alterations of Kupffer cell energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen-Bing; Ma, Rui-Liang; Peng, Zhi-Ming; Li, Kun; Duan, Heng-Chun; Han, Ben-Li

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of age-related reduction of Kupffer cell (KC) phagocytic capacity and the protective management. METHODS: Using rhodamine 123 fluorescence density and rate of glucose utilization as parameters, we measured the mitochondrial energy metabolism status in vitro and the glucose utilization capacity of isolated rat liver Kupffer cells (KCs) from rats of various ages (6 mo, 12 mo, 18 mo and 24 mo) and the effect of vitamin E (VE) pretreatment (500 mg/kg/wk × 13 wk). RESULTS: The rate of KC glucose utilization and the rhodamine fluorescence density of KC mitochondria of 18 mo-old untreated rats (NVEG) were significantly lower than that of 6 mo-old NVEG by 19.3% (4.0 nmol·h ± 0.4 nmol·h-1 10.6 cells-1 vs 5.7 nmol·h ± 0.6 nmol·h-1 106 cells-1, P < 0.05) and 19.5% (80.5 ± 6.3 vs 100.0 ± 4.7, P < 0.01) respectively; Rate of KC glucose utilization and the rhodamine fluorescence density of KC mitochondria of 6 mo-old rats were also lower than the 24 mo-old NVEG by 35.1% (3.7 nmol·h ± 0.6 nmol·h-1106 cells-1 vs 5.7 nmol·h ± 0.6 nmol·h-1 106 cells-1, P < 0.01) and 32.1% (67.9 ± 7.4 vs 100.0 ± 4.7, P < 0.01) respectively. The two parameters of 18 mo-old VE pretreated rats (VEG) were significantly higher than those of 18 mo-old NVEG, and statistically comparable to those of 6 mo-old VEG. The two parameters of the 24 mo-old VEG were significantly higher in comparison with those of 24 mo-old NVEG, but still significantly lower than those of 6 mo-old VEG. CONCLUSION: Aging has a significantly negative effect on KC energy metabolism, which can be alleviated by VE pretreatment.

  4. Graptopetalum Paraguayense Ameliorates Chemical-Induced Rat Hepatic Fibrosis In Vivo and Inactivates Stellate Cells and Kupffer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yang, Chih-Hsueh; Hsieh, Shur-Jong; Wu, Yi-Chin; Lai, Jin-Mei; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Background Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) is a folk herbal medicine with hepatoprotective effects that is used in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of GP on experimental hepatic fibrosis in both dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury rats. Methods Hepatic fibrosis-induced rats were fed with the methanolic extract of GP (MGP) by oral administration every day. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, and Western blot analysis were performed. The effects of MGP on the expression of fibrotic markers and cytokines in the primary cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and Kupffer cells, respectively, were evaluated. Results Oral administration of MGP significantly alleviated DMN- or CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis. High levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, prothrombin activity and mortality rates also decreased in rats treated with MGP. There were significantly decreased hydroxyproline levels in therapeutic rats compared with those of the liver-damaged rats. Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were all reduced by incubation with MGP in primary cultured rat HSCs. Furthermore, MGP induced apoptotic cell death in activated HSCs. MGP also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat Kupffer cell activation by decreasing nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, and increasing interleukin-10 expression. Conclusions The results show that the administration of MGP attenuated toxin-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis in vivo and inhibited HSC and Kupffer cell activation in vitro, suggesting that MGP might be a promising complementary or alternative therapeutic agent for liver inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:23335984

  5. A crucial role for Kupffer cell-derived galectin-9 in regulation of T cell immunity in hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Mengshol, John A; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Arikawa, Tomohiro; Smith, Maxwell; Niki, Toshiro; McWilliams, Ryan; Randall, Jessica A; McMahan, Rachel; Zimmerman, Michael A; Rangachari, Manu; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Busson, Pierre; Polyak, Stephen J; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 200 million people throughout the world are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). One of the most striking features of HCV infection is its high propensity to establish persistence (approximately 70-80%) and progressive liver injury. Galectins are evolutionarily conserved glycan-binding proteins with diverse roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that galectin-9, the natural ligand for the T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3), circulates at very high levels in the serum and its hepatic expression (particularly on Kupffer cells) is significantly increased in patients with chronic HCV as compared to normal controls. Galectin-9 production from monocytes and macrophages is induced by IFN-gamma, which has been shown to be elevated in chronic HCV infection. In turn, galectin-9 induces pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver-derived and peripheral mononuclear cells; galectin-9 also induces anti-inflammatory cytokines from peripheral but not hepatic mononuclear cells. Galectin-9 results in expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cells, contraction of CD4(+) effector T cells, and apoptosis of HCV-specific CTLs. In conclusion, galectin-9 production by Kupffer cells links the innate and adaptive immune response, providing a potential novel immunotherapeutic target in this common viral infection. PMID:20209097

  6. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic injury induced by silica nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingqing; Xue, Yang; Sun, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) have been shown to exert cytotoxic effects in hepato-cytes and to cause liver injury. In the liver, Kupffer cells (KCs), as the resident macrophages, play an important role in the normal physiology and homeostasis of the liver. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to clarify the role of KCs in hepatic injury induced by SiO(2) NPs. In this study, we treated Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells with the supernatants of SiO(2) NP-stimulated KCs to determine KC-mediated hepatotoxicity and its underlying preliminary mechanism. We also examined the response of KCs and liver injury in vivo after the administration of SiO(2) NPs. The results showed that KCs stimulated by SiO(2) NPs release large amounts of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide. After BRL cells were cultured with the supernatants of SiO(2) NP-stimulated KCs, the viability of BRL cells was reduced, and increases in aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase leakage were observed. Exposure to SiO(2) NPs in vivo caused KC hyperplasia, hepatic inflammation, and oxidative stress, which led to changes in the biochemical composition of the liver. These data suggest that SiO(2) NPs activate KCs to mediate hepatic injury and that the preliminary mechanism involves the release of bioactive substances from KCs. PMID:23515466

  7. LXRα represses LPS-induced inflammatory responses by competing with IRF3 for GRIP1 in Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chun-Mu; He, Kun; Li, Pei-Zhi; Liu, Zuo-Jin; Zhu, Xi-Wen; Ou, Zhi-Bing; Ruan, Xiong-Zhong; Gong, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-An

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) in the nucleus play important roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The mechanism of LXR regulation of the LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inflammatory signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, T0901317 (a LXRs agonist), LPS and T0901317+LPS. Additionally, Kupffer cells isolated from male C57/BL6 mice were divided into the same four groups. A decreased amount of inflammatory cells infiltrated the portal areas and the hepatic sinusoids in the livers of mice in the T0901317+LPS group than in those of mice in the LPS group. In the T0901317+LPS group, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were lower, while the serum level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher. In vitro, Kupffer cells pretreated with T0901317 for 24h presented reduced TNF-α, interferon-beta (IFN-β) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels, while the IL-10 level increased; however, the mRNA and protein expression levels of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) were not significantly reduced. The co-IP data illustrated that LXRα bound to GRIP1 specifically in the T0901317+LPS group, while less IRF3 was bound to GRIP1 in the T0901317+LPS group than in the LPS group. Furthermore, the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB was decreased by pretreating Kupffer cells with T0901317 for 24h. These results suggest that activated LXRα competes with IRF3 for GRIP1 binding, thus repressing IRF3 and NF-κB transcriptional activity and inhibiting the inflammatory response initiated by LPS in Kupffer cells. PMID:27085678

  8. Kupffer Cells Protect Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells from Fas-Dependent Apoptosis in Sepsis by Down-Regulating gp130

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Noelle A.; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Borgerding, Joshua N.; Ayala, Carol A.; Ayala, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a key feature of multiple organ injury, the primary cause of fatality seen in critically ill patients. Although the development of EC dysfunction in the heart and lung is well studied in sepsis, it remains unclear in the liver. Herein, we report that liver sinusoidal ECs (LSECs; defined as CD146+CD45−) exhibit increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) and Fas in response to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). By using magnetically enriched LSEC (CD146+) populations, we show evidence of marked apoptosis, with a twofold decline in viable LSECs in CLP animals compared with sham controls. These changes and increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels were all mitigated in septic Fas−/− and Fas ligand−/− animals. Although we previously reported increased numbers of Fas ligand expressing CD8+ T lymphocytes in the septic liver, CD8+ T-cell deficiency did not reverse the onset of LSEC apoptosis/damage. However, Kupffer cell depletion with clodronate liposomes resulted in greater apoptosis and Fas expression after CLP and a decrease in glycoprotein 130 expression on LSECs, suggesting that STAT3 activation may protect these cells from injury. Our results document a critical role for death receptor–mediated LSEC injury and show the first evidence that Kupffer cells are essential to the viability of LSECs, which appears to be mediated through glycoprotein 130 expression in sepsis. PMID:23306157

  9. Kupffer cell blockade prevents induction of portal venous tolerance in rat cardiac allograft transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, T.; Callery, M.P.; Flye, M.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Pretransplant portal venous (pv) administration of donor antigen induces allospecific partial tolerance. Although the involved mechanism has not been defined, antigen presentation by Kupffer cells (KC) in the liver is considered to be critical. We evaluated the effect of KC blockade on this pv tolerance induction in Buffalo (RT1b) rats receiving Lewis (RT1(1)) cardiac heterotopic allografts. Control rats received no treatment, while experimental animals received 25 X 10(6) ultraviolet B-irradiated (12,000 J/m2) donor spleen cells via either the iv (systemic intravenous) or the pv routes 7 days before transplantation. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a rare earth metal known to inhibit KC phagocytosis, was given (7 mg/kg) 1 and 2 days before pv preimmunization. Cardiac graft prolongation was obtained by pv (MST = 13.3 +/- 1.9 days, n = 6, vs control = 7.3 +/- 0.5 days, n = 6; P less than 0.001) but not by iv preimmunization (7.7 +/- 0.7 days, n = 6, NS vs control). KC blockade abolished the pv tolerance, as indicated by abrogation of graft prolongation (PV + GdCl3 = 8.0 +/- 0.8 days, n = 6, NS vs control). These findings suggest that effective alloantigen uptake by KC in the liver is essential for the induction of pv tolerance in rat cardiac transplantation.

  10. Preparation and optimization of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome and its activity on Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Song, Xiaoping; Gao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ying; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Weimin; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Tong, Dewen

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and optimize ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome (OPL), and to improve the immune-enhancing activity of ophiopogon polysaccharide (OP). OPL was prepared and optimized using the methods of reverse-phase evaporation and response surface methodology. The property was evaluated with particle size, zeta potential, and morphology. The results showed that the optimum preparation conditions were: soybean phosphatide to OP ratio of 9.5:1, soybean phospholipid to cholesterol ratio of 8:1, and chloroform to phosphate-buffered saline ratio of 3:1. Subsequently, the immune-enhancing activity of OPL on Kupffer cells (KCs) was performed. The results showed that OPL could significantly promote the phagocytosis of KCs, induce the secretion of nitric oxide, induced nitric oxide synthase, IL-6 and IL-12, and improve the expression of CD80 and CD86 compared with OP at 125-7.813 μg mL(-1). These results indicated that the immune-enhancing activity of OP was significantly improved after encapsulated with liposome. Therefore, liposome would be expected to exploit into a new-type preparation of OP. PMID:25445522

  11. Soluble CLEC2 Extracellular Domain Improves Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis by Regulating Liver Kupffer Cell Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinle; Zhang, Jun; Ge, Hongfei; Gupte, Jamila; Baribault, Helene; Lee, Ki Jeong; Lemon, Bryan; Coberly, Suzanne; Gong, Yan; Pan, Zheng; Rulifson, Ingrid C.; Gardner, Jonitha; Richards, William G.; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The polarization of tissue resident macrophages toward the alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype is believed to positively impact obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that the soluble form of the extracellular domain (ECD) of C-type lectin-like receptor 2, CLEC2, regulates Kupffer cell polarization in the liver and improves glucose and lipid parameters in diabetic animal models. Over-expression of Fc-CLEC2(ECD) in mice via in vivo gene delivery, or injection of recombinant Fc-CLEC2(ECD) protein, results in a reduction of blood glucose and liver triglyceride levels and improves glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Fc-CLEC2(ECD) treatment improves cytokine profiles and increases both the M2 macrophage population and the genes involved in the oxidation of lipid metabolism in the liver. These data reveal a previously unidentified role for CLEC2 as a regulator of macrophage polarity, and establish CLEC2 as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of diabetes and liver disease. PMID:26151067

  12. Characterization of transcriptional profiling of Kupffer cells during liver regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cunshuan; Chen, Xiaoguang; Chang, Cuifang; Wang, Gaiping; Wang, Wenbo; Zhang, Lianxing; Zhu, Qiushi; Wang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    KCs (Kupffer cells), as an important hepatic immunoregulatory cells, play a key role in LR (liver regeneration). Uncovering the transcriptional profiling of KCs after PH (partial hepatectomy) would likely clarify its implication in LR. Here, we isolated KCs by methods of Percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic beads. Transcriptional profiles of KCs were monitored up to 168 h post-PH using microarray. By comparing the expression profile of KCs at 2-168 h post-PH with that of the control and applying the statistical and bioinformatics criteria, we found 1407 known and 927 unknown genes related to LR. K-means clustering analysis grouped these 1407 genes into robust 14 time-course clusters representing distinct patterns of regulation. Based on gene-set enrichment analysis, genes encoding products involved in cytokine signalling, inflammatory response and cell chaemotaxis were highly enriched in the cluster characterized by gradual up-regulation and then return; genes in defence response and immune response were enriched in clusters 'the general down-regulation during LR'; genes in fatty acid synthesis and sterol metabolism were preferentially distributed in the cluster 'gradual increase'; whereas genes in the categories 'lipid catabolism' and 'glycolysis' were enriched in cluster 'decrease at two intervals'. According to the above analysis, KCs were seemingly sensitive to operative stimulus; immune defence and detoxification function of KCs obviously dropped post-operatively; fatty acid synthesis were enhanced, whereas lipid catabolism and glycolysis were reduced after PH. This study provides a detailed in vivo gene expression profile of KCs, providing a framework to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the regeneration process at cellular level. PMID:22452802

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharides-treated rat hepatic Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Wang, Chun-xia; Liu, Nai-Zheng; Liu, Ping

    2015-03-01

    This study is set to explore the role of commonly used intravenous anesthetic propofol on the inflammatory response of rat liver Kupffer cells (KCs) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The isolated KCs were cultured at the density of 1 × 10(5)/ml, divided into five groups randomly after 48 h culture: group C, control group; group L, KCs were treated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h; groups P1, P2, P3, KCs were pretreated with propofol at low (25 μM), medium (50 μM), high (100 μM) concentration for 2 h, respectively, and then were stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA of every group were measured by RT-PCR. Nuclear NF-ΚB p65 was determined by Western blot. The concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in supernatant were measured by ELISA. Compared with the group C, TNF-α mRNA and IL-1β mRNA in group L were significantly up-regulated and NF-ΚB p65 was significantly up-regulated after LPS treatment (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, TNF-α and IL-1β were also significantly increased (P < 0.05). With propofol the mRNA expressions of aforementioned inflammatory mediators were significantly down-regulated and NF-ΚB p65 was significantly inhibited in group P2 and P3 (P < 0.05), compared with group L. However, low propofol concentration did not exhibit any effect (group P1, P > 0.05). Propofol at medium and high concentration can counteract the LPS-induced inflammatory response in KCs by regulating NF-ΚB p65 protein expression. PMID:25296958

  14. Kupffer cells modulate hepatic fatty acid oxidation during infection with PR8 influenza.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Singh, Larry N; Chatterji-Len, Milani; Zerfas, Patricia M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    In response to infection, patients with inborn errors of metabolism may develop a functional deterioration termed metabolic decompensation. The biochemical hallmarks of this disruption of metabolic homeostasis are disease specific and may include acidosis, hyperammonemia or hypoglycemia. In a model system previously published by our group, we noted that during influenza infection, mice displayed a depression in hepatic mitochondrial enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that this normal adaptation may extend to other metabolic pathways, and as such, may impact various inborn errors of metabolism. Since the liver is a critical organ in inborn errors of metabolism, we carried out untargeted metabolomic profiling of livers using mass spectrometry in C57Bl/6 mice infected with influenza to characterize metabolic adaptation. Pathway analysis of metabolomic data revealed reductions in CoA synthesis, and long chain fatty acyl CoA and carnitine species. These metabolic adaptations coincided with a depression in hepatic long chain β-oxidation mRNA and protein. To our surprise, the metabolic changes observed occurred in conjunction with a hepatic innate immune response, as demonstrated by transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry. By employing an immunomodulation strategy to deplete Kupffer cells, we were able to improve the expression of multiple genes involved in β-oxidation. Based on these findings, we are the first to suggest that the role of the liver as an immunologic organ is central in the pathophysiology of hepatic metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism due to respiratory viral infection. PMID:26319418

  15. Development of a cytokine-producing immortalized murine Kupffer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Yu; Burlak, Christopher; Klaunig, James E; Kamendulis, Lisa M

    2014-12-01

    Kupffer cells (KC) play a critical role in both liver physiology and the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. Isolated primary KC have a limited lifespan in culture, and due to the relatively low number obtained, limit their study in vitro. Here, a cytokine-producing immortalized KC (ImKC) line was established from transgenic mice that express the thermolabile mutant tsA58 of the Simian virus 40 large T antigen under the control of the H-2k(b) promoter. Primary KC were obtained using a three step procedure: liver perfusion, centrifugal elutriation, and sorting for F4/80⁺ cells. ImKC were identified within the small-intermediate population of KC that maintained stable expression of F4/80, and the surface antigens CD11b, CD14 and TLR4. ImKC grow at IFNγ-independent manner at 37°C and exhibited a doubling time of ∼24 h when cultured in RPMI 1640 with 5% FBS. Our observations indicate that both activation of telomerase and expression of P53 are markedly increased, suggesting that enhanced telomerase activity and P53 expression may contribute to the immortalization of this cell population. ImKC cells maintained a high capacity to phagocytose FITC-latex beads, and bind/phagocytose erythrocytes. In addition, similar to primary KC, ImKC responded to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS: 0.1-1μg/ml) by upregulating mRNA levels of TNFα (23-fold), IL-6 (28-fold), and IL-1β (1459-fold), as measured by qRT-PCR. Protein levels of TNFα and IL-6 were also increased, 10-fold and 12-fold, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were significantly enhanced in ImKC following an LPS challenge. Furthermore, LPS elicited a marked increase in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phospho-(ERK1/2, JNK) and NF-κB p50 with decreased IκBα in ImKC, as assessed by Western blot. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the ImKC line retains critical characteristics of primary KC, and thus provides a useful tool to assess the role of KC in liver injury and chronic diseases. PMID:25138015

  16. Activation of Kupffer Cells Is Associated with a Specific Dysbiosis Induced by Fructose or High Fat Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrere, Gladys; Leroux, Anne; Wrzosek, Laura; Puchois, Virginie; Gaudin, Françoise; Ciocan, Dragos; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Naveau, Sylvie; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Cassard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The increase consumption of fructose in diet is associated with liver inflammation. As a specific fructan substrate, fructose may modify the gut microbiota which is involved in obesity-induced liver disease. Here, we aimed to assess whether fructose-induced liver damage was associated with a specific dysbiosis, especially in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). To this end, four groups of mice were fed with normal and HFD added or not with fructose. Body weight and glucose sensitivity, liver inflammation, dysbiosis and the phenotype of Kupffer cells were determined after 16 weeks of diet. Food intake was increased in the two groups of mice fed with the HFD. Mice fed with HFD and fructose showed a higher infiltration of lymphocytes into the liver and a lower inflammatory profile of Kupffer cells than mice fed with the HFD without fructose. The dysbiosis associated with diets showed that fructose specifically prevented the decrease of Mouse intestinal bacteria in HFD fed mice and increased Erysipelotrichi in mice fed with fructose, independently of the amount of fat. In conclusion, fructose, used as a sweetener, induced a dysbiosis which is different in presence of fat in the diet. Consequently, the activation of Kupffer cells involved in mice model of HFD-induced liver inflammation was not observed in an HFD/fructose combined diet. These data highlight that the complexity of diet composition could highly impact the development of liver lesions during obesity. Specific dysbiosis associated with the diet could explain that the progressions of liver damage are different. PMID:26731543

  17. Activation of Kupffer Cells Is Associated with a Specific Dysbiosis Induced by Fructose or High Fat Diet in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferrere, Gladys; Leroux, Anne; Wrzosek, Laura; Puchois, Virginie; Gaudin, Françoise; Ciocan, Dragos; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Naveau, Sylvie; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Cassard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The increase consumption of fructose in diet is associated with liver inflammation. As a specific fructan substrate, fructose may modify the gut microbiota which is involved in obesity-induced liver disease. Here, we aimed to assess whether fructose-induced liver damage was associated with a specific dysbiosis, especially in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). To this end, four groups of mice were fed with normal and HFD added or not with fructose. Body weight and glucose sensitivity, liver inflammation, dysbiosis and the phenotype of Kupffer cells were determined after 16 weeks of diet. Food intake was increased in the two groups of mice fed with the HFD. Mice fed with HFD and fructose showed a higher infiltration of lymphocytes into the liver and a lower inflammatory profile of Kupffer cells than mice fed with the HFD without fructose. The dysbiosis associated with diets showed that fructose specifically prevented the decrease of Mouse intestinal bacteria in HFD fed mice and increased Erysipelotrichi in mice fed with fructose, independently of the amount of fat. In conclusion, fructose, used as a sweetener, induced a dysbiosis which is different in presence of fat in the diet. Consequently, the activation of Kupffer cells involved in mice model of HFD-induced liver inflammation was not observed in an HFD/fructose combined diet. These data highlight that the complexity of diet composition could highly impact the development of liver lesions during obesity. Specific dysbiosis associated with the diet could explain that the progressions of liver damage are different. PMID:26731543

  18. Kupffer cell depletion partially prevents hepatic heme oxygenase 1 messenger RNA accumulation in systemic inflammation in mice: role of interleukin 1beta.

    PubMed

    Rizzardini, M; Zappone, M; Villa, P; Gnocchi, P; Sironi, M; Diomede, L; Meazza, C; Monshouwer, M; Cantoni, L

    1998-03-01

    The heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene is rapidly activated in the liver after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Ninety minutes after LPS treatment (0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) hepatic HO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) of mice was 40 times the control value. To investigate the hepatic cellular source of the increased HO-1 transcript, we treated mice with LPS and galactosamine (700 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a selective transcriptional inhibitor of hepatocytes. Galactosamine prevented the LPS-mediated increase of HO-1 mRNA in the liver, indicating that hepatocytes are the main cell type in which HO-1 mRNA accumulates after LPS treatment. We then tested in vitro and in vivo the hypothesis that LPS-mediated hepatic accumulation of HO-1 mRNA is caused by intercellular communication between Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Isolated rat hepatocytes showed an increase in HO-1 mRNA compared with controls after 90 minutes of exposure to a LPS stimulated Kupffer cell-conditioned medium. This suggests that soluble mediators from Kupffer cells were responsible for this effect. To study the role of Kupffer cells in vivo, we treated mice with Kupffer cell-inactivating or -depleting agents and LPS. Gadolinium chloride and liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate lowered LPS-mediated HO-1 mRNA accumulation (by about 50%); in these groups hepatic levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta were decreased, by more than 75%. Methylpalmitate hardly affected hepatic HO-1 mRNA accumulation or IL-1beta content after LPS treatment. There was no relationship between HO-1 mRNA and serum TNF or IL-6 levels. These results suggest that LPS-mediated hepatic HO-1 mRNA accumulation is a hepatocyte response partly caused by soluble mediators, particularly IL-1beta, released from Kupffer cells. PMID:9500698

  19. The role of Kupffer cells in glucan-induced granuloma formation in the liver of mice depleted of blood monocytes by administration of strontium-89

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, M.; Takahashi, K. )

    1991-05-01

    In order to elucidate the role of Kupffer cells in granuloma formation in the liver of mice under a condition of severe monocytopenia induced by administration of strontium-89, granulomas were produced by particulate glucan injection and examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, by ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography, and in culture experiments. Hepatic granulomas were smaller, less numerous, and more irregularly shaped in the monocytopenic mice than in the control mice. The granulomas were composed of multinuclear giant cells, epithelioid cells, Kupffer cells, and T lymphocytes, but not monocytes or granulocytes. Kupffer cells were heavily labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine in the monocytopenic mice, particularly just before the stage of granuloma formation, and then clustered in the liver sinusoids. At 8 days, they formed granulomas, transformed into epithelioid cells, and transformed further into multinuclear giant cells. Although the culture of liver cell suspensions prepared from the livers of monocytopenic mice sustained diffuse proliferation of macrophages on a monolayer of mouse stromal cell line (ST2), no monocyte/macrophage colonies were formed. From these results, it is reasonable to conclude that Kupffer cells alone are activated in a condition without a supply of monocytes from peripheral blood; proliferate and cluster in the hepatic sinusoids; transform into peroxidase-negative macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinuclear giant cells; and participate in granuloma formation in loco together with T lymphocytes.

  20. A standardized aqueous extract of Anoectochilus formosanus ameliorated thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice: the role of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Bin; Chuang, Hin-Ru; Yang, Li-Chan; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus is used in traditional folk medicine as an hepatoprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a standardized aqueous extract of A. formosanus (SAEAF) on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis. An in vitro study showed that the inhibitive effect of kinsenoside, a major component of SAEAF, on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion from Kupffer cells might be derived at least partly from downregulation of LPS-receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Hepatic fibrosis was produced by TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Mice in the three TAA groups were treated daily with distilled water and SAEAF (1.0, 0.2 g/kg) via gastrogavage throughout the experimental period. The mice that received the SAEAF treatment had significantly reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, relative liver weights, and hepatic hydroxyproline contents. A histological examination also confirmed that SAEAF reduced the degree of fibrosis caused by TAA treatment. RT-PCR analysis showed that SAEAF treatment reduced mRNA expression of collagen (alpha1)(I), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, CD14, TLR4, and TNF receptor 1. An immunohistochemical examination also indicated that SAEAF reduced the number of CD68-positive cells (macrophages). In conclusion, oral administration of SAEAF significantly reduced TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice, probably through inhibition of hepatic Kupffer cell activation. PMID:20378990

  1. Central Insulin Action Activates Kupffer Cells by Suppressing Hepatic Vagal Activation via the Nicotinic Alpha 7 Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kumi; Tanida, Mamoru; Nagata, Naoto; Inaba, Yuka; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito; Asahara, Shun-Ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Toshinai, Koji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling, which suppresses the gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. The vagus nerve plays an important role in this centrally mediated hepatic response; however, the precise mechanism underlying this brain-liver interaction is unclear. Here, we present our findings that the vagus nerve suppresses hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAchR) on Kupffer cells, and that central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling by suppressing vagal activity. Indeed, central insulin-mediated hepatic IL-6/STAT3 activation and gluconeogenic gene suppression were impeded in mice with hepatic vagotomy, pharmacological cholinergic blockade, or α7-nAchR deficiency. In high-fat diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice, control of the vagus nerve by central insulin action was disturbed, inducing a persistent increase of inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that dysregulation of the α7-nAchR-mediated control of Kupffer cells by central insulin action may affect the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic inflammation in obesity. PMID:26947072

  2. Kupffer Cell Transplantation in Mice for Elucidating Monocyte/Macrophage Biology and for Potential in Cell or Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Simone; Bhargava, Kuldeep K; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Zanolini, Diego; Palestro, Christopher J; Santambrogio, Laura; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2016-03-01

    Kupffer cells (KC) play major roles in immunity and tissue injury or repair. Because recapitulation of KC biology and function within liver will allow superior insights into their functional repertoire, we studied the efficacy of the cell transplantation approach for this purpose. Mouse KC were isolated from donor livers, characterized, and transplanted into syngeneic recipients. To promote cell engraftment through impairments in native KC, recipients were preconditioned with gadolinium chloride. The targeting, fate, and functionality of transplanted cells were evaluated. The findings indicated that transplanted KC engrafted and survived in recipient livers throughout the study period of 3 months. Transplanted KC expressed macrophage functions, including phagocytosis and cytokine expression, with or without genetic modifications using lentiviral vectors. This permitted studies of whether transplanted KC could affect outcomes in the context of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity or hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplanted KC exerted beneficial effects in these injury settings. The benefits resulted from cytoprotective factors including vascular endothelial growth factor. In conclusion, transplanted adult KC were successfully targeted and engrafted in the liver with retention of innate immune and tissue repair functions over the long term. This will provide excellent opportunities to address critical aspects in the biogenesis, fate, and function of KC within their native liver microenvironment and to develop the cell and gene therapy potential of KC transplantation. PMID:26773351

  3. Purinergic signaling via P2X7 receptor mediates IL-1β production in Kupffer cells exposed to silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shuji; Negishi, Yusuke; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Takenouchi, Takato; Kitani, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ken

    2014-07-01

    There is extensive evidence that nanoparticles (NPs) cause adverse effects in multiple organs, including liver, though the mechanisms involved remain to be fully established. Kupffer cells are macrophages resident in the liver, and play important roles in liver inflammation induced by various toxic agents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members IL-1α,β are released from LPS-primed macrophages exposed to NPs, including silica NPs (SNPs), via activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasomes. Here, we investigated the mechanism of production of IL-1β via activation of inflammasomes in mouse Kupffer cell line KUP5, focusing on the role of purinergic signaling via P2X7 receptor. IL-1β production by LPS-primed KUP5 cells exposed to SNPs was increased dose-dependently, and was greatest in response to SNPs with a diameter of 30 nm (SNP30), as compared with 70-nm and 300-nm SNPs (SNP70 and SNP300). ATP release was also highest in cells exposed to SNP30. Treatment of LPS-primed KUP5 cells with ATP also induced a high level of IL-1β production, similar to that induced by SNP30. IL-1β production was significantly inhibited by apyrase (an ecto-nucleotidase) and A438079 (a P2X7 antagonist/ATP-release inhibitor). Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was confirmed in cells exposed to SNP30. In conclusion, ATP released from P2X7 receptor in response to stimulation of KUP5 cells with SNP30 induces ROS production via cell-membrane NADPH oxidase. The ROS causes activation of inflammasomes, leading to caspase-1-dependent processing of IL-1β. PMID:24685903

  4. Non-Canonical Wnt Predominates in Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells, Influencing HSC Survival and Paracrine Stimulation of Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Laura; Mann, Jelena; Mann, Derek A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt system is highly complex and is comprised of canonical and non-canonical pathways leading to the activation of gene expression. Our aim was to examine changes in the expression of Wnt ligands and regulators during hepatic stellate cell (HSC) transdifferentiation and assess the relative contributions of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways in fibrogenic activated HSC. The expression profile of Wnt ligands and regulators in HSC was not supportive for a major role for β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signalling, this verified by inability to induce Topflash reporter activity in HSC even when expressing a constitutive active β-catenin. We detected expression of Wnt5a in activated HSC which can signal via non-canonical mechanisms and showed evidence for non-canonical signalling in these cells involving phosphorylation of Dvl2 and pJNK. Stimulation of HSC or Kupffer cells with Wnt5a regulated HSC apoptosis and expression of TGF-β1 and MCP1 respectively. We were unable to confirm a role for β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt in HSC and instead propose autocrine and paracrine functions for Wnts expressed by activated HSC via non-canonical pathways. The data warrant detailed investigation of Wnt5a in liver fibrosis. PMID:26566235

  5. Prokineticin 2/Bv8 is expressed in Kupffer cells in liver and is down regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Justin; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Musso, Orlando; Clément, Bruno; Turlin, Bruno; Théret, Nathalie; Samson, Michel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the implication of prokineticin 1 (PK1/EG-VEGF) and prokineticin 2 (PK2/Bv8) in hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis. METHODS: The gene induction of PK1/EG-VEGF and PK2/Bv8 was investigated in 10 normal, 28 fibrotic and 28 tumoral livers by using real time PCR. Their expression was compared to the expression of VEGF (an angiogenesis marker), vWF (an endothelial cell marker) and to CD68 (a monocyte/macrophage marker). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of PK1/EG-VEGF, PK2/Bv8, prokineticin receptor 1 and 2 were evaluated by real time PCR in isolated liver cell populations. Finally, PK2/Bv8 protein was detected in normal liver paraffin sections and in isolated liver cells by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: PK2/Bv8 mRNA but not PK1/EG-VEGF was expressed in all types of normal liver samples examined. In the context of liver tumor development, we reported that PK2/Bv8 correlates only with CD68 and showed a significant decrease in expression as the pathology evolves towards cancer. Whereas, VEGF and vWF mRNA were significantly upregulated in both fibrosis and HCC, as expected. In addition, out of all isolated liver cells examined, only Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages) express significant levels of PK2/Bv8 and its receptors, prokineticin receptor 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: In normal liver PK2/Bv8 and its receptors were specifically expressed by Kupffer cells. PK2/Bv8 expression decreased as the liver evolves towards cancer and did not correlate with HCC angiogenesis. PMID:18300343

  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease mortality and Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 production in a rat model of chronic sepsis.

    PubMed

    Barton, R G; Wells, C L; Carlson, A; Singh, R; Sullivan, J J; Cerra, F B

    1991-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that substitution of omega-3 fat for dietary omega-6 fat would reduce mortality and decrease Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in a rat model of chronic sepsis. Rats were fed via gastrostomy for 12 days with isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 15% of calories as either safflower oil (omega-6) or a 10:1 mixture of menhaden oil (omega-3) and safflower oil. After five days of feeding, animals received an intra-abdominal abscess of defined bacterial content. Survivors were killed on post-laparotomy day 6 in conjunction with liver perfusion and protease liver digestion for Kupffer cell isolation. Kupffer cell PGE2 production was measured by radioimmunoassay after 18 hours of cell culture and again after stimulation with 0 LPS, 10 ng/ml LPS, and 10 micrograms/LPS. Mortality was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals compared with safflower oil-fed animals (16% vs. 35%). Kupffer cell PGE2 production was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals at 18 hours (354 +/- 54 vs. 570 +/- 95 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.09) and after stimulation with 10 micrograms/ml LPS (140 +/- 41 vs. 288 +/- 45 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.03) compared with safflower oil-fed animals. PMID:2056540

  7. Failure to demonstrate a major role for Kupffer cells and radiosensitive leukocytes in immunoglobulin-mediated elimination of Trypanosoma musculi

    SciTech Connect

    Kongshavn, P.A.; Shaw, K.; Ghadirian, E.; Ulczak, O. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that elimination of parasitemia in Trypanosoma musculi infection is brought about by immunoglobulin G2a antibodies, C3, and an effector cell. Experiments were designed to identify the putative effector cell by using several approaches. Infected C5-deficient or C5-sufficient mice treated with silica particles or given 900 rads of radiation 3 days earlier effectively eliminated trypanosomes following administration of immune plasma (IP). Silica-treated, noninfected mice given T. musculi preincubated with IP also cleared the parasites. Radiolabeling studies revealed that uptake of the cleared trypanosomes by the liver in normal mice was relatively low and fell only slightly (19%) in silica-treated mice. In contrast, uptake of radiolabeled sheep erythrocytes by the liver was normally much higher and fell drastically (7%) in silica-treated mice. Mice were then immunocompromised by 900 rads of radiation, silica particles, and anti-platelet serum combined before IP-sensitized trypanosomes were given. Leukocyte and platelet counts were both reduced by 95% and sheep erythrocyte uptake by the liver fell from 77 to 5%; however, greater than 99% of the injected trypanosomes were cleared in these mice and uptake of radiolabeled trypanosomes by the liver was similar to that of normal mice. Lastly, in anesthetized mice in which Kupffer cells were excluded surgically from the circulation, greater than 99% of the IP-sensitized trypanosomes disappeared rapidly from the blood. Only 7% of the radiolabel was found in the liver versus 60% in sham-operated mice. The results are interpreted as showing that hepatic Kupffer cells play a minor role in the immune elimination of T. musculi. Likewise, radiosensitive leukocytes and platelets are unlikely to be sole candidates for the putative effector cell that mediates a cure of murine trypanosomiasis.

  8. Effect of CD16a, the surface receptor of Kupffer cells, on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIU-YUN; WU, LUN; LI, SHENG-WEI; ZHOU, WEN-BO; WANG, MENG-YUAN; ZUO, GUO-QING; LIU, CHANG-AN; DING, XIONG

    2016-01-01

    FcγRIIIa (CD16) is a low-affinity Fc receptor of IgG. As the idio-binding receptor of IgG Fc, it plays an important role in the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of Kupffer cells (KCs) and the expression of their surface receptor FcγRIIIa in hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, we also aimed to observe the functional mechanism of FcγRIIIa. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to study KCs and FcγRIIIa. In order to explore the role of FcγRIIIa in the growth of cancer cells, KCs and H22 tumor cells were co-cultured in different serum. The mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and FcγRIIIa were analyzed by RT-qPCR; the TNF-α and FcγRIIIa protein expression levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results showed that the number of Kuppfer cells in cancerous tissues (21.6±7.8) was lower than those in para-cancerous (68.8±9.1) tissues and adjacent normal hepatic tissues (62.0±1.9) (P<0.01); this decreased with the reduction in the differentiation degree of cancer (P<0.05). FcγRIIIa-positive cells were similar in morphology to KCs, and their distributive tendency was coincident (P<0.05). The increase in CD16a mRNA levels in the group treated with immune serum was 3.9-, 4.9- and 3.9-fold greater than that in the ordinary serum group at different time points, and CD16a protein expression also markedly increased (P<0.05). However, these effects were inhibited by the addition of anti-IgG Fc serum (P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that FcγRIIIa resided in KCs, and it contributed to the inhibition of the growth of liver tumor cells. PMID:27082928

  9. Inflammatory Monocytes Recruited to the Liver within 24 Hours after Virus-Induced Inflammation Resemble Kupffer Cells but Are Functionally Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Movita, Dowty; Biesta, Paula; Kreefft, Kim; Haagmans, Bart; Zuniga, Elina; Herschke, Florence; De Jonghe, Sandra; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Gama, Lucio; Boonstra, Andre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to a scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for viral hepatitis, little is known about the early innate immune responses in the liver. In various hepatotoxic models, both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of recruited monocytes have been described. In this study, we compared the effect of liver inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with that of a persistent virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, on early innate intrahepatic immune responses in mice. LCMV infection induces a remarkable influx of inflammatory monocytes in the liver within 24 h, accompanied by increased transcript levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in whole liver. Importantly, while a single LPS injection results in similar recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the liver, the functional properties of the infiltrating cells are dramatically different in response to LPS versus LCMV infection. In fact, intrahepatic inflammatory monocytes are skewed toward a secretory phenotype with impaired phagocytosis in LCMV-induced liver inflammation but exhibit increased endocytic capacity after LPS challenge. In contrast, F4/80high-Kupffer cells retain their steady-state endocytic functions upon LCMV infection. Strikingly, the gene expression levels of inflammatory monocytes dramatically change upon LCMV exposure and resemble those of Kupffer cells. Since inflammatory monocytes outnumber Kupffer cells 24 h after LCMV infection, it is highly likely that inflammatory monocytes contribute to the intrahepatic inflammatory response during the early phase of infection. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the early immunological events during virus-induced liver disease and point toward inflammatory monocytes as potential target cells for future treatment options in viral hepatitis. IMPORTANCE Insights into how the immune system deals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are scarce due to the lack of adequate animal model systems. This knowledge is, however, crucial to developing new antiviral strategies aimed at eradicating these chronic infections. We model virus-host interactions during the initial phase of liver inflammation 24 h after inoculating mice with LCMV. We show that infected Kupffer cells are rapidly outnumbered by infiltrating inflammatory monocytes, which secrete proinflammatory cytokines but are less phagocytic. Nevertheless, these recruited inflammatory monocytes start to resemble Kupffer cells on a transcript level. The specificity of these cellular changes for virus-induced liver inflammation is corroborated by demonstrating opposite functions of monocytes after LPS challenge. Overall, this demonstrates the enormous functional and genetic plasticity of infiltrating monocytes and identifies them as an important target cell for future treatment regimens. PMID:25673700

  10. Effects of Chaihu-Shugan-San and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San on p38 MAPK Pathway in Kupffer Cells of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin-He; Liu, Yi-Zhen; Liang, Yin-Ji; Feng, Gao-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Xing, Hui-Jie; Yan, Hai-Zhen; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS), and integrated recipe of the above two recipes on inflammatory markers and proteins involved in p38 MAPK pathway in Kupffer cells of NASH rats induced by high fat diet (HFD). Rats were administered at low or high dose of CSS, SLBZS, and integrated recipe except normal group and model group for 16 weeks. The levels of hepatic lipid, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in liver tissues were measured. Kupffer cells were isolated from livers to evaluate expressions of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK by Western blotting. The results showed that the NASH model rats successfully reproduced typical pathogenetic and histopathological features. Levels of hepatic lipid and liver tissues inflammatory factors in high-dose SLBZS group and integrated recipe group were all lower than that of model group decreased observably. Expressions of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK in Kupffer cells were decreased in all treatment groups, but there was no significant difference between treatment groups. The high-dose SLBZS group had the lowest expression levels of TLR4, and the most visible downtrend in the expression levels of p-p38 MAPK and p38 MAPK was found in the high-dose integrated recipe group. The ratio of p-p38 MAPK to total p38 MAPK protein was obviously increased in all treatment groups. Therefore, our study showed that the activation of p38 MAPK pathway in Kupffer cells might be related to the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in NASH rats. High dose of SLBZS and integrated recipe might work as a significant anti-inflammatory effect in Kupffer cells of NASH rats induced by HFD through suppression of p38 MAPK pathway. It indicated that p38 MAPK pathway may be the possible effective target for the recipes. PMID:24795769

  11. Dynamic Imaging of Experimental Leishmania donovani-Induced Hepatic Granulomas Detects Kupffer Cell-Restricted Antigen Presentation to Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Lynette; Peltan, Adam; Maroof, Asher; Kirby, Alun; Brown, Najmeeyah; Coles, Mark; Smith, Deborah F.; Kaye, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) represent the major phagocytic population within the liver and provide an intracellular niche for the survival of a number of important human pathogens. Although KCs have been extensively studied in vitro, little is known of their in vivo response to infection and their capacity to directly interact with antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Here, using a combination of approaches including whole mount and thin section confocal microscopy, adoptive cell transfer and intra-vital 2-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that KCs represent the only detectable population of mononuclear phagocytes within granulomas induced by Leishmania donovani infection that are capable of presenting parasite-derived peptide to effector CD8+ T cells. This restriction of antigen presentation to KCs within the Leishmania granuloma has important implications for the identification of new candidate vaccine antigens and for the design of novel immuno-therapeutic interventions. PMID:20300603

  12. Large-pore mesoporous silica nanospheres as vehicles for delivering TRAF3-shRNA plasmids to Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyong; Guo, Shipeng; Zhang, Wenfeng; Niu, Dechao; Gong, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The currently available techniques for transferring exogenous genes into macrophages, especially the targeted import of exogenous genes into Kupffer cells (KCs) in vivo, are inefficient and achieve only low targeting. Novel Large-Pore Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (LPMSNs) may be a promising gene transfection agent for KCs because of their superior biodegradation and hypotoxic characteristics, as well as their ability to retain the biological function of KCs and the high loading-rate of exogenous plasmid. LPMSNs were able to completely adsorb shRNA-TRAF3 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3) plasmid at a mass ratio as low as 30:1, and exhibited a low cytotoxicity for KCs. LPMSNs were detected in KC cytoplasm in vitro, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that they were present only in KCs in liver tissue in vivo. The max KC transfection efficiency with LPMSNs was 34.8± 0.07%, as evaluated using flow cytometry, and the protein and mRNA levels of TRAF3 were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by shRNA-TRAF3 plasmid transfection after 24 h in vitro and 48 h in vivo. In conclusion, KC targeted transfection was achieved successfully by LPMSNs carrying shRNA-TRAF3 plasmids in vitro and vivo. The protein and mRNA levels of TRAF3 were suppressed significantly. These results suggest that LPMSNs are a promising vehicle for delivering exogenous genes into KCs in vitro and vivo. PMID:26631959

  13. Continuous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in vivo primes in vitro superoxide anion release in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Kupffer cells in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A M; Spitzer, J A

    1991-12-01

    Continuous infusion of a nonlethal dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) induced early (3 h) accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in rat liver followed by later (30 h) greater extravasation of mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) (E. B. Rodriguez de Turco and J. A. Spitzer, J. Leukocyte Biol. 48:488-494, 1990). Nonparenchymal liver cells from rats treated for 3 and 30 h with LPS were recovered by centrifugal elutriation, yielding a 23-ml/min fraction (endothelial cells) and a 45-ml/min fraction (PMNL, Kupffer cells, and MNP), and compared for their capacity for basal and agonist-stimulated superoxide (O2-) production. Stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and opsonized zymosan caused a dose-dependent release of O2- from the 45-ml/min fraction derived from rats treated for 3 h with saline, but not from the 23-ml/min fraction. Further purification of the 45-ml/min fraction by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation into a Kupffer and a PMNL fraction revealed that most of the agonist-induced O2- release was generated by infiltrating PMNL at this early time point of LPS infusion. By 30 h of LPS infusion, although enhancement of the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated release of O2- was observed in the 45-ml/min fraction, but not in the 23-ml/min fraction, the maximum release of O2- was smaller than that observed in the rats treated for 3 h. Our results support the following conclusions: (i) after a 3-h LPS infusion, PMNL found in the liver in increased numbers are also highly primed for agonist-stimulated release of O2-, while Kupffer cell priming is of a lesser extent; (ii) after a 30-h infusion of LPS, infiltrating MNP found in the liver in increased numbers are primed for agonist-induced O2- release, while priming of PMNL has diminished; (iii) at both 3 and 30 h of LPS infusion, liver endothelial cells are not significantly primed for agonist-stimulated O2- release; and (iv) in vivo priming by LPS infusion at both 3 and 30 h was not reversed by the experimental method used for cell recovery (ca. 3 h), thus suggesting that in vivo LPS priming of O2- release may ultimately lead to severe impairment of liver function and metabolism observed during endotoxemia and sepsis if not therapeutically blocked at an early time point. PMID:1657786

  14. Kupffer Cells Support Hepatitis B Virus-Mediated CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion via Hepatitis B Core Antigen-TLR2 Interactions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Sun, Rui; Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Chen, Yongyan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Lian, Zhexiong; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence is a fundamental process in chronic HBV infection and a key factor in all related liver diseases; however, the mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We studied the role of TLR2 in HBV persistence using a well-established HBV-carrier mouse model generated by hydrodynamically injecting a phospho-adeno-associated virus/HBV1.2 plasmid into mice. We found that a genetic deficiency in TLR2 improves HBV elimination, whereas activating TLR2 led to more stable HBV persistence, suggesting that TLR2 activation is critical in HBV persistence. Furthermore, we noted that TLR2 activation could inhibit CD8(+) T cell function, causing the exhaustion phenotype in HBV-carrier mice, because TLR2 deficiency might rescue CD8(+) T cell function in a cellular adoptive experiment. TLR2 expression on Kupffer cells (KCs) was upregulated in HBV-carrier mice, which accounts for HBV persistence, because the difference in anti-HBV immunity between HBV-carrier wild-type and Tlr2(-/-) mice did not exist after KC depletion. In addition, similar to TLR2 deficiency, after KC depletion, CD8(+) T cells were more efficiently activated in HBV-carrier mice, leading to rapid HBV elimination. KCs produced more IL-10 upon TLR2 activation in response to direct hepatitis B core Ag stimulation, and the elevated IL-10 inhibited CD8(+) T cell function in HBV-carrier mice, because IL-10 deficiency or anti-IL-10R treatment resulted in CD8(+) T cells with stronger antiviral function. In conclusion, KCs support liver tolerance by inducing anti-HBV CD8(+) T cell exhaustion via IL-10 production after TLR2 activation by hepatitis B core Ag stimulation. PMID:26304988

  15. Stereological assessment of sexual dimorphism in the rat liver reveals differences in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but not hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Lopes, Célia; Malhão, Fernanda; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Fonseca, Sónia; Lima, Margarida; Gebhardt, Rolf; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    There is long-standing evidence that male and female rat livers differ in enzyme activity. More recently, differences in gene expression profiling have also been found to exist; however, it is still unclear whether there is morphological expression of male/female differences in the normal liver. Such differences could help to explain features seen at the pathological level, such as the greater regenerative potential generally attributed to the female liver. In this paper, hepatocytes (HEP), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) of male and female rats were examined to investigate hypothesised differences in number, volume and spatial co-localisation of these cell types. Immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology were used to estimate total numbers, numbers per gram and mean cell volumes. The position of HSC within lobules (periportal vs. centrilobular) and their spatial proximity to KC was also assessed. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the liver ploidy. In the case of HEP and KC, differences in the measured cell parameters were observed between male and female specimens; however, no such differences were detected for HSC. Female samples contained a higher number of HEP per gram, with more binucleate cells. The HEP nuclei were smaller in females, which was coincident with more abundant diploid particles in these animals. The female liver also had a greater number of KC per gram, with a lower percentage of KC in the vicinity of HSC compared with males. In this study, we document hitherto unknown morphological sexual dimorphism in the rat liver, namely in HEP and KC. These differences may account for the higher regenerative potential of the female liver and lend weight to the argument for considering the rat liver as a sexually dimorphic organ. PMID:26892301

  16. Time course investigation of PPAR{alpha}- and Kupffer cell-dependent effects of WY-14,643 in mouse liver using microarray gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Courtney G.; Kosyk, Oksana; Bradford, Blair U.; Ross, Pamela K.; Burns, Amanda M.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Qu Pingping; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2007-12-15

    Administration of peroxisome proliferators to rodents causes proliferation of peroxisomes, induction of {beta}-oxidation enzymes, hepatocellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with chronic exposure ultimately leading to hepatocellular carcinomas. Many responses associated with peroxisome proliferators are nuclear receptor-mediated events involving peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}). A role for nuclear receptor-independent events has also been shown, with evidence of Kupffer cell-mediated free radical production, presumably through NAPDH oxidase, induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors involved in cytokine production and cytokine-mediated cell replication following acute treatment with peroxisome proliferators in rodents. Recent studies have demonstrated, by using p47{sup phox}-null mice which are deficient in NADPH oxidase, that this enzyme is not related to the phenotypic events caused by prolonged administration of peroxisome proliferators. In an effort to determine the timing of the transition from Kupffer cell-to PPAR{alpha}-dependent modulation of peroxisome proliferator effects, gene expression was assessed in liver from Ppar{alpha}-null, p47{sup phox}-null and corresponding wild-type mice following treatment with 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-pyrimidynylthioacetic acid (WY-14,643) for 8 h, 24 h, 72 h, 1 week or 4 weeks. WY-14,643-induced gene expression in p47{sup phox}-null mouse liver differed substantially from wild-type mice at acute doses and striking differences in baseline expression of immune related genes were evident. Pathway mapping of genes that respond to WY-14,643 in a time- and dose-dependent manner demonstrates suppression of immune response, cell death and signal transduction and promotion of lipid metabolism, cell cycle and DNA repair. Furthermore, these pathways were largely dependent on PPAR{alpha}, not NADPH oxidase demonstrating a temporal shift in response to peroxisome proliferators. Overall, this study shows that NADPH oxidase-dependent events, while detectable following acute treatment, are transient. To the contrary, a strong PPAR{alpha}-specific gene signature was evident in mice that were continually exposed to WY-14,643.

  17. Metabolism of supplemental iron (Fe) by hepatocytes (HC), kupffer cells (KC) and endothelial cells (EC) in neonatal pig liver

    SciTech Connect

    Caperna, T.J.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Newborn pigs rapidly develop anemia unless treated with supplemental Fe. The authors have developed methods to isolate and culture the predominant cell types in porcine liver to investigate cellular distribution and metabolism of Fe supplements. One-day (d) old piglets were injected with Fe-dextran (50 mg Fe/kg) and liver cells were isolated from treated and age-matched control piglets 1, 5, and 10 d later. The concentration (..mu..g/mg cell protein) of Fe increased 62-, 54-, and 5-fold over controls in KC, EC, and HC, respectively, 1 d after Fe injection. Thereafter, accumulated Fe was mobilized from all 3 cell types. By 10 d HC mobilized > 85% of accumulated Fe, while Fe levels in KC and EC from treated pigs were at least 15-fold higher than control levels. In vitro studies confirmed the greater capacity of KC and EC to accumulate colloidal Fe compared to HC. The concentration of ferritin (Ft) to liver cells from control pigs was below 0.3 ..mu..g/mg cell protein. After treatment, Ft levels peaked in HC and KC on d 1 at 5.0 and 15.6 ..mu..g/mg cell protein, but in EC on d 5 at 13.3 ..mu..g/mg. Ferritin Fe represented 9% of total Fe in KC and EC at all times after treatment, but as much as 48% in HC at 1 d. Continued investigation of hepatic cellular metabolism of supplemental Fe provides a useful model for investigating the treatment of human neonatal anemia.

  18. Co-culture of Hepatocytes and Kupffer Cells as an In Vitro Model of Inflammation and Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kelly A; Holman, Natalie S; Green, Angela M; Andersen, Melvin E; LeCluyse, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    Immune-mediated drug-induced hepatotoxicity is often unrecognized as a potential mode of action due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. We have established an in vitro rat donor-matched hepatocyte and Kupffer cell co-culture (HKCC) model to study immune-related responses to drug exposure. Optimal cell culture conditions were identified for the maintenance of co-cultures based on cell longevity, monolayer integrity, and cytokine response after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Hepatocyte monocultures and HKCCs were then used to test a subset of compounds associated with hepatotoxic effects with or without LPS. Cytokine levels and metabolic activity (cytochrome P450 3A [Cyp3A]) were measured after a 48-h exposure to monitor endotoxin-induced changes in acute phase and functional end points. LPS-activated HKCCs, but not hepatocyte monocultures, treated with trovafloxacin or acetaminophen, compounds associated with immune-mediated hepatotoxicity, showed LPS-dependent decreases in interleukin-6 production with concomitant increases in Cyp3A activity. Differential endotoxin- and model-dependent alterations were observed in cytokine profiles and Cyp3A activity levels that corresponded to specific compounds. These results indicate the utility of the HKCC model system to discern compound-specific effects that may lead to enhanced or mitigate hepatocellular injury due to innate or adaptive immune responses. PMID:26869439

  19. Subtoxic Concentrations of Hepatotoxic Drugs Lead to Kupffer Cell Activation in a Human In Vitro Liver Model: An Approach to Study DILI

    PubMed Central

    Kegel, Victoria; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Burkhardt, Britta; Liu, Jia L.; Zeilinger, Katrin; Nüssler, Andreas K.; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction leading to severe liver damage. Kupffer cells (KC) sense hepatic tissue stress/damage and therefore could be a tool for the estimation of consequent effects associated with DILI. Aim of the present study was to establish a human in vitro liver model for the investigation of immune-mediated signaling in the pathogenesis of DILI. Hepatocytes and KC were isolated from human liver specimens. The isolated KC yield was 1.2 ± 0.9 × 106 cells/g liver tissue with a purity of >80%. KC activation was investigated by the measurement of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI, DCF assay) and cell activity (XTT assay). The initial KC activation levels showed broad donor variability. Additional activation of KC using supernatants of hepatocytes treated with hepatotoxic drugs increased KC activity and led to donor-dependent changes in the formation of ROI compared to KC incubated with supernatants from untreated hepatocytes. Additionally, a compound- and donor-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokines or in anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected. In conclusion, KC related immune signaling in hepatotoxicity was successfully determined in a newly established in vitro liver model. KC were able to detect hepatocyte stress/damage and to transmit a donor- and compound-dependent immune response via cytokine production. PMID:26491234

  20. Uptake of toxic silica particles by isolated rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) is receptor mediated and can be blocked by competition.

    PubMed Central

    Kolb-Bachofen, V

    1992-01-01

    Silica particles (quartz dust) are toxic to macrophages after their uptake into these cells. These experiments describe the opsonization mechanism(s) and macrophage receptor(s) involved in silica uptake. Freshly isolated rat liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) were incubated at 37 degrees C with silica particles in the presence or absence of autologous or heterologous plasma or purified plasma fibronectin and cell viability was assessed at various times. Within 60 min of coincubation, > 80% of macrophages were lysed in the presence of plasma or purified fibronectin but not in their absence (viability > 90%). Lysis was slower with defibronectinized plasma (28% in 60 min). Macrophages could be protected from lysis by addition of the monosaccharide N-acetyl-D-galactosamine but not by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Galactosylated serum albumin but not mannosylated albumin or native albumin exerted full protection from lysis. The pentapeptide GRGDS also prevented macrophage lysis in synergy with N-acetyl-galactosamine. Enzymatic deglycosylation of fibronectin reduced lysis significantly. These findings indicate an important opsonizing activity for fibronectin and dual recognition via the lectin-like galactose-specific binding activity of membrane-associated C-reactive protein and by integrin receptor(s). Binding experiments (at 4 degrees C) revealed initial binding as primarily galactose-inhibitable, suggesting integrin-mediated binding as a later event necessary for effective uptake. Images PMID:1331174

  1. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang Y; Nesset, Cecilie Kasi; Damme, Markus; Løberg, Else-Marit; Lübke, Torben; Mæhlen, Jan; Andersson, Kristin B; Lorenzo, Petra I; Roos, Norbert; Thoresen, G Hege; Rustan, Arild C; Kase, Eili T; Eskild, Winnie

    2014-03-01

    Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1(gt/gt) mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1(gt/gt) liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1(gt/gt) Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1(gt/gt) mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage. PMID:24487409

  2. Effect of Intestinal Microflora on the Production of Interleukin 10 and Prostaglandin E2 in Serum and Kupffer Cells from Germfree and Conventional Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masamichi; Ohira, Hideo; Toyama, Yukiko; Katagiri, Tikae; Sakakibara, Bunsaku

    2007-01-01

    To determine why germfree (GF) mice are less productivity of proinflammatory cytokines than conventional (CV) mice, we studied serum levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in mice after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (LPS). A single injection of LPS caused an elevation of IL-10 in serum from GF, LPS-GF (germfree mice given drinking water containing LPS) and CV mice. The response was highest in serum from GF mice, and was lower in serum from LPS-GF mice compared with GF mice. Before LPS injection, serum PGE2 was significantly higher in CV and LPS-GF mice than in GF ones. After LPS injection, a higher level of PGE2 was maintained over 12 h in CV mice after LPS injection, while the LPS treatment reduced the level in LPS-GF mice and increased the level in GF mice. The levels of IL-10 in culture medium from Kupffer cells treated with LPS showed similar results to serum in GF and CV mice. These results suggest that high levels of IL-10 in serum from germfree mice may be partly responsible for the lower in vivo responsiveness of these proinflammatory cytokines to LPS in these mice, although PGE2 was not responsible for the lower responsiveness of these inflammatory cytokines to LPS. PMID:18299711

  3. Mercury-Selenium Relationships in Liver of Guiana Dolphin: The Possible Role of Kupffer Cells in the Detoxification Process by Tiemannite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Andrade, Leonardo; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete; Vidal, Lara Gama; Costa, Marianna Badini; Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Almeida, Ronaldo; Carvalho, Dario Pires; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Top marine predators present high mercury concentrations in their tissues as consequence of biomagnification of the most toxic form of this metal, methylmercury (MeHg). The present study concerns mercury accumulation by Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), highlighting the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Liver samples from 19 dolphins incidentally captured within Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed for total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), total organic mercury (TOrgHg) and selenium (Se). X-ray microanalyses were also performed. The specimens, including from fetuses to 30-year-old dolphins, comprising 8 females and 11 males, presented high THg (0.53–132 µg/g wet wt.) and Se concentrations (0.17–74.8 µg/g wet wt.). Correlations between THg, MeHg, TOrgHg and Se were verified with age (p<0.05), as well as a high and positive correlation was observed between molar concentrations of Hg and Se (p<0.05). Negative correlations were observed between THg and the percentage of MeHg contribution to THg (p<0.05), which represents a consequence of the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Accumulation of Se-Hg amorphous crystals in Kupffer Cells was demonstrated through ultra-structural analysis, which shows that Guiana dolphin is capable of carrying out the demethylation process via mercury selenide formation. PMID:22860072

  4. Chronic Ethanol Feeding Modulates Inflammatory Mediators, Activation of Nuclear Factor-?B, and Responsiveness to Endotoxin in Murine Kupffer Cells and Circulating Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Elsie; Jobin, Christian; Schleucher, Elke; Marzi, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse is known to increase susceptibility to infections after injury, in part, by modification of macrophage function. Several intracellular signalling mechanisms are involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses, including the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway. In this study, we investigated the systemic and hepatic effect of chronic ethanol feeding on in vivo activation of NF-?B in NF-?BEGFP reporter gene mice. Specifically, the study focused on Kupffer cell proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? and activation of NF-?B after chronic ethanol feeding followed by in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that chronic ethanol upregulated NF-?B activation and increased hepatic and systemic proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similarly, LPS-stimulated IL-1? release from whole blood was significantly enhanced in ethanol-fed mice. However, LPS significantly increased IL-6 and TNF-? levels. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol feeding can improve the responsiveness of macrophage LPS-stimulated IL-6 and TNF-? production and indicate that this effect may result from ethanol-induced alterations in intracellular signalling through NF-?B. Furthermore, LPS and TNF-? stimulated the gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, in part, in a NF-?B-dependent manner. PMID:24623963

  5. Effects of the in vitro administered ethanol and lipopolysaccharide toxin on membrane properties, intracellular free calcium and phagocytic function of isolated rat kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Victorov, A.; Smith, T.; Abril, E.; Hamlin, E.; Earnest, D. )

    1991-03-11

    Low concentrations of ethanol slightly stimulated phagocytosis of cultured Kupffer cells (KC), producing practically no effect on membrane microviscosity and cytosolic free (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}. On the contrary, high concentrations of ethanol significantly suppressed phagocytic function, increased fluidity of membrane lipids and caused a sustained rise in (Ca{sup 2}){sub i}; above the resting level of 41-85 nM. Treatment of KC with colchicine and cytochalasin B dramatically destructurized the plasma membrane lipids. Short term preincubation of KC with high doses of alcohol stimulated the disordering effects of both drugs, suggesting direct interaction of ethanol with microtubule and microfilament structures. The authors hypothesize that ethanol impairs phagocytosis of KC by concerted actions on membrane lipid fluidity, cytosolic free Ca{sup 2+} and functioning of cytoskeleton. On the other hand, incubation of KC with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced no changes in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}; or plasma membrane fluidity but reduced by several fold the fluidizing effect of subsequently added ethanol. They suggested that low doses of LPS, by activating second messengers other than Ca{sup 2+}, alter the functioning of the cytoskeleton and cause reorganization of the plasma membrane thus making KC membranes more resistent to the fluidizing action of ethanol and partially restoring the phagocytic function.

  6. Gut Bacteria Drive Kupffer Cell Expansion via MAMP-Mediated ICAM-1 Induction on Sinusoidal Endothelium and Influence Preservation-Reperfusion Injury after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Corbitt, Natasha; Kimura, Shoko; Isse, Kumiko; Specht, Susan; Chedwick, Lisa; Rosborough, Brian R.; Lunz, John G.; Murase, Noriko; Yokota, Shinichiro; Demetris, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in the gut microbiome shed microbial-associated molecule patterns (MAMPs) into the portal venous circulation, where they augment various aspects of systemic immunity via low-level stimulation. Because the liver is immediately downstream of the intestines, we proposed that gut-derived MAMPs shape liver immunity and affect Kupffer cell (KC) phenotype. Germ-free (GF), antibiotic-treated (AVMN), and conventional (CL) mice were used to study KC development, function, and response to the significant stress of cold storage, reperfusion, and orthotopic transplantation. We found that a cocktail of physiologically active MAMPs translocate into the portal circulation, with flagellin (Toll-like receptor 5 ligand) being the most plentiful and capable of promoting hepatic monocyte influx in GF mice. In MAMP-deficient GF or AVMN livers, KCs are lower in numbers, have higher phagocytic activity, and have lower major histocompatibility complex II expression. MAMP-containing CL livers harbor significantly increased KC numbers via induction of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on liver sinusoidal endothelium. These CL KCs have a primed yet expected phenotype, with increased major histocompatibility complex class II and lower phagocytic activity that increases susceptibility to liver preservation/reperfusion injury after orthotopic transplantation. The KC number, functional activity, and maturational status are directly related to the concentration of gut-derived MAMPs and can be significantly reduced by broad-spectrum antibiotics, thereby affecting susceptibility to injury. PMID:23159949

  7. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve; Kristiansen, Karsten; Frøyland, Livar; Madsen, Lise

    2010-04-01

    The ability of n-3 PUFA to competitively inhibit the use of arachidonic acid (AA) for membrane phospholipid synthesis and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production has been well demonstrated in single cell models. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic competition between AA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1) significantly increased beta-oxidation of EPA in HPCs, but only marginally elevated the oxidation of AA in HPCs and the oxidation of both fatty acids in KCs; 2) decreased the esterification, but did not alter the preferential incorporation of AA into glycerolipids; and 3) alleviated the significant competitive inhibition of AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis and COX-2 expression by EPA. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that l-carnitine affects competition between AA and EPA in PG synthesis in liver cells by enhancing oxidation of EPA in HPCs. This implies that the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA, especially EPA, are affected by the cellular oxidation capacity. PMID:20079880

  8. Polythiol-containing, recombinant mannosylated-albumin is a superior CD68+/CD206+ Kupffer cell-targeted nanoantioxidant for treatment of two acute hepatitis models.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Hirata, Kenshiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Inatsu, Akihito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Tanaka, Motohiko; Sasaki, Yutaka; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2015-02-01

    Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Kupffer cells (KC), especially CD68(+) KC, play a key role in the induction of hepatic oxidative stress and injuries, we developed a polythiolated- and mannosylated human serum albumin (SH-Man-HSA), which functions as a novel nanoantioxidant for delivering thiol to CD68(+) KC. In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance coupled with pharmacokinetics and immunohistochemical studies showed that SH-Man-HSA possessed powerful radical-scavenging activity and rapidly and selectively delivered thiols to the liver via mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells. SH-Man-HSA significantly improved the survival rate of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-treated mice. Moreover, SH-Man-HSA exhibited excellent hepatoprotective functions, not by decreasing tumor necrosis factor or interferon-γ production that is closely associated with Con-A-induced hepatitis, but by suppressing ROS production. Interestingly, the protective effect of SH-Man-HSA was superior to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). This could be attributed to the difference in the inhibition of hepatic oxidative stress between the two antioxidants depending on their potential for thiol delivery to the liver. Similar results were also observed for acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatopathy models. Flow cytometric data further confirmed that an increase in F4/80(+)/ROS(+) cells was dramatically decreased by SH-Man-HSA. The administration of SH-Man-HSA at 4 hours following a Con-A or APAP injection also exhibited a profound hepatoprotective action against these hepatitis models, whereas this was not observed for NAC. It can be concluded therefore that SH-Man-HSA has great potential for use in a rescue therapy for hepatopathy as a nanoantioxidant because of its ability to efficiently and rapidly deliver thiols to CD68(+)/CD206(+) KC. PMID:25398242

  9. Kupffer cell depletion protects against the steatosis, but not the liver damage, induced by marginal-copper, high-fructose diet in male rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Ming; Schuschke, Dale A; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Jiayuan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yuhua; McClain, Craig J

    2015-06-01

    High-fructose feeding impairs copper status and leads to low copper availability, which is a novel mechanism in obesity-related fatty liver. Copper deficiency-associated hepatic iron overload likely plays an important role in fructose-induced liver injury. Excess iron in the liver is distributed throughout hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (KCs). The aim of this study was to examine the role of KCs in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a marginal-copper high-fructose diet (CuMF). Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a copper-adequate or a marginally copper-deficient diet for 4 wk. Deionized water or deionized water containing 30% fructose (wt/vol) was also given ad libitum. KCs were depleted by intravenous administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) before and/or in the middle of the experimental period. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation was completely eliminated with KC depletion in CuMF consumption rats, which was associated with the normalization of elevated plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and increased hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression. However, hepatic copper and iron content were not significantly affected by KC depletion. In addition, KC depletion reduced body weight and epididymal fat weight as well as adipocyte size. Plasma endotoxin and gut permeability were markedly increased in CuMF rats. Moreover, MCP-1 was robustly increased in the culture medium when isolated KCs from CuMF rats were treated with LPS. Our data suggest that KCs play a critical role in the development of hepatic steatosis induced by marginal-copper high-fructose diet. PMID:25813056

  10. High-mobility group box-1 induces proinflammatory cytokines production of Kupffer cells through TLRs-dependent signaling pathway after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Sun, Li; Guo, Feng; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Liang, Xun; Wang, Ren-Su; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) were a significant source of cytokine release during the early stage of severe burns. High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) was recently identified as a new type of proinflammatory cytokine. The ability of HMGB1 to generate inflammatory responses after burn trauma has not been well characterized. KCs were isolated from sham animals and rats with a 30% full-thickness burn, and then were stimulated with increasing concentrations of HMGB1. The levels of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Northern blot analysis was performed to detect the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs. The activities of p38 MAPK and JNK (by Western blot analysis) as well as NF-κB (by EMSA) in KCs were also examined. As a result, HMGB1 in vitro upregulated expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β of KCs in a dose-dependent manner, and HMGB1 promoted KCs from burn rats to produce significantly more TNF-α and IL-1β proteins than those from sham animals. After harvested from burn rats, KCs were pre-incubated with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody prior to HMGB1 administration. HMGB1 exposure not only significantly increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs in KCs from burn rats, but also enhanced activities of p38 MAPK, JNK and NF-κB. However, these upregulation events were all reduced by pre-incubation with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody. These results indicate that HMGB1 induces proinflammatory cytokines production of KCs after sever burn injury, and this process might be largely dependent on TLRs-dependent MAPKs/NF-κB signal pathway. PMID:23209806

  11. Kupffer-cell-expressed transmembrane TNF-α is a major contributor to lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Zhou, Wenjing; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Meng; Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Rui; Ba, Hongping; Li, Cheng; Wang, Jing; Yin, Bingjiao; Gong, Feili; Li, Zhuoya

    2016-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α exists in two bioactive forms, a 26-kDa transmembrane form (tmTNF-α) and a 17-kDa soluble form (sTNF-α). sTNF-α has been recognized as a key regulator of hepatitis; however, serum sTNF-α disappears in mice during the development of severe liver injury, and high levels of serum sTNF-α do not necessarily result in liver damage. Interestingly, in a mouse model of acute hepatitis, we have found that tmTNF-α expression on Kupffer cells (KCs) significantly increases when mice develop severe liver injury caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-gal), and the level of tmTNF-α expression is positively related to the activity of serum transaminases. Therefore, we hypothesized that KC-expressed tmTNF-α constitutes a pathomechanism in hepatitis and have explored the role of tmTNF-α in this disease model. Here, we have compared the impact of KCs(tmTNFlow) and KCs(tmTNFhigh) on acute hepatitis in vivo and ex vivo and have further demonstrated that KCs(tmTNFhigh), rather than KCs(tmTNFlow), not only exhibit an imbalance in secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, favoring inflammatory response and exacerbating liver injury, but also induce hepatocellular apoptosis via tmTNF-α and the expression of another pro-apoptotic factor, Fas ligand. Our data suggest that KC(tmTNFhigh) is a major contributor to liver injury in LPS/D-gal-induced hepatitis. PMID:26267221

  12. C5a anaphylatoxin as a product of complement activation up-regulates the complement inhibitory factor H in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Schlaf, Gerald; Nitzki, Frauke; Heine, Ines; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Schieferdecker, Henrike L; Götze, Otto

    2004-11-01

    The 155-kDa complement regulator factor H (FH) is the predominant soluble regulatory protein of the complement system. It acts as a cofactor for the factor I-mediated conversion of the component C3b to iC3b, competes with factor B for a binding site on C3b and C3(H2O) and promotes the dissociation of the C3bBb complex. The primary site of synthesis is the liver, i.e. FH-specific mRNA and protein were identified in both hepatocytes (HC) and Kupffer cells (KC). Previous studies in rat primary HC and KC had shown that the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma influences the balance between activation and inhibition of the complement system through up-regulation of the inhibitory FH. In this study we show that C5a, as a product of complement activation, stimulates the expression of FH-specific mRNA and protein in KC and thus induces a negative feedback. Quantitative-competitive RT-PCR showed an approximate threefold C5a-induced up-regulation of FH. ELISA analyses revealed a corresponding increase in FH protein in the supernatants of KC. The up-regulation of FH was completely inhibited by the C5a-blocking monoclonal antibody 6-9F. Furthermore, an involvement of LPS and IFN-gamma was excluded, which strongly indicates a direct effect of C5a on the expression of FH in KC. PMID:15376195

  13. Establishment of a hepatocyte-kupffer cell coculture model for assessment of proinflammatory cytokine effects on metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Theresa V; Ukairo, Okechukwu; Khetani, Salman R; McVay, Michael; Kanchagar, Chitra; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Ayanoglu, Gulesi; Irrechukwu, Onyi; Evers, Raymond

    2015-05-01

    Elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines associated with infection and inflammation can modulate cytochrome P450 enzymes, leading to potential disease-drug interactions and altered small-molecule drug disposition. We established a human-derived hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (Hep:KC) coculture model to assess the indirect cytokine impact on hepatocytes through stimulation of KC-mediated cytokine release and compared this model with hepatocytes alone. Characterization of Hep:KC cocultures showed an inflammation response after treatment with lipopolysaccharide and interleukin (IL)-6 (indicated by secretion of various cytokines). Additionally, IL-6 exposure upregulated acute-phase proteins (C-reactive protein, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and serum amyloid A2) and downregulated CYP3A4. Compared with hepatocytes alone, Hep:KC cocultures showed enhanced IL-1β-mediated effects but less impact from both IL-2 and IL-23. Hep:KC cocultures treated with IL-1β exhibited a higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, an increased upregulation of acute-phase proteins, and a larger extent of metabolic enzyme and transporter suppression. IC50 values for IL-1β-mediated CYP3A4 suppression were lower in Hep:KC cocultures (98.0-144 pg/ml) compared with hepatocytes alone (IC50 > 5000 pg/ml). Cytochrome suppression was preventable by blocking IL-1β interaction with IL-1R1 using an antagonist cytokine or an anti-IL-1β antibody. Unlike IL-1β, IL-6-mediated effects were comparable between hepatocyte monocultures and Hep:KC cocultures. IL-2 and IL-23 caused a negligible inflammation response and a minimal inhibition of CYP3A4. In both hepatocyte monocultures and Hep:KC cocultures, IL-2RB and IL-23R were undetectable, whereas IL-6R and IL-1R1 levels were higher in Hep:KC cocultures. In summary, compared with hepatocyte monocultures, the Hep:KC coculture system is a more robust in vitro model for studying the impact of proinflammatory cytokines on metabolic enzymes. PMID:25739975

  14. Effects of acute lindane intoxication and thyroid hormone administration in relation to nuclear factor-kappaB activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression, and Kupffer cell function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Valencia, César; Cornejo, Pamela; Romanque, Pamela; Tapia, Gladys; Varela, Patricia; Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia

    2004-03-14

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and parameters related to liver oxidative stress and Kupffer cell function were assessed in control rats and in animals given 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) (0.1 mg T3/kg) and/or lindane (50 mg/kg; 4 h after T3). Liver NF-kappaB DNA binding and serum TNF-alpha levels were enhanced by the combined T3-lindane administration after 16-22 h, effects that were lower than those elicited by the separate treatments and coincided with increased hepatic TNF-alpha mRNA levels. Thyroid calorigenesis occurred independently of lindane, whereas T3, lindane and T3-lindane groups showed liver glutathione (GSH) depletion, with higher protein carbonyl levels in lindane and T3-lindane groups. Carbon-induced O2 consumption/carbon uptake ratios were not altered by T3 or lindane compared to controls, whereas combined T3-lindane administration elicited a 92% diminution with enhancement in the sinusoidal efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In conclusion, depression of T3- or lindane-induced liver NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha expression occurred after their combined treatment, effects that correlate with the impairment of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and exacerbation of liver injury. PMID:15019085

  15. Autoregulation by eicosanoids of human Kupffer cell secretory products. A study of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, and nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Roland, C R; Goss, J A; Mangino, M J; Hafenrichter, D; Flye, M W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methods employed previously to analyze the secretory behavior of rodent Kupffer cells (KC) were used to examine the human KC's secretory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: As the resident hepatic macrophage, the KC resides at the interface between the portal and systemic circulations. Consequently, this cell may play an integral role in the immune response to antigens and bacteria in the sinusoid. Study of cytokine production by the KC has relied predominantly on the rat as the source of these cells. Whether human KCs respond similarly to rat KCs after LPS stimulation has been a matter of speculation. METHODS: Kupffer cells obtained from seven human livers were tested under conditions identical to those used to study rat KCs. Kupffer cells rested for 12 hours after isolation were stimulated with LPS (2.5 micrograms/mL). Arginine concentration in the culture medium varied from 0.01 to 1.2 mM. To examine the role of eicosanoids, parallel culture wells received indomethacin (10 microM). Culture supernatants were assayed for interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide. RESULTS: Similar to the rat KC, LPS-stimulated human KCs released IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and PGE2. However, unlike rat KCs, nitric oxide could not be detected, regardless of whether the human KCs were exposed to LPS, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), or LPS + IFN-gamma. Similar to rat KCs, indomethacin prevented PGE2 release while significantly upregulating TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, but not TGF-beta, consistent with an autoregulatory control of eicosanoids over proinflammatory cytokines. As has been shown in the rat, physiologic levels of L-arginine (0.01 mM) significantly enhanced LPS-induced PGE2 secretion relative to the response in medium containing standard L-arginine concentration (1.2 mM); however, unlike the rat KC, the human's cytokine response to LPS was not downregulated by this enhanced PGE2 release. CONCLUSIONS: Although many functional features are shared by rat and human KCs, significant differences do exist. Such discrepancies reinforce the need to proceed with caution when generalizing from the results obtained in other species to human physiology. Images Figure 1. PMID:8161265

  16. The Rho kinase Rock2b establishes anteroposterior asymmetry of the ciliated Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangliang; Cadwallader, Adam B.; Jang, Duck Soo; Tsang, Michael; Yost, H. Joseph; Amack, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan features a consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry of internal organs. In several vertebrate embryos, motile cilia generate an asymmetric fluid flow that is necessary for normal LR development. However, the mechanisms involved in orienting LR asymmetric flow with previously established anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, asymmetric flow is generated in Kupffer's vesicle (KV). The cellular architecture of KV is asymmetric along the AP axis, with more ciliated cells densely packed into the anterior region. Here, we identify a Rho kinase gene, rock2b, which is required for normal AP patterning of KV and subsequent LR development in the embryo. Antisense depletion of rock2b in the whole embryo or specifically in the KV cell lineage perturbed asymmetric gene expression in lateral plate mesoderm and disrupted organ LR asymmetries. Analyses of KV architecture demonstrated that rock2b knockdown altered the AP placement of ciliated cells without affecting cilia number or length. In control embryos, leftward flow across the anterior pole of KV was stronger than rightward flow at the posterior end, correlating with the normal AP asymmetric distribution of ciliated cells. By contrast, rock2b knockdown embryos with AP patterning defects in KV exhibited randomized flow direction and equal flow velocities in the anterior and posterior regions. Live imaging of Tg(dusp6:memGFP)pt19 transgenic embryos that express GFP in KV cells revealed that rock2b regulates KV cell morphology. Our results suggest a link between AP patterning of the ciliated Kupffer's vesicle and LR patterning of the zebrafish embryo. PMID:21098560

  17. Exploring Kupffer's Vescicle Through Self Propelled Particle Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundy, Kassidy; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeff; Manning, M. Lisa

    Early development is an important stage in the formation of functional, relatively healthy organisms. In zebrafish embryos, a transient organ in the tailbud called Kupffer's Vescicle (KV) is responsible for the initial left-right (L-R) asymmetry that results in asymmetric organ and tissue placement in the adult zebrafish. Originating as a collection of symmetrically organized monociliated cells, the KV experiences a shift in cell shapes over time that leaves more cells on the anterior or top side of the KV. This arrangement helps to generate a stronger counter-clockwise fluid flow across the anterior side of the organ, which is required for L-R asymmetry. In seeking to understand the source of the shape changes occurring within the KV, we simulate a Self Propelled Particle (SPP) model that includes parameters for cell polarization and speed. We model the KV as a large particle moving in a straight line with constant velocity to mimic the physical forces of the notochord acting on this organ, and we model the surrounding tailbud cells as smaller, slower active particles with an orientation that changes over time due to rotational noise. Our goal is to calculate the forces exerted on the KV by the surrounding tissue, to see if they are sufficient to explain the shape changes we observe in the KV that lead to L-R asymmetry.

  18. Quantification of sinusoidal cell function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Y; Tananka, M; Kawase, T; Shiina, S; Komatsu, Y; Omata, M

    1993-02-01

    Although the clearance and distribution of ligand molecules in circulation represent the function of hepatic sinusoidal cells, these mechanisms revealed a network that is more intricate than would at first seem, since several receptors are common to not only one type of cell, but also to two or three types of cells in the liver. In the case of latex particles in which their uptake by a particular cell type seems to be determined by their size, sinusoidal endothelial cells are able to internalize particles up to 0.23 microns under physiologic conditions, in vivo, and larger particles are taken up by Kupffer cells. However, when the phagocytic function of Kupffer cells is impaired by frog virus 3 or alcohol, endothelial cells have been found to take up particles larger than 1 micron in diameter after the injection of an excess amount of latex particles. Endothelial cells would thus constitute a second line of defense in the liver in that they remove foreign materials from the blood when Kupffer cell phagocytic function is totally disturbed. This potential role may not, however, be fully expressed under physiologic conditions when Kupffer cells are active in clearing foreign substance from the circulation. The functions of liver sinusoidal cells are varied and complex and these cells can be regarded as "a sinusoidal cell unit." This cellular interaction must be taken into account for any quantitative analysis. PMID:8446907

  19. Internal Cell Manipulation Using Infrared Laser Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkin, A.; Dziedzic, J. M.

    1989-10-01

    The ability of infrared laser traps to apply controlled forces inside of living cells is utilized in a study of the mechanical properties of the cytoplasm of plant cells. It was discovered that infrared traps are capable of plucking out long filaments of cytoplasm inside cells. These filaments exhibit the viscoelastic properties of plastic flow, necking, stress relaxation, and set, thus providing a unique way to probe the local rheological properties of essentially unperturbed living cells. A form of internal cell surgery was devised that is capable of making gross changes in location of such relatively large organelles as chloroplasts and nuclei. The utility of this technique for the study of cytoplasmic streaming, internal cell membranes, and organelle attachment was demonstrated.

  20. Organized chaos in Kupffer's vesicle: How a heterogeneous structure achieves consistent left-right patterning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, DJ; Montenegro-Johnson, TD; Lopes, SS

    2014-01-01

    Successful establishment of left-right asymmetry is crucial to healthy vertebrate development. In many species this process is initiated in a ciliated, enclosed cavity, for example Kupffer's vesicle (KV) in zebrafish. The microarchitecture of KV is more complex than that present in the left-right organizer of many other species. While swirling flow in KV is recognized as essential for left-right patterning, its generation, nature and conversion to asymmetric gene expression are only beginning to be fully understood. We recently [Sampaio, P et al. Dev Cell 29:716–728] combined imaging, genetics and fluid dynamics simulation to characterize normal and perturbed ciliary activity, and their correlation to asymmetric charon expression and embryonic organ fate. Randomness in cilia number and length have major implications for robust flow generation; even a modest change in mean cilia length has a major effect on flow speed to due to nonlinear scaling arising from fluid mechanics. Wildtype, and mutant embryos with normal liver laterality, exhibit stronger flow on the left prior to asymmetric inhibition of charon. Our discovery of immotile cilia, taken with data on morphant embryos with very few cilia, further support the role of mechanosensing in initiating and/or enhancing flow conversion into gene expression. PMID:25454897

  1. Organized chaos in Kupffer's vesicle: how a heterogeneous structure achieves consistent left-right patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Montenegro-Johnson, T D; Lopes, S S

    2014-01-01

    Successful establishment of left-right asymmetry is crucial to healthy vertebrate development. In many species this process is initiated in a ciliated, enclosed cavity, for example Kupffer's vesicle (KV) in zebrafish. The microarchitecture of KV is more complex than that present in the left-right organizer of many other species. While swirling flow in KV is recognized as essential for left-right patterning, its generation, nature and conversion to asymmetric gene expression are only beginning to be fully understood. We recently [Sampaio, P et al. Dev Cell 29:716-728] combined imaging, genetics and fluid dynamics simulation to characterize normal and perturbed ciliary activity, and their correlation to asymmetric charon expression and embryonic organ fate. Randomness in cilia number and length have major implications for robust flow generation; even a modest change in mean cilia length has a major effect on flow speed to due to nonlinear scaling arising from fluid mechanics. Wildtype, and mutant embryos with normal liver laterality, exhibit stronger flow on the left prior to asymmetric inhibition of charon. Our discovery of immotile cilia, taken with data on morphant embryos with very few cilia, further support the role of mechanosensing in initiating and/or enhancing flow conversion into gene expression. PMID:25454897

  2. Cell morphology and focal adhesion location alters internal cell stress

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, C. A.; Vaughan, T. J.; Voisin, M. C.; Brennan, M. A.; Layrolle, P.; McNamara, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular mechanical cues have been shown to have a profound effect on osteogenic cell behaviour. However, it is not known precisely how these cues alter intracellular mechanics to initiate changes in cell behaviour. In this study, a combination of in vitro culture of MC3T3-E1 cells and finite-element modelling was used to investigate the effects of passive differences in substrate stiffness on intracellular mechanics. Cells on collagen-based substrates were classified based on the presence of cell processes and the dimensions of various cellular features were quantified. Focal adhesion (FA) density was quantified from immunohistochemical staining, while cell and substrate stiffnesses were measured using a live-cell atomic force microscope. Computational models of cell morphologies were developed using an applied contraction of the cell body to simulate active cell contraction. The results showed that FA density is directly related to cell morphology, while the effect of substrate stiffness on internal cell tension was modulated by both cell morphology and FA density, as investigated by varying the number of adhesion sites present in each morphological model. We propose that the cells desire to achieve a homeostatic stress state may play a role in osteogenic cell differentiation in response to extracellular mechanical cues. PMID:25297316

  3. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages. PMID:19637876

  4. [Sickle Cell Disease International Organization (SCDIO)].

    PubMed

    Ebakisse-Badassou, E

    2010-12-01

    A century after the first scientific description of sickle cell disease that had been known to African peoples under various names for more than three centuries, it is now time for this blood disorder and its associated sanitary and social disparities to come out of the shadows. Although sickle cell disease is the most widespread genetic disease in the world, public awareness remains low despite the considerable effort that has been made over the last decade. In order to improve understanding and management, the Sickle Cell Disease International Organization (SCDIO) has defined the following ambitious objectives: to implement effective action plans that must be based on the ability to sensitize minds about this disease; expand active support from public and private personalities and organizations; convince potential partners in all countries involved of the need for their active support of this important cause; raise funds that are indispensable to finance planned operations; provide effective organization to carry out priority initiatives aimed at lowering child mortality due to sickle cell disease in the world. To these ends, the SCDIO will continue in its advocacy role that will not stop until the resolutions are adopted and applied in all affected countries. The SCDIO will continue to prioritize the development of south/south partnerships. In view of the history of sickle cell disease, the major challenges for the next century will consist of prioritizing action to improve the quality of life of patients wherever they are and of developing research. To meet these challenges, we will need the involvement and support of the entire international community. We must all stand "United against sickle cell disease". PMID:21520648

  5. Air cell for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fontichiaro, D.; Kabat, D.M.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having an air cell combustion system. It comprises a cylinder block having at least one bore, with a piston reciprocably housed therein; a cylinder head attached to the cylinder block and defining a primary combustion chamber with the cylinder block and piston; a reservoir for air compressed by the piston, with the reservoir being delimited by: a concentric counterbore in the deck surface of the cylinder block; and by a concentric annular space formed in the cylinder head and communicating with the counterbore; and by a compression seal interposed between the cylinder head and the cylinder block at the outer periphery of the counterbore, with the air cell further comprising passages extending from the reservoir into the combustion chamber.

  6. On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

  7. Particle compositions with a pre-selected cell internalization mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decuzzi, Paolo (Inventor); Ferrari, Mauro (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of formulating a particle composition having a pre-selected cell internalization mode involves selecting a target cell having surface receptors and obtaining particles that have i) surface moieties, that have an affinity for or are capable of binding to the surface receptors of the cell and ii) a preselected shape, where a surface distribution of the surface moieties on the particles and the shape of the particles are effective for the pre-selected cell internalization mode.

  8. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  9. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  10. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  11. Internalization of ferromagnetic nanowires by different living cells

    PubMed Central

    Prina-Mello, Adriele; Diao, Zhu; Coey, John Michael David

    2006-01-01

    The ability of living cells, either adherent or suspended, to internalize nickel nanowires is demonstrated for MC3T3-E1, UMR106-tumour and Marrow-Stromal cells. Nanowires were produced by electrodeposition, 20 μm long and 200 nm in diameter. Cell separation and manipulation was achieved for the three cell types. Applied magnetic field successfully oriented the internalized nanowires but no clear anisotropy is induced on the adherent cells. Nanowires tend to bind to cytoplasm metalloproteins and trigger lysosome reorganization around the nucleus. This work demonstrates the applications of nanowires in adherent and suspended cells for cell separation and manipulation, and further explore into their role in nanobiotechnology. PMID:16953891

  12. Rapid internalization of the insulin receptor in rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; White, M.F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have studied the internalization of the insulin receptor (IR) in rat hepatoma cells (Fao). The cells were surface-iodinated at 4C, stimulated with insulin at 37C, and then cooled rapidly, trypsinized at 4C and solubilized. The IR was immunoprecipitated with a specific antibody, and internalization of the IR was assessed by the appearance of trypsin-resistant bands on SDS-PAGE. Insulin induced the internalization of surface receptors with a t 1/2 of 9-10 mins; cells not exposed to insulin internalized less than 20% of the IR during 1 h at 37C. Further experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of trypsin-resistant IR paralleled a loss of receptor from the cell surface. Insulin-stimulated cells were chilled and iodinated at 4C, followed by solubilization, immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE; alternatively, insulin-stimulated cells were chilled, surface-bound ligand removed by washing the cells at pH 4.2, and specific ( SVI)insulin binding measured at 4C. Both techniques confirmed the disappearance of IR from the cell surface at rates comparable to the insulin-stimulated internalization described above. The total amount of phosphotyrosine-containing IR, as assessed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, remained constant during this time interval, suggesting that active kinase is translocated into the cell. In summary, the authors data indicate that insulin binding increases the rate of IR internalization of Fao cells. This relocation may facilitate the interaction of the activated tyrosine kinase in the IR with intracellular substrates, thus transmitting the insulin signal to metabolic pathways.

  13. Cell-Internalization SELEX: Method for Identifying Cell-Internalizing RNA Aptamers for Delivering siRNAs to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Thiel, Kristina W.; Flenker, Katie S.; Bair, Tom; Dupuy, Adam J.; McNamara, James O.; Miller, Francis J.; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2015-01-01

    After a decade of work to address cellular uptake, the principal obstacle to RNAi-based therapeutics, there is now well-deserved, renewed optimism about RNAi-based drugs. Phase I and II studies have shown safe, strong, and durable-gene knockdown (80–90 %, lasting for a month after a single injection) and/or clinical benefit in treating several liver pathologies. Although promising, these studies have also highlighted the need for robust delivery techniques to develop RNAi therapeutics for treating other organ systems and diseases. Conjugation of siRNAs to cell-specific, synthetic RNA ligands (aptamers) is being proposed as a viable solution to this problem. While encouraging, the extended use of RNA aptamers as a delivery tool for siRNAs awaits the identification of RNA aptamer sequences capable of targeting and entering the cytoplasm of many different cell types. We describe a cell-based selection process for the rapid identification and characterization of RNA aptamers suited for delivering siRNA drugs into the cytoplasm of target cells. This process, termed “cell-internalization SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment),” entails the combination of multiple sophisticated technologies, including cell culture-based SELEX procedures, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and novel bioinformatics tools. PMID:25319652

  14. Cell-internalization SELEX: method for identifying cell-internalizing RNA aptamers for delivering siRNAs to target cells.

    PubMed

    Thiel, William H; Thiel, Kristina W; Flenker, Katie S; Bair, Tom; Dupuy, Adam J; McNamara, James O; Miller, Francis J; Giangrande, Paloma H

    2015-01-01

    After a decade of work to address cellular uptake, the principal obstacle to RNAi-based therapeutics, there is now well-deserved, renewed optimism about RNAi-based drugs. Phase I and II studies have shown safe, strong, and durable-gene knockdown (80-90%, lasting for a month after a single injection) and/or clinical benefit in treating several liver pathologies. Although promising, these studies have also highlighted the need for robust delivery techniques to develop RNAi therapeutics for treating other organ systems and diseases. Conjugation of siRNAs to cell-specific, synthetic RNA ligands (aptamers) is being proposed as a viable solution to this problem. While encouraging, the extended use of RNA aptamers as a delivery tool for siRNAs awaits the identification of RNA aptamer sequences capable of targeting and entering the cytoplasm of many different cell types. We describe a cell-based selection process for the rapid identification and characterization of RNA aptamers suited for delivering siRNA drugs into the cytoplasm of target cells. This process, termed "cell-internalization SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment)," entails the combination of multiple sophisticated technologies, including cell culture-based SELEX procedures, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and novel bioinformatics tools. PMID:25319652

  15. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  16. Translocation and Endocytosis for Cell-penetrating Peptide Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chen-Yu; Delaroche, Diane; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D.; Chassaing, Gérard; Sagan, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 °C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 °C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells. PMID:19833724

  17. Cell-substrate contacts illuminated by total internal reflection fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, D

    1981-04-01

    A technique for exciting fluorescence exclusively from regions of contact between cultured cells and the substrate is presented. The technique utilizes the evanescent wave of a totally internally reflecting laser beam to excite only those fluorescent molecules within one light wavelength or less of the substrate surface. Demonstrations of this technique are given for two types of cell cultures: rat primary myotubes with acetylcholine receptors labeled by fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin and human skin fibroblasts labeled by a fluorescent lipid probe. Total internal reflection fluorescence examination of cells appears to have promising applications, including visualization of the membrane and underlying cytoplasmic structures at cell-substrate contacts, dramatic reduction of autofluorescence from debris and thick cells, mapping of membranes topography, and visualization of reversible bound fluorescent ligands at membrane receptors. PMID:7014571

  18. Serratia marcescens internalization and replication in human bladder epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Schwarz, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Background Serratia marcescens, a frequent agent of catheterization-associated bacteriuria, strongly adheres to human bladder epithelial cells in culture. The epithelium normally provides a barrier between lumal organisms and the interstitium; the tight adhesion of bacteria to the epithelial cells can lead to internalization and subsequent lysis. However, internalisation was not shown yet for S. marcescens strains. Methods Elektronmicroscopy and the common gentamycin protection assay was used to assess intracellular bacteria. Via site directed mutagenesis, an hemolytic negative isogenic Serratia strain was generated to point out the importance of hemolysin production. Results We identified an important bacterial factor mediating the internalization of S. marcescens, and lysis of epithelial cells, as the secreted cytolysin ShlA. Microtubule filaments and actin filaments were shown to be involved in internalization. However, cytolysis of eukaryotic cells by ShlA was an interfering factor, and therefore hemolytic-negative mutants were used in subsequent experiments. Isogenic hemolysin-negative mutant strains were still adhesive, but were no longer cytotoxic, did not disrupt the cell culture monolayer, and were no longer internalized by HEp-2 and RT112 bladder epithelial cells under the conditions used for the wild-type strain. After wild-type S. marcescens became intracellular, the infected epithelial cells were lysed by extended vacuolation induced by ShlA. In late stages of vacuolation, highly motile S. marcescens cells were observed in the vacuoles. S. marcescens was also able to replicate in cultured HEp-2 cells, and replication was not dependent on hemolysin production. Conclusion The results reported here showed that the pore-forming toxin ShlA triggers microtubule-dependent invasion and is the main factor inducing lysis of the epithelial cells to release the bacteria, and therefore plays a major role in the development of S. marcescens infections. PMID:15189566

  19. Internalization of cystatin C in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Ulf; Wallin, Hanna; Lorenzo, Julia; Holmqvist, Bo; Abrahamson, Magnus; Avilés, Francesc X

    2008-09-01

    Altered protease activity is considered important for tumour invasion and metastasis, processes in which the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L are involved. Their natural inhibitor cystatin C is a secreted protein, suggesting that it functions to control extracellular protease activity. Because cystatins added to cell cultures can inhibit polio, herpes simplex and coronavirus replication, which are intracellular processes, the internalization and intracellular regulation of cysteine proteases by cystatin C should be considered. The extension, mechanism and biological importance of this hypothetical process are unknown. We investigated whether internalization of cystatin C occurs in a set of human cell lines. Demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, A-431, MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468 and Capan-1 cells internalized fluorophore-conjugated cystatin C when exposed to physiological concentrations (1 microm). During cystatin C incubation, intracellular cystatin C increased after 5 min and accumulated for at least 6 h, reaching four to six times the baseline level. Western blotting showed that the internalized inhibitor was not degraded. It was functionally intact and extracts of cells exposed to cystatin C showed a higher capacity to inhibit papain and cathepsin B than control cells (decrease in enzyme activity of 34% and 37%, respectively). The uptake of labelled cystatin C was inhibited by unlabelled inhibitor, suggesting a specific pathway for the internalization. We conclude that the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized in significant quantities in various cancer cell lines. This is a potentially important physiological phenomenon not previously described for this group of inhibitors. PMID:18699780

  20. Fragments of Target Cells are Internalized into Retroviral Envelope Protein-Expressing Cells during Cell-Cell Fusion by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Izumida, Mai; Kamiyama, Haruka; Suematsu, Takashi; Honda, Eri; Koizumi, Yosuke; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Ariyoshi, Koya; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses enter into host cells by fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Retroviral envelope glycoprotein (Env) induces the membrane fusion, and also mediates cell-cell fusion. There are two types of cell-cell fusions induced by the Env protein. Fusion-from-within is induced by fusion between viral fusogenic Env protein-expressing cells and susceptible cells, and virions induce fusion-from-without by fusion between adjacent cells. Although entry of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) requires host cell endocytosis, the involvement of endocytosis in cell fusion is unclear. By fluorescent microscopic analysis of the fusion-from-within, we found that fragments of target cells are internalized into Env-expressing cells. Treatment of the Env-expressing cells with an endocytosis inhibitor more significantly inhibited the cell fusion than that of the target cells, indicating that endocytosis in Env-expressing cells is required for the cell fusion. The endocytosis inhibitor also attenuated the fusion-from-without. Electron microscopic analysis suggested that the membrane fusion resulting in fusion-from-within initiates in endocytic membrane dents. This study shows that two types of the viral cell fusion both require endocytosis, and provides the cascade of fusion-from-within. PMID:26834711

  1. Mitotic internalization of planar cell polarity proteins preserves tissue polarity.

    PubMed

    Devenport, Danelle; Oristian, Daniel; Heller, Evan; Fuchs, Elaine

    2011-08-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the collective polarization of cells along the epithelial plane, a process best understood in the terminally differentiated Drosophila wing. Proliferative tissues such as mammalian skin also show PCP, but the mechanisms that preserve tissue polarity during proliferation are not understood. During mitosis, asymmetrically distributed PCP components risk mislocalization or unequal inheritance, which could have profound consequences for the long-range propagation of polarity. Here, we show that when mouse epidermal basal progenitors divide PCP components are selectively internalized into endosomes, which are inherited equally by daughter cells. Following mitosis, PCP proteins are recycled to the cell surface, where asymmetry is re-established by a process reliant on neighbouring PCP. A cytoplasmic dileucine motif governs mitotic internalization of atypical cadherin Celsr1, which recruits Vang2 and Fzd6 to endosomes. Moreover, embryos transgenic for a Celsr1 that cannot mitotically internalize exhibit perturbed hair-follicle angling, a hallmark of defective PCP. This underscores the physiological relevance and importance of this mechanism for regulating polarity during cell division. PMID:21743464

  2. Mitotic Internalization of Planar Cell Polarity Proteins Preserves Tissue Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Devenport, Danelle; Oristian, Daniel; Heller, Evan; Fuchs, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the collective polarization of cells along the epithelial plane, a process best understood in the terminally differentiated Drosophila wing. Proliferative tissues such as mammalian skin also display PCP, but the mechanisms that preserve tissue polarity during proliferation are not understood. During mitosis, asymmetrically-distributed PCP components risk mislocalisation or unequal inheritance, which could have profound consequences on the long-range propagation of polarity. Here, we show that when mouse epidermal basal progenitors divide, PCP components are selectively internalized into endosomes, which are inherited equally by daughter cells. Following mitosis, PCP proteins are recycled to the cell surface where asymmetry is re-established by a process reliant upon neighbouring PCP. A cytoplasmic dileucine motif governs mitotic internalization of atypical cadherin Celsr1, which recruits Vang2 and Fzd6 to endosomes. Moreover, embryos transgenic for a Celsr1 that cannot mitotically internalize, exhibit perturbed hair follicle angling, a hallmark of defective PCP. This underscores the physiological relevance and importance of this novel mechanism for regulating polarity during cell division. PMID:21743464

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence of large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.

  4. Cell-specific internalization study of an aptamer from whole cell selection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zeyu; Shangguan, Dihua; Cao, Zehui; Fang, Xiaohong; Tan, Weihong

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers have been shown many unique applications as excellent probes in molecular recognition. However, few examples are reported which show that aptamers can be internalized inside living cells for aptamer functional studies and for targeted intracellular delivery. This is mainly due to the limited number of aptamers available for cell-specific recognition, and the lack of research on their extra- and intracellular functions. One of the major difficulties in aptamers' in vivo application is that most of aptamers, unlike small molecules, cannot be directly taken up by cells without external assistance. In this work, we have studied a newly developed and cell-specific DNA aptamer, sgc8. This aptamer has been selected through a novel cell selection process (cell-SELEX), in which whole intact cells are used as targets while another related cell line is used as a negative control. The cell-SELEX enables generation of multiple aptamers for molecular recognition of the target cells and has significant advantages in discovering cell surface binding molecules for the selected aptamers. We have studied the cellular internalization of one of the selected aptamers. Our results show that sgc8 is internalized efficiently and specifically to the lymphoblastic leukemia cells. The internalized sgc8 aptamers are located inside the endosome. Comparison studies are done with the antibody for the binding protein of sgc8, PTK7 (Human protein tyrosine kinase-7) on cell surface. We also studied the internalization kinetics of both the aptamer and the antibody for the same protein on the living cell surface. We have further evaluated the effects of sgc8 on cell viability, and no cytotoxicity is observed. This study indicates that sgc8 is a promising agent for cell-type specific intracellular delivery. PMID:18092308

  5. Convection cells alignment under the influence of internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxeiner, Eric; Savelyev, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Experiments involving IR imagery of internal waves in a laboratory tank have revealed an interesting phenomenon. Propagating internal waves and subsequent orbital velocities cause a blurring of surface thermal features, i.e. convection cells, as the wave passes underneath. The blurring then gives way to long thermal streaks with predominately regular spacing and spatial dimensions similar to the convection cells. The warm sections of the thermal streaks appear to expand which eventually causes the streaks to collide, collapse into two-dimensional shapes and re-form convection cells. It is believed that these features are caused by interactions between the circulation patterns due to convection and the periodic longitudinal velocities caused by the passing internal wave. The interaction favors vortices with axes parallel to the orbital velocities and inhibits all other orientations, producing longitudinal vortex tubes that appear as streaks. The nature of the resulting streaks bears resemblance to IR images of breaking and non-breaking surface waves from other studies, as well as to IR images of Langmuir cells, which suggests the possibility of a common mechanism.

  6. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  7. Prognostic Value of Homotypic Cell Internalization by Nonprofessional Phagocytic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwegler, Manuela; Wirsing, Anna M.; Schenker, Hannah M.; Ott, Laura; Ries, Johannes M.; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian; Distel, Luitpold V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In this study, we investigated the prognostic role of homotypic tumor cell cannibalism in different cancer types. Methods. The phenomenon of one cell being internalized into another, which we refer to as “cell-in-cell event,” was assessed in 416 cases from five head and neck cancer cohorts, as well as one anal and one rectal cancer cohort. The samples were processed into tissue microarrays and immunohistochemically stained for E-cadherin and cleaved caspase-3 to visualize cell membranes and apoptotic cell death. Results. Cell-in-cell events were found in all of the cohorts. The frequency ranged from 0.7 to 17.3 cell-in-cell events per mm2. Hardly any apoptotic cells were found within the cell-in-cell structures, although apoptotic cell rates were about 1.6 to two times as high as cell-in-cell rates of the same tissue sample. High numbers of cell-in-cell events showed adverse effects on patients' survival in the head and neck and in the rectal cancer cohorts. In multivariate analysis, high frequency was an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with head and neck cancer (p = 0.008). Conclusion. Cell-in-cell events were found to predict patient outcomes in various types of cancer better than apoptosis and proliferation and might therefore be used to guide treatment strategies. PMID:26504802

  8. Internalization of Proteinase 3 Is Concomitant with Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Internalization of Myeloperoxidase with Generation of Intracellular Oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia Jin; Preston, Gloria A.; Pendergraft, William F.; Segelmark, Mårten; Heeringa, Peter; Hogan, Susan L.; Jennette, J. Charles; Falk, Ronald J.

    2001-01-01

    The important issue addressed by the studies presented here is the mechanism of neutrophil-mediated damage to endothelial and epithelial cells during inflammation. Binding of neutrophil-released granule proteins to endothelial cells may be involved in vascular damage in patients with inflammatory vascular diseases. We have determined whether granule proteins proteinase 3(PR3) and/or myeloperoxidase (MPO) are internalized into endothelial cells, as examined by UV light, confocal, and electron microscopy. Coincident induction of apoptosis and/or the generation of intracellular oxidants were monitored. The results indicate that human endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human umbilical arterial endothelial cells, human lung microvascular endothelial cells) internalize both PR3 and MPO, which are detected on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, and possibly nuclear. Epithelial cells (small airway epithelial cells) internalized MPO but not PR3, implying that the mechanism of PR3 internalization may be cell-type specific and different from that of MPO. Internalization of PR3, but not MPO, correlated with activation of apoptosis. Internalization of MPO correlated with an increase in intracellular oxidant radicals. The requirement for the proteolytic activity of PR3 for the induction of apoptosis was examined by generating PR3-truncated fragments that did not contain the components of the catalytic triad. An apoptotic function was localized to the C-terminal portion of PR3. These studies reveal novel mechanisms by which the neutrophil granule proteins PR3 and MPO contribute to tissue injury at sites of inflammation. PMID:11159195

  9. Proceedings: international regulatory considerations on development pathways for cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Feigal, Ellen G; Tsokas, Katherine; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Zhang, Jiwen; Priest, Catherine; Pearce, Jonathan; Mount, Natalie

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field that faces novel scientific and regulatory challenges. In September 2013, the International Workshop on Regulatory Pathways for Cell Therapies was convened to discuss the nature of these challenges and potential solutions and to highlight opportunities for potential convergence between different regulatory bodies that might assist the field's development. The workshop discussions generated potentially actionable steps in five main areas that could mitigate cell therapy development pathway risk and accelerate moving promising therapies to patients. These included the need for convergence of regulatory guidelines on donor eligibility and suitability of lines for use in clinical trials and subsequent commercialization for cell therapies to move forward on a global basis; the need to challenge and encourage investigators in the regenerative medicine field to share information and provide examples of comparability studies related to master cell banks; the need for convergence of guidelines across regulatory jurisdictions on requirements for tumorigenicity studies, based on particular cell types and on biodistribution studies; the need to increase transparency in sharing clinical trial information more broadly and disseminating results more rapidly; and the need to establish a forum for sharing the experiences of various approaches being developed to expedite regulatory approvals and access for patients to innovative cell and regenerative therapies in the different regulatory jurisdictions and to assess their potential strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25038248

  10. Proceedings: International Regulatory Considerations on Development Pathways for Cell Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tsokas, Katherine; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Zhang, Jiwen; Priest, Catherine; Pearce, Jonathan; Mount, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field that faces novel scientific and regulatory challenges. In September 2013, the International Workshop on Regulatory Pathways for Cell Therapies was convened to discuss the nature of these challenges and potential solutions and to highlight opportunities for potential convergence between different regulatory bodies that might assist the field’s development. The workshop discussions generated potentially actionable steps in five main areas that could mitigate cell therapy development pathway risk and accelerate moving promising therapies to patients. These included the need for convergence of regulatory guidelines on donor eligibility and suitability of lines for use in clinical trials and subsequent commercialization for cell therapies to move forward on a global basis; the need to challenge and encourage investigators in the regenerative medicine field to share information and provide examples of comparability studies related to master cell banks; the need for convergence of guidelines across regulatory jurisdictions on requirements for tumorigenicity studies, based on particular cell types and on biodistribution studies; the need to increase transparency in sharing clinical trial information more broadly and disseminating results more rapidly; and the need to establish a forum for sharing the experiences of various approaches being developed to expedite regulatory approvals and access for patients to innovative cell and regenerative therapies in the different regulatory jurisdictions and to assess their potential strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25038248

  11. Adhesion and internalization differences of COM nanocrystals on Vero cells before and after cell damage.

    PubMed

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-02-01

    The adhesion and internalization between African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells (before and after oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nanocrystals (97±35nm) were investigated so as to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanism of kidney stone formation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the Vero-COM nanocrystal adhesion; the nanocrystal-cell adhesion was evaluated by measuring the content of malonaldehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the expression level of cell surface osteopontin (OPN) and the change of Zeta potential. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used for the observation and quantitative analysis of crystal internalization. In the process of adhesion, the cell viability and the SOD activity declined, the MDA content, Zeta potential, and the OPN expression level increased. The adhesive capacity of injured Vero was obviously stronger than normal cells; in addition the injured cells promoted the aggregation of COM nanocrystals. The capacity of normal cells to internalize crystals was obviously stronger than that of injured cells. Cell injury increased adhesive sites on cell surface, thereby facilitating the aggregation of COM nanocrystals and their attachment, which results in enhanced risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. PMID:26652375

  12. Internal reforming of methane in solid oxide fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R.; Dahl, R.; Klüttgen, U.; Palm, C.; Stolten, D.

    Internal reforming is an attractive option offering a significant cost reduction, higher efficiencies and faster load response of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. However, complete internal reforming may lead to several problems which can be avoided with partial pre-reforming of natural gas. In order to achieve high total plant efficiency associated with low energy consumption and low investment costs, a process concept has been developed based on all the components of the SOFC system. In the case of anode gas recycling an internal steam circuit exists. This has the advantage that there is no need for an external steam generator and the steam concentration in the anode gas is reduced. However, anode gas recycling has to be proven by experiments in a pre-reformer and for internal reforming. The addition of carbon dioxide clearly shows a decrease in catalyst activity, while for temperatures higher than 1000 K hydrogen leads to an increase of the measured methane conversion rates.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell with indirect internal reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.; Aquino, M.; Passalacqua, E.

    Researchers in the field of internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) propose two different configurations: (i) direct internal reforming, and (ii) indirect internal reforming. This paper reports the results of a study on the influence of the operating parameters on the energy balances of a MCFC fuelled with indirect internal reforming (IIR-MCFC). This analysis, carried out by using a mathematical model, identifies the temperature, the steam/carbon ratio, the current density, the useful heat fraction and the fuel-utilization coefficient as relevant parameters to determine the overall energy efficiency of the system. The results emphasize the influence of the working temperature (893 to 973 K) and the steam/carbon ratio (1.5 to 2.5) on the electrical efficiency and on the methane conversion. A detailed balance of the thermal power contributions has been determined, as well as the compositions of exhaust gases for various conditions. The most meaningful conclusion confirms the reliability of this system for the production of electricity with an efficiency in the order of 35 to 40%.

  14. The zebrafish Kupffer's vesicle as a model system for the molecular mechanisms by which the lack of Polycystin-2 leads to stimulation of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Roxo-Rosa, Mónica; Jacinto, Raquel; Sampaio, Pedro; Lopes, Susana Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst inflation and continuous enlargement are associated with marked transepithelial ion and fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Indeed, the inhibition or degradation of CFTR prevents the fluid accumulation within cysts. The in vivo mechanisms by which the lack of Polycystin-2 leads to CFTR stimulation are an outstanding challenge in ADPKD research and may bring important biomarkers for the disease. However, hampering their study, the available ADPKD in vitro cellular models lack the three-dimensional architecture of renal cysts and the ADPKD mouse models offer limited access for live-imaging experiments in embryonic kidneys. Here, we tested the zebrafish Kupffer's vesicle (KV) as an alternative model-organ. KV is a fluid-filled vesicular organ, lined by epithelial cells that express both CFTR and Polycystin-2 endogenously, being each of them easily knocked-down. Our data on the intracellular distribution of Polycystin-2 support its involvement in the KV fluid-flow induced Ca2+-signalling. Mirroring kidney cysts, the KV lumen inflation is dependent on CFTR activity and, as we clearly show, the knockdown of Polycystin-2 results in larger KV lumens through overstimulation of CFTR. In conclusion, we propose the zebrafish KV as a model organ to study the renal cyst inflation. Favouring its use, KV volume can be easily determined by in vivo imaging offering a live readout for screening compounds and genes that may prevent cyst enlargement through CFTR inhibition. PMID:26432887

  15. Internalization of atrial natriuretic peptide by adrenal glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Morel, G; Mesguich, P; Chabot, J G; Belles-Isles, M; Jeandel, L; Heisler, S

    1989-01-01

    Internalization of 125I-labelled atrial natriuretic peptide ([ 125I]ANP) by rat adrenal glomerulosa cells in vivo was investigated by means of an ultrastructural autoradiographic approach. One to 30 min after IV injection of [125I]ANP, silver grains were found, at the light microscope level, over all glomerulosa cells; coinjection of 20 micrograms of unlabelled ANP inhibited this binding by 64%. At the electron microscope level, the time-course study indicated maximal silver grain densities in plasma membranes 1 min after IV injection; grains were detected in mitochondria (external membranes and matrix) 2 min after injection, with maximal labelling at 15 min. The cytoplasmic matrix was labelled only 30 min after injection. During the time-course, labelling of nuclei, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes was minimal. The data suggest that after binding to plasma membranes ANP is rapidly internalized and distributed within glomerulosa cells. The association of radioactivity with mitochondria suggests that ANP may have intracellular sites of action complementary to those on plasma membranes. PMID:2525411

  16. Internalized Chitosan Nanoparticles Persist for Long Time in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malatesta, M.; Grecchi, S.; Chiesa, E.; Cisterna, B.; Costanzo, M.; Zancanaro, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-based nanoparticles (chiNPs) are considered to be potentially good carriers for the sustained intracellular delivery of specific molecules. However, scarce attention has been paid to the long-lasting permanence of these NPs in the intracellular milieu, as well as to their intracellular fate (i.e., distribution, interaction with cell organelles, and degradation) in the long term. In the present study, the presence and subcellular location of FITC-labelled chiNPs were monitored in HeLa cells up to 14 days post-administration using multicolorfluorescence confocal microscopy and diaminobenzidine photo-oxidation at transmission electron microscopy. The main result of the present study is the demonstration that internalized chiNPs persist inside the cell up to two weeks, occurring in both the cytoplasm and nucleus; accordingly, chiNPs are able to pass from mother to daughter cells through several mitotic cycles. The cells did not show increased mortality or structural damage up to 14 days after chiNP exposure. PMID:25820565

  17. Polystyrene nanoparticles internalization in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Iachetta, Giuseppina; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Prisco, Marina; De Falco, Maria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Valiante, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The increase in the use of nanoparticles, as a promising tool for drug delivery or as a food additive, raises questions about their interaction with biological systems, especially in terms of evoked responses. In this work, we evaluated the kinetics of uptake of 44nm (NP44) and 100nm (NP100) unmodified polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) in gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, as well as the endocytic mechanism involved, and the effect on cell viability and gene expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and inflammation processes. We showed that NP44 accumulate rapidly and more efficiently in the cytoplasm of AGS compared to NP100; both PS-NPs showed an energy dependent mechanism of internalization and a clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Dose response treatments revealed a non-linear curve. PS-NPs also affected cell viability, inflammatory gene expression and cell morphology. NP44 strongly induced an up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 genes, two of the most important cytokines involved in gastric pathologies. Our study suggests that parameters such as time, size and concentration of NPs must be taken carefully into consideration during the development of drug delivery systems based on NPs and for the management of nanoparticles associated risk factors. PMID:26585375

  18. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  19. Phytosterols Promote Liver Injury and Kupffer Cell Activation in Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    El Kasmi, Karim C.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Devereaux, Michael W.; Vue, Padade M.; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Karpen, Saul J.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)–based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD. PMID:24107776

  20. Haemangioendothelioma (Kupffer cell angiosarcoma), myelofibrosis, splenic atrophy, and myeloma paraproteinaemia after parenteral thorotrast administration.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R C; Priestley, S E

    1978-01-01

    A case of thorotrastosis occurred 25 years after thorotrast angiography, with the previously unrecorded association of myeloma type paraproteinaemia. The relationship between haemangioendothelioma due to thorotrast and other vascular sarcomas of the liver is briefly reviewed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:748384

  1. Phytosterols promote liver injury and Kupffer cell activation in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Anderson, Aimee L; Devereaux, Michael W; Vue, Padade M; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Karpen, Saul J; Sokol, Ronald J

    2013-10-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a serious complication of PN in infants who do not tolerate enteral feedings, especially those with acquired or congenital intestinal diseases. Yet, the mechanisms underlying PNALD are poorly understood. It has been suggested that a component of soy oil (SO) lipid emulsions in PN solutions, such as plant sterols (phytosterols), may be responsible for PNALD, and that use of fish oil (FO)-based lipid emulsions may be protective. We used a mouse model of PNALD combining PN infusion with intestinal injury to demonstrate that SO-based PN solution causes liver damage and hepatic macrophage activation and that PN solutions that are FO-based or devoid of all lipids prevent these processes. We have furthermore demonstrated that a factor in the SO lipid emulsions, stigmasterol, promotes cholestasis, liver injury, and liver macrophage activation in this model and that this effect may be mediated through suppression of canalicular bile transporter expression (Abcb11/BSEP, Abcc2/MRP2) via antagonism of the nuclear receptors Fxr and Lxr, and failure of up-regulation of the hepatic sterol exporters (Abcg5/g8/ABCG5/8). This study provides experimental evidence that plant sterols in lipid emulsions are a major factor responsible for PNALD and that the absence or reduction of plant sterols is one of the mechanisms for hepatic protection in infants receiving FO-based PN or lipid minimization PN treatment. Modification of lipid constituents in PN solutions is thus a promising strategy to reduce incidence and severity of PNALD. PMID:24107776

  2. sCD44 Internalization in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Michael J.; Koga, Tomoyo; Walker, Loyal; McCarty, Ryan; Grybauskas, Algis; Giovingo, Michael C.; Skuran, Kevin; Kuprys, Paulius V.; Knepper, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether soluble CD44 (sCD44), a likely biomarker of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is internalized in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and trafficked to mitochondria. Methods. In vitro, 32-kD sCD44 was isolated from human sera, biotinylated, and dephosphorylated. TM cells were incubated for 1 hour at 4°C with biotinylated albumin (b-albumin), biotin-labeled sCD44 (b-sCD44), or hypophosphorylated biotin-labeled sCD44 (–p b-sCD44) in the presence or absence of unlabeled sCD44, hyaluronic acid (HA), and a selected 10-mer HA binding peptide. The slides were warmed for 1 or 2 hours at 37°C, and 125 nM MitoTracker Red was added for the last 20 minutes of the incubation. The cells were washed, fixed, incubated with anti-biotin antibody and FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse antibody, and examined under a confocal microscope. Results. TM cell membranes were positive for b-sCD44 after 4°C incubation. When the temperature was raised to 37°C, b-sCD44 or –p b-sCD44 appeared in the cytoplasm. The internalization of b-sCD44 was blocked by excess unlabeled sCD44, HA, and a 10-mer HA-binding peptide. Double label experiments with b-sCD44 or –p b-sCD44 and MitoTracker Red indicated partial overlap. The percent co-localization of MitoTracker Red at 2 hours and FITC –p b-sCD44 was 17.4% (P < 0.001) and for FITC b-sCD44 was 11.7% (P < 0.001) compared with b-albumin. The influence of putative CD44 phosphorylation sites on mitochondrial trafficking was determined by TargetP 1.1. Conclusions. sCD44 is internalized by TM cells and trafficked in part to mitochondria, which may be a factor in the toxicity of sCD44 in the POAG disease process. PMID:23287794

  3. Anisotropy of cell adhesive microenvironment governs cell internal organization and orientation of polarity

    PubMed Central

    Théry, Manuel; Racine, Victor; Piel, Matthieu; Pépin, Anne; Dimitrov, Ariane; Chen, Yong; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Bornens, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Control of the establishment of cell polarity is an essential function in tissue morphogenesis and renewal that depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. The molecular role of cell–cell or cell–extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts on the establishment of cell polarity has been well characterized. It has been hypothesized that the geometry of the cell adhesive microenvironment was directing cell surface polarization and internal organization. To define how the extracellular environment affects cell polarity, we analyzed the organization of individual cells plated on defined micropatterned substrates imposing cells to spread on various combinations of adhesive and nonadhesive areas. The reproducible normalization effect on overall cell compartmentalization enabled quantification of the spatial organization of the actin network and associated proteins, the spatial distribution of microtubules, and the positioning of nucleus, centrosome, and Golgi apparatus. By using specific micropatterns and statistical analysis of cell compartment positions, we demonstrated that ECM geometry determines the orientation of cell polarity axes. The nucleus–centrosome orientations were reproducibly directed toward cell adhesive edges. The anisotropy of the cell cortex in response to the adhesive conditions did not affect the centrosome positioning at the cell centroid. Based on the quantification of microtubule plus end distribution we propose a working model that accounts for that observation. We conclude that, in addition to molecular composition and mechanical properties, ECM geometry plays a key role in developmental processes. PMID:17179050

  4. Cell surface glycoproteins of CHO cells. I. Internalization and rapid recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, T.J.; Denny, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The major cell surface proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been investigated after reacting cells at 4/sup 0/C with the membrane-impermeant reagent, trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS). Immunoprecipitation and subsequent two-dimensional, sodiumdodecyl sulfate, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of proteins from derivatized cells that had been labelled previously with (/sup 3/H)D-glucosamine or (/sup 3/H)L-leucine showed that TNBS reacted with most of the high molecular weight (HMW) acidic glycoproteins that became labelled with iodine by the lactoperoxidase technique and that bind the lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). After warming the cells to allow endocytosis to proceed, molecule haptenized with trinitrophenol (TNP) groups were followed radio-chemically by means of (/sup 125/I)anti-DNP antibodies. Within 15 min at 37/sup 0/C, a steady-state between surface and cytoplasmic label was reached, with about 65% of the hapten located internally. Recycling of internalized TNP groups back to the cell surface also occurred rapidly (t/sub 1/2/ approx. 5 min). Our results are consistent with the view that the majority of plasma membrane glycoproteins are continuously being internalized and recycled at a high rate.

  5. Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil

    DOEpatents

    Wittel, deceased, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

  6. Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells Internalize High-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Srisen, Kaemisa; Rhrl, Clemens; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Ranftler, Carmen; Ellinger, Adolf; Pavelka, Margit; Neumller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL), and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate), cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of strings of pearl- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor 568treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal intraellular pathway and accumulated prominently in all parts of the Golgi apparatus and in lipid droplets. Subsequently, also the RER and mitochondria were involved. These studies demonstrated the different intracellular pathway of HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol and HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate by EPCs, with concomitant. PMID:24386159

  7. International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Stephen Miller

    2010-06-10

    The 2010 Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas was held June 6-10 near Boston, MA, and attracted a record 273 participants, 146 from US labs, 10 from Canada, and the remainder from 18 other countries. The single-celled algal protist Chlamydomonas is a key research organism for many investigators, including those who study photosynthesis, cell motility, adaptation to environmental stresses, the evolution of multicellularity, and the production of biofuels. Chlamydomonas researchers gather every two years at a research conference to exchange methods, develop collaborative efforts, disseminate recent findings, and plan large-scale studies to improve the usefulness of this unique research organism. This conference provides the only opportunity for Chlamydomonas scientists who work on different research problems to meet face to face, and greatly speeds progress in their respective fields. An important function of these Chlamydomonas conferences is to promote and showcase the work of younger scientists, and to attract new investigators into the Chlamydomonas community. DOE award SC0004085 was used to offset the travel and registration costs for 18 young investigators, 9 of whom were women, including one African American. Most of these scientists would not have been able to attend the conference without DOE support. A total of 208 research presentations were made at the meeting, 80 talks (63 presented by students, postdocs, and pre-tenured faculty) and 128 posters. Cell motility and biofuels/metabolism were the best-represented research areas, with a total of 77 presentations. This fact underscores the growing importance of Chlamydomonas as a research and production tool in the rapidly expanding world of biofuels research. A total of 28 talks and posters were presented on the topics of photosynthesis and stress responses, which were among the next best-represented research areas. As at several recent Chlamydomonas meetings, important advances were reported in the area of tool development, advances that conference attendees should be able to employ in their own labs to speed the analysis of gene function. In summary, support from DOE award SC0004085 helped to make the 2010 Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas an unqualified success. Thanks to that support it was possible to attract a new cohort of young investigators to this biennial conference. These young scientists benefited from the opportunity to present their results to, and to interact with, the international Chlamydomonas research community. The Chlamydomonas community benefited by learning about the advances reported by these scientists, and it will continue to benefit from the contributions these investigators will make as their training and careers progress.

  8. Enhanced internalization of ricin in nigericin-pretreated Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, B; Wu, H C

    1981-01-01

    Biochemical and electron microscopic autoradiographic studies with [125I] ricin have revealed that nigericin-pretreated Chinese hamster ovary cells are more efficient than untreated cells in the internalization of the toxin into the cells. These results suggest that the enhanced rate of internalization of ricin in nigericin-pretreated cells may account for the enhancement of cytotoxicity of ricin in Chinese hamster ovary cells by nigericin. Images PMID:6965109

  9. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    PubMed

    Mansnrus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research. PMID:26399046

  10. Methods for Evaluating Cell-Specific, Cell-Internalizing RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Luiza I.; Flenker, Katie S.; Hernandez, Frank J.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; II, James O. McNamara; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) highlight the need for robust delivery technologies that will facilitate the successful application of these therapeutics to humans. Arguably, cell targeting by conjugation to cell-specific ligands provides a viable solution to this problem. Synthetic RNA ligands (aptamers) represent an emerging class of pharmaceuticals with great potential for targeted therapeutic applications. For targeted delivery of siRNAs with aptamers, the aptamer-siRNA conjugate must be taken up by cells and reach the cytoplasm. To this end, we have developed cell-based selection approaches to isolate aptamers that internalize upon binding to their cognate receptor on the cell surface. Here we describe methods to monitor for cellular uptake of aptamers. These include: (1) antibody amplification microscopy, (2) microplate-based fluorescence assay, (3) a quantitative and ultrasensitive internalization method (“QUSIM”) and (4) a way to monitor for cytoplasmic delivery using the ribosome inactivating protein-based (RNA-RIP) assay. Collectively, these methods provide a toolset that can expedite the development of aptamer ligands to target and deliver therapeutic siRNAs in vivo. PMID:23894227

  11. Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion cell field failures due to internal short circuits are a significant concern to the entire lithium-ion cell market from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. While the probability of these failure events occurring is estimated to be very low (1 in 5-10 million), the consequences of a cell failure due to an internal short in a high energy battery system have the potential to be catastrophic. The statistical probability of one of these events is very low and they are difficult to predict and simulate in a laboratory using some external test; which makes cell failure due to an internal short circuit a unique challenge to overcome. Several of the experiments designed to simulate internal shorts have been adopted as testing protocols across the industry; in general, they do not accurately simulate an internal short. This work highlights our efforts to experimentally trigger an internal short circuit in a lithium-ion cell.

  12. Internal reforming development for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. L.

    1987-02-01

    Internal reforming of natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should simplify the overall system design and make the SOFC an attractive means for producing electrical power. This program was undertaken to investigate the catalytic properties of nickel cermets, which are prime candidates for SOFC anodes. The initial task in this program was an extensive literature search for information on steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. The second task was to modify and calibrate the reactor systems that were used in the experimental kinetic studies. Two systems were used in this investigation; a continuously stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and a plug flow reactor system (PFR). In the third task, 16 nickel-zirconia cermets were prepared using four procedures, tape casting, Westinghouse slurry, incorporation of performers, and granulation. The catalytic behavior of three cermets was determined in the fourth task. The reaction was first order with respect to methane and -1.25 for steam. Ethane and propane in the feed did not affect the methane conversion rate. The cermet has a higher initial tolerance for sulfur than standard nickel reforming catalysts. The final task was a mechanistic study of the steam reforming reaction on nickel and nickel-zirconia catalysts.

  13. Global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of internal kink instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Zocco, Alessandro

    2012-12-15

    Internal kink instabilities have been studied in straight tokamak geometry employing an electromagnetic gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The ideal-MHD internal kink mode and the collisionless m=1 tearing mode have been successfully simulated with the PIC code. Diamagnetic effects on the internal kink modes have also been investigated.

  14. Rapid Identification of Cell-Specific, Internalizing RNA Aptamers with Bioinformatics Analyses of a Cell-Based Aptamer Selection

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Bair, Thomas; Peek, Andrew S.; Liu, Xiuying; Dassie, Justin; Stockdale, Katie R.; Behlke, Mark A.; Miller, Francis J.; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The broad applicability of RNA aptamers as cell-specific delivery tools for therapeutic reagents depends on the ability to identify aptamer sequences that selectively access the cytoplasm of distinct cell types. Towards this end, we have developed a novel approach that combines a cell-based selection method (cell-internalization SELEX) with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analyses to rapidly identify cell-specific, internalization-competent RNA aptamers. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate the utility of this approach by enriching for RNA aptamers capable of selective internalization into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Several rounds of positive (VSMCs) and negative (endothelial cells; ECs) selection were performed to enrich for aptamer sequences that preferentially internalize into VSMCs. To identify candidate RNA aptamer sequences, HTS data from each round of selection were analyzed using bioinformatics methods: (1) metrics of selection enrichment; and (2) pairwise comparisons of sequence and structural similarity, termed edit and tree distance, respectively. Correlation analyses of experimentally validated aptamers or rounds revealed that the best cell-specific, internalizing aptamers are enriched as a result of the negative selection step performed against ECs. Conclusions and Significance We describe a novel approach that combines cell-internalization SELEX with HTS and bioinformatics analysis to identify cell-specific, cell-internalizing RNA aptamers. Our data highlight the importance of performing a pre-clear step against a non-target cell in order to select for cell-specific aptamers. We expect the extended use of this approach to enable the identification of aptamers to a multitude of different cell types, thereby facilitating the broad development of targeted cell therapies. PMID:22962591

  15. International review of cytology. Volume 109: A survey of cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, G.; Jeon, K.W.; Friedlander, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book's contents are: Local Regulation of Testicular Function;Microtubules and DNA Replication;Differentiation of Spermatogenic Cells from Vertebrates in Vitro;The Developmental Program of Spermiogenesis in Drosophila: A Genetic Analysis;Cell Motility and Ionic Relations in Characean Cells as Revealed by Internal Perfusion and Other Cell Models;and The Culture of Oral Epithelium. Each chapter includes references.

  16. Cell Internalization Studies of Gadofullerene-(ZME-018) Immunoconjugates into A375m Melanoma Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Christopher Scott; Marks, John W; Bolskar, Robert D; Rosenblum, Michael G; Wilson, Lon J

    2011-01-01

    Fullerene (C60)-monoclonal antibody (mAb) immunoconjugates have been determined to internalize into target cells using water-soluble Gd3+ ion-filled metallofullerenes (Gd@C60[OH]x). Two separate conjugations of Gd@C60(OH)x with the antibody ZME-018 and a murine antibody mixture (MuIgG) were performed in a 1:5 mAb/Gd@C60 ratio. Characterization of the immunoconjugates was established using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Gd3+ and UV-Vis spectrometry (for Gd@C60 + C60). Once conjugated, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed little change in the specific binding of ZME-018. Each immunoconjugate was exposed to two cancer cell lines, A375m (antigen positive), and T24, bladder carcinoma (antigen negative). Internalization levels of the immunoconjugate were determined at various time points during 24 hours by harvesting and digesting the cells with 70% HNO3 for Gd3+ ion analysis by ICP-MS. These results are the first to demonstrate the practicality of a targeted cancer therapy based on fullerene immunotherapy. PMID:22190999

  17. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  18. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Gillin, Michael; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-05-09

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

  19. Internal and ancestral controls of cell-generation times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    Lateral and longitudinal correlations between related cells reveal associations between the generation times of cells for an intermediate period /three generations in bacteral cultures/. Generation times of progeny are influenced by nongenetic factors transmitted from their ancestors.

  20. Insulin receptor internalization defect in an insulin-resistant mouse melanoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Androlewicz, M.J.; Straus, D.S. ); Brandenburg, D.F. )

    1989-12-12

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that the PG19 mouse melanoma cell line does not exhibit a biological response to insulin, whereas melanoma x mouse embryo fibroblast hybrids do respond to insulin. To investigate the molecular basis of the insulin resistance of the PG19 melanoma cells, insulin receptors from the insulin-resistant melanoma cells and insulin-sensitive fibroblast x melanoma hybrid cells were analyzed by the technique of photoaffinity labeling using the photoprobe {sup 125}I-NAPA-DP-insulin. Photolabeled insulin receptors from the two cell types have identical molecular weights as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that the receptors on the two cell lines are structurally similar. Insulin receptor internalization studies revealed that the hybrid cells internalize receptors to a high degree at 37{degree}C, whereas the melanoma cells internalize receptors to a very low degree or not at all. The correlation between ability to internalize insulin receptors and sensitivity to insulin action in this system suggests that uptake of the insulin-receptor complex may be required for insulin action in these cells. Insulin receptors from the two cell lines autophosphorylate in a similar insulin-dependent manner both in vitro and in intact cells, indicating that insulin receptors on the melanoma and hybrid cells have functional tyrosine protein kinase activity. Therefore, the block in insulin action in the PG19 melanoma cells appears to reside at a step beyond insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation.

  1. Pet secretion, internalization and induction of cell death during infection of epithelial cells by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Betancourt-Sanchez, Miguel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    In an in vitro model using HEp-2 cells treated with purified plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet), we have identified morphological changes characterized by cell rounding and detachment after toxin internalization; these changes progress to cell death. However, these effects have not yet been shown to occur during the infection of epithelial cells by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC). Here, we show that the secretion of Pet by EAEC is regulated at the transcriptional level, since secretion was inhibited in eukaryotic cell culture medium, although Pet was efficiently secreted in the same medium supplemented with tryptone. Inefficient secretion of Pet by EAEC in DMEM prevented cell detachment, whereas efficient Pet secretion in DMEM/tryptone increased cell detachment in a HEp-2 cell adherence assay. Interestingly, Pet toxin was efficiently delivered to epithelial cells, since it was internalized into epithelial cells infected with EAEC at similar concentrations to those obtained by using 37 microg ml(-1) purified Pet protein. Additionally, Pet was not internalized when the epithelial cells were infected with a pet clone, HB101(pCEFN1), unlike the wild-type strain, which has a high adherence capability. There is a correlation between Pet secretion by EAEC, the internalization of Pet into epithelial cells, cell detachment and cell death in EAEC-infected cells. The ratio between live and dead cells decreased in cells treated with wild-type EAEC in comparison with cells treated with an isogenic mutant in the pet gene, whereas the effects were restored by complementing the mutant with the pet gene. All these data indicate that Pet is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of EAEC infection. PMID:19542001

  2. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on the internalization of nanoparticles into intestine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    García-González, Lorena; Yépez-Mulía, Lilián; Ganem, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The influence of β-cyclodextrin on the interaction and internalization of PLGA nanoparticles into intestine epithelial cells was assessed. For this purpose β-cyclodextrin was adsorbed on PLGA nanoparticles. Interaction of nanoparticles with Caco-2 cells, determined by fluorescence, was expressed as the number of particles per cell. Confocal microscopy confirmed the localization of the particles in the cell monolayer. The results showed that adsorption of β-cyclodextrin on the surface of PLGA nanoparticles reduces interaction with mucin, enhancing in this way the internalization into the Caco-2 cells. PMID:26478186

  3. Internalization of multiple cells during C. elegans gastrulation depends on common cytoskeletal mechanisms but different cell polarity and cell fate regulators.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Jessica R; Goldstein, Bob

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the links between developmental patterning mechanisms and force-producing cytoskeletal mechanisms is a central goal in studies of morphogenesis. Gastrulation is the first morphogenetic event in the development of many organisms. Gastrulation involves the internalization of surface cells, often driven by the contraction of actomyosin networks that are deployed with spatial precision-both in specific cells and in a polarized manner within each cell. These cytoskeletal mechanisms rely on different cell fate and cell polarity regulators in different organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation presents an opportunity to examine the extent to which diverse mechanisms may be used by dozens of cells that are internalized at distinct times within a single organism. We identified 66 cells that are internalized in C. elegans gastrulation, many of which were not known previously to gastrulate. To gain mechanistic insights into how these cells internalize, we genetically manipulated cell fate, cell polarity and cytoskeletal regulators and determined the effects on cell internalization. We found that cells of distinct lineages depend on common actomyosin-based mechanisms to gastrulate, but different cell fate regulators, and, surprisingly, different cell polarity regulators. We conclude that diverse cell fate and cell polarity regulators control common mechanisms of morphogenesis in C. elegans. The results highlight the variety of developmental patterning mechanisms that can be associated with common cytoskeletal mechanisms in the morphogenesis of an animal embryo. PMID:20875815

  4. Adjuvant therapy of Dukes' C colon cancer by intra-arterial P-32 colloid for internal radiation therapy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, E.D.

    1984-09-01

    To prevent probable occult metastatic liver cancer from progressing to clinical disease, the author used internal radiation therapy as an effective adjuvant to surgical excision of primary Dukes' C colonic cancer. A calculated radiation dose of 5000 rads was delivered to the liver by injecting radioactive 32-P chromic phosphate colloid through the superior mesenteric and celiac arteries. When this was done, the colloid passed through the intestines and was mixed thoroughly with the blood and delivered to the liver by the portal vein. The Kupffer cells in the liver trapped the colloid, and a minimum amount passed through the liver and got into the general circulation. This kept the amount of colloid deposited in the bone marrow to a minimum. In a phase-I pilot study in which nine patients were treated, no serious side effects were noted. In eight patients, the liver has remained free of cancer for more than 1 year.

  5. From Banking to International Governance: Fostering Innovation in Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly recognized as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational stem cell research. By providing transnational access to quality controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines, stem cell banks seek to foster international collaboration and innovation. However, given that national stem cell banks operate under different policy, regulatory and commercial frameworks, the transnational sharing of stem cell materials and data can be complicating. This paper will provide an overview of the most pressing challenges regarding the governance of stem cell banks, and the difficulties in designing regulatory and commercial frameworks that foster stem cell research. Moreover, the paper will shed light on the numerous international initiatives that have arisen to help harmonize and standardize stem cell banking and research processes to overcome such challenges. PMID:21904557

  6. The effect of internal stresses on solar cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion induced stresses in silicon are shown to result in large localized changes in the minority carrier mobility which in turn have a significant effect on cell output. Evidence is given that both compressive and tensile stresses can be generated in either the emitter or the base region. Tensile stresses appear to be much more effective in altering cell performance. While most stress related effects appear to degrade cell efficiency, this is not always the case. Evidence is presented showing that arsenic induced stresses can result in emitter characteristics comparable to those found in the MINP cell without requiring a high degree of surface passivation.

  7. An improved method for differentiating cell-bound from internalized particles by imaging flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Asya; Solga, Michael D; Lannigan, Joanne; Criss, Alison K

    2015-08-01

    Recognition, binding, internalization, and elimination of pathogens and cell debris are important functions of professional as well as non-professional phagocytes. However, high-throughput methods for quantifying cell-associated particles and discriminating bound from internalized particles have been lacking. Here we describe a protocol for using imaging flow cytometry to quantify the attached and phagocytosed particles that are associated with a population of cells. Cells were exposed to fluorescent particles, fixed, and exposed to an antibody of a different fluorophore that recognizes the particles. The antibody is added without cell permeabilization, such that the antibody only binds extracellular particles. Cells with and without associated particles were identified by imaging flow cytometry. For each cell with associated particles, a spot count algorithm was employed to quantify the number of extracellular (double fluorescent) and intracellular (single fluorescent) particles per cell, from which the percent particle internalization was determined. The spot count algorithm was empirically validated by examining the fluorescence and phase contrast images acquired by the flow cytometer. We used this protocol to measure binding and internalization of the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae by primary human neutrophils, using different bacterial variants and under different cellular conditions. The results acquired using imaging flow cytometry agreed with findings that were previously obtained using conventional immunofluorescence microscopy. This protocol provides a rapid, powerful method for measuring the association and internalization of any particle by any cell type. PMID:25967947

  8. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Internalization of B cell and pre-B cell receptors is regulated by tyrosine kinase and phosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Salamero, J; Fougereau, M; Seckinger, P

    1995-10-01

    Prior to the expression of the B cell antigen receptor, the mu heavy chain associates with two non-polymorphic polypeptides, lambda like and VpreB, which form a pseudo-light chain complex in pre-B cells and pre-B cell lines. Surface expression of the so-called pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) occurs only in the presence of Ig alpha and Ig beta, known to be involved both in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and trafficking. Although the pre-BCR organization is consistent with an efficient transport to the cell surface, most of the newly synthesized receptor remains within the cells, and so far, no data are available concerning the rate of exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Using the human pre-B cell line Nalm-6, we found that only a small fraction (2%) of newly synthesized pre-BCR is transported to the cell surface within 4-6 h after synthesis, where it is constitutively re-internalized. Membrane Ig-heavy chain cross-linking induced internalization of surface pre-BCR within a few minutes, and the mechanisms underlying endocytosis were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Preincubation of the cells with either genistein or orthovanadate, which inhibit, respectively, tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphatases, blocked pre-BCR internalization in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that both activities are required for endocytosis. BCR internalization was also inhibited in a reversible manner by the drugs. In contrast, neither drug affected the size of the steady-state pool of internalized transferrin receptors. Thus, our data show that tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are both required for cross-linking-induced pre-BCR and BCR internalization. PMID:7589068

  10. Engineering of Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy Using Internalizing Aptamers Isolated by Cell-Uptake Selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zeyu; Levy-Nissenbaum, Etgar; Alexis, Frank; Lupták, Andrej; Teply, Benjamin A.; Chan, Juliana M.; Shi, Jinjun; Digga, Elise; Cheng, Judy; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of targeted nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer therapy is to discover targeting ligands that allow for differential binding and uptake by the target cancer cells. Using prostate cancer (PCa) as a model disease, we developed a cell-uptake selection strategy to isolate PCa-specific internalizing 2'-Omethyl RNA aptamers (Apts) for NP incorporation. Twelve cycles of selection and counter-selection were done to obtain a panel of internalizing Apts, which can distinguish PCa cells from non-prostate and normal prostate cells. After Apt characterization, size minimization, and conjugation of the Apts with fluorescently-labeled polymeric NPs, the NP-Apt bioconjugates exhibit PCa specificity and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to non-targeted NPs lacking the internalizing Apts. Furthermore, when docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of PCa, was encapsulated within the NP-Apt, a significant improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved in targeted PCa cells. Rather than isolating high-affinity Apts as reported in previous selection processes, our selection strategy was designed to enrich cancer-cell specific internalizing Apts. A similar cell-uptake selection strategy may be used to develop specific internalizing ligands for a myriad of other diseases and can potentially facilitate delivering various molecules, including drugs and siRNAs, into cells. PMID:22214176

  11. A novel pretargeting method for measuring antibody internalization in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Yin, Dongguang; Squires, Shayne; Liu, Xinrong; Wang, Yi; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2007-02-01

    A novel pretargeting method has been developed to quantitate antibody cellular internalization. In this study, the antibody was conjugated with a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (MORF) specific for the complementary MORF (cMORF) as an effector. Half the tumor cells were incubated with the MORF-antibody (pretargeting group) and the other half with the same MORF-antibody at the same concentration but radiolabeled (direct targeting group). After incubation, the same dosage of radiolabeled cMORF was added to the wells of the pretargeting group. The radioactivity of the direct targeting cells represented the sum of both internalized and cell-surface-bound antibodies, whereas the radioactivity of the pretargeting cells resulted only from the surface-bound antibodies, as the radiolabeled cMORF does not penetrate the cell surface. Therefore, the difference in radioactivity accumulation between pretargeting and direct targeting provides the internalized fraction. In this example, the internalization of a MORF conjugated anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen antibody, 3C6, in LNCaP cells was examined, and the average cell-surface residence time was determined as 2 hours. This method of measuring antibody internalization is directly applicable to pretargeting applications but can be a universal alternative to the conventional acid-wash method, with the advantage of leaving the cell membrane undamaged. PMID:17461727

  12. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOEpatents

    Schnacke, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  13. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOEpatents

    Schnacke, A.W.

    1983-10-12

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  14. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicatemore » that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.« less

  15. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hossien; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-02-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25″, 0.5″, 1″, 2″ and 3″ diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. The short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  16. Actomyosin-based Self-organization of cell internalization during C. elegans gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the conservation of gastrulation as a key event in Metazoan embryogenesis, the morphogenetic mechanisms of self-organization (how global order or coordination can arise from local interactions) are poorly understood. Results We report a modular structure of cell internalization in Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation that reveals mechanisms of self-organization. Cells that internalize during gastrulation show apical contractile flows, which are correlated with centripetal extensions from surrounding cells. These extensions converge to seal over the internalizing cells in the form of rosettes. This process represents a distinct mode of monolayer remodeling, with gradual extrusion of the internalizing cells and simultaneous tissue closure without an actin purse-string. We further report that this self-organizing module can adapt to severe topological alterations, providing evidence of scalability and plasticity of actomyosin-based patterning. Finally, we show that globally, the surface cell layer undergoes coplanar division to thin out and spread over the internalizing mass, which resembles epiboly. Conclusions The combination of coplanar division-based spreading and recurrent local modules for piecemeal internalization constitutes a system-level solution of gradual volume rearrangement under spatial constraint. Our results suggest that the mode of C. elegans gastrulation can be unified with the general notions of monolayer remodeling and with distinct cellular mechanisms of actomyosin-based morphogenesis. PMID:23198792

  17. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  18. Internalizing cancer antibodies from phage libraries selected on tumor cells and yeast-displayed tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zou, Hao; Zhang, Shaoyi; Marks, James D

    2010-11-19

    A number of approaches have been utilized to generate antibodies to cancer cell surface receptors that can be used as potential therapeutics. A number of these therapeutic approaches, including antibody-drug conjugates, immunotoxins, and targeted nucleic acid delivery, require antibodies that not only bind receptor but also undergo internalization into the cell upon binding. We previously reported on the ability to generate cancer cell binding and internalizing antibodies directly from human phage antibody libraries selected for internalization into cancer cell lines. While a number of useful antibodies have been generated using this approach, limitations include the inability to direct the selections to specific antigens and to identify the antigen bound by the antibodies. Here we show that these limitations can be overcome by using yeast-displayed antigens known to be associated with a cell type to select the phage antibody output after several rounds of selection on a mammalian cell line. We used this approach to generate several human phage antibodies to yeast-displayed EphA2 and CD44. The antibodies bound both yeast-displayed and mammalian cell surface antigens, and were endocytosed upon binding to mammalian cells. This approach is generalizable to many mammalian cell surface proteins, results in the generation of functional internalizing antibodies, and does not require antigen expression and purification for antibody generation. PMID:20851130

  19. Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil

    SciTech Connect

    Wittel, C.F.

    1986-04-22

    A cooling assembly is described for use in removing heat from a fuel cell having means for circulating coolant through the cooling assembly adjacent the cell. The cooling assembly consisting of: (a) a bendable length of flexible conformable material having the capability of withstanding the corrosive materials of a fuel cell environment having a coolant passageway along the length thereof the passageway having a plurality of straight parallel sections spaced one from another and also having a plurality of bend sections coupling the parallel sections in serpentine configuration and (b) means located within the passageway formed as coils within the bend sections for enhancing the ability of the flexible material to bend into relatively small radii without crimping, the last mentioned means being formed straight within the straight parallel sections with the passageway maintaining its ability to carry coolant along the length of the material, of the coil.

  20. Quantification of surface tension and internal pressure generated by single mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank; Müller, Daniel J; Helenius, Jonne

    2014-01-01

    During mitosis, adherent cells round up, by increasing the tension of the contractile actomyosin cortex while increasing the internal hydrostatic pressure. In the simple scenario of a liquid cell interior, the surface tension is related to the local curvature and the hydrostatic pressure difference by Laplace's law. However, verification of this scenario for cells requires accurate measurements of cell shape. Here, we use wedged micro-cantilevers to uniaxially confine single cells and determine confinement forces while concurrently determining cell shape using confocal microscopy. We fit experimentally measured confined cell shapes to shapes obeying Laplace's law with uniform surface tension and find quantitative agreement. Geometrical parameters derived from fitting the cell shape, and the measured force were used to calculate hydrostatic pressure excess and surface tension of cells. We find that HeLa cells increase their internal hydrostatic pressure excess and surface tension from ≈ 40 Pa and 0.2 mNm(-1) during interphase to ≈ 400 Pa and 1.6 mNm(-1) during metaphase. The method introduced provides a means to determine internal pressure excess and surface tension of rounded cells accurately and with minimal cellular perturbation, and should be applicable to characterize the mechanical properties of various cellular systems. PMID:25169063

  1. Quantification of surface tension and internal pressure generated by single mitotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank; Müller, Daniel J.; Helenius, Jonne

    2014-08-01

    During mitosis, adherent cells round up, by increasing the tension of the contractile actomyosin cortex while increasing the internal hydrostatic pressure. In the simple scenario of a liquid cell interior, the surface tension is related to the local curvature and the hydrostatic pressure difference by Laplace's law. However, verification of this scenario for cells requires accurate measurements of cell shape. Here, we use wedged micro-cantilevers to uniaxially confine single cells and determine confinement forces while concurrently determining cell shape using confocal microscopy. We fit experimentally measured confined cell shapes to shapes obeying Laplace's law with uniform surface tension and find quantitative agreement. Geometrical parameters derived from fitting the cell shape, and the measured force were used to calculate hydrostatic pressure excess and surface tension of cells. We find that HeLa cells increase their internal hydrostatic pressure excess and surface tension from ~ 40 Pa and 0.2 mNm-1 during interphase to ~ 400 Pa and 1.6 mNm-1 during metaphase. The method introduced provides a means to determine internal pressure excess and surface tension of rounded cells accurately and with minimal cellular perturbation, and should be applicable to characterize the mechanical properties of various cellular systems.

  2. Internal binding sites for MSH: Analyses in wild-type and variant Cloudman melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orlow, S.J.; Hotchkiss, S.; Pawelek, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells express both external (plasma membrane) and internal binding sites for MSH. Using 125I-beta melanotropin (beta-MSH) as a probe, we report here an extensive series of studies on the biological relevance of these internal sites. Cells were swollen in a hypotonic buffer and lysed, and a particulate fraction was prepared by high-speed centrifugation. This fraction was incubated with 125I-beta-MSH with or without excess nonradioactive beta-MSH in the cold for 2 hours. The material was then layered onto a step-wise sucrose gradient and centrifuged; fractions were collected and counted in a gamma counter or assayed for various enzymatic activities. The following points were established: (1) Specific binding sites for MSH were observed sedimenting at an average density of 50% sucrose in amelanotic cells and at higher densities in melanotic cells. (2) These sites were similar in density to those observed when intact cells were labeled externally with 125I-beta-MSH and then warmed to promote internalization of the hormone. (3) Most of the internal binding sites were not as dense as fully melanized melanosomes. (4) In control experiments, the MSH binding sites were not found in cultured hepatoma cells. (5) Variant melanoma cells, which differed from the wild-type in their responses to MSH, had reduced expression of internal binding sites even though their ability to bind MSH to the outer cell surface appeared normal. (MSH-induced responses included changes in tyrosinase, dopa oxidase, and dopachrome conversion factor activities, melanization, proliferation, and morphology.) (6) Isobutylmethylxanthine, which enhanced cellular responsiveness to MSH, also enhanced expression of internal binding sites. The results indicate that expression of internal binding sites for MSH is an important criterion for cellular responsiveness to the hormone.

  3. Extracellular Adherence Protein from Staphylococcus aureus Enhances Internalization into Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haggar, Axana; Hussain, Muzaffar; Lönnies, Helena; Herrmann, Mathias; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have shown that Eap (extracellular adherence protein) plays a role in the internalization process of Staphylococcus aureus into eukaryotic cells. Eap is a protein that is mostly extracellularly and to a lesser extent is bound to the bacterial surface as a result of rebinding. Eap is able to bind to several plasma proteins, such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin. It has the capacity to form oligomers and is able to agglutinate S. aureus. A mutant strain, Newman mAH12 (eap:: Eryr), with a deficient eap gene was used in the present study. We have demonstrated that (i) strain Newman mAH12 could adhere to and become internalized to a higher extent by eukaryotic cells than the isogenic mutant, (ii) strain Newman mAH12 complemented with the eap gene displayed restoration of the internalization level, (iii) externally added Eap enhanced the internalization of laboratory and clinical S. aureus strains as well as of S. carnosus (a coagulase-negative species devoid of proteins important for internalization), and (iv) antibodies against Eap were able to block the internalization process in strain Newman mAH12 and clinical isolates. Eap, with its broad binding capacity and its surface localization, thus seems to contribute to the internalization of S. aureus into eukaryotic cells. We therefore propose a novel internalization pathway for S. aureus in which Eap plays an enhancing role. PMID:12704099

  4. Harmonizing the international regulation of embryonic stem cell research: possibilities, promises and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Angela; Nycum, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Despite near unanimous global opposition to human reproductive cloning, the United Nations has been unable to reach a consensus as to how cloning practices should be regulated at the international level. As a result, the U.N. objective of establishing binding international regulations governing cloning and stem cell research has yet to be achieved. Given the lack of consensus that exists within the global community on this topic, it seems that any attempt to harmonize the international regulation of cloning and stem cell science will face important obstacles. This paper seeks to illuminate the particular challenges to harmonizing international laws and policies related to stem cell research and human cloning, and to investigate potential methods for overcoming these challenges. By drawing on two other areas in which regulatory harmonization has been attempted, namely: environmental and human safety aspects of international trade, and pharmaceutical research and development, we study approaches to global regulatory harmonization. We conclude that while the challenges to harmonization are diverse and important, so too are the benefits of establishing uniformity in approaches to stem cell research worldwide. This paper proposes a model for harmonizing the regulation of stem cell research that focuses on broader norms and principles rather than specific rules. It further recommends that such harmonization should occur through a process initiated and developed by an independent international agency marked by diversity, both in terms of the cultural identities and perspectives represented, and the interdisciplinary expertise of its members. PMID:16622976

  5. A light and electron microscope study on the origin of Fo-Kurloff cells.

    PubMed

    Kittas, C; Parsons, M A; Henry, L

    1979-06-01

    Numerous Fo-Kurloff (FK) cells have been found in the circulation, spleen, bone marrow, thymus and placenta of guinea pigs under endogenous or exogenous oestrogenic stimulation. The origin of these cells is obscure. In the present experiment, the distribution of FK cells in organs other than those stated above was studied following gonadectomy and hexoestrol administration in guinea pigs of both sexes for either 1 or 10 weeks. More FK cells than those expected from the vascularity of the organ were found in the liver and lungs of male and female animals. The number of FK cells in these organs was larger after the long-term treatment with hexoestrol and it was accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of Kupffer cells of the liver. The latter observation is in contrast to previous reports of increased numbers of Kupffer cells in the liver of oestrogen-receiving mice, a species not producing FK cells. These observations suggest a relation between the two types of cells. No transformation of mature Kupffer cells into FK cells was seen with the electron microscope. However, other findings suggest that both Kupffer cells and FK cells may well be derived from a common precursor of MPS in the bone marrow. PMID:224894

  6. The cell-type specific uptake of polymer-coated or micelle-embedded QDs and SPIOs does not provoke an acute pro-inflammatory response in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Bargheer, Denise; Giemsa, Artur; Freund, Barbara; Scheja, Ludger; Waurisch, Christian; Eychmüller, Alexander; Reimer, Rudolph; Weller, Horst; Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIO) have exceptional physical properties that are well suited for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. For future applications, the direct injection of nanocrystals for imaging and therapy represents an important entry route into the human body. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate biological responses of the body to nanocrystals to avoid harmful side effects. In recent years, we established a system to embed nanocrystals with a hydrophobic oleic acid shell either by lipid micelles or by the amphiphilic polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAOD). The goal of the current study is to investigate the uptake processes as well as pro-inflammatory responses in the liver after the injection of these encapsulated nanocrystals. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies using wild type mice, we show that 30 min after injection polymer-coated nanocrystals are primarily taken up by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, by using wild type, Ldlr -/- as well as Apoe -/- mice we show that nanocrystals embedded within lipid micelles are internalized by Kupffer cells and, in a process that is dependent on the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein E, by hepatocytes. Gene expression analysis of pro-inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (Cxcl10) indicated that 48 h after injection internalized nanocrystals did not provoke pro-inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, internalized nanocrystals at least in mouse liver cells, namely endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatocytes are at least not acutely associated with potential adverse side effects, underlining their potential for biomedical applications. PMID:25247125

  7. Deciphering the internal complexity of living cells with quantitative phase microscopy: a multiscale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Berguiga, Lotfi; Boyer-Provera, Elise; Elezgaray, Juan; Nicolini, Franck E.; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of refractive indices (RIs) of a living cell contributes in a nonintuitive manner to its optical phase image and quite rarely can be inverted to recover its internal structure. The interpretation of the quantitative phase images of living cells remains a difficult task because (1) we still have very little knowledge on the impact of its internal macromolecular complexes on the local RI and (2) phase changes produced by light propagation through the sample are mixed with diffraction effects by the internal cell bodies. We propose to implement a two-dimensional wavelet-based contour chain detection method to distinguish internal boundaries based on their greatest optical path difference gradients. These contour chains correspond to the highest image phase contrast and follow the local RI inhomogeneities linked to the intracellular structural intricacy. Their statistics and spatial distribution are the morphological indicators suited for comparing cells of different origins and/or to follow their transformation in pathologic situations. We use this method to compare nonadherent blood cells from primary and laboratory culture origins and to assess the internal transformation of hematopoietic stem cells by the transduction of the BCR-ABL oncogene responsible for the chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  8. Hypoxia Decreases Invasin-Mediated Yersinia enterocolitica Internalization into Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouni, Nathalie E.; Dersch, Petra; Naim, Hassan Y.; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a major cause of human yersiniosis, with enterocolitis being a typical manifestation. These bacteria can cross the intestinal mucosa, and invade eukaryotic cells by binding to host β1 integrins, a process mediated by the bacterial effector protein invasin. This study examines the role of hypoxia on the internalization of Y. enterocolitica into intestinal epithelial cells, since the gastrointestinal tract has been shown to be physiologically deficient in oxygen levels (hypoxic), especially in cases of infection and inflammation. We show that hypoxic pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells resulted in significantly decreased bacterial internalization compared to cells grown under normoxia. This phenotype was absent after functionally blocking host β1 integrins as well as upon infection with an invasin-deficient Y. enterocolitica strain. Furthermore, downstream phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase was also reduced under hypoxia after infection. In good correlation to these data, cells grown under hypoxia showed decreased protein levels of β1 integrins at the apical cell surface whereas the total protein level of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha was elevated. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the HIF-1 α stabilizer dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) also reduced invasion and decreased β1 integrin protein levels compared to control cells, indicating a potential role for HIF-1α in this process. These results suggest that hypoxia decreases invasin-integrin-mediated internalization of Y. enterocolitica into intestinal epithelial cells by reducing cell surface localization of host β1 integrins. PMID:26731748

  9. Hsp90-mediated cytosolic refolding of exogenous proteins internalized by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Giodini, Alessandra; Cresswell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells efficiently internalize exogenous protein antigens by fluid-phase uptake and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Such antigens contribute to cross-presentation by being translocated into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation, which liberates immunogenic peptides that can bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules after being transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MHC class I-peptide complexes are then expressed on the cell surface and presented to CD8+ T cells. Here we show that internalized proteins can have an alternative fate. After internalization, proteins are first unfolded to allow translocation into the cytosol using a pathway related to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Subsequently the unfolded proteins can undergo cytosolic refolding assisted by the chaperone Hsp90. These observations not only clarify the cellular processes regulating cytosolic access following endocytosis, but also demonstrate that functional proteins can potentially regain their activity in the cytosol of dendritic cells. PMID:18046456

  10. Hsp90-mediated cytosolic refolding of exogenous proteins internalized by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Giodini, Alessandra; Cresswell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells efficiently internalize exogenous protein antigens by fluid-phase uptake and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Such antigens contribute to cross-presentation by being translocated into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation, which liberates immunogenic peptides that can bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules after being transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MHC class Ipeptide complexes are then expressed on the cell surface and presented to CD8+ T cells. Here we show that internalized proteins can have an alternative fate. After internalization, proteins are first unfolded to allow translocation into the cytosol using a pathway related to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Subsequently the unfolded proteins can undergo cytosolic refolding assisted by the chaperone Hsp90. These observations not only clarify the cellular processes regulating cytosolic access following endocytosis, but also demonstrate that functional proteins can potentially regain their activity in the cytosol of dendritic cells. PMID:18046456

  11. Dvr1 transfers left-right asymmetric signals from Kupffer's vesicle to lateral plate mesoderm in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Annita G; Wang, Xinghao; Yost, H Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An early step in establishing left-right (LR) symmetry in zebrafish is the generation of asymmetric fluid flow by Kupffer's vesicle (KV). As a result of fluid flow, a signal is generated and propagated from the KV to the left lateral plate mesoderm, activating a transcriptional response of Nodal expression in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). The mechanisms and molecules that aid in this transfer of information from the KV to the left LPM are still not clear. Here we provide several lines of evidence demonstrating a role for a member of the TGFβ family member, Dvr1, a zebrafish Vg1 ortholog. Dvr1 is expressed bilaterally between the KV and the LPM. Knockdown of Dvr1 by morpholino causes dramatically reduced or absent expression of southpaw (spaw, a Nodal homolog), in LPM, and corresponding loss of downstream Lefty (lft1 and lft) expression, and aberrant brain and heart LR patterning. Dvr1 morphant embryos have normal KV morphology and function, normal expression of southpaw (spaw) and charon (cha) in the peri-KV region and normal expression of a variety of LPM markers in LPM. Additionally, Dvr1 knockdown does not alter the capability of LPM to respond to signals that initiate and propagate spaw expression. Co-injection experiments in Xenopus and zebrafish indicate that Dvr1 and Spaw can enhance each other's ability to activate the Nodal response pathway and co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal differential relationships among activators and inhibitors in this pathway. These results indicate that Dvr1 is responsible for enabling the transfer of a left-right signal from KV to the LPM. PMID:23791819

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa vesicles associate with and are internalized by human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen associated with chronic and ultimately fatal lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To investigate how P. aeruginosa-derived vesicles may contribute to lung disease, we explored their ability to associate with human lung cells. Results Purified vesicles associated with lung cells and were internalized in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vesicles from a CF isolate exhibited a 3- to 4-fold greater association with lung cells than vesicles from the lab strain PAO1. Vesicle internalization was temperature-dependent and was inhibited by hypertonic sucrose and cyclodextrins. Surface-bound vesicles rarely colocalized with clathrin. Internalized vesicles colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, TRAPα, as well as with ER-localized pools of cholera toxin and transferrin. CF isolates of P. aeruginosa abundantly secrete PaAP (PA2939), an aminopeptidase that associates with the surface of vesicles. Vesicles from a PaAP knockout strain exhibited a 40% decrease in cell association. Likewise, vesicles from PAO1 overexpressing PaAP displayed a significant increase in cell association. Conclusion These data reveal that PaAP promotes the association of vesicles with lung cells. Taken together, these results suggest that P. aeruginosa vesicles can interact with and be internalized by lung epithelial cells and contribute to the inflammatory response during infection. PMID:19192306

  13. Spontaneous Internalization of Cell Penetrating Peptide-Modified Nanowires into Primary Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Zhang, Anqi; You, Siheng Sean; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-02-10

    Semiconductor nanowire (NW) devices that can address intracellular electrophysiological events with high sensitivity and spatial resolution are emerging as key tools in nanobioelectronics. Intracellular delivery of NWs without compromising cellular integrity and metabolic activity has, however, proven difficult without external mechanical forces or electrical pulses. Here, we introduce a biomimetic approach in which a cell penetrating peptide, the trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT) from human immunodeficiency virus 1, is linked to the surface of Si NWs to facilitate spontaneous internalization of NWs into primary neuronal cells. Confocal microscopy imaging studies at fixed time points demonstrate that TAT-conjugated NWs (TAT-NWs) are fully internalized into mouse hippocampal neurons, and quantitative image analyses reveal an ca. 15% internalization efficiency. In addition, live cell dynamic imaging of NW internalization shows that NW penetration begins within 10-20 min after binding to the membrane and that NWs become fully internalized within 30-40 min. The generality of cell penetrating peptide modification method is further demonstrated by internalization of TAT-NWs into primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. PMID:26745653

  14. Targeted drug delivery to mesothelioma cells using functionally selected internalizing human single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    An, Feng; Drummond, Daryl C; Wilson, Shannon; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Nishimura, Stephen L; Broaddus, V Courtney; Liu, Bin

    2008-03-01

    Mesothelioma is a malignancy of the mesothelium and current treatments are generally ineffective. One promising area of anticancer drug development is to explore tumor susceptibility to targeted therapy. To achieve efficient, targeted intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents to mesothelioma cells, we selected a naive human single-chain (scFv) phage antibody display library directly on the surface of live mesothelioma cells to identify internalizing antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated cell surface antigens. We have identified a panel of internalizing scFvs that bind to mesothelioma cell lines derived from both epithelioid (M28) and sarcomatous (VAMT-1) types of this disease. Most importantly, these antibodies stain mesothelioma cells in situ and therefore define a panel of clinically represented tumor antigens. We have further exploited the internalizing function of these scFvs to achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery to mesothelioma cells. We showed that scFv-targeted immunoliposomes were efficiently and specifically taken up by both epithelioid and sarcomatous mesothelioma cells, but not control cells, and immunoliposomes encapsulating the small-molecule drug topotecan caused targeted killing of both types of mesothelioma cells in vitro. PMID:18319332

  15. Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Requires ppGpp for Internalization and Survival in Animal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Ho; Song, Miryoung; Park, Sang-Ik; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Choy, Hyon E.

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum, we examined the expression of the genes encoded primarily in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2. These genes were found to be induced as cultures entered stationary phase under high- and low-oxygen growth conditions, as also observed for Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. In contrast, Salmonella serovar Gallinarum in the exponential growth phase most efficiently internalized cultured animal cells. Analysis of mutants defective in SPI-1 genes, SPI-2 genes, and others implicated in early stages of infection revealed that SPI-1 genes were not involved in the internalization of animal cells by Salmonella serovar Gallinarum. Following entry, however, Salmonella serovar Gallinarum was found to reside in LAMP1-positive vacuoles in both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells, although internalization was independent of SPI-1. A mutation that conferred defects in ppGpp synthesis was the only one found to affect animal cell internalization by Salmonella serovar Gallinarum. It was concluded that Salmonella serovar Gallinarum internalizes animal cells by a mechanism independent of SPI-1 genes but dependent on ppGpp. Intracellular growth also required ppGpp for the transcription of genes encoded in SPI-2. PMID:18621899

  16. Cytoprotective effects of graphene oxide for mammalian cells against internalization of exogenous materials.

    PubMed

    Na, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Jieon; Kim, Young-Kwan; Jang, Hongje; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Hyerim; Heo, Won Do; Jeon, Hyesung; Choi, Insung S; Lee, Younghoon; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-02-21

    To date, graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized version of graphene, has been utilized in many research areas including bioapplications such as drug delivery and bioanalysis. Unlike other spherical or polygonal nanomaterials, GO exhibits a sheet-like structure, which in itself suggests interesting applications based on its shape. Here we show that GO can protect cells from internalization of toxic hydrophobic molecules, nanoparticles, and nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmid DNA by interacting with cell surface lipid bilayers without noticeably reducing cell viability. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of GO against the internalization of extracellular materials enabled spatial control over gene transfection through region-selective gene delivery only into GO-untreated cells, and not into the GO-treated cells. PMID:23334460

  17. A versatile total internal reflection photometric detection cell for flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Peter S; Gentle, Brady S; Grace, Michael R; McKelvie, Ian D

    2009-08-15

    A total internal reflection (TIR) flow-through cell that is highly tolerant of schlieren effects, has limited hydrodynamic dispersion and does not trap gas bubbles, and which is suitable for sensitive photometric measurements in flow analysis, is described. Light from an optical fibre is introduced into a short length of quartz capillary through the sidewall at an incident angle of ca. 53 degrees. Under this condition, incident light undergoes total internal reflection from the external air-quartz interface and is propagated by successive reflections from the external walls through the aqueous liquid core of the cell. Detection of the transmitted beam is enabled by intentionally introducing an optical coupling medium at a predetermined distance along the capillary wall, which allows the internally reflected light to be captured by a second optical fibre connected to a charge-couple device detector. This configuration embodies a number of the desirable features of a liquid core waveguide cell (i.e. total internal reflection), a multi-reflection (MR) flow cell (i.e. minimum susceptibility to schlieren effects, low hydrodynamic dispersion and little tendency to trap bubbles), and a conventional Z-cell (wide dynamic range). When employed with a flow injection system, a limit of detection of 2.0 microg PL(-1) was achieved for the determination of reactive phosphate using the TIR cell, compared with LOD values of 3.8 microg PL(-1) and 4.9 microg PL(-1) obtained using the MR and Z-cells with same manifold. The combined advantages of schlieren-tolerance and lack of bubble entrapment of the MR cell with the higher S/N ratio and wider dynamic range of a conventional Z-cell, make the TIR cell eminently useful for photometric measurements of samples with widely differing refractive indices. PMID:19576452

  18. Stem cell course in the Middle East: science diplomacy and international collaborations during the Arab spring.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Balazs; Schatten, Gerald

    2012-03-01

    In April 2011, an international advanced course and workshop entitled "Frontiers in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells" and an International Congress on Fertility and Genetics ( http://www.fertigen.com.jo/ConferenceDetails.aspx ) was held in Amman Jordan hosted by the Jordanian Society of Fertility and Genetics under the auspices of the International Cell Research Organization (ICRO), a UNESCO associated NGO. The Congress President Dr. Zaid Kilani, with Dr. Abdel Latif Abu Khadra, President of the Jordanian society for Fertility and Genetics, Dr. Rana Dajani of the Hashemite University of Jordan, and their Organizing Committee proved to be an excellent organizers and dedicated physician-scientists and, focusing on fertility, genetics and stem cells in a wide range of advanced therapeutic applications. Brilliant course participants included trainees, scientists and clinicians from the Greater Middle East. The lectures and practical sessions, presented by internationally acknowledged scientists, included overviews of recent achievements in pluripotent stem cell research, emphasizing the role of both the embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. A major emphasis was placed on the clinical achievements in germ cell and umbilical cord stem cell transplantation issues, and on the potential of fast and successful prenatal and pre-implantation molecular genetics diagnostics. The organization of the stem cell course in the Holy Land especially emphasized that issues of "eternal life" and "rejuvenation" are already at hand--at least in the pluripotent stem cell research field. In the lively atmosphere of the course about 60 participants had heated discussions on the possibility and ethics of advanced prenatal diagnostics, and on regulatory issues reflecting the need of separation of clinically effective versus unapproved, unwarranted stem cell treatments. An open discussion of many ethical issues, reflecting profound differences in religion and medical tradition in the different countries, made this course exceptionally interesting for both teachers and trainees. PMID:21647552

  19. Cytoprotective effects of graphene oxide for mammalian cells against internalization of exogenous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Jieon; Kim, Young-Kwan; Jang, Hongje; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Hyerim; Do Heo, Won; Jeon, Hyesung; Choi, Insung S.; Lee, Younghoon; Min, Dal-Hee

    2013-01-01

    To date, graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized version of graphene, has been utilized in many research areas including bioapplications such as drug delivery and bioanalysis. Unlike other spherical or polygonal nanomaterials, GO exhibits a sheet-like structure, which in itself suggests interesting applications based on its shape. Here we show that GO can protect cells from internalization of toxic hydrophobic molecules, nanoparticles, and nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmid DNA by interacting with cell surface lipid bilayers without noticeably reducing cell viability. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of GO against the internalization of extracellular materials enabled spatial control over gene transfection through region-selective gene delivery only into GO-untreated cells, and not into the GO-treated cells.To date, graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized version of graphene, has been utilized in many research areas including bioapplications such as drug delivery and bioanalysis. Unlike other spherical or polygonal nanomaterials, GO exhibits a sheet-like structure, which in itself suggests interesting applications based on its shape. Here we show that GO can protect cells from internalization of toxic hydrophobic molecules, nanoparticles, and nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmid DNA by interacting with cell surface lipid bilayers without noticeably reducing cell viability. Furthermore, the cytoprotective effect of GO against the internalization of extracellular materials enabled spatial control over gene transfection through region-selective gene delivery only into GO-untreated cells, and not into the GO-treated cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33800a

  20. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals internalized into renal tubular cells are degraded and dissolved by endolysosomes.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-02-25

    Interaction between calcium oxalate crystals and renal tubular cells has been recognized as one of the key mechanisms for kidney stone formation. While crystal adhesion and internalization have been extensively investigated, subsequent phenomena (i.e. crystal degradation and dissolution) remained poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (1000 μg/ml of crystals/culture medium) to confirm crystal internalization into MDCK (Type II) renal tubular cells after exposure to the crystals for 1 h and to trace the internalized crystals. Crystal size, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were measured using a spectrofluorometer for up to 48 h after crystal internalization. Moreover, markers for early endosome (Rab5), late endosome (Rab7) and lysosome (LAMP-2) were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry confirmed that FITC-labelled COM crystals were internalized into MDCK cells (14.83 ± 0.85%). The data also revealed a reduction of crystal size in a time-dependent manner. In concordance, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were decreased and increased, respectively, indicating crystal degradation/dissolution inside the cells and the degraded products were eliminated extracellularly. Moreover, Rab5 and Rab7 were both up-regulated and were also associated with the up-regulated LAMP-2 to form large endolysosomes in the COM-treated cells at 16-h after crystal internalization. We demonstrate herein, for the first time, that COM crystals could be degraded/dissolved by endolysosomes inside renal tubular cells. These findings will be helpful to better understand the crystal fate and protective mechanism against kidney stone formation. PMID:26748311

  1. Binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bikfalvi, A.; Dupuy, E.; Inyang, A.L.; Tobelem, G. ); Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y. ); Leseche, G. )

    1989-03-01

    The binding, internalization, and degradation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOME cells) were investigated. Binding studies of bFGF in human endothelial cells have not yet been reported. Basic FGF bound to HOME cells. The number of low-affinity binding sites was found to be variable. Washing the cells with 2 M phosphate-buffered saline removed completely {sup 125}I-bFGF bound to low-affinity binding sites but decreased also the high-affinity binding. The majority of the surface-bound {sup 125}I-bFGF was removed by washing the cells with acetic acid buffer at pH 3. At this temperature, degradation of the internalized ligand was followed after 1 hour by the appearance of three major bands of 15,000 10,000, and 8,000 Da and was inhibited by chloroquine. These results demonstrated two classes of binding sites for bFGF in HOME cells; the number of high-affinity binding sites being larger than the number reported for bovine capillary endothelial cells. The intracellular processing of bFGF in HOME cells seems to be different from that of heparin binding growth factor-1 in murine lung capillary endothelial cells and of eye-derived growth factor-1 in Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

  2. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2014-01-01

    On-orbit measurements of new photovoltaic (PV) technologies for space power are an essential step in the development and qualification of advanced solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center will fly and measure several solar cells attached to NASA Goddards Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM), expected to be launched in 2014. Industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for evaluation of performance and environmental durability. The experiment is completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction and four-junction cells will be tested.

  3. The cellular internalization of liposome encapsulated protoporphyrin IX by HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Przybylo, Magdalena; Glogocka, Daria; Dobrucki, Jerzy W; Fraczkowska, Kaja; Podbielska, Halina; Kopaczynska, Marta; Borowik, Tomasz; Langner, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The proper lipid composition of liposomes designed to carry drugs determines their surface properties ensuring their accumulation within selected tissue. The electrostatic potential and surface topology of liposomes affect the internalization by single cells. The high-resolution imaging of cancer cells and the distribution of protoporphyrin-loaded liposomes within the cytoplasm and its dependence on the liposome surface properties are presented. In the paper, HeLa cells were used to investigate the uptake of porphyrin-loaded liposomes and liposomes alone by means of confocal and differential interference contrast microscopies. The effect of liposomes surface electrostatic potential and surface topology on their intracellular distribution was evaluated. The time evolution of the intracellular distribution of liposomes labelled with Rhodamine-PE was examined on HeLa cells. These studies allow for the identification of the liposome lipid composition so the efficient delivery of the active substance to cancer cells will be achieved. The obtained results showed that neutral PC-liposomes are the most efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. Moreover, results showed that properties of liposomes affect not only the internalization efficiency of the photosensitizer but also its distribution within the cells, as revealed by colocalization measurements. PMID:26827924

  4. Interaction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin with mosquito larval gut cells: Binding and internalization.

    PubMed

    Lekakarn, Hataikarn; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Boonserm, Panadda

    2015-11-01

    The binary toxin produced by Lysinibacillus sphaericus is composed of BinA and BinB subunits. Together, but not separately, the two subunits are highly toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, but show no toxicity to Aedes aegypti. The molecular mechanism underlying intoxication has not been clearly elucidated. The present study compares the binding and the internalization of binary toxin into the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible C. quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae with those of Bin-refractory A. aegypti. The guts from larvae fed with fluorescently labeled toxin were dissected and analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. When fed with a mixture of both components, co-localization of BinA and BinB was detected both on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of Culex larval gut cells. However, administration of BinA alone resulted in localization only on the cell membrane, whereas BinB alone was detected both on the cell membrane and inside the cytoplasm. In contrast, when a mixture of both components, or each individual component, was fed to Aedes larvae, BinA and BinB were unable to reach the cytoplasm and were localized only on the cell membrane. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the internalization of BinA is essential for toxicity, and that BinB is required for this internalization into susceptible larval gut cells. PMID:26408968

  5. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A R; Gemini-Piperni, S; Travassos, R; Lemgruber, L; C Silva, R; Rossi, A L; Farina, M; Anselme, K; Shokuhfar, T; Shahbazian-Yassar, R; Borojevic, R; Rocha, L A; Werckmann, J; Granjeiro, J M

    2016-01-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of 'Trojan-horse' internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies. PMID:27021687

  6. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  7. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies. PMID:27021687

  8. Structural Features Facilitating Tumor Cell Targeting and Internalization by Bleomycin and Its Disaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide–cytotoxin conjugates. PMID:25905565

  9. Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lin Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-20

    To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency η{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum η{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum η{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.

  10. Internalization of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 by Bovine Rectal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Wang, Jing; Lim, Ji Youn; Davitt, Christine; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) causes human diarrheal disease and healthy cattle are its primary reservoir. O157 colonize the bovine epithelial mucosa at the recto-anal junction (RAJ). Previous studies show that O157 at this site are not eliminated by aggressive interventions including applications of O157-specific lytic bacteriophages and other bactericidal agents. We hypothesize that some O157 at the RAJ mucosa are protected from these killing agents by host cell internalization. To test this hypothesis, rectal biopsies from O157 culture positive and negative cattle were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. GFP-labeled bacteria were found located deep within the tissue crypts and a small number of O157 were recovered from rectal biopsies after gentamicin treatment. Primary bovine rectal epithelial (PBRE) cell cultures were incubated with O157 and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. Strains ATCC 43895, 43894, Sakai, and WSU180 entered the PBRE cells with different levels of efficiency ranging from 0.18 to 19.38% of the inocula. Intracellular bacteria were confirmed to be within membrane-bounded vacuoles by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D curtailed internalization of O157 indicating internalization was dependent on eukaryotic microfilament assembly. Strain ATCC 43895 exhibited the highest efficiency of internalization and survived for at least 24 h within PBRE cells. Deletion mutation of intimin or its receptor in ATCC 43895 did not reduce bacterial internalization. This strain produced more biofilm than the others tested. Retrospective analysis of cattle challenged with two O157 strains, showed ATCC 43895, the most efficient at host cell internalization, was most persistent. PMID:21687423

  11. 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, 2010

    PubMed Central

    DeLeve, Laurie D.; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kalra, Vijay K.; Asahina, Kinji; Brenner, David A.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    This is a meeting report of the presentations given at the 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, held in 2010. The areas covered include the contributions of the various liver cell populations to liver disease, molecular and cellular targets involved in steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cancer and regenerative medicine. In addition to a review of the science presented at the meeting, this report provides references to recent literature on the topics covered at the meeting. PMID:21645207

  12. Artesunate reduces serum lipopolysaccharide in cecal ligation/puncture mice via enhanced LPS internalization by macrophages through increased mRNA expression of scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yu, Mengchen; Pan, Xichun; Ren, Chuanliang; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Jiang, Weiwei; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS) protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs); SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs. PMID:24441569

  13. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Yu, Mengchen; Pan, Xichun; Ren, Chuanliang; Peng, Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Jiang, Weiwei; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS) protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP) sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs); SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs. PMID:24441569

  14. High internal and external quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matioli, Elison; Neufeld, C. J.; Iza, Michael; Cruz, S. C.; Al-Heji, Ali A.; Chen, Xu; Farrell, Rober M.; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven; Mishra, U. K.; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, J. S.; Weisbuch, Claude

    2011-01-10

    High internal and external quantum efficiency GaN/InGaN solar cells are demonstrated. The internal quantum efficiency was assessed through the combination of absorption and external quantum efficiency measurements. The measured internal quantum efficiency, as high as 97%, revealed an efficient conversion of absorbed photons into electrons and holes and an efficient transport of these carriers outside the device. Improved light incoupling into the solar cells was achieved by texturing the surface. A peak external quantum efficiency of 72%, a fill factor of 79%, a short-circuit current density of 1.06 mA/cm{sup 2} , and an open circuit voltage of 1.89 V were achieved under 1 sun air-mass 1.5 global spectrumillumination conditions.

  15. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  16. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  17. Internalization, phagolysosomal biogenesis and killing of mycobacteria in enucleated epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    de Souza Carvalho, Cristiane; Kasmapour, Bahram; Gronow, Achim; Rohde, Manfred; Rabinovitch, Michel; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial and parasitic intracellular pathogens or their secreted products have been shown to induce host cell transcriptional responses, which may benefit the host, favour the microorganism or be unrelated to the infection. In most instances, however, it is not known if the host cell nucleus is proximately required for the development of an intracellular infection. This information can be obtained by the infection of artificially enucleated host cells (cytoplasts). This model, although rather extensively used in studies of viral infection, has only been applied to few bacterial pathogens, which do not include Mycobacterium spp. Here, we investigate the internalization, phagosome biogenesis and survival of M. smegmatis in enucleated type II alveolar epithelial cells. Cytoplasts were infected with M. smegmatis, but the percentage of infection was significantly lower than that of nucleated cells. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that in both cells and cytoplasts, bacteria were internalized by a phagocytosis-like mechanism. Interestingly, phagosome fusion with lysosomes and mycobacterial killing were both more efficient in enucleated than in nucleated cells, a finding that may be correlated with the increased number of autophagic vesicles developed in cytoplasts. We provide evidence that although quantitative changes were observed, the full development of the infection, as well as mycobacterial killing did not require the presence of the host cell nucleus. PMID:21658173

  18. Lipid Rafts and Clathrin Cooperate in the Internalization of PrPC in Epithelial FRT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Philippe; Puri, Claudia; Paladino, Simona; Tivodar, Simona S.; Campana, Vincenza; Tacchetti, Carlo; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Background The cellular prion protein (PrPC) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in which the protein undergoes post-translational conversion to the infectious form (PrPSc). Although endocytosis appears to be required for this conversion, the mechanism of PrPC internalization is still debated, as caveolae/raft- and clathrin-dependent processes have all been reported to be involved. Methodology/Principal Findings We have investigated the mechanism of PrPC endocytosis in Fischer Rat Thyroid (FRT) cells, which lack caveolin-1 (cav-1) and caveolae, and in FRT/cav-1 cells which form functional caveolae. We show that PrPC internalization requires activated Cdc-42 and is sensitive to cholesterol depletion but not to cav-1 expression suggesting a role for rafts but not for caveolae in PrPC endocytosis. PrPC internalization is also affected by knock down of clathrin and by the expression of dominant negative Eps15 and Dynamin 2 mutants, indicating the involvement of a clathrin-dependent pathway. Notably, PrPC co-immunoprecipitates with clathrin and remains associated with detergent-insoluble microdomains during internalization thus indicating that PrPC can enter the cell via multiple pathways and that rafts and clathrin cooperate in its internalization. Conclusions/Significance These findings are of particular interest if we consider that the internalization route/s undertaken by PrPC can be crucial for the ability of different prion strains to infect and to replicate in different cell lines. PMID:19503793

  19. A cell stabilization factor for transport of experimental cell cultures to and from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattaey, Heideh K.; Consigli, Richard A.; Grenz, Ladonna; Johnson, Terry C.

    2000-01-01

    The requirement for long term storage of cell cultures previous to arrival on the International Space Station (ISS), as well as culture maintenance after the conduct of experiment in microgravity, necessitates inhibition of cell proliferation and metabolism pending return to earth-based laboratories. Transport of cells in a nonstabilized condition can lead to a loss of cell viability and/or a source of selection pressures for survival that can alter the overall cell population. We have isolated in our laboratory a reversible inhibitor of cell proliferation, a cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), that has the capability of stabilizing cells isolated from a wide phylogenetic range by arresting them in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We show here that CeReS-18 is unusually stable and can be stored at ambient temperatures for weeks without a measurable loss in its biological activity. In addition we demonstrate that CeReS-18 is a superior cell-stabilizing agent as compared to other methods deployed for cell stabilization purposes, such as, decrease in the incubation temperature and serum down shifts. We also discovered that hybridoma cultures stabilized in their proliferative cycle by CeReS-18 produced 150%-300% more antibody per cell than that measured in the proliferating control cultures. The reversible inhibitory activity of CeReS-18, together with its unusual stability, as well as its wide target range lend themselves to use of this inhibitor as a cell stabilizing agent for cell transport to and storage on the ISS. .

  20. Study of internal stresses of thin solar cell modules. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, K.J.; Haeverli, U.

    1982-06-01

    Three solar cell computer programs were converted from MARC into NASTRAN. The meshes were generated by the AEO interactive SIMP package. The results of these conversions were compared with test results. The computer programs used to compute the interconnector and wiring stresses were implemented into SIMP. By applying fatigue properties of solar cell interconnectors, the life cycle can be determined using thermal distortion results of the solar cell modules. It is shown that the computation of the module internal stresses can be performed within a few days and at a lower cost than the previous analysis steps.

  1. In situ measurement of magnetization relaxation of internalized nanoparticles in live cells.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Dalibor; Moise, Sandhya; Céspedes, Eva; Dobson, Jon; Telling, Neil D

    2015-01-27

    Magnetization relaxation mechanisms strongly influence how magnetic nanoparticles respond to high-frequency fields in applications such as magnetic hyperthermia. The dominant mechanism depends on the mobility of the particles, which will be affected in turn by their microenvironment. In this study AC susceptometry was used to follow the in situ magnetic response of model systems of blocked and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, following their cellular internalization and subsequent release by freeze-thaw lysis. The AC susceptibility signal from internalized particles in live cells showed only Néel relaxation, consistent with measurements of immobilized nanoparticle suspensions. However, Brownian relaxation was restored after cell lysis, indicating that the immobilization effect was reversible and that nanoparticle integrity was maintained in the cells. The results presented demonstrate that cellular internalization can disable Brownian relaxation, which has significant implications for designing suitable nanoparticles for intracellular hyperthermia applications. Further to this, the results highlight the possibility that particles could be released in reusable form from degrading cells following hyperthermia treatment, and subsequently reabsorbed by viable cells. PMID:25562356

  2. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOEpatents

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  3. Novel method for preparing spheroplasts from cells with an internal cellulosic cell wall.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Alvin C M; Mak, Carmen C M; Wong, Francis T W; Wong, Joseph T Y

    2007-03-01

    Protoplast and spheroplast preparations allow the transfer of macromolecules into cells and provide the basis for the generation of engineered organisms. Crypthecodinium cohnii cells harvested from polyethylene glycol-containing agar plates possessed significantly lower levels of cellulose in their cortical layers, which facilitated the delivery of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotides into these cells. PMID:17259549

  4. Melittin initiates dopamine transporter internalization and recycling in transfected HEK-293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Dove J.; Wolfrum, Katherine; Eshleman, Amy J.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter removes the neurotransmitter from the synapse, regulating dopamine availability. The transporter can be internalized and its function is blocked by cocaine and other ligands. Melittin inhibits dopamine transporter function and causes internalization of the recombinant transporter in stably transfected HEK-293 cells, but the specific pathways for internalization and disposition of the transporter are unknown. Here we report that melittin treatment increased both transporter internalization and colocalization with clathrin, effects that were blocked by pretreatment with cocaine. Density gradient centrifugation revealed that melittin treatment caused the dopamine transporter to associate with a density fraction containing the early endosome marker Rab 5A. Confocal microscopy revealed that melittin treatment also increased transporter colocalization with Rab 5A and decreased colocalization with the late endosome marker Rab 7 and the recycling endosome marker Rab 11. Following 60 min of melittin treatment, the transporter was trafficked back to the membrane. By comparison, phorbol ester treatment increased transporter colocalization with early endosome antigen 1 and Rab 7 in a time-dependent manner. Cocaine treatment alone does not affect transporter trafficking in these cells. Results indicate multiple dopamine transporter internalization and recycling pathways that depend on transporter-ligand interactions and post-translational modifications. PMID:22683840

  5. Effects of Operating Conditions on Internal Resistances in Enzyme Fuel Cells Studied via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, D; Borole, Abhijeet P; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme fuel cells (EFCs) offer some advantages over traditional precious-metal-catalyzed fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, EFCs exhibit far less power output than PEMFCs and have relatively short life spans before materials must be replaced. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to analyze the internal resistances throughout the EFC at a variety of operating conditions. EIS analysis is focused primarily on the resistances of the anode, solution/membrane, and cathode. Increased enzyme loading results in improved power output and reductions in internal resistance. Conditions are identified for which enzyme loading does not limit the EFC performance. EIS experiments are also reported for EFCs operated continuously for 2 days; power output declines sharply over time, while all internal resistances increase. Drying of the cathode and enzyme/mediator degradation are believed to have contributed to this behavior. Finally, experiments are performed at varying air-humidification temperatures. Little effect on internal resistances or power output is observed. However, it is anticipated that increased air humidification can improve longevity by delivering more water to the cathode. Improvements to the enzymatic cathode are needed for EFC development. These improvements need to focus on improving transport rather than increasing enzyme loading.

  6. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  7. Carbon nanotubes enhance the internalization of drugs by cancer cells and decrease their chemoresistance to cytostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M.; Xu, Y.; Dantuluri, V.; Mustafa, T.; Zhang, Y.; Karmakar, A.; Casciano, D.; Ali, S.; Biris, A.

    2013-02-01

    Etoposide is a semisynthetic, chemotherapeutic drug widely recommended to treat an extensive range of human cancers. Our studies indicate that, while etoposide is capable of killing human cancer cells, exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and etoposide results in enhanced cell death that appears to be synergistic and not merely additive. In this study, we used high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to quantify the internal effective dose of etoposide when the human pancreatic cancer cell (PANC-1) was exposed to the combination of these agents. Our results unequivocally indicate that SWCNTs improve etoposide uptake and increase its capacity to kill cancer cells. We suggest that a combination of SWCNTs and etoposide may prove to be a more efficient chemotherapeutic protocol, especially because of the potential to lower toxic drug doses to levels that may be useful in decreasing adverse side effects, as well as in lowering the probability of inducing chemoresistance in exposed cancer cells.

  8. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Sandra M.; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de la Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose. L.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; García-Romero, Noemí; Luis, Jose; Cuñado, F.; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications. PMID:26477718

  9. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Sandra M; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de la Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose L; Rodríguez, María Josefa; García-Romero, Noemí; Cuñado, Jose Luis F; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications. PMID:26477718

  10. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, Sandra M.; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de La Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose. L.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; García-Romero, Noemí; Luis, Jose; Cuñado, F.; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications.

  11. Glycolipid presentation to natural killer T cells differs in an organ-dependent fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieg, John; Yang, Guangli; Franck, Richard W.; van Rooijen, Nico; Tsuji, Moriya

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are able to present glycolipids to natural killer (NK) T cells in vivo. However, the essential role of DCs, as well as the role of other cells in glycolipid presentation, is unknown. Here, we show that DCs are the crucial antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for splenic NK T cells, whereas Kupffer cells are the key APCs for hepatic NK T cells. Both cell types stimulate cytokine production by NK T cells within 2 h of glycolipid administration, but only DCs are involved in the systemic, downstream responses to glycolipid administration. More specifically, CD8+ DCs produce IL-12 in response to glycolipid presentation, which stimulates secondary IFN- production by NK cells in different organs. Different APCs participate in glycolipid presentation to NK T cells in vivo but differ in their involvement in the overall glycolipid response. dendritic cell | Kupffer cell

  12. Cell-surface nucleolin is involved in lipopolysaccharide internalization and signalling in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Mao, Mei; Xu, Jian-cheng

    2011-07-01

    C23 (nucleolin) shuttling between the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell surface has been implicated in controlling regulatory processes and may play a role in pathogen infection and autoimmune diseases. It has been reported that cell surface-expressed C23 on THP-1 monocytes is involved in the inflammatory response induced by LPS (lipopolysaccharide). This study investigates whether C23 is a membrane receptor for LPS during LPS-induced AMs (alveolar macrophages) activation. First, using immunofluorescence and microscopy, we detected the expression of C23 on the surface of AMs. Second, using LPS affinity columns, we demonstrated that C23 directly binds to LPS. Third, we found that LPS colocalized with C23 on both the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Finally, knockdown of C23 expression on the cell surface using siRNA (small interfering RNA) led to significant reductions in the internalization of LPS, in LPS-induced NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)-DNA binding and in the protein expression of TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-α and IL-6 (interleukin-6). These findings provide evidence that cell-surface C23 on AMs may serve as a receptor for LPS and are essential for internalization and transport of LPS. Furthermore, C23 participates in the regulation of LPS-induced inflammation of AMs, which indicates that cell-surface C23 is a new and promising therapeutic target for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:21309751

  13. Role of the Tet38 Efflux Pump in Staphylococcus aureus Internalization and Survival in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Truong-Bolduc, Q C; Bolduc, G R; Medeiros, H; Vyas, J M; Wang, Y; Hooper, D C

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified the protein Tet38 as a chromosomally encoded efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus that confers resistance to tetracycline and certain unsaturated fatty acids. Tet38 also contributes to mouse skin colonization. In this study, we discovered a novel regulator of tet38, named tetracycline regulator 21 (TetR21), that bound specifically to the tet38 promoter and repressed pump expression. A ΔtetR21 mutant showed a 5-fold increase in tet38 transcripts and an 8-fold increase in resistance to tetracycline and fatty acids. The global regulator MgrA bound to the tetR21 promoter and indirectly repressed the expression of tet38. To further assess the full role of Tet38 in S. aureus adaptability, we tested its effect on host cell invasion using A549 (lung) and HMEC-1 (heart) cell lines. We used S. aureus RN6390, its Δtet38, ΔtetR21, and ΔmgrA mutants, and a Δtet38 ΔtetR21 double mutant. After 2 h of contact, the Δtet38 mutant was internalized in 6-fold-lower numbers than RN6390 in A549 and HMEC-1 cells, and the ΔtetR21 mutant was internalized in 2-fold-higher numbers than RN6390. A slight increase of 1.5-fold in internalization was found for the ΔmgrA mutant. The growth patterns of RN6390 and the ΔmgrA and ΔtetR21 mutants within A549 cells were similar, while no growth was observed for the Δtet38 mutant. These data indicate that the Tet38 efflux pump is regulated by TetR21 and contributes to the ability of S. aureus to internalize and replicate within epithelial cells. PMID:26324534

  14. Binding and internalization of nerve growth factor by PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasaian, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) with its cell surface receptors has been studied using both fluorescent- and radio-labelled NGF. The fluorescence studies were done by flow cytometry, and gave information about the concentration dependence and time course of NGF binding to rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and human melanoma cells (A875). /sup 125/I-NGF was used to study the fate of NGF in PC12 cells following its association with cell surface receptors. Variations of the PC12 binding assay were used to distinguish ligand bound to fast and slowly dissociating receptors at the cell surface, internalized ligand, and cytoskeletally-associated NGF. Ligand uptake into each of these pools was followed in untreated cells, as well as in cells exposed to colchicine and/or cytochalasin B to disrupt the cytoskeleton. NGF degradation was also followed in these cells, and chloroquine was used to inhibit this process. In a separate project, NGF activity was assayed in samples of human amniotic fluid and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A range of activities was found in these samples, with the CSF samples containing somewhat more activity than the amniotic fluid samples.

  15. Pancreatic cell immobilization in alginate beads produced by emulsion and internal gelation.

    PubMed

    Hoesli, Corinne A; Raghuram, Kamini; Kiang, Roger L J; Mocinecová, Dušana; Hu, Xiaoke; Johnson, James D; Lacík, Igor; Kieffer, Timothy J; Piret, James M

    2011-02-01

    Alginate has been used to protect transplanted pancreatic islets from immune rejection and as a matrix to increase the insulin content of islet progenitor cells. The throughput of alginate bead generation by the standard extrusion and external gelation method is limited by the rate of droplet formation from nozzles. Alginate bead generation by emulsion and internal gelation is a scaleable alternative that has been used with biological molecules and microbial cells, but not mammalian cells. We describe the novel adaptation of this process to mammalian cell immobilization. After optimization, the emulsion process yielded 90 ± 2% mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cell survival, similar to the extrusion process. The MIN6 cells expanded at the same rate in both bead types to form pseudo-islets with increased glucose stimulation index compared to cells in suspension. The emulsion process was suitable for primary pancreatic exocrine cell immobilization, leading to 67 ± 32 fold increased insulin expression after 10 days of immobilized culture. Due to the scaleability and broad availability of stirred mixers, the emulsion process represents an attractive option for laboratories that are not equipped with extrusion-based cell encapsulators, as well as for the production of immobilized or encapsulated cellular therapeutics on a clinical scale. PMID:20939004

  16. Internalization of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide in rat insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Göke, R; Richter, G; Göke, B; Trautmann, M; Arnold, R

    1989-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide [GLP-1(7-36)amide] is supposed to be an important physiologic incretin. Recently, high affinity receptors for GLP-1(7-36)amide have been demonstrated on rat insulinoma-derived RINm5F cells. The present study examined the internalization and degradation of the GLP-1-receptor complex. Internalization of the peptide was time- and temperature-dependent. At 37 degrees C binding and internalization was rapid. At 60 min 35% of 125I-labeled GLP-1(7-36)amide was internalized. Incubation in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labeled GLP-1(7-36)amide resulted in a decrease of internalization of 125I-labeled peptide indicating that this process is saturable. Incubation in the presence of 0.2 mM chloroquine, an inhibitor of intracellular hormone degradation, resulted in intracellular accumulation of 125I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. HPLC-supported analysis of cell content after internalization of 125I-GLP-1(7-36)amide during a 60-min incubation period at 37 degrees C revealed an elution profile showing two maxima of radioactivity: one represented intact labeled GLP-1(7-36)amide, the other an intracellular degradation product of the peptide. Chloroquine caused a 5-fold increase of the peak representing intact 125I-GLP-1(7-36)amide thus demonstrating inhibition of degradation of labelled peptide. Furthermore, a 4-fold increase of the other peak occurred possibly mirroring a delay of release of degradation products by chloroquine. It was excluded that chloroquine is able to interfere with GLP-1(7-36)amide-binding to its receptor. PMID:2554438

  17. Cell science and protein crystal growth research for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Sigler, P B; Stein, G S; Boskey, A L; Jones, N D; Kuriyan, J; Miller, W M; Shuler, M L; Wang, B C

    2000-09-14

    The recent National Research Council report, Future Biotechnology Research on the International Space Station, evaluates NASA's plans for research in cell science and protein crystal growth to be conducted on the International Space Station. This report concludes that the NASA biotechnology programs have the potential to significantly impact relevant scientific fields and to increase understanding and insight into fundamental biological issues. In order to realize the potential impacts, NASA must focus its research programs by selecting specific questions related to gravitational forces' role in cell behavior and by using the microgravity environment as a tool to determine the structure of macromolecules with important biological implications. Given the time and volume constraints associated with space-based experiments, instrumentation to be used on the space station must be designed to maximize the productivity of researchers, and NASA's recruitment of investigators and support for space station experiments should aim to encourage and facilitate cutting-edge research. PMID:10996856

  18. Imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the cell biologist

    PubMed Central

    Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Simon, Sanford M.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.

    2010-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy can be used in a wide range of cell biological applications, and is particularly well suited to analysis of the localization and dynamics of molecules and events near the plasma membrane. The TIRF excitation field decreases exponentially with distance from the cover slip on which cells are grown. This means that fluorophores close to the cover slip (e.g. within ~100 nm) are selectively illuminated, highlighting events that occur within this region. The advantages of using TIRF include the ability to obtain high-contrast images of fluorophores near the plasma membrane, very low background from the bulk of the cell, reduced cellular photodamage and rapid exposure times. In this Commentary, we discuss the applications of TIRF to the study of cell biology, the physical basis of TIRF, experimental setup and troubleshooting. PMID:20971701

  19. General overview of the Sixth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Cardiovascular Innovations.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alvarez, Ma Eugenia; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Enrique; Villa, Adolfo; Fernández, Ma Eugenia; Vázquez, Sandra; José Lorenzo, Ma; Fernández, Lucía; Pascual, Isaac; Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Being one of the main stem cell therapy meetings of the year, the Sixth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Cardiovascular Innovations was held on April 23rd-24th, 2009, at the Auditorium of the High Council of Scientific Research of Spain (CSIC) in Madrid. Gathering the most prestigious basic researchers and clinical experts in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine, the aim of the meeting was to discuss the available evidence and the recent contributions from preclinical investigators, cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons in a participative translational fashion. The role of young "clinician scientists" was reinforced with a special poster session and three awards. The main conclusions of the symposium were (1) that standardization, larger clinical trials, and true translational research are needed, and (2) that new-allogeneic-stem cell products, biotechnological devices, and cell-based bioartificial organs are potentially exciting options for the future. PMID:20560031

  20. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  1. Comparing national home-keeping and the regulation of translational stem cell applications: An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Chekar, Choon Key; Faulkner, Alex; Heitmeyer, Carolyn; Marouda, Marina; Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka; Chang, Hung-Chieh Jessica; Ely, Adrian; Kato, Masae; Patra, Prasanna K; Su, Yeyang; Sui, Suli; Suzuki, Wakana; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-03-01

    A very large grey area exists between translational stem cell research and applications that comply with the ideals of randomised control trials and good laboratory and clinical practice and what is often referred to as snake-oil trade. We identify a discrepancy between international research and ethics regulation and the ways in which regulatory instruments in the stem cell field are developed in practice. We examine this discrepancy using the notion of 'national home-keeping', referring to the way governments articulate international standards and regulation with conflicting demands on local players at home. Identifying particular dimensions of regulatory tools - authority, permissions, space and acceleration - as crucial to national home-keeping in Asia, Europe and the USA, we show how local regulation works to enable development of the field, notwithstanding international (i.e. principally 'western') regulation. Triangulating regulation with empirical data and archival research between 2012 and 2015 has helped us to shed light on how countries and organisations adapt and resist internationally dominant regulation through the manipulation of regulatory tools (contingent upon country size, the state's ability to accumulate resources, healthcare demands, established traditions of scientific governance, and economic and scientific ambitions). PMID:26921839

  2. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  3. Phosphatidylethanolamine critically supports internalization of cell-penetrating protein C inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Baumgärtner, Petra; Geiger, Margarethe; Zieseniss, Susanne; Malleier, Julia; Huntington, James A.; Hochrainer, Karin; Bielek, Edith; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Lauber, Kirsten; Scherfeld, Dag; Schwille, Petra; Wäldele, Katja; Beyer, Klaus; Engelmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Although their contribution remains unclear, lipids may facilitate noncanonical routes of protein internalization into cells such as those used by cell-penetrating proteins. We show that protein C inhibitor (PCI), a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), rapidly transverses the plasma membrane, which persists at low temperatures and enables its nuclear targeting in vitro and in vivo. Cell membrane translocation of PCI necessarily requires phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In parallel, PCI acts as a lipid transferase for PE. The internalized serpin promotes phagocytosis of bacteria, thus suggesting a function in host defense. Membrane insertion of PCI depends on the conical shape of PE and is associated with the formation of restricted aqueous compartments within the membrane. Gain- and loss-of-function mutations indicate that the transmembrane passage of PCI requires a branched cavity between its helices H and D, which, according to docking studies, precisely accommodates PE. Our findings show that its specific shape enables cell surface PE to drive plasma membrane translocation of cell-penetrating PCI. PMID:18025309

  4. Mannosylation of virus-like particles enhances internalization by antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Barwani, Farah; Young, Sarah L; Baird, Margaret A; Larsen, David S; Ward, Vernon K

    2014-01-01

    Internalization of peptides by antigen presenting cells is crucial for the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Mannosylation has been demonstrated to enhance antigen uptake through mannose receptors, leading to improved immune responses. In this study we test the effect of surface mannosylation of protein-based virus-like particles (VLP) derived from Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) on uptake by murine and human antigen presenting cells. A monomannoside and a novel dimannoside were synthesized and successfully conjugated to RHDV VLP capsid protein, providing approximately 270 mannose groups on the surface of each virus particle. VLP conjugated to the mannoside or dimannoside exhibited significantly enhanced binding and internalization by murine dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells as well as human dendritic cells and macrophages. This uptake was inhibited by the inclusion of mannan as a specific inhibitor of mannose specific uptake, demonstrating that mannosylation of VLP targets mannose receptor-based uptake. Consistent with mannose receptor-based uptake, partial retargeting of the intracellular processing of RHDV VLP was observed, confirming that mannosylation of VLP provides both enhanced uptake and modified processing of associated antigens. PMID:25122183

  5. Internalization of novel non-viral vector TAT-streptavidin into human cells

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Johanna; Albarran, Brian; Jylhävä, Juulia; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Kankaanpää, Pasi; Hytönen, Vesa P; Stayton, Patrick S; Kulomaa, Markku S; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2007-01-01

    Background The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin fusion construct, TAT47–57-streptavidin (TAT-SA, 60 kD). SA represents a potentially useful TAT-fusion partner due to its ability to perform as a versatile intracellular delivery vector for a wide array of biotinylated molecules or cargoes. Results By confocal and immunoelectron microscopy the majority of internalized TAT-SA was shown to accumulate in perinuclear vesicles in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. The uptake studies in living cells with various fluorescent endocytic markers and inhibiting agents suggested that TAT-SA is internalized into cells efficiently, using both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. When endosomal release of TAT-SA was enhanced through the incorporation of a biotinylated, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), nuclear localization of TAT-SA and TAT-SA bound to biotin was markedly improved. Additionally, no significant cytotoxicity was detected in the TAT-SA constructs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that TAT-SA-PPAA is a potential non-viral vector to be utilized in protein therapeutics to deliver biotinylated molecules both into cytoplasm and nucleus of human cells. PMID:17199888

  6. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on bacterial internalization and bacteria-mediated gene transfer to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Yamada, Ryuji; Meisaku, Hitomi; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2014-05-01

    The present study demonstrates that ultrasound irradiation can facilitate bacteria-mediated gene delivery (bactofection). Escherichia coli modified with avidin were employed as a vehicle for delivery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, a model heterologous gene, into the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Avidin-mediated binding of E. coli to MCF-7 cells enhanced the internalization of E. coli by approximately 17%, irrespective of the use of ultrasound irradiation. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound irradiation increased the internalization by approximately 5%, irrespective of the presence of avidin on the E. coli cell surface. The percentages of GFP-expressing MCF-7 cells at 24h after bactofection were below 0.5% and 2% for the case with only avidin-modification of E. coli cell surface and only ultrasound irradiation, respectively. However, combining avidin modification with the ultrasound treatment increased this value to 8%. Thus, the use of avidin-modified bacteria in conjunction with ultrasound irradiation has potential as an effective strategy for tumor-targeted bactofection. PMID:24373691

  7. Vitronectin enhances internalization of crocidolite asbestos by rabbit pleural mesothelial cells via the integrin alpha v beta 5.

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, A M; Sanan, D A; Sheppard, D; Broaddus, V C

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism by which pleural mesothelial cells, the likely progenitor cells of asbestos-induced mesothelioma, recognize and internalize crocidolite asbestos is unknown. Because incubation of asbestos fibers with serum increases their association with cells, we asked whether a protein coat on asbestos increased internalization of fibers via specific cellular receptors. Coating crocidolite with citronectin, but not with fibronectin or other proteins, increased fiber internalization by rabbit pleural mesothelial cells, as measured by a new technique using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Receptors for vitronectin, alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5, were identified on mesothelial cells. Inhibiting vitronectin receptors by plating cells on a vitronectin substrate or incubating cells with excess soluble vitronectin reduced internalization of vitronectin-coated crocidolite. Inhibition of alpha v beta 5, but not alpha v beta 3, with blocking antibodies similarly reduced internalization. In addition, alpha v beta 5, but not alpha v beta 3, showed immunocytochemical colocalization with fibers. Of biologic relevance, coating crocidolite with serum also increased internalization via alpha v beta 5, an effect dependent on the vitronectin in serum. We conclude that pleural mesothelial cells recognize and internalize vitronectin- and serum-coated asbestos via the integrin alpha v beta 5. Since integrins initiate some of the same signaling pathways as does asbestos, our findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of asbestos-induced biologic effects. Images PMID:7560092

  8. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma: clinical and histological findings from the international peripheral T-cell lymphoma project.

    PubMed

    Delabie, Jan; Holte, Harald; Vose, Julie M; Ullrich, Fred; Jaffe, Elaine S; Savage, Kerry J; Connors, Joseph M; Rimsza, Lisa; Harris, Nancy L; Müller-Hermelink, Konrad; Rüdiger, Thomas; Coiffier, Bertrand; Gascoyne, Randy D; Berger, Françoise; Tobinai, Kensei; Au, Wing Y; Liang, Raymond; Montserrat, Emili; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Pileri, Stefano; Federico, Massimo; Nathwani, Bharat; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2011-07-01

    Few large, international series of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) have been reported. We studied a cohort of 62 patients with EATL among 1153 patients with peripheral T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma from 22 centers worldwide. The diagnosis was made by a consensus panel of 4 expert hematopathologists using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical correlations and survival analyses were performed. EATL comprised 5.4% of all lymphomas in the study and was most common in Europe (9.1%), followed by North America (5.8%) and Asia (1.9%). EATL type 1 was more common (66%) than type 2 (34%), and was especially frequent in Europe (79%). A clinical diagnosis of celiac sprue was made in 32.2% of the patients and was associated with both EATL type 1 and type 2. The median overall survival was only 10 months, and the median failure-free survival was only 6 months. The International Prognostic Index (IPI) was not as good a predictor of survival as the Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PIT). Clinical sprue predicted for adverse survival independently of the PIT. Neither EATL subtype nor other biologic parameters accurately predicted survival. Our study confirms the poor prognosis of patients with EATL and the need for improved treatment options. PMID:21566094

  9. Effects of the properties of short peptides conjugated with cell-penetrating peptides on their internalization into cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Okochi, Mina; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kanie, Kei; Kato, Ryuji; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Peptides, especially intracellular functional peptides that can play a particular role inside a cell, have attracted attention as promising materials to control cell fate. However, hydrophilic materials like peptides are difficult for cells to internalize. Therefore, the screening and design of intracellular functional peptides are more difficult than that of extracellular ones. An effective high-throughput screening system for intracellular functional peptides has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate a novel peptide array system for screening intracellular functional peptides, in which both cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) domain and photo-cleavable linkers are used. By using this screening system, we determined how the cellular uptake properties of CPP-conjugated peptides varied depending on the properties of the conjugated peptides. We found that the internalization ability of CPP-conjugated peptides varied greatly depending on the property of the conjugated peptides, and anionic peptides drastically decreased the uptake ability. We summarized our data in a scatter diagram that plots hydrophobicity versus isoelectric point (pI) of conjugated peptides. These results define a peptide library suitable for screening of intracellular functional peptides. Thus, our system, including the diagram, is a promising tool for searching biological active molecules such as peptide-based drugs. PMID:26256261

  10. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Li-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2011-01-01

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  11. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection. PMID:19681906

  12. Binding and internalization of recombinant human erythropoietin in murine erythroid precursor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mufson, R.A.; Gesner, T.G.

    1987-05-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) biosynthetically labelled with (/sup 35/S)cysteine was produced from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells containing amplified copies of human EPO cDNA. The glycosylated recombinant (/sup 35/S)EPO, purified to virtual radiochemical homogeneity, was biologically active. We studied the interaction of this labeled recombinant EPO with erythroid precursor cells from mice made anemic with phenylhydrazine. The (/sup 35/S)-labeled molecule bound to erythroid precursors in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The binding was specific for EPO, and neither insulin, transferrin, epidermal growth factor, nor multiplication stimulating activity could compete for EPO binding sites. In the presence of 0.2% sodium azide, which blocks 80% to 90% of internalization, the recombinant molecule bound with an apparent Kd of 750 pmol/L and 100 to 200 binding sites per cell at 37 degrees C. Asialo-EPO was a more effective competitor than sialated EPO for the available binding sites. Thus, the enhanced biological specific activity of asialo-EPO could result from its enhanced binding affinity. We also studied recombinant human EPO labeled with /sup 125/I and found that it also bound to the erythroid cells in a saturable and specific manner. After 90 minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C, most of the bound (/sup 35/S)EPO was internalized, whereas most of the (/sup 125/I)EPO remained on the cell surface. The reduced internalization of the iodinated molecule could account for the previously reported functional deficit associated with iodination.

  13. Glucose is a key driver for GLUT1-mediated nanoparticles internalization in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Leonardo; Nappini, Silvia; Bulfoni, Michela; Gianfranceschi, Giuseppe; Dal Zilio, Simone; Coceano, Giovanna; Del Ben, Fabio; Turetta, Matteo; Scoles, Giacinto; Vaccari, Lisa; Cesselli, Daniela; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The mesenchymal state in cancer is usually associated with poor prognosis due to the metastatic predisposition and the hyper-activated metabolism. Exploiting cell glucose metabolism we propose a new method to detect mesenchymal-like cancer cells. We demonstrate that the uptake of glucose-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by mesenchymal-like cells remains constant when the glucose in the medium is increased from low (5.5 mM) to high (25 mM) concentration, while the MNPs uptake by epithelial-like cells is significantly reduced. These findings reveal that the glucose-shell of MNPs plays a major role in recognition of cells with high-metabolic activity. By selectively blocking the glucose transporter 1 channels we showed its involvement in the internalization process of glucose-coated MNPs. Our results suggest that glucose-coated MNPs can be used for metabolic-based assays aimed at detecting cancer cells and that can be used to selectively target cancer cells taking advantage, for instance, of the magnetic-thermotherapy. PMID:26899926

  14. Internalization of targeted quantum dots by brain capillary endothelial cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Paris-Robidas, Sarah; Brouard, Danny; Emond, Vincent; Parent, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Receptors located on brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood–brain barrier are the target of most brain drug delivery approaches. Yet, direct subcellular evidence of vectorized transport of nanoformulations into the brain is lacking. To resolve this question, quantum dots were conjugated to monoclonal antibodies (Ri7) targeting the murine transferrin receptor. Specific transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis of Ri7-quantum dots was first confirmed in N2A and bEnd5 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, Ri7-quantum dots exhibited a fourfold higher volume of distribution in brain tissues, compared to controls. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Ri7-quantum dots were sequestered throughout the cerebral vasculature 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post injection, with a decline of signal intensity after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed that Ri7-quantum dots were massively internalized by brain capillary endothelial cells, averaging 37 ± 4 Ri7-quantum dots/cell 1 h after injection. Most quantum dots within brain capillary endothelial cells were observed in small vesicles (58%), with a smaller proportion detected in tubular structures or in multivesicular bodies. Parenchymal penetration of Ri7-quantum dots was extremely low and comparable to control IgG. Our results show that systemically administered Ri7-quantum dots complexes undergo extensive endocytosis by brain capillary endothelial cells and open the door for novel therapeutic approaches based on brain endothelial cell drug delivery. PMID:26661181

  15. Internalization of targeted quantum dots by brain capillary endothelial cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Paris-Robidas, Sarah; Brouard, Danny; Emond, Vincent; Parent, Martin; Calon, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Receptors located on brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier are the target of most brain drug delivery approaches. Yet, direct subcellular evidence of vectorized transport of nanoformulations into the brain is lacking. To resolve this question, quantum dots were conjugated to monoclonal antibodies (Ri7) targeting the murine transferrin receptor. Specific transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis of Ri7-quantum dots was first confirmed in N2A and bEnd5 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, Ri7-quantum dots exhibited a fourfold higher volume of distribution in brain tissues, compared to controls. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Ri7-quantum dots were sequestered throughout the cerebral vasculature 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post injection, with a decline of signal intensity after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed that Ri7-quantum dots were massively internalized by brain capillary endothelial cells, averaging 37 ± 4 Ri7-quantum dots/cell 1 h after injection. Most quantum dots within brain capillary endothelial cells were observed in small vesicles (58%), with a smaller proportion detected in tubular structures or in multivesicular bodies. Parenchymal penetration of Ri7-quantum dots was extremely low and comparable to control IgG. Our results show that systemically administered Ri7-quantum dots complexes undergo extensive endocytosis by brain capillary endothelial cells and open the door for novel therapeutic approaches based on brain endothelial cell drug delivery. PMID:26661181

  16. Identification of thorium dioxide in human liver cells by electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, A; Ophus, E M; Larsen, A M

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-two years after injection of thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) for diagnostic x-ray studies in a female patient deposits were found by light microscopy in the liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). They were shown by electron microscopy to be located inside secondary lysosomes, and by autoradiography and x-ray microanalysis they were identified as thorium. PMID:213451

  17. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM SVI-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37, followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4. Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations.

  18. Robust patterning of gene expression based on internal coordinate system of cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-06-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in multicellular organisms is established through the transmission of various kinds of chemical substances such as proteins. It is well known that gene expression triggered by a chemical substance in individuals has stable spatial patterns despite the individual differences in concentration patterns of the chemical substance. This fact reveals an important property of multicellular organisms called "robustness", which allows the organisms to generate their forms while maintaining proportion. Robustness has been conventionally accounted for by the stability of solutions of dynamical equations that represent a specific interaction network of chemical substances. However, any biological system is composed of autonomous elements. In general, an autonomous element does not merely accept information on the chemical substance from the environment; instead, it accepts the information based on its own criteria for reaction. Therefore, this phenomenon needs to be considered from the viewpoint of cells. Such a viewpoint is expected to allow the consideration of the autonomy of cells in multicellular organisms. This study aims to explain theoretically the robust patterning of gene expression from the viewpoint of cells. For this purpose, we introduced a new operator for transforming a state variable of a chemical substance from an external coordinate system to an internal coordinate system of each cell, which describes the observation of the chemical substance by cells. We then applied this operator to the simplest reaction-diffusion model of the chemical substance to investigate observation effects by cells. Our mathematical analysis of this extended model indicates that the robust patterning of gene expression against individual differences in concentration pattern of the chemical substance can be explained from the viewpoint of cells if there is a regulation field that compensates for the difference between cells seen in the observation results. This result provides a new insight into the investigation of the mechanism of robust patterning in biological systems composed of individual elements. PMID:25868939

  19. Characteristics of functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite and internalization by human epithelial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Zhong, Zhao; Yan-Yan, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Shai-Hong, Zhu; Zhi-You, Li; Ke-Chao, Zhou

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of biological bone and tooth enamel, and synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of arginine-functionalized and europium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Arg-Eu-HAP). The synthesized nanoparticles characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared, and Zeta potential analyzer. Its biological properties with DNA binding, cell toxicity, cell binding and intracellular distribution were tested by agarose gel electrophoresis assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. The synthesized Arg-Eu-HAP could effectively bind DNA without any cytotoxicity and be internalized into the cytoplasm and perinuclear of human lung epithelial cells.

  20. Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma: Analysis of the International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Massimo; Rudiger, Thomas; Bellei, Monica; Nathwani, Bharat N.; Luminari, Stefano; Coiffier, Bertrand; Harris, Nancy L.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Pileri, Stefano A.; Savage, Kerry J.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Armitage, James O.; Mounier, Nicholas; Vose, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project was undertaken to better understand the subtypes of T-cell and natural killer (NK) –cell lymphomas. Patients and Methods Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) was diagnosed according to the 2001 WHO criteria by a central review process consisting of panels of expert hematopathologists. Clinical, pathologic, immunophenotyping, treatment, and survival data were correlated. Results Of 1,314 patients, 243 (18.5%) were diagnosed with AITL. At presentation, generalized lymphadenopathy was noted in 76% of patients, and 89% had stages III to IV disease. Skin rash was observed in 21% of patients. Hemolytic anemia and hypergammoglobulinemia occurred in 13% and 30% of patients, respectively. Five-year overall and failure-free survivals were 33% and 18%, respectively. At presentation, prognostic models were evaluated, including the standard International Prognostic Index, which comprised the following factors: age ≥ 60 years, stages III to IV disease, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) > normal, extranodal sites (ENSs) > one, and performance status (PS) ≥ 2; the Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, comprising: age ≥ 60 years, PS ≥ 2, LDH > normal, and bone marrow involvement; and the alternative Prognostic Index for AITL (PIAI), comprising: age > 60 years, PS ≥ 2, ENSs > one, B symptoms, and platelet count < 150 × 109/L. The simplified PIAI had a low-risk group (zero to one factors), with 5-year survival of 44%, and a high-risk group (two to five factors), with 5-year survival of 24% (P = .0065). Conclusion AITL is a rare clinicopathologic entity characterized by an aggressive course and dismal outcome with current therapies. PMID:22869878

  1. Effects of Sodium Octanoate on Innate Immune Response of Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are capable of initiating an innate immune response to invading bacteria. Short chain fatty acids can reduce Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bMEC, but it has not been evaluated if octanoic acid (sodium octanoate, NaO), a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA), has similar effects. In this study we determined the effect of NaO on S. aureus internalization into bMEC and on the modulation of innate immune elements. NaO (0.25–2 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability, but it differentially modulated bacterial internalization into bMEC, which was induced at 0.25–0.5 mM (~60%) but inhibited at 1-2 mM (~40%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all the innate immune genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. NaO induced BNBD4, LAP, and BNBD10 mRNA expression, but BNBD5 and TNF-α were inhibited. Additionally, the pretreatment of bMEC with NaO inhibited the mRNA expression induction generated by bacteria which coincides with the increase in internalization; only TAP and BNDB10 showed an increase in their expression; it coincides with the greatest effect on the reduction of bacterial internalization. In conclusion, NaO exerts a dual effect on S. aureus internalization in bMEC and modulates elements of innate immune response. PMID:23509807

  2. Effects of sodium octanoate on innate immune response of mammary epithelial cells during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are capable of initiating an innate immune response to invading bacteria. Short chain fatty acids can reduce Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bMEC, but it has not been evaluated if octanoic acid (sodium octanoate, NaO), a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA), has similar effects. In this study we determined the effect of NaO on S. aureus internalization into bMEC and on the modulation of innate immune elements. NaO (0.25-2 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability, but it differentially modulated bacterial internalization into bMEC, which was induced at 0.25-0.5 mM (~60%) but inhibited at 1-2 mM (~40%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all the innate immune genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. NaO induced BNBD4, LAP, and BNBD10 mRNA expression, but BNBD5 and TNF-α were inhibited. Additionally, the pretreatment of bMEC with NaO inhibited the mRNA expression induction generated by bacteria which coincides with the increase in internalization; only TAP and BNDB10 showed an increase in their expression; it coincides with the greatest effect on the reduction of bacterial internalization. In conclusion, NaO exerts a dual effect on S. aureus internalization in bMEC and modulates elements of innate immune response. PMID:23509807

  3. Cell-surface Accumulation of Flock House Virus-derived Peptide Leads to Efficient Internalization via Macropinocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Ikuhiko; Hirose, Hisaaki; Tanaka, Gen; Tadokoro, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Futaki, Shiroh

    2009-01-01

    Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (48–60) and oligoarginines, have been applied as carriers for delivery of cargo molecules, because of their capacity to internalize into cells and penetrate biological membranes. Despite the fact that they have been extensively studied, the factors required for the efficient internalization of CPPs are still unclear. In this report, we evaluated the internalization efficiencies of seven CPPs derived from DNA/RNA-binding peptides, and discovered that a peptide derived from the flock house virus (FHV) coat protein was internalized most efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Comparison of the factors facilitating the internalization with those of the Tat peptide revealed that the FHV peptide induces macropinocytosis much more efficiently than the Tat peptide, which leads to its high cellular uptake efficiency. Additionally, the strong adsorption of the FHV peptide on cell membranes via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was shown to be a key factor for induction of macropinocytosis, and these steps were successfully monitored by live imaging of the peptide internalization into cells in relation to the actin organization. The remarkable methods of FHV peptide internalization thus highlighted the critical factors for internalizations of the arginine-rich CPPs. PMID:19707187

  4. Characterization of the internalization of bacillus Calmette-Guerin by human bladder tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, K; Brown, E J; Telle, W B; Russell, D G; Ratliff, T L

    1993-01-01

    Adjuvant intravesical Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the treatment of choice for recurrent superficial bladder cancer. Fibronectin (FN) was previously demonstrated to be necessary for the retention of BCG within the bladder and for the expression of antitumor activity. Recent studies have demonstrated that BCG attach and are ingested by bladder epithelial cells, suggesting the existence of a second bacterial attachment mechanism. We report the characterization of the molecules involved in BCG attachment and internalization by the human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line T-24. Pretreatment of T-24 cells with monoclonal antibodies to either alpha 5 or beta 1 integrin subunits significantly inhibited both BCG attachment and ingestion. Exogenous FN was observed to enhance both attachment and ingestion of BCG, and anti-FN was observed to inhibit both phenomena. Latex beads precoated with either FN or laminin (LN) but not BSA were ingested by T-24 cells, but only FN-coated beads inhibited BCG attachment and ingestion. Pretreatment of BCG with FN augmented both attachment and ingestion. The role of bacterial FN binding proteins was evaluated. A monoclonal antibody to a 55-kD FN-binding protein was observed to abrogate attachment and ingestion. These results demonstrate that attachment and ingestion of BCG are mediated in part by the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor and are dependent on FN. These studies demonstrate a mechanism of entrance of mycobacteria into epithelial cells and suggest a second role for FN in the adjuvant antitumor effect of BCG. Images PMID:8423234

  5. 3D CFD ELECTROCHEMICAL AND HEAT TRANSFER MODEL OF AN INTERNALLY MANIFOLDED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Greg Tao

    2011-11-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in an internally manifolded planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) stack. This design is being evaluated at the Idaho National Laboratory for hydrogen production from nuclear power and process heat. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, operating potential, steam-electrode gas composition, oxygen-electrode gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Single-cell and five-cell results will be presented. Flow distribution through both models is discussed. Flow enters from the bottom, distributes through the inlet plenum, flows across the cells, gathers in the outlet plenum and flows downward making an upside-down ''U'' shaped flow pattern. Flow and concentration variations exist downstream of the inlet holes. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, oxygen-electrode and steam-electrode current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

  6. Internalization of nucleoside phosphates into live cells by complex formation with different CPPs and JBS-nucleoducin.

    PubMed

    Mussbach, Franziska; Pietrucha, Regina; Schaefer, Buerk; Reissmann, Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside phosphates can bind to many functional proteins like G-proteins or other GTP-binding proteins in signal transduction or translation processes. Till now internalization of nucleoside phosphates into live cells remains a challenge. We study the internalization of a fluorescent-labelled deoxyuridine triphosphate into HeLa cells and other adhesion and suspension cells. We use different cell-penetrating peptides and a cocktail suitable for formation of non-covalent complexes with the nucleotide. Internalization is observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the uptake efficiency is quantitatively estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The applied concentrations of CPPs and the cocktail were checked on cell viability (MTT test) and membrane integrity (bioluminescence test with peptidyl-luciferin), indicating that the CPPs and the complexes with the nucleotide are cytotoxic above certain concentrations. These concentrations depend on CPP and cell type and are the limiting factors for the cargo uptake. PMID:21053144

  7. Results from an International Measurement Round Robin of III-V Triple Junction Solar Cells under Air Mass Zero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Chris; Goodbody, Chris; Baur, Carsten; Sharps, Paul; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Yoo, Henry; Sahlstrom, Ted; Walters, Robert; Lorentzen, Justin; Nocerino, John; Khan, Osman; Cravens, Robert; Valles, Juan; Toporow, Chantal; Gomez, Trinidad,; Bazan, Loreto Pazos; Bailey, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international measurement round robin of monolithic, triple-junction, GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells. Eight laboratories representing national labs, solar cell vendors and space solar cell consumers, measured cells using in-house reference cells and compared those results to measurements made where each lab used the same set of reference cells. The results show that most of the discrepancy between laboratories is likely due to the quality of the standard cells rather than the measurement system or solar simulator used.

  8. Performance evaluation of a proof-of-concept 70 W internal reforming methanol fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgouropoulos, G.; Schlicker, S.; Schelhaas, K.-P.; Papavasiliou, J.; Papadimitriou, K. D.; Theodorakopoulou, E.; Gourdoupi, N.; Machocki, A.; Ioannides, T.; Kallitsis, J. K.; Kolb, G.; Neophytides, S.

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept 70 W Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack including Balance-of-Plant (BoP) was designed, assembled and tested. Advent TPS® high-temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane electrode assemblies were employed for fuel cell operation at 200 °C. In order to avoid phosphoric acid poisoning of the reformer, the anode electrocatalyst of each cell was indirectly adjoined, via a separation plate, to a highly active CuMnAlOx catalyst coated onto copper foam, which served as methanol reforming layer. The reformer was in-situ converting the methanol/steam feed to the required hydrogen (internal reforming concept) at 200 °C, which was readily oxidized at the anode electrodes. The operation of the IRMFC was supported through a number of BoP components consisting of a start-up subsystem (air blower, evaporator and monolithic burner), a combined afterburner/evaporator device, methanol/water supply and data acquisition units (reactants/products analysis, temperature control, flow control, system load/output control). Depending on the composition of the liquid MeOH/H2O feed streams, current densities up to 0.18 A cm-2 and power output up to 70 W could be obtained with remarkable repeatability. Specific targets for improvement of the efficiency were identified.

  9. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and ‘alter-standardization’ in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  10. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-02-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and 'alterstandardization' in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field. PMID:26983174

  11. The influence of surface functionalization on the enhanced internalization of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Angeles; Cañete, Magdalena; Roca, Alejandro G; Calero, Macarena; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Serna, Carlos J; del Puerto Morales, María; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2009-03-01

    The internalization and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with four differently charged carbohydrates have been tested in the human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa). Neutral, positive, and negative iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by coating with dextran, aminodextran, heparin, and dimercaptosuccinic acid, resulting in colloidal suspensions stable at pH 7 with similar aggregate size. No intracellular uptake was detected in cells incubated with neutral charged nanoparticles, while negative particles showed different behaviour depending on the nature of the coating. Thus, dimercaptosuccinic-coated nanoparticles showed low cellular uptake with non-toxic effects, while heparin-coated particles showed cellular uptake only at high nanoparticle concentrations and induced abnormal mitotic spindle configurations. Finally, cationic magnetic nanoparticles show excellent properties for possible in vivo biomedical applications such as cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cancer treatment by hyperthermia: (i) they enter into cells with high effectiveness, and are localized in endosomes; (ii) they can be easily detected inside cells by optical microscopy, (iii) they are retained for relatively long periods of time, and (iv) they do not induce any cytotoxicity.

  12. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry Cell Sorter Biosafety Standards

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Kevin L.; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H.; Wadley, Robert B.; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99–117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414–437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. PMID:24634405

  13. Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

  14. Direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cell operating in gradual internal reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega, S. D.; Galesco, M. V.; Girona, K.; de Florio, D. Z.; Steil, M. C.; Georges, S.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2012-09-01

    An electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using standard electrodes, doped-lanthanum manganite cathode and Ni-cermet anode, was operated with direct (anhydrous) ethanol for more than 100 h, delivering essentially the same power output as running on hydrogen. A ceria-based layer provides the catalytic activity for the gradual internal reforming, which uses the steam formed by the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen for the decomposition of ethanol. Such a concept opens up the way for multi-fuel SOFCs using standard components and a catalytic layer.

  15. Impact of National and International Stem Cell Banking Initiatives on progress in the field of cell therapy: IABS-JST Joint Workshop: Summary for Session 5.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Takashi; Stacey, Glyn

    2015-09-01

    In order to assure the quality and safety of future advanced cell therapies it is vital to ensure that source materials including the donor cells have been assessed and demonstrated as suitable for use in the development and manufacture of such new medicines. Here we provide a brief overview of the key issues in the delivery of quality controlled and safety tested seed stocks of human pluripotent stem cell lines to support stem cell research and the development of advanced cell therapies. We also reflect on the importance of national and internationally coordinated cell banking systems in this process in order to promote more efficient development of cell therapies. PMID:26315652

  16. Rh based catalysts for indirect internal reforming ethanol applications in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.

    The feasibility of coupling a processor for internal indirect reforming of ethanol/water with molten carbonate fuel cells has been verified by several experiments. Two different Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts have been prepared and characterised. Several tests to measure the catalytic activity on ethanol steam reforming process have been performed both on alumina and supported catalysts. The tests evidenced that ethanol can be decomposed and steam reforming process can be obtained at well determined conditions of temperature and catalyst load. The 5% Rh/Al 2O 3 catalyst produced, at 923 K, hydrogen rich gas mixture, that can be considered of high interest for molten carbonate fuel cell applications because it is free from any production of ethylene or other undesirable products. Further, this interest has been confirmed by the good results obtained in the long-term tests carried out on the 5% Rh/Al 2O 3 catalyst.

  17. Lupus risk variants in the PXK locus alter B-cell receptor internalization

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Samuel E.; Foley, Corinne; Lu, Xiaoming; Patel, Zubin H.; Zoller, Erin E.; Magnusen, Albert F.; Williams, Adrienne H.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Comeau, Mary E.; Marion, Miranda C.; Glenn, Stuart B.; Adler, Adam; Shen, Nan; Nath, Swapan; Stevens, Anne M.; Freedman, Barry I.; Tsao, Betty P.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Kamen, Diane L.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Reveille, John D.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; James, Judith A.; Moser, Kathy L.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Vilá, Luis M.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Petri, Michelle; Scofield, R. Hal; Kimberly, Robert P.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Binjoo, Young; Choi, Jeongim; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Namjou, Bahram; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Harley, Isaac T. W.; Harley, John B.; Kottyan, Leah C.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified variants in PXK that confer risk for humoral autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus), rheumatoid arthritis and more recently systemic sclerosis. While PXK is involved in trafficking of epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) in COS-7 cells, mechanisms linking PXK to lupus pathophysiology have remained undefined. In an effort to uncover the mechanism at this locus that increases lupus-risk, we undertook a fine-mapping analysis in a large multi-ancestral study of lupus patients and controls. We define a large (257kb) common haplotype marking a single causal variant that confers lupus risk detected only in European ancestral populations and spans the promoter through the 3′ UTR of PXK. The strongest association was found at rs6445972 with P < 4.62 × 10−10, OR 0.81 (0.75–0.86). Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, we demonstrate that one signal drives the genetic association in the region. Bayesian analysis confirms our results, identifying a 95% credible set consisting of 172 variants spanning 202 kb. Functionally, we found that PXK operates on the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR); we confirmed that PXK influenced the rate of BCR internalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals carrying the risk haplotype exhibited a decreased rate of BCR internalization, a process known to impact B cell survival and cell fate. Taken together, these data define a new candidate mechanism for the genetic association of variants around PXK with lupus risk and highlight the regulation of intracellular trafficking as a genetically regulated pathway mediating human autoimmunity. PMID:25620976

  18. The importance of cellular internalization of antibody-targeted carbon nanotubes in the photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marches, Radu; Mikoryak, Carole; Wang, Ru-Hung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.; Vitetta, Ellen S.

    2011-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) convert absorbed near infrared (NIR) light into heat. The use of CNTs in the NIR-mediated photothermal ablation of tumor cells is attractive because the penetration of NIR light through normal tissues is optimal and the side effects are minimal. Targeted thermal ablation with minimal collateral damage can be achieved by using CNTs attached to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, the role that the cellular internalization of CNTs plays in the subsequent sensitivity of the target cells to NIR-mediated photothermal ablation remains undefined. To address this issue, we used CNTs covalently coupled to an anti-Her2 or a control MAb and tested their ability to bind, internalize, and photothermally ablate Her2 + but not Her2 - breast cancer cell lines. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and confocal Raman microscopy, we observed the gradual time-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis of anti-Her2-CNTs whereas a control MAb-CNT conjugate did not bind to the cells. Most importantly, the Her2 + cells that internalized the MAb-CNTs were more sensitive to NIR-mediated photothermal damage than cells that could bind to, but not internalize the MAb-CNTs. These results suggest that both the targeting and internalization of MAb-CNTs might result in the most effective thermal ablation of tumor cells following their exposure to NIR light.

  19. Endothelial Cells Use a Formin-Dependent Phagocytosis-Like Process to Internalize the Bacterium Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Rengarajan, Michelle; Hayer, Arnold; Theriot, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells act as gatekeepers that protect underlying tissue from blood-borne toxins and pathogens. Nevertheless, endothelial cells are able to internalize large fibrin clots and apoptotic debris from the bloodstream, although the precise mechanism of such phagocytosis-like uptake is unknown. We show that cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) internalize both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria bacteria comparably, in a phagocytosis-like process. In contrast with previously studied host cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes, we find that endothelial internalization of Listeria is independent of all known pathogenic bacterial surface proteins. Consequently, we exploited the internalization and intracellular replication of L. monocytogenes to identify distinct host cell factors that regulate phagocytosis-like uptake in HUVEC. Using siRNA screening and subsequent genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, we determined that endothelial infectivity was modulated by cytoskeletal proteins that normally modulate global architectural changes, including phosphoinositide-3-kinase, focal adhesions, and the small GTPase Rho. We found that Rho kinase (ROCK) is acutely necessary for adhesion of Listeria to endothelial cells, whereas the actin-nucleating formins FHOD1 and FMNL3 specifically regulate internalization of bacteria as well as inert beads, demonstrating that formins regulate endothelial phagocytosis-like uptake independent of the specific cargo. Finally, we found that neither ROCK nor formins were required for macrophage phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, suggesting that endothelial cells have distinct requirements for bacterial internalization from those of classical professional phagocytes. Our results identify a novel pathway for L. monocytogenes uptake by human host cells, indicating that this wily pathogen can invade a variety of tissues by using a surprisingly diverse suite of distinct uptake mechanisms that operate differentially in different host cell types. PMID:27152864

  20. Endothelial Cells Use a Formin-Dependent Phagocytosis-Like Process to Internalize the Bacterium Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Rengarajan, Michelle; Hayer, Arnold; Theriot, Julie A

    2016-05-01

    Vascular endothelial cells act as gatekeepers that protect underlying tissue from blood-borne toxins and pathogens. Nevertheless, endothelial cells are able to internalize large fibrin clots and apoptotic debris from the bloodstream, although the precise mechanism of such phagocytosis-like uptake is unknown. We show that cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) internalize both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria bacteria comparably, in a phagocytosis-like process. In contrast with previously studied host cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes, we find that endothelial internalization of Listeria is independent of all known pathogenic bacterial surface proteins. Consequently, we exploited the internalization and intracellular replication of L. monocytogenes to identify distinct host cell factors that regulate phagocytosis-like uptake in HUVEC. Using siRNA screening and subsequent genetic and pharmacologic perturbations, we determined that endothelial infectivity was modulated by cytoskeletal proteins that normally modulate global architectural changes, including phosphoinositide-3-kinase, focal adhesions, and the small GTPase Rho. We found that Rho kinase (ROCK) is acutely necessary for adhesion of Listeria to endothelial cells, whereas the actin-nucleating formins FHOD1 and FMNL3 specifically regulate internalization of bacteria as well as inert beads, demonstrating that formins regulate endothelial phagocytosis-like uptake independent of the specific cargo. Finally, we found that neither ROCK nor formins were required for macrophage phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, suggesting that endothelial cells have distinct requirements for bacterial internalization from those of classical professional phagocytes. Our results identify a novel pathway for L. monocytogenes uptake by human host cells, indicating that this wily pathogen can invade a variety of tissues by using a surprisingly diverse suite of distinct uptake mechanisms that operate differentially in different host cell types. PMID:27152864

  1. Propranolol restricts the mobility of single EGF-receptors on the cell surface before their internalization.

    PubMed

    Otero, Carolina; Linke, Max; Sanchez, Paula; González, Alfonso; Schaap, Iwan A T

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in morphogenesis, proliferation and cell migration. Its up-regulation during tumorigenesis makes this receptor an interesting therapeutic target. In the absence of the ligand, the inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity by propranolol treatment leads to internalization of empty/inactive receptors. The molecular events involved in this endocytosis remain unknown. Here, we quantified the effects of propranolol on the mobility of single quantum-dot labelled receptors before the actual internalization took place. The single receptors showed a clear stop-and-go motion; their diffusive tracks were continuously interrupted by sub-second stalling events, presumably caused by transient clustering. In the presence of propranolol we found that: i) the diffusion rate reduced by 22 %, which indicates an increase in drag of the receptor. Atomic force microscopy measurements did not show an increase of the effective membrane tension, such that clustering of the receptor remains the likely mechanism for its reduced mobility. ii) The receptor got frequently stalled for longer periods of multiple seconds, which may signal the first step of the internalization process. PMID:24349439

  2. Propranolol Restricts the Mobility of Single EGF-Receptors on the Cell Surface before Their Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Carolina; Linke, Max; Sanchez, Paula; González, Alfonso; Schaap, Iwan A. T.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in morphogenesis, proliferation and cell migration. Its up-regulation during tumorigenesis makes this receptor an interesting therapeutic target. In the absence of the ligand, the inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activity by propranolol treatment leads to internalization of empty/inactive receptors. The molecular events involved in this endocytosis remain unknown. Here, we quantified the effects of propranolol on the mobility of single quantum-dot labelled receptors before the actual internalization took place. The single receptors showed a clear stop-and-go motion; their diffusive tracks were continuously interrupted by sub-second stalling events, presumably caused by transient clustering. In the presence of propranolol we found that: i) the diffusion rate reduced by 22 %, which indicates an increase in drag of the receptor. Atomic force microscopy measurements did not show an increase of the effective membrane tension, such that clustering of the receptor remains the likely mechanism for its reduced mobility. ii) The receptor got frequently stalled for longer periods of multiple seconds, which may signal the first step of the internalization process. PMID:24349439

  3. Uniform total internal reflection fluorescence illumination enables live cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Hoppe, Adam D

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is a powerful technique to quantify dynamic protein-protein interactions in live cells. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy can selectively excite molecules within about 150 nm of the glass-cell interface. Recently, these two approaches were combined to enable high-resolution FRET imaging on the adherent surface of living cells. Here, we show that interference fringing of the coherent laser excitation used in TIRF creates lateral heterogeneities that impair quantitative TIRF-FRET measurements. We overcome this limitation by using a two-dimensional scan head to rotate laser beams for donor and acceptor excitation around the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective. By setting different radii for the circles traced out by each laser in the back focal plane, the penetration depth was corrected for different wavelengths. These modifications quell spatial variations in illumination and permit calibration for quantitative TIRF-FRET microscopy. The capability of TIRF-FRET was demonstrated by imaging assembled cyan and yellow fluorescent protein-tagged HIV-Gag molecules in single virions on the surfaces of living cells. These interactions are shown to be distinct from crowding of HIV-Gag in lipid rafts. PMID:23472941

  4. Effects of internal and external environment on health and well-being: from cell to society.

    PubMed

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Stem cell fate in cell culture depends on the composition of the culturing media. Every single cell in an organism is influenced by its microenvironment and surrounding cells. Biology, psychology, emotions, spirit, energy, lifestyle, culture, economic and political influences, social interactions in family, work, living area and the possibilities to expresses oneself and live full life with a sense of well-being have influence on people appearances. Disease is as much social as biological. It is a reaction of an organism to unbalancing changes in the internal environment caused by the changes in the external environment and/or by the structural and functional failures or unfortunate legacies. Health gradient in the society depends on the every day circumstances in which people live and work. The health of the population is an insight into the society. The problem facing medicine in the complex society of today cannot be resolved without the aid of social sciences, as cultural, social, ecological and mental processes affect physiological responses and health outcomes. Anthropology could be a bridge between biomedicine and social sciences and influence strategies in public health to prevent rather than cure and in education for fulfillment in life and improvement of society. PMID:24851644

  5. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.; Downs, Robert E.; King, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  6. Regulation of Mct1 by cAMP-dependent internalization in rat brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey P; Uhernik, Amy L; Li, Lun; Liu, Zejian; Drewes, Lester R

    2012-10-22

    In the cerebrovascular endothelium, monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (Mct1) controls blood-brain transport of short chain monocarboxylic and keto acids, including pyruvate and lactate, to support brain energy metabolism. Mct1 function is acutely decreased in rat brain cerebrovascular endothelial cells by β-adrenergic signaling through cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); however, the mechanism for this acute reduction in transport capacity is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that cAMP induces the dephosphorylation and internalization of Mct1 from the plasma membrane into caveolae and early endosomes in the RBE4 rat brain cerebrovascular endothelial cell line. Additionally, we provide evidence that Mct1 constitutively cycles through clathrin vesicles and recycling endosomes in a pathway that is not dependent upon cAMP signaling in these cells. Our results are important because they show for the first time the regulated and unregulated vesicular trafficking of Mct1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells; processes which have significance for better understanding normal brain energy metabolism, and the etiology and potential therapeutic approaches to treating brain diseases, such as stroke, in which lactic acidosis is a key component. PMID:22925948

  7. Netupitant and palonosetron trigger NK1 receptor internalization in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ajit G; Stathis, Marigo; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Current therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting includes the use of both 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists. Acute emesis has largely been alleviated with the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, while an improvement in preventing delayed emesis has been achieved with NK1 receptor antagonists. Delayed emesis, however, remains a problem with a significant portion of cancer patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Like other drugs in its class, palonosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has shown efficacy against acute emesis. However, palonosetron has also shown consistent improvement in the suppression of delayed emesis. Since both 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists are often simultaneously administered to patients, the question remains if palonosetron's effect on delayed emesis would remain distinct when co-administered with an NK1 receptor antagonist. Recent mechanistic studies using NG108-15 cells have shown that palonosetron and netupitant, an NK1 receptor antagonist currently in phase 3 clinical trials, exhibited synergistic effects when inhibiting the substance P response. The present studies showed that both netupitant and palonosetron-induced NK1 receptor internalization in NG108-15 cells and that when used together receptor internalization was additive. Palonosetron-induced NK1 receptor internalization was dependent on the presence of the 5-HT3 receptor. Results provide a possible explanation for palonosetron's enhancement of the inhibition of the SP response and suggest that the effect of palonosetron and NK1 receptor antagonists on prevention of delayed emesis could be additive. PMID:24969614

  8. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles by carbopol to enhance mucoadhesion and cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Surassmo, Suvimol; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Suktham, Kunat; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2015-06-01

    Mucoadhesive poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles having a modified shell-matrix derived from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Carbopol (CP), a biodegradable polymer coating, to improve the adhesion and cell transfection properties were developed. The optimum formulations utilized a CP concentration in the range of 0.05-0.2%w/v, and were formed using modified emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The resulting CP-PLGA nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. The absorbed CP on the PLGA shell-matrix was found to affect the particle size and surface charge, with 0.05% CP giving rise to smooth spherical particles (0.05CP-PLGA) with the smallest size (285.90 nm), and strong negative surface charge (-25.70 mV). The introduction of CP results in an enhancement of the mucoadhesion between CP-PLGA nanoparticles and mucin particles. In vitro cell internalization studies highlighted the potential of 0.05CP-PLGA nanoparticles for transfection into SiHa cells, with uptake being time dependent. Additionally, cytotoxicity studies of CP-PLGA nanoparticles against SiHa cancer cells indicated that low concentrations of the nanoparticles were non-toxic to cells (cell viability >80%). From the various formulations studied, 0.05CP-PLGA nanoparticles proved to be the optimum model carrier having the required mucoadhesive profile and could be an alternative therapeutic efficacy carrier for targeted mucosal drug delivery systems with biodegradable polymer. PMID:25937384

  9. Internal resistance matching for parallel-connected lithium-ion cells and impacts on battery pack cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoana, Radu; Pinson, Matthew B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2014-04-01

    When assembling lithium-ion cells into functional battery packs, it is common to connect multiple cells in parallel. Here we present experimental and modeling results demonstrating that, when lithium ion cells are connected in parallel and cycled at high rate, matching of internal resistance is important in ensuring long cycle life of the battery pack. Specifically, a 20% difference in cell internal resistance between two cells cycled in parallel can lead to approximately 40% reduction in cycle life when compared to two cells parallel-connected with very similar internal resistance. We show that an internal resistance mismatch leads to high current into each cell during part of the charging cycle. Since capacity fading is strongly dependent on temperature, and hence on charging rate when this rate is sufficiently high, the high current leads to substantially accelerated capacity fade in both cells. A model, based on the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase, is able to explain the dependence of lifetime on resistance mismatch, and also identifies the importance of random sudden capacity losses.

  10. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  11. Internalization of Near-Infrared Fluorescently Labeled Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptide and of Proteins into Human Fibrosarcoma Cell Line HT-1080.

    PubMed

    Tansi, Felista; Kallweit, Eric; Kaether, Christoph; Kappe, Katarina; Schumann, Christina; Hilger, Ingrid; Reissmann, Siegmund

    2015-07-01

    The internalization of near-infrared fluorescently labeled cargos into living cells and tissues allows a highly sensitive detection without interference from skin, porphins or other fluorescent cell and tissue compounds. In this study, the uptake of labeled bovine serum albumin and an antibody, into fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells was triggered by the formation of non-covalent complexes with different cell-penetrating peptides; uptake efficiency and intracellular localization were determined. To improve selectivity of internalization into tumor cells, a fluorescent activatable cell-penetrating peptide (ACPP) was synthesized and functionally characterized. This 25-mer peptide was designed to be activatable by Matrix-Metallo-Proteases (MMPs). Its uptake selectivity was estimated using cells with different MMP activities. PMID:25546737

  12. Internalization of Red Blood Cell-Mimicking Hydrogel Capsules with pH-Triggered Shape Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on naturally inspired hydrogel capsules with pH-induced transitions from discoids to oblate ellipsoids and their interactions with cells. We integrate characteristics of erythrocytes such as discoidal shape, hollow structure, and elasticity with reversible pH-responsiveness of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) to design a new type of drug delivery carrier to be potentially triggered by chemical stimuli in the tumor lesion. The capsules are fabricated from cross-linked PMAA multilayers using sacrificial discoid silicon templates. The degree of capsule shape transition is controlled by the pH-tuned volume change, which in turn is regulated by the capsule wall composition. The (PMAA)15 capsules undergo a dramatic 24-fold volume change, while a moderate 2.3-fold volume variation is observed for more rigid PMAA–(poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMAA–PVPON)5 capsules when solution pH is varied between 7.4 and 4. Despite that both types of capsules exhibit discoid-to-oblate ellipsoid transitions, a 3-fold greater swelling in radial dimensions is found for one-component systems due to a greater degree of the circular face bulging. We also show that (PMAA–PVPON)5 discoidal capsules interact differently with J774A.1 macrophages, HMVEC endothelial cells, and 4T1 breast cancer cells. The discoidal capsules show 60% lower internalization as compared to spherical capsules. Finally, hydrogel capsules demonstrate a 2-fold decrease in size upon internalization. These capsules represent a unique example of elastic hydrogel discoids capable of pH-induced drastic and reversible variations in aspect ratios. Considering the RBC-mimicking shape, their dimensions, and their capability to undergo pH-triggered intracellular responses, the hydrogel capsules demonstrate considerable potential as novel carriers in shape-regulated transport and cellular uptake. PMID:24848786

  13. A confocal microscopy image analysis method to measure adhesion and internalization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa multicellular structures into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lepanto, Paola; Lecumberry, Federico; Rossello, Jéssica; Kierbel, Arlinet

    2013-10-24

    Formation of multicellular structures such as biofilms is an important feature in the physiopathology of many disease-causing bacteria. We recently reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa adheres to epithelial cells rapidly forming early biofilm-like aggregates, which can then be internalized into cells. Conventional methods to measure adhesion/internalization, such as dilution plating for total cell-associated or antibiotic protected bacteria, do not distinguish between single and aggregated bacteria. We report a procedure that combining double bacteria labeling, confocal microscopy and image analysis allows identification and quantification of the number of adhered and internalized bacteria distinguishing between single and aggregated bacterial cells. A plugin for Fiji to automatically perform these procedures has been generated. PMID:24513974

  14. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy To Visualize Rhodopsin-Containing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keffer, J. L.; Sabanayagam, C. R.; Lee, M. E.; DeLong, E. F.; Hahn, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sunlight is captured and converted to chemical energy in illuminated environments. Although (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosystems have been characterized in detail, retinal-based photosystems, rhodopsins, have only recently been identified as important mediators of light energy capture and conversion. Recent estimates suggest that up to 70% of cells in some environments harbor rhodopsins. However, because rhodopsin autofluorescence is low—comparable to that of carotenoids and significantly less than that of (bacterio)chlorophylls—these estimates are based on metagenomic sequence data, not direct observation. We report here the use of ultrasensitive total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to distinguish between unpigmented, carotenoid-producing, and rhodopsin-expressing bacteria. Escherichia coli cells were engineered to produce lycopene, β-carotene, or retinal. A gene encoding an uncharacterized rhodopsin, actinorhodopsin, was cloned into retinal-producing E. coli. The production of correctly folded and membrane-incorporated actinorhodopsin was confirmed via development of pink color in E. coli and SDS-PAGE. Cells expressing carotenoids or actinorhodopsin were imaged by TIRF microscopy. The 561-nm excitation laser specifically illuminated rhodopsin-containing cells, allowing them to be differentiated from unpigmented and carotenoid-containing cells. Furthermore, water samples collected from the Delaware River were shown by PCR to have rhodopsin-containing organisms and were examined by TIRF microscopy. Individual microorganisms that fluoresced under illumination from the 561-nm laser were identified. These results verify the sensitivity of the TIRF microscopy method for visualizing and distinguishing between different molecules with low autofluorescence, making it useful for analyzing natural samples. PMID:25769822

  15. [An international comparative legal analysis of the regulation of research with human embryonic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Koch, H-G

    2008-09-01

    The article is based on the results of a comparative legal study of the status and protection of extracorporeal embryos in a number of European and non-European countries. In this context, the study also deals with the extent to which in vitro embryos can be created and/or used for research purposes (especially for stem cell research). The results show a considerable divergence with regard to existing solutions. This divergence is not due solely to different concepts of protection but is also an indication of the controversial debate on whether such entities are worthy of protection and, if so, to what degree it should be granted. The discussion indeed begins at the level of terminology where the attribute(s) characterizing an "embryo" in the legal sense are - already and seemingly without deeper meaning - anything but uniform. The reasons for this disparity, such as the time factor (which stages of development must have taken place after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell?) or the method of genesis itself (aside from conception, which other methods are used to generate embryos?), could be particularly relevant. The differences mentioned lead, in turn, to the question of which legal consequences researchers must keep in mind - especially regarding the risk of criminal liability - when engaging in international cooperation efforts with peers from more permissive countries. PMID:18787852

  16. High pressure sample cell for total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy at pressures up to 2500 bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Juny; Czeslik, Claus

    2012-08-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) spectroscopy is a surface sensitive technique that is widely used to characterize the structure and dynamics of molecules at planar liquid-solid interfaces. In particular, biomolecular systems, such as protein adsorbates and lipid membranes can easily be studied by TIRF spectroscopy. Applying pressure to molecular systems offers access to all kinds of volume changes occurring during assembly of molecules, phase transitions, and chemical reactions. So far, most of these volume changes have been characterized in bulk solution, only. Here, we describe the design and performance of a high pressure sample cell that allows for TIRF spectroscopy under high pressures up to 2500 bar (2.5 108 Pa), in order to expand the understanding of volume effects from the bulk phase to liquid-solid interfaces. The new sample cell is based on a cylindrical body made of Nimonic 90 alloy and incorporates a pressure transmitting sample cuvette. This cuvette is composed of a fused silica prism and a flexible rubber gasket. It contains the sample solution and ensures a complete separation of the sample from the liquid pressure medium. The sample solution is in contact with the inner wall of the prism forming the interface under study, where fluorescent molecules are immobilized. In this way, the new high pressure TIRF sample cell is very useful for studying any biomolecular layer that can be deposited at a planar water-silica interface. As examples, high pressure TIRF data of adsorbed lysozyme and two phospholipid membranes are presented.

  17. Live-Cell Imaging of the Estrogen Receptor by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kisler, Kassandra; Dominguez, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking studies of plasma membrane-localized intracellular estrogen receptors have mainly relied on biochemical and histological techniques to locate the receptor before and after estradiol stimulation. More often than not these experiments were performed using postmortem, lysed, or fixed tissue samples, whose tissue or cellular structure is typically severely altered or at times completely lost, making the definitive localization of estrogen receptors difficult to ascertain. To overcome this limitation we began using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to study the trafficking of plasma membrane estrogen receptors. This real-time imaging approach, described in this chapter, permits observation of live, intact cells while allowing visualization of the steps (in time and spatial distribution) involved in receptor activation by estradiol and movements on and near the membrane. TIRFM yields high-contrast real-time images of fluorescently labeled E6BSA molecules on and just below the cell surface and is ideal for studying estrogen receptor trafficking in living cells. PMID:26585135

  18. Direct internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhongliang

    2005-07-01

    The direct operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) on hydrocarbon fuels is desired since it could reduce power plant size, weight and complexity. The primary challenge is to find effective means through which anode-coking could be suppressed or avoided. Throughout the research, conventional Ni-anode supported SOFCs were employed because they provide high power densities and are being actively developed for commercial applications. Various strategies were used to reduce or avoid anode-coking during the SOFC operation. Firstly, air or CO2/H2O was added to hydrocarbon fuels, such that coking was less thermodynamically favorable, and the resulting internal partial oxidation or dry/steam reforming reactions provided H 2 and CO to the fuel cell. For example, for low hydrocarbons like propane, coke-free operation was achieved on 8% yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte SOFCs via internal partial oxidation, yielding stable and high power densities, e.g. 0.7 W·cm-2 at 790°C. Secondly, a novel design for hydrocarbon fueled SOFCs was proposed, i.e. a separate supported catalyst (Ru-CeO2) layer was placed against the anode side. The catalyst layer provided good catalytic activity for the hydrocarbon reforming reactions, while the nickel-based anode was retained to provide excellent electrochemical activity for the oxidation of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide reforming products. For heavy hydrocarbons like iso-octane, the catalyst layer was crucial far allowing stable cell operation without coking. The lack of coking at the Ni-YSZ anode can be explained by reforming at the Ru-Ceria catalyst layer, which eliminated most of the hydrocarbon species before the fuel reached the anode. A key element of this strategy was the choice of a catalyst metal, Ru, that promotes hydrocarbon reforming but does not itself cause coking. Thirdly, reduced-temperature SOFCs with thin samarium-doped Ceria (SDC) electrolytes were developed; these devices have potentially improved stability since the coking rate is significantly reduced at low temperatures. The SDC electrolyte SOFCs were successfully operated on propane, iso-octane and methanol via internal partial oxidation and/or dry reforming at 400--600°C, with or without the catalyst layer. This low operating temperature promises faster thermal cycling and less thermal energy in heatup, thus making SOFCs more amenable to portable and transportation applications.

  19. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  20. The International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR): cataloging worldwide mouse and ES cell line resources.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Motenko, Howie; Richardson, Joel E; Richards-Smith, Beverly; Smith, Cynthia L

    2015-10-01

    The availability of and access to quality genetically defined, health-status known mouse resources is critical for biomedical research. By ensuring that mice used in research experiments are biologically, genetically, and health-status equivalent, we enable knowledge transfer, hypothesis building based on multiple data streams, and experimental reproducibility based on common mouse resources (reagents). Major repositories for mouse resources have developed over time and each has significant unique resources to offer. Here we (a) describe The International Mouse Strain Resource that offers users a combined catalog of worldwide mouse resources (live, cryopreserved, embryonic stem cells), with direct access to repository sites holding resources of interest and (b) discuss the commitment to nomenclature standards among resources that remain a challenge in unifying mouse resource catalogs. PMID:26373861

  1. Internal transmission coefficient in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2016-04-01

    Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 - 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.

  2. Dynamics of internalization and recycling of the prometastatic membrane type 4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP) in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Truong, Alice; Yip, Cassandre; Paye, Alexandra; Blacher, Silvia; Munaut, Carine; Deroanne, Christophe; Noel, Agnès; Sounni, Nor Eddine

    2016-02-01

    Membrane type 4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP) [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 17] is a GPI-anchored membrane-type MMP expressed on the cell surface of human breast cancer cells. In triple-negative breast cancer cells, MT4-MMP promotes primary tumour growth and lung metastases. Although the trafficking and internalization of the transmembrane membrane type 1 MMP have been extensively investigated, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the GPI-anchored MT4-MMP. Here, we investigated the fate and cellular trafficking of MT4-MMP by analysing its homophilic complex interactions, internalization and recycling dynamics as compared with an inert form, MT4-MMP-E249A. Oligomeric and dimeric complexes were analysed by cotransfection of cells with FLAG-tagged or Myc-tagged MT4-MMP in reducing and nonreducing immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The trafficking of MT4-MMP was studied with an antibody feeding assay and confocal microscopy analysis or cell surface protein biotinylation and western blot analysis. We demonstrate that MT4-MMP forms homophilic complexes at the cell surface, and internalizes in early endosomes, and that some of the enzyme is either autodegraded or recycled to the cell surface. Our data indicate that MT4-MMP is internalized by the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-enriched early endosomal compartments pathway, a mechanism that differs from that responsible for the internalization of other membrane-type MMP members. Although MT4-MMP localizes with caveolin-1, MT4-MMP internalization was not affected by inhibitors of caveolin-1 or clathrin endocytosis pathways, but was reduced by CDC42 or RhoA silencing with small interfering RNA. We provide a new mechanistic insight into the regulatory mechanisms of MT4-MMP, which may have implications for the design of novel therapeutic strategies for metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26663028

  3. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  4. The molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo-photosensitizer conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Miki, Shunya; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Nakata, Eiji; Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Sumita, Kensuke; Watanabe, Kazunori; Okazaki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    In many drug delivery strategies, an inefficient transfer of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the cytosol often occurs because of their endosomal entrapment. One of the methods to overcome this problem is photochemical internalization, which is achieved using a photosensitizer and light to facilitate the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo (macromolecule)-photosensitizer conjugates. We measured the photophysical properties of eight dyes (photosensitizer candidates) and determined the respective endosomal escape efficiencies using these dyes. Correlation plots between these factors indicated that the photogenerated 1O2 molecules from photosensitizers were highly related to the endosomal escape efficiencies. The contribution of 1O2 was confirmed using 1O2 quenchers. In addition, time-lapse fluorescence imaging showed that the photoinduced endosomal escape occurred at a few seconds to a few minutes after irradiation (much longer than 1O2 lifetime), and that the pH increased in the endosome prior to the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. PMID:26686907

  5. Evaluation of hydrogen production and internal resistance in forward osmosis membrane integrated microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Euntae; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance hydrogen production by facilitated proton transport through a forward osmosis (FO) membrane, the FO membrane was integrated into microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). An improved hydrogen production rate was obtained in the FO-MEC (12.5±1.84×10(-3)m(3)H2/m(3)/d) compared to that of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) - MEC (4.42±0.04×10(-3)m(3)H2/m(3)/d) during batch tests (72h). After an internal resistance analysis, it was confirmed that the enhanced hydrogen production in FO-MEC was attributed to the smaller charge transfer resistance than in the CEM-MEC (90.3Ω and 133.4Ω respectively). The calculation of partial internal resistance concluded that the transport resistance can be substantially reduced by replacing a CEM with a FO membrane; decrease of the resistance from 0.069Ωm(2) to 5.99×10(-4)Ωm(2). PMID:25841189

  6. The molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo-photosensitizer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Miki, Shunya; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Nakata, Eiji; Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Sumita, Kensuke; Watanabe, Kazunori; Okazaki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    In many drug delivery strategies, an inefficient transfer of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the cytosol often occurs because of their endosomal entrapment. One of the methods to overcome this problem is photochemical internalization, which is achieved using a photosensitizer and light to facilitate the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo (macromolecule)-photosensitizer conjugates. We measured the photophysical properties of eight dyes (photosensitizer candidates) and determined the respective endosomal escape efficiencies using these dyes. Correlation plots between these factors indicated that the photogenerated (1)O2 molecules from photosensitizers were highly related to the endosomal escape efficiencies. The contribution of (1)O2 was confirmed using (1)O2 quenchers. In addition, time-lapse fluorescence imaging showed that the photoinduced endosomal escape occurred at a few seconds to a few minutes after irradiation (much longer than (1)O2 lifetime), and that the pH increased in the endosome prior to the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. PMID:26686907

  7. International seminar on the red blood cells as vehicles for drugs

    PubMed Central

    Godfrin, Yann; Horand, Françoise; Franco, Robert; Dufour, Emmanuelle; Kosenko, Elena; Bax, Bridget E; Banz, Alice; Skorokhod, Olexii A; Lanao, José M; Vitvitsky, Victor; Sinauridze, Elena; Bourgeaux, Vanessa; Gunter, Kurt C

    2012-01-01

    The first human transfusion was performed by the pioneer Dr Jean-Baptiste Denis in France in 1667 and now, three centuries later, around 50 millions blood units are transfused every year, saving millions of lives. Today, there is a new application for red blood cells (RBCs) in cellular therapy: the effective use of erythrocytes as vehicles for chemical or biological drugs. Using this approach, the therapeutic index of RBC-entrapped molecules can be significantly improved with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. This cell-based medicinal product can be manufactured at an industrial scale and is now used in the clinic for different therapeutic applications. A seminar dedicated to this field of research, debating on this inventive formulation for drugs, was held in Lyon (France) on 28 January 2011. Drs KC Gunter and Y Godfrin co-chaired the meeting and international experts working on the encapsulation of drugs within erythrocytes met to exchange knowledge on the topic ‘The Red Blood Cells as Vehicles for Drugs’. The meeting was composed of oral presentations providing the latest knowledge and experience on the preclinical and clinical applications of this technology. This Meeting Highlights article presents the most relevant messages given by the speakers and is a joint effort by international experts who share an interest in studying erythrocyte as a drug delivery vehicle. The aim is to provide an overview of the applications, particularly for clinical use, of this innovative formulation. Indeed, due to the intrinsic properties of erythrocytes, their use as a drug carrier is one of the most promising drug delivery systems investigated in recent decades. Of the different methods developed to encapsulate therapeutic agents into RBCs [1,2,] the most widely used method is the lysis of the RBCs under tightly controlled hypotonic conditions in the presence of the drug to be encapsulated, followed by resealing and annealing under normotonic conditions (Figure 1). This results in uniform encapsulation of the material into the cells and a final product with good stability, reproducibility and viability. This process, which has now been developed to an industrial scale, is the technique chosen by the majority of the experts presenting their work in this seminar (by R Franco). PMID:22023703

  8. Rhenium, an in situ pressure calibrant for internally heated diamond anvil cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Chang-Sheng; Bassett, William A.; Shim, Sang-Heon

    2004-07-01

    The rheologic, chemical, thermal, and electrical properties of rhenium make it an excellent choice for containing and heating samples to very high pressures and temperatures in diamond anvil cells (DACs). In many experimental configurations, e.g., the internally heated diamond anvil cell (IHDAC), the rhenium parts are at or close to the pressure and temperature conditions of the sample. Because the pressure and temperature of the rhenium container are close to those of the specimen, rhenium offers an attractive means for determining pressure at high temperatures in x-ray diffraction experiments without the requirement of adding an additional material to the intricate and cluttered sample assembly. For this reason, we set out to determine an equation of state (EOS) of rhenium. We combine the isothermal equation of state of rhenium at ambient temperature with volume data collected at randomly distributed, simultaneous high pressure-temperature conditions. A linear dependence of thermal pressure on temperature at constant volume has been assumed. Data were collected using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction in conjunction with an IHDAC equipped with a rhenium internal resistive heater developed recently at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. The consistency over a large P-T range between our EOS and shock EOS within the experimental uncertainty suggests that the thermal pressure is measurable using the method proposed in the article, and that the rhenium can be used as a convenient pressure calibrant although the accuracy of it depends on many factors including the reliability of the pressure scale at high temperature.

  9. Brucella abortus efp gene is required for an efficient internalization in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Iannino, Florencia; Ugalde, Juan E; Iñón de Iannino, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Numerous chromosomal virulence genes (chv) have been shown to play an important role in the ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transform plants. The A. tumefaciens chvH gene encodes a protein similar in sequence to the Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P). In A. tumefaciens this factor is required for tumor formation and for full expression of the vir genes, exerting its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Cross-complementation assays suggest that the chvH gene and the efp gene of E. coli are functionally homologous. We have cloned and characterized the efp homolog gene in Brucella abortus which has 45% identity to A. tumefaciens chvH and 35% identity to E. coli efp. The gene complemented detergent sensitivity and virulence in the chvH A. tumefaciens mutant, suggesting that both genes are functionally homologous; the growth rate in complex medium also increased to wild type levels. An efp mutant in B. abortus 2308 grew slower in complex media and showed more sensitivity to detergents. Infection assays in J774 macrophage like cells revealed no significant differences between the wild type and the efp mutant strains. The recovery of this mutant from spleens of inoculated mice was equivalent compared to that of the parental strain suggesting that B. abortus efp is not required for virulence in an animal model. However the efp mutant revealed significant differences at 1 h-4 h post-infection in HeLa infection assays compared to the wild type strain, indicating that cellular internalization was affected in non-professional phagocytes. Double immunofluorescence assays for detecting extracellular and intracellular bacteria, demonstrated that the mutant attaches to HeLa cells as the wild type but is deficient in the internalization process, thus indicating that efp is involved in the penetration of Brucella in non-professional phagocytes. PMID:21983596

  10. Insights into the Internalization and Retrograde Trafficking of Dengue 2 Virus in BHK-21 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmine; Shah, Paresh S.; Cecilia, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) enters cells via endocytosis, traffics to perinuclear (PN) region, the site of morphogenesis and exits by exocytosis. This study aims to understand the role of dynamin II, endosomes, microtubules (MT) and dynein in the early events of DENV replication. Findings Using double immunoflourescence labelling of DENV-2 infected BHK-21 cells it was observed that the surface envelope (E) protein of the virion associated with dynamin II from 0–30 min post infection (p.i.). The sphincter like array of dynamin II supported its pinchase-like activity. The association with endosomes was observed from 0 min at cell periphery to 30 min in the perinuclear (PN) region, suggesting that internalization continued for 30 min. Association of E protein with alpha-tubulin was observed from 8 h indicating that it was the newly translated protein that trafficked on the MT. Dynein was found to associate with the E protein from 4 h in the cytoplasm to 48 h in the PN region and dissociate at 72 h. Association of E protein with dynein was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of dynamitin, which disrupts the dynein complex, resulted in loss of trafficking of viral E and core proteins. The findings corroborated with the growth kinetics assessed by quantitation of viral RNA in infected BHK-21 cells. The detection of E protein at 4 h–8 h correlated with detectable increase in viral RNA from 8 h. The detection of high concentrations of E protein in the PN region at 24–48 h coincided with release of virus into the supernatant starting from 36 h p.i. The dissociation of dynein from E protein by 72 h was coincident with maximum release of virus, hinting at a possible negative feedback for viral protein translation. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the association of dynamin II with DENV-2 during entry and dynein dependent retrograde trafficking of DENV proteins on microtubules. PMID:21991304

  11. Internalization of Rituximab and the Efficiency of B Cell Depletion in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, Geraldine; Isenberg, David A.; Glennie, Martin J.; Cragg, Mark S.; Leandro, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rituximab, a type I anti‐CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), induces incomplete B cell depletion in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), thus contributing to a poor clinical response. The mechanisms of this resistance remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether type II mAb are more efficient than type I mAb at depleting B cells from RA and SLE patients, whether internalization influences the efficiency of depletion, and whether Fcγ receptor type IIb (FcγRIIb) and the B cell receptor regulate this internalization process. Methods We used an in vitro whole blood B cell–depletion assay to assess the efficiency of depletion, flow cytometry to study cell surface protein expression, and surface fluorescence–quenching assays to assess rituximab internalization, in samples from patients with RA and patients with SLE. Paired t‐test or Mann‐Whitney U test was used to compare groups, and Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess correlation. Results We found that type II mAb internalized significantly less rituximab than type I mAb and depleted B cells from patients with RA and SLE at least 2‐fold more efficiently than type I mAb. Internalization of rituximab was highly variable between patients, was regulated by FcγRIIb, and inversely correlated with cytotoxicity in whole blood B cell–depletion assays. The lowest levels of internalization were seen in IgD– B cells, including postswitched (IgD–CD27+) memory cells. Internalization of type I anti‐CD20 mAb was also partially inhibited by anti‐IgM stimulation. Conclusion Variability in internalization of rituximab was observed and was correlated with impaired B cell depletion. Therefore, slower‐internalizing type II mAb should be considered as alternative B cell–depleting agents for the treatment of RA and SLE. PMID:25916583

  12. Internalization-competent influenza hemagglutinin mutants form complexes with clathrin-deficient multivalent AP-2 oligomers in live cells.

    PubMed

    Keren, T; Roth, M G; Henis, Y I

    2001-07-27

    Most membrane proteins are endocytosed through clathrin-coated pits via AP-2 adaptor complexes. However, little is known about the interaction of internalization signals with AP-2 in live cells in the absence of clathrin lattices. To investigate this issue, we employed cells cotransfected with pairs of antigenically distinct influenza hemagglutinin (HA) mutants containing different internalization signals of the YXXZ family. To enable studies on the possible association of the naturally trimeric HAs into higher order complexes via binding to AP-2, we exploited the inability of HAs from different influenza strains to form mutual trimers. Thus, we coexpressed HA pairs from different strains (Japan and X:31) bearing similar cytoplasmic tails mutated to include internalization signals. Using antibody-mediated immunofluorescence co-patching on live cells, we demonstrate that internalization-competent HA mutants form higher order complexes and that this clustering depends on the strength of the internalization signal. The clustering persisted in cells treated with hypertonic medium to disperse the clathrin lattices, as validated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The clustering of HAs bearing strong internalization signals appears to be mediated via binding to AP-2, as indicated by (i) the coprecipitation of alpha-adaptin with these HAs, even in hypertonically treated cells; (ii) the co-localization (after hypertonic treatment) of AP-2 with antibody-mediated patches of these mutants; and (iii) the dispersal of the higher order HA complexes following chlorpromazine treatment, which removes AP-2 from the plasma membrane. These results suggest that even in the absence of clathrin lattices, AP-2 exists in multivalent complexes capable of simultaneously binding several internalization signals from the same family. PMID:11369772

  13. Cytotoxicity and variant cellular internalization behavior of water-soluble sulfonated nanographene sheets in liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly exfoliated sulfonated graphene sheets (SGSs), an alternative to graphene oxide and graphene derivatives, were synthesized, characterized, and applied to liver cancer cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity profiles were obtained using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, WST-1[2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, and lactate dehydrogenase release colorimetric assays. These particles were found to be non-toxic across the concentration range of 0.1 to 10 μg/ml. Internalization of SGSs was also studied by means of optical and electron microscopy. Although not conclusive, high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed variant internalization behaviors where some of the SGS became folded and compartmentalized into tight bundles within cellular organelles. The ability for liver cancer cells to internalize, fold, and compartmentalize graphene structures is a phenomenon not previously documented for graphene cell biology and should be further investigated. PMID:23639042

  14. Cytotoxicity and variant cellular internalization behavior of water-soluble sulfonated nanographene sheets in liver cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Stuart J.; Raoof, Mustafa; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Kuznetsov, Oleksandr; Massey, Katheryn; Kaluarachchi, Warna D.; Cheney, Matthew A.; Billups, Edward W.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-05-01

    Highly exfoliated sulfonated graphene sheets (SGSs), an alternative to graphene oxide and graphene derivatives, were synthesized, characterized, and applied to liver cancer cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity profiles were obtained using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, WST-1[2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2 H-tetrazolium, and lactate dehydrogenase release colorimetric assays. These particles were found to be non-toxic across the concentration range of 0.1 to 10 μg/ml. Internalization of SGSs was also studied by means of optical and electron microscopy. Although not conclusive, high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed variant internalization behaviors where some of the SGS became folded and compartmentalized into tight bundles within cellular organelles. The ability for liver cancer cells to internalize, fold, and compartmentalize graphene structures is a phenomenon not previously documented for graphene cell biology and should be further investigated.

  15. Are Soft Short Tests Good Indicators of Internal Li-ion Cell Defects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J.; Chung, J.-S.; Jung, K.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    The self discharge test at full state of charge, may not be a good one to detect subtle defects since the li-ion chemistry has the highest self discharge at full state of charge. One should characterize self discharge versus storage time for each cell manufacturer/design to differentiate between normal self discharge and that due to a subtle manufacturing defect. The various soft short test methods indicate that if this test is carried out at full discharge (0% SOC) with all capacity removed (by lowering the current load in a stepwise manner to the same end of discharge voltage), then the cells need to be placed in storage for more than 72 hours to get a good analysis on the presence of subtle defects since it takes more than 72 hours to achieve voltage stabilization. If the cells are to be charged up even to a small percentage (ex. 1%), 72 hours are sufficient to determine issues. However, the pass/fail criteria should be based on a valid OCV decline. Less than 10 mV voltage decline is not a good method to detect subtle defects. As mentioned in the first bullet, self discharge is a competing reaction when a charge is introduced and hence a characterization of the self discharge versus storage time is required to fully correlate voltage decline to a failure due to a subtle defect. Soft short test method cannot be relied on for defect detection because cells with and without voltage decline seemed to have similar defects and characteristics. Screening methods such as internal resistance and capacity as well as a 3-sigma range for OCV, mass and dimensions should be used to screen out outliers. A very critical aspect in the understanding of subtle defects is to carry out destructive analysis of cells from every lot to confirm the quality of production and screen all cells and batteries in a stringent manner to have a high quality set of flight cells. Self Discharge Test: Fully charged cells shall be placed in Open circuit stand for 72 hours (OCV measurement twice a day); continue for total of 14 days with 1 reading per day 2. Soft Short Test 1: Fully charge; cells discharged to manufacturer's end of disch. Voltage (EODV) cutoff at C/5 rate; stand for 30 minutes; discharge with C/500 to the same EODV. stand for another 30 minutes; discharge the cells again using C/1000 current to the same EODV. OCV measurements twice a day for 72 hours and then for total of 14 days (data collection same as in 1.) 3. Soft Short Test 2: Fully charge; cells discharged to the manuf. EODV with a C/13 constant current; provide a 10 hour rest, discharge again to the same EODV with a current of C/250, provide a 10 hour rest, discharge again using a C/250 rate, provide a 24 hour rest, charge using C/250 to 3.15 V (for 12 hours). OCV measurements twice a day for at 72 hours. (data collection same as in 1.) 4. Soft Short Test 3: Fully charge; cells shall be discharged using C/10 current to manuf. EODV. Allow the cell to remain at Open circuit for 10 seconds. Discharge the cell at C/20 rate to the same EODV, hold open circuit for 24 hours. Discharge the cells at C/200 rate to the same end of voltage cutoff and hold open circuit for 24 hours. Discharge the cells one more time at C/200 rate to the same EODV and hold open circuit for 36 hours. Charge at C/200 rate to 3.15 V and hold for 3 days. Record OCV during the open circuit stand periods every 12 hours and at the beginning and end of the 3 day hold (include the 12 hour OCV recording during this time also). Capacity Cycling: Cells with declining voltages - one cell from each manufacturer chosen for cycling Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA): Cells with and without decline chosen from each lot for DPA.

  16. Peptide Internalization Enabled by Folding: Triple Helical Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Aparna; Feher, Katie M.; Hu, Chloe; Slowinska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cell-Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) are known as efficient transporters of molecular cargo across cellular membranes. Their properties make them ideal candidates for in vivo applications. However, challenges in development of effective CPPs still exist: CPPs are often fast degraded by proteases and large concentration of CPPs required for cargo transporting can cause cytotoxicity. It was previously shown that restricting peptide flexibility can improve peptide stability against enzymatic degradation and limiting length of CPP peptide can lower cytotoxic effects. Here we present peptides (30-mers) that efficiently penetrate cellular membranes by combining very short CPP sequences and collagen-like folding domains. The CPP domains are hexa-arginine (R6) or arginine/glycine (RRGRRG). Folding is achieved through multiple proline-hydroxyproline-glycine (POG)n repeats that form a collagen-like triple helical conformation. The folded peptides with CPP domains are efficiently internalized, show stability against enzymatic degradation in human serum, and have minimal toxicity. Peptides lacking correct folding (random coil) or CPP domains are unable to cross cellular membranes. These features make triple helical cell penetrating peptides promising candidates for efficient transporters of molecular cargo across cellular membranes. PMID:25524829

  17. Total internal reflection holographic microscopy (TIRHM) for quantitative phase characterization of cell-substrate adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, William Mason, III

    Total Internal Reflection Holographic Microscopy (TIRHM) combines near-field microscopy with digital holography to produce a new form of near-field phase microscopy. Using a prism in TIR as a near-field imager, the presence of microscopic organisms, cell-substrate interfaces, and adhesions, causes relative refractive index (RRI) and frustrated TIR (f-TIR) to modulate the object beam's evanescent wave phase front. Quantitative phase images of test specimens such as Amoeba proteus, Dictyostelium Discoideum and cells such as SKOV-3 ovarian cancer and 3T3 fibroblasts are produced without the need to introduce stains or fluorophores. The angular spectrum method of digital holography to compensate for tilt anamorphism due to the inclined TIR plane is also discussed. The results of this work conclusively demonstrate, for the first time, the integration of near-field microscopy with digital holography. The cellular images presented show a correlation between the physical extent of the Amoeba proteus plasma membrane and the adhesions that are quantitatively profiled by phase cross-sectioning of the holographic images obtained by digital holography. With its ability to quantitatively characterise cellular adhesion and motility, it is anticipated that TIRHM can be a tool for characterizing and combating cancer metastasis, as well as improving our understanding of morphogenesis and embryogenesis itself.

  18. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  19. Technique for internal channelling of hydroentangled nonwoven scaffolds to enhance cell penetration.

    PubMed

    Durham, Elaine R; Ingham, Eileen; Russell, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    An important requirement in thick, high-porosity scaffolds is to maximise cellular penetration into the interior and avoid necrosis during culture in vitro. Hitherto, reproducible control of the pore structure in nonwoven scaffolds has proved challenging. A new, channelled scaffold manufacturing process is reported based on water jet entanglement of fibres (hydroentangling) around filamentous template to form a coherent scaffold that is subsequently removed. Longitudinally-oriented channels were introduced within the scaffold in controlled proximity using 220 µm diameter cylindrical templates. In this case study, channelled scaffolds composed of poly(l-lactic acid) were manufactured and evaluated in vitro. Environmental scanning electron microscope and µCT (X-ray microtomography) confirmed channel openings in the scaffold cross-section before and after cell culture with human dermal fibroblasts up to 14 weeks. Histology at week 11 indicated that the channels promoted cell penetration and distribution within the scaffold interior. At week 14, cellular matrix deposition was evident in the internal channel walls and the entrances remained unoccluded by cellular matrix suggesting that diffusion conduits for mass transfer of nutrient to the scaffold interior could be maintained. PMID:22532409

  20. Commensal bacterial internalization by epithelial cells: An alternative portal for gut leakiness

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Co-existing paracellular and transcellular barrier defect in intestinal epithelium was documented in inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and intestinal obstruction. Mechanisms regarding tight junction disruption have been extensively studied; however, limited progress has been made in research on bacterial transcytosis. Densely packed brush border (BB), with cholesterol-based lipid rafts in the intermicrovillous membrane invagination, serves as an ultrastructural barrier to prevent direct contact of luminal microbes with the cellular soma. Evidence in in vitro epithelial cell cultures and in vivo animal models of bowel obstruction and antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection had indicated that nonpathogenic, noninvasive enteric bacteria may hijack the lipid raft-mediated endocytic pathways. Our studies have shown that low dose interferon-gamma (IFNγ) causes long myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent terminal web (TW) contraction and BB fanning, allowing bacteria to pass through the consequently widened intermicrovillous cleft to be endocytosed via caveolin-associated lipid rafts. Activation of intracellular innate immune receptors by bacteria-containing endosomes may further induce inflammatory and oxidative stress, leading to secondary tight junction damage. The finding of bacterial internalization preceding tight junction damage suggests that abnormal bacterial uptake by epithelial cells may contribute to the initiation or relapse of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:26451337

  1. Stem cell research in the Greater Middle East: the importance of establishing policy and ethics interoperability to foster international collaborations.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Jesse M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2010-06-01

    While fossil fuel reserves have strengthened the economies of numerous countries in the Greater Middle East (GME) for decades, multiple nations within this region are now increasingly investing in internal science and engineering programs as a mechanism to develop more extensive knowledge-based economies. One of these newly pursued disciplines is stem cell research. Nations such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar have founded nascent programs while Iran, Turkey, and Israel are more established in the field. The extent to which these investments have been productive, as measured by publication quantity and impact, remains unknown. Here we assess the state of stem cell research in the GME, report on the policy and ethical considerations facing the region, and determine the impact of international research collaborations in this area. In the majority of the region, there is no legal framework regulating stem cell research. Instead, scientists often rely on religious decrees outlining acceptable practices. These guidelines do not provide the necessary structure to foster international collaborations with nations that have enacted formal laws recognized worldwide. Our results illustrate that international collaborations in the GME produce publications of greater impact despite the fact that political tensions and issues unrelated to science have the potential to dramatically hinder cross-border relationships in the region. Overall, we conclude that the national governments of countries within the GME have the unique opportunity to establish stem cell research policies which confer interoperability between nations to foster crucial international collaborations throughout the region. PMID:20198516

  2. A Cell Internalizing Antibody Targeting Capsid Protein (p24) Inhibits the Replication of HIV-1 in T Cells Lines and PBMCs: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed A.; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Choon, Tan Soo; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    There remains a need for newer therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS. Viral capsid protein p24 plays important roles in HIV pathogenesis. Peptides and small molecule inhibitors targeting p24 have shown to inhibit virus replication in treated cell. High specificity and biological stability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) make them an attractive contender for in vivo treatments. However, mAbs do not enter into cells, thus are restricted to target surface molecules. This also makes targeting intracellular HIV-1 p24 a challenge. A mAb specific to p24 that can internalize into the HIV-infected cells is hypothesized to inhibit the virus replication. We selected a mAb that has previously shown to inhibit p24 polymerization in an in vitro assay and chemically conjugated it with cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to generate cell internalizing anti-p24 mAbs. Out of 8 CPPs tested, κFGF-MTS -conjugated mAbs internalized T cells most efficiently. At nontoxic concentration, the κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs reduced the HIV-1 replication up to 73 and 49% in T-lymphocyte and PBMCs respectively. Marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in relevant cells by κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs represents a viable strategy to target HIV proteins present inside the cells. PMID:26741963

  3. Cellular internalization of LiNbO3 nanocrystals for second harmonic imaging and the effects on stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Qiu, Jichuan; Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Ma, Baojin; Mou, Xiaoning; Tanes, Michael; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration-dependent viability. Most importantly, rMSCs labeled with 50 μg per mL of LN nanocrystals retained their ability to differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The results prove that LN nanocrystals can be used as a cytocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) light driven cell label for long-term imaging, without hindering stem cell differentiation. This work will promote the use of LN nanocrystals to broader applications like deep-tissue tracking, remote drug delivery and stem cell therapy.Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration-dependent viability. Most importantly, rMSCs labeled with 50 μg per mL of LN nanocrystals retained their ability to differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The results prove that LN nanocrystals can be used as a cytocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) light driven cell label for long-term imaging, without hindering stem cell differentiation. This work will promote the use of LN nanocrystals to broader applications like deep-tissue tracking, remote drug delivery and stem cell therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00785f

  4. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant. PMID:26139958

  5. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  6. Evidence for Gardnerella vaginalis uptake and internalization by squamous vaginal epithelial cells: implications for the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, Christy N.; Knobel, Susan M.; Zhu, Wen Qin; Sweet, Stephanie D.; Chaudhry, Ahsen R.; Alcendor, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common condition seen in premenopausal women, is associated with preterm labor, pelvic inflammatory disease, and delivery of low birth weight infants. Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant bacterial species associated with BV, although its exact role in the pathology of BV is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and transmission electron microscopy, we found that VK2 vaginal epithelial cells take up G. vaginalis after exposure to the bacteria. Confocal microscopy also indicated the presence of internalized G. vaginalis within vaginal epithelial cells obtained from a subject with BV. Using VK2 cells and 35S labeled bacteria in an invasion assay, we found that a 1 h uptake of G. vaginalis was 21.8-fold higher than heat-killed G. vaginalis, 84-fold compared to Lactobacillus acidophilus and 6.6-fold compared to Lactobacillus crispatus. Internalization was inhibited by pre-exposure of cells to cytochalasin-D. In addition, the cytoskeletal protein vimentin was upregulated in VK2 cells exposed to G. vaginalis, but there was no change in actin cytoskeletal polymerization/rearrangements or vimentin subcellular relocalization post exposure. Cytoskeletal protein modifications could represent a potential mechanism for G. vaginalis mediated internalization by vaginal epithelial cells. Finally, understanding vaginal bacteria/host interactions will allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of BV pathogenesis. PMID:22227318

  7. Pluripotency transcription factor Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin but requires a protein transduction domain for cell internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Albayrak, Cem; Yang, William C.; Swartz, James R.

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind heparin with comparable affinity. ► Both R9Sox2 and Sox2 bind to fibroblasts, but only R9Sox2 is internalized. ► Internalization efficiency of R9Sox2 is 0.3% of the administered protein. ► Heparan sulfate adsorption may be part of a mechanism for managing cell death. -- Abstract: The binding of protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated proteins to heparan sulfate is an important step in cellular internalization of macromolecules. Here, we studied the pluripotency transcription factor Sox2, with or without the nonaarginine (R9) PTD. Unexpectedly, we observed that Sox2 is strongly adsorbed by heparin and by the fibroblasts without the R9 PTD. However, only the R9Sox2 fusion protein is internalized by the cells. These results collectively show that binding to heparan sulfate is not sufficient for cellular uptake, thereby supporting a recent hypothesis that other proteins play a role in cell internalization of PTD-conjugated proteins.

  8. Cellular internalization of LiNbO3 nanocrystals for second harmonic imaging and the effects on stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Qiu, Jichuan; Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Ma, Baojin; Mou, Xiaoning; Tanes, Michael; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-31

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration-dependent viability. Most importantly, rMSCs labeled with 50 μg per mL of LN nanocrystals retained their ability to differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The results prove that LN nanocrystals can be used as a cytocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) light driven cell label for long-term imaging, without hindering stem cell differentiation. This work will promote the use of LN nanocrystals to broader applications like deep-tissue tracking, remote drug delivery and stem cell therapy. PMID:27001708

  9. Design Study Conducted of a Stirred and Perfused Specimen Chamber for Culturing Suspended Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Kizito, John P.

    2003-01-01

    A tightly knit numerical/experimental collaboration among the NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, and Payload Systems, Inc., was formed to analyze cell culturing systems for the International Space Station. The Cell Culture Unit is a facility scheduled for deployment on the space station by the Cell Culture Unit team at Ames. The facility houses multiple cell specimen chambers (CSCs), all of which have inlets and outlets to allow for replenishment of nutrients and for waste removal. For improved uniformity of nutrient and waste concentrations, each chamber has a pair of counterrotating stir bars as well. Although the CSC can be used to grow a wide variety of organic cells, the current study uses yeast as a model cell. Previous work identified groundbased protocols for perfusion and stirring to achieve yeast growth within the CSC that is comparable to that for yeast cultures grown in a shaken Ehrlenmeyer flask.

  10. Bee venom phospholipase A2 as a membrane-binding vector for cell surface display or internalization of soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Babon, Aurélie; Wurceldorf, Thibault; Almunia, Christine; Pichard, Sylvain; Chenal, Alexandre; Buhot, Cécile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Gillet, Daniel

    2016-06-15

    We showed that bee venom phospholipase A2 can be used as a membrane-binding vector to anchor to the surface of cells a soluble protein fused to its C-terminus. ZZ, a two-domain derivative of staphylococcal protein A capable of binding constant regions of antibodies was fused to the C-terminus of the phospholipase or to a mutant devoid of enzymatic activity. The fusion proteins bound to the surface of cells and could themselves bind IgGs. Their fate depended on the cell type to which they bound. On the A431 carcinoma cell line the proteins remained exposed on the cell surface. In contrast, on human dendritic cells the proteins were internalized into early endosomes. PMID:26253725

  11. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy.

  12. Long-term outcome of Hurler syndrome patients after hematopoietic cell transplantation: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Aldenhoven, Mieke; Wynn, Robert F; Orchard, Paul J; O'Meara, Anne; Veys, Paul; Fischer, Alain; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Neven, Benedicte; Rovelli, Attilio; Prasad, Vinod K; Tolar, Jakub; Allewelt, Heather; Jones, Simon A; Parini, Rossella; Renard, Marleen; Bordon, Victoria; Wulffraat, Nico M; de Koning, Tom J; Shapiro, Elsa G; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-03-26

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I-Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by multisystem morbidity and death in early childhood. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been performed in these patients for more than 30 years, large studies on the long-term outcome of patients with MPS-IH after HCT are lacking. The goal of this international study was to identify predictors of the long-term outcome of patients with MPS-IH after successful HCT. Two hundred seventeen patients with MPS-IH successfully engrafted with a median follow-up age of 9.2 years were included in this retrospective analysis. Primary endpoints were neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth. Secondary endpoints included neurologic, orthopedic, cardiac, respiratory, ophthalmologic, audiologic, and endocrinologic outcomes. Considerable residual disease burden was observed in the majority of the transplanted patients with MPS-IH, with high variability between patients. Preservation of cognitive function at HCT and a younger age at transplantation were major predictors for superior cognitive development posttransplant. A normal α-l-iduronidase enzyme level obtained post-HCT was another highly significant predictor for superior long-term outcome in most organ systems. The long-term prognosis of patients with MPS-IH receiving HCT can be improved by reducing the age at HCT through earlier diagnosis, as well as using exclusively noncarrier donors and achieving complete donor chimerism. PMID:25624320

  13. High efficient radiation stable AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells with internal Bragg reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Kalinovsky, V. S.; Komin, V. V.; Kochnev, I. V.; Lantratov, V. M.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of solar cells based on AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with an internal Bragg reflector as the back-surface reflector is presented. The Bragg reflector is grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on n-GaAs substrates in a horizontal resistively heated reactor. The Bragg reflector with its maximum reflectance centered at a wavelength of 860 nm consists of 12 pairs of AlAs/GaAs layers. The resulting Bragg reflector has a thickness of 0.072 micrometers for AlAs and 0.059 micrometers for GaAs. The multi-layered quasi-dielectric stack selectively reflects weakly absorbed photons with energies near to the GaAs band gap for a second pass through the photoactive region, thus increasing the photocurrent. The use of the Bragg reflector allows the external quantum efficiency to be increased in the long wavelength of the spectrum. The use of the Bragg reflector and an antireflective coating and prismatic cover allowed an efficiency of 23.4 percent to be obtained.

  14. Recurrent internal tandem duplications of BCOR in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Angshumoy; Kumar, Vijetha; Zorman, Barry; Fang, Erica; Haines, Katherine M.; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Hampton, Oliver A.; White, Simon; Bavle, Abhishek A.; Patel, Nimesh R.; Eldin, Karen W.; John Hicks, M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Leavey, Patrick J.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Amatruda, James F.; Nuchtern, Jed G.; Chintagumpala, Murali M.; Wheeler, David A.; Plon, Sharon E.; Sumazin, Pavel; Parsons, D. Williams

    2015-01-01

    The X-linked BCL-6 co-repressor (BCOR) gene encodes a key constituent of a variant polycomb repressive complex (PRC) that is mutated or translocated in human cancers. Here we report on the identification of somatic internal tandem duplications (ITDs) clustering in the C terminus of BCOR in 23 of 27 (85%) pediatric clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) from two independent cohorts. We profile CCSK tumours using a combination of whole-exome, transcriptome and targeted sequencing. Identical ITD mutations are found in primary and relapsed tumour pairs but not in adjacent normal kidney or blood. Mutant BCOR transcripts and proteins are markedly upregulated in ITD-positive tumours. Transcriptome analysis of ITD-positive CCSKs reveals enrichment for PRC2-regulated genes and similarity to undifferentiated sarcomas harbouring BCOR–CCNB3 fusions. The discovery of recurrent BCOR ITDs defines a major oncogenic event in this childhood sarcoma with significant implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this tumour. PMID:26573325

  15. Cladribine and cytarabine in refractory multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of an international phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Frederic; van Noesel, Max; Barkaoui, Mohamed; Bardet, Odile; Mura, Rosella; Arico, Maurizio; Piguet, Christophe; Gandemer, Virginie; Armari Alla, Corinne; Clausen, Niels; Jeziorski, Eric; Lambilliote, Anne; Weitzman, Sheila; Henter, Jan Inge; Van Den Bos, Cor

    2015-01-01

    An international phase 2 study combining cladribine and cytarabine (Ara-C) was initiated for patients with refractory, risk-organ–positive Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in 2005. The protocol, comprising at least two 5-day courses of Ara-C (1 g/m2 per day) plus cladribine (9 mg/m2 per day) followed by maintenance therapy, was administered to 27 patients (median age at diagnosis, 0.7 years; median follow-up, 5.3 years). At inclusion, all patients were refractory after at least 1 course of vinblastine (VBL) plus corticosteroid, all had liver and spleen involvement, and 25 patients had hematologic cytopenia. After 2 courses, disease status was nonactive (n = 2), better (n = 23), or stable (n = 2), with an overall response rate of 92%. Median disease activity scores decreased from 12 at the start of therapy to 3 after 2 courses (P < .0001). During maintenance therapy, 4 patients experienced reactivation in risk organs. There were 4 deaths; 2 were related to therapy toxicity and 2 were related to reactivation. All patients experienced severe toxicity, with World Health Organization grade 4 hematologic toxicity and 6 documented severe infections. The overall 5-year survival rate was 85% (95% confidence interval, 65.2%-94.2%). Thus, the combination of cladribine/Ara-C is effective therapy for refractory multisystem LCH but is associated with high toxicity. PMID:26194764

  16. Differential ability of B cells specific for external vs. internal influenza virus proteins to respond to help from influenza virus-specific T-cell clones in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Scherle, P A; Gerhard, W

    1988-01-01

    When a helper T-cell (TH) clone specific for the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix protein, or nucleoprotein of influenza strain A/PR/8/34 is adoptively transferred to athymic mice 1 day after virus infection the anti-viral antibody response of the mouse is enhanced. This response is directed predominantly to the hemagglutinin and requires associative T-cell-B-cell interactions. Delaying transfer of the TH clone has three consequences: (i) the onset of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody response is delayed; (ii) the titer of the anti-hemagglutinin response is reduced; and (iii) the titer of the antibody in the response against the internal proteins, matrix protein and nucleoprotein, is enhanced upon transfer of matrix protein- or nucleoprotein-specific, but not hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-specific, TH clones. Thus, there is a hierarchy of help: B cells recognizing viral surface components, hemagglutinin or neuraminidase, can receive help from TH clones specific for any of the major structural viral proteins. In contrast, B cells responding to internal viral components, matrix protein or nucleoprotein, are restricted to receiving help almost exclusively from TH clones with the same protein specificity. These observations suggest that, upon B-cell surface immunoglobulin-antigen interaction and uptake of intact virus, B cells specific for viral surface proteins process and present all major structural viral antigens, enabling the B cells to interact with TH clones specific for any virion protein. B cells recognizing internal viral components, which may be accessible to interaction with B-cell immunoglobulin receptors mainly as free proteins, would present only the protein for which they are specific and, thereby, receive help only from the TH clones of the same protein specificity. PMID:3260034

  17. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase–Akt Signaling Pathway Is Important for Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Yu, Hong B.; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J.; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Finlay, B. Brett; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2011-01-01

    Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) is increased by tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation and NF-κB activation. Because the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signaling pathway also modulates NF-κB activity, we considered whether the internalization of S. aureus by BEC is associated with the activity of PI3K and Akt. We found a time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 in BEC infected with S. aureus. This phosphorylation was inhibited by LY294002 (LY), indicating the participation of PI3K. Inhibition of either PI3K with LY or wortmannin, or Akt with SH-5, strongly reduced the internalization of S. aureus. Transfection of BEC with a dominant-negative form of the Akt gene significantly decreased S. aureus internalization, whereas transfection with the constitutively active mutant increased the number of internalized bacterium. Inhibition of PDK1 activity with OSU-03012 did not affect the level of S. aureus internalization, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 is not important for this process. Compared to the untreated control, the adherence of S. aureus to the surface of BEC was unaltered when cells were transfected or incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, Akt activation by internalized S. aureus triggered a time-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) on Ser21 and GSK-3β on Ser9 that was partially inhibited with SH-5. Finally, treatment of BEC with LY prior to S. aureus infection inhibited the NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation on Ser536, indicating the involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that PI3K-Akt activity is important for the internalization of S. aureus and phosphorylation of GSK-3α, GSK-3β, and NF-κB. PMID:21844240

  18. International Institute for Collaborative Cell Biology and Biochemistry—History and Memoirs from an International Network for Biological Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    I was invited to write this essay on the occasion of my selection as the recipient of the 2012 Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education from the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). Receiving this award is an enormous honor. When I read the email announcement for the first time, it was more than a surprise to me, it was unbelievable. I joined ASCB in 1996, when I presented a poster and received a travel award. Since then, I have attended almost every ASCB meeting. I will try to use this essay to share with readers one of the best experiences in my life. Because this is an essay, I take the liberty of mixing some of my thoughts with data in a way that it not usual in scientific writing. I hope that this sacrifice of the format will achieve the goal of conveying what I have learned over the past 20 yr, during which time a group of colleagues and friends created a nexus of knowledge and wisdom. We have worked together to build a network capable of sharing and inspiring science all over the world. PMID:24006381

  19. International institute for collaborative cell biology and biochemistry--history and memoirs from an international network for biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Cameron, L C

    2013-01-01

    I was invited to write this essay on the occasion of my selection as the recipient of the 2012 Bruce Alberts Award for Excellence in Science Education from the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). Receiving this award is an enormous honor. When I read the email announcement for the first time, it was more than a surprise to me, it was unbelievable. I joined ASCB in 1996, when I presented a poster and received a travel award. Since then, I have attended almost every ASCB meeting. I will try to use this essay to share with readers one of the best experiences in my life. Because this is an essay, I take the liberty of mixing some of my thoughts with data in a way that it not usual in scientific writing. I hope that this sacrifice of the format will achieve the goal of conveying what I have learned over the past 20 yr, during which time a group of colleagues and friends created a nexus of knowledge and wisdom. We have worked together to build a network capable of sharing and inspiring science all over the world. PMID:24006381

  20. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real31 time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification in both MDCK and Caco-2 cells, as well as 1 NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, using FITC conjugated to InlA-beads or fibronectin-coated beads. Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion were 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for epithelial cells, MDCK and Caco-2, which are slower than the kinetics observed in professional phagocytes such as macrophages. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply require conjugation of a fluorophore to a pathogen or mimetic of interest in combination with common cell labeling dyes, and are not limited to the InlA ligand or cell types used here. As such, these methods hold promise for future measurements of receptor-mediated internalization in other cell systems, e.g. other pathogen-host systems.

  1. Internalization by HeLa cells of latex beads coated with mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins encoded by the mce3 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Sherief; Ahmad, Suhail; Mustafa, Abu S; Al-Attiyah, Raja; Krajci, Dimitrolos

    2007-09-01

    The mammalian cell entry (Mce) operon 3 (mce3) is one of four homologous mce operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, encoding six (Mce3A-F) invasin-like membrane-associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that recombinant expression of Mce1A encoded by the mce1 operon in Escherichia coli allows this non-pathogenic bacterium to invade and survive inside macrophages, and latex beads coated with Mce1A are internalized by non-phagocytic HeLa cells. However, the role of other mce1 operon proteins (Mce1B-F) and proteins encoded by the operons mce2-4 in facilitating the internalization of M. tuberculosis in mammalian cells has not been studied. This study was carried out to determine whether Mce proteins encoded by the mce3 operon also facilitated the internalization of latex beads by HeLa cells. Recombinant pure Mce3A and lipoprotein LprM (Mce3E) were expressed and purified from E. coli cells. Mce1A expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST-Mce1A) and GST alone, purified similarly from E. coli cells, were used as control proteins. Fluorescent latex beads coated with purified proteins were used to study their uptake by HeLa cells using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed an association of HeLa cells with beads coated with both Mce3A and LprM, whilst GST-Mce1A and GST yielded the expected results. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the uptake of beads coated with Mce3A or LprM by HeLa cells. The data showed that Mce3A encoded by the mce3 operon facilitated the uptake and internalization of latex beads by HeLa cells. The data also showed, for the first time, the role of another Mce protein (LprM/Mce3E) in facilitating the interaction and internalization of M. tuberculosis by mammalian cells. PMID:17761475

  2. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the subsystems of the experiment are being integrated at NRL, and we are preparing to commence environmental testing.

  3. Single-Cell Metabolite Profiling of Stalk and Glandular Cells of Intact Trichomes with Internal Electrode Capillary Pressure Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Taiken; Wada, Hiroshi; Morita, Satoshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    In this report, we developed the pressure probe electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with internal electrode capillary (IEC-PPESI-MS) which enables high spatial-resolution cell sampling, precise postsampling manipulation, and high detection sensitivity. Using this technique, a comparative in situ single-cell metabolite profiling of stalk and glandular cells, the two adjacent cell types comprising a trichome unit in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.), were performed to clarify the extent of metabolic differentiation between two cell types as well as among different types of trichomes. Owing to high sensitivity of the system, less than a picoliter cell sap from a single stalk cell sufficiently yielded a number of peaks of amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, and flavonoids. The minimal cell sap removal from a stalk cell without severe disturbance of trichome structure enabled sequential analysis of adjacent glandular cell on the same trichome, which showed the presence of striking differences in metabolite compositions between two adjacent cell types. Comparison among different types of trichome also revealed significant variations in metabolite profiles, particularly in flavonoids and acyl sugars compositions. Some metabolites were found only in specific cell types or particular trichome types. Although extensive metabolomics analysis of glandular cells of tomato trichomes has been previously documented, this is the first report describing cell-to-cell variations in metabolite compositions of stalk and glandular cells as well as in different trichome types. Further application of this technique may provide new insights into distinct metabolism in plant cells displaying variations in shape, size, function and physicochemical properties. PMID:26845634

  4. Surrogate target cells expressing surface anti-idiotype antibody for the clinical evaluation of an internalizing CD22-specific antibody

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Shui-on; Gao, Kai; Wang, Guang Yu; Cheung, Benny Ka-wa; Lee, Kwan-yeung; Zhao, Qi; Cheung, Wing-Tai; Wang, Jun Zhi

    2015-01-01

    SM03, a chimeric antibody that targets the B-cell restricted antigen CD22, is currently being clinically evaluated for the treatment of lymphomas and other autoimmune diseases in China. SM03 binding to surface CD22 leads to rapid internalization, making the development of an appropriate cell-based bioassay for monitoring changes in SM03 bioactivities during production, purification, storage, and clinical trials difficult. We report herein the development of an anti-idiotype antibody against SM03. Apart from its being used as a surrogate antigen for monitoring SM03 binding affinities, the anti-idiotype antibody was engineered to express as fusion proteins on cell surfaces in a non-internalizing manner, and the engineered cells were used as novel “surrogate target cells” for SM03. SM03-induced complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against these “surrogate target cells” proved to be an effective bioassay for monitoring changes in Fc functions, including those resulting from minor structural modifications borne within the Fc-appended carbohydrates. The approach can be generally applied for antibodies that target rapidly internalizing or non-surface bound antigens. The combined use of the anti-idiotype antibody and the surrogate target cells could help evaluate clinical parameters associated with safety and efficacies, and possibly the mechanisms of action of SM03. PMID:25427174

  5. Power density improvement of bi-conductive polymer membrane fuel cells by optimization of its internal resistances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, S.; Fréchette, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the development of a new set of equations that defines the internal resistances in bi-conductive membrane (BCM) fuel cells and allows optimization of its critical dimensions and power density. Based on these equations, a design approach is proposed and fabrication steps that limit the power density of the final device are identified. The equations developed in this study can be used for any configuration and shape of holes and current collectors. It demonstrates that by improving fabrication techniques used in a previous study, total internal resistance of the BCM fuel cell could be reduced by 80%, showing that this type of fuel cell could potentially deliver very high power density compared to standard PEMFCs.

  6. BODIPY-labeled DC-SIGN-targeting glycodendrons efficiently internalize and route to lysosomes in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Viana, Renato; García-Vallejo, Juan J; Collado, Daniel; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Bloem, Karien; van Kooyk, Yvette; Rojo, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Glycodendrons bearing nine copies of mannoses or fucoses have been prepared by an efficient convergent strategy based on Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). These glycodendrons present a well-defined structure and have an adequate size and shape to interact efficiently with the C-type lectin DC-SIGN. We have selected a BODIPY derivative to label these glycodendrons due to its interesting physical and chemical properties as chromophore. These BODIPY-labeled glycodendrons were internalized into dendritic cells by mean of DC-SIGN. The internalized mannosylated and fucosylated dendrons are colocalized with LAMP1, which suggests routing to lysosomes. The interaction of these glycodendrons with DC-SIGN at the surface of dendritic cells did not induce maturation of the cells. Signaling analysis by checking different cytokines indicated also the lack of induction the expression of inflammatory and noninflammatory cytokines by these second generation glycodendrons. PMID:22920925

  7. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creixell, Mar; Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Pérez-Torres, Marianela; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  8. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis patients is safe and effective: results after implementation of international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Aldenhoven, Mieke; Jones, Simon A; Bonney, Denise; Borrill, Roisin E; Coussons, Mary; Mercer, Jean; Bierings, Marc B; Versluys, Birgitta; van Hasselt, Peter M; Wijburg, Frits A; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Wynn, Robert F; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-06-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only treatment able to prevent progressive neurodegenerative disease in a selected group of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders. However, its use was historically limited by the high risk of graft failure and transplantation-related morbidity and mortality. Therefore, since 2005 new international HCT guidelines for MPS disorders were proposed. The survival and graft outcomes of MPS patients receiving HCT according to these guidelines in 2 European centers of expertise were evaluated. Two consecutive conditioning regimens were used, busulfan/cyclophosphamide or fludarabine/busulfan-based, both with exposure-targeted i.v. busulfan. A noncarrier matched sibling donor (MSD), matched unrelated cord blood (UCB), or matched unrelated donor (MUD) were considered to be preferred donors. If not available, a mismatched UCB donor was used. Participants were 62 MPS patients (56 MPS type I-Hurler, 2 MPS type II, 2 MPS type III, and 2 MPS type VI) receiving HCT at median age 13.5 months (range, 3 to 44). Forty-one patients received a UCB donor, 17 MSD, and 4 MUD. High overall survival (95.2%) and event-free survival (90.3%) were achieved with only low toxicity: 13.3% acute graft-versus-host disease aGVHD) grades II to IV and 14.8% chronic GVHD (1.9% extensive). A mismatched donor predicted for lower event-free survival (P = .04). A higher age at HCT was a predictor for both aGVHD (P = .001) and chronic GVHD (P = .01). The use of a mismatched donor was a predictor for aGVHD (P = .01). Higher rates of full-donor chimerism were achieved in successfully transplanted UCB recipients compared with MSD/MUD (P = .002). If complying with the international HCT guidelines, HCT in MPS patients results in high safety and efficacy. This allows extension of HCT to more attenuated MPS types. Because a younger age at HCT is associated with reduction of HCT-related toxicity, newborn screening may further increase safety. PMID:25708213

  9. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-14

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells. PMID:26796318

  10. Structural/functional relationships between internal and external MSH receptors: modulation of expression in Cloudman melanoma cells by UVB radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, A.K.; Orlow, S.J.; Bolognia, J.L.; Pawelek, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Expression of internal receptors for MSH is an important criterion for responsiveness to MSH by Cloudman melanoma cells. Here, we show that internal and external receptors for MSH are of identical molecular weights (50-53 kDa) and share common antigenic determinants, indicating a structural relationship between the 2 populations of molecules. The internal receptors co-purified with a sub-cellular fraction highly enriched for small vesicles, many of which were coated. Ultraviolet B light (UVB) acted synergistically with MSH to increase tyrosinase activity and melanin content of cultured Cloudman melanoma cells, consistent with previous findings in the skin of mice and guinea pigs. Preceding the rise in tyrosinase activity in cultured cells, UVB elicited a decrease in internal MSH binding sites and a concomitant increase in external sites. The time frame for the UVB effects on MSH receptors and melanogenesis, 48 hours, was similar to that for a response to solar radiation in humans. Together, the results indicate a key role for MSH receptors in the induction of melanogenesis by UVB and suggest a potential mechanism of action for UVB: redistribution of MSH receptors with a resultant increase in cellular responsiveness to MSH.

  11. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mutant library for tuning expression level of multiple genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Esther Y C; Ho, Steven C L; Mariati; Song, Zhiwei; Bi, Xuezhi; Bardor, Muriel; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    A set of mutated Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements with varying strengths is generated by mutating the translation initiation codons of 10(th), 11(th), and 12(th) AUG to non-AUG triplets. They are able to control the relative expression of multiple genes over a wide range in mammalian cells in both transient and stable transfections. The relative strength of each IRES mutant remains similar in different mammalian cell lines and is not gene specific. The expressed proteins have correct molecular weights. Optimization of light chain over heavy chain expression by these IRES mutants enhances monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in stable transfections. Uses of this set of IRES mutants can be extended to other applications such as synthetic biology, investigating interactions between proteins and its complexes, cell engineering, multi-subunit protein production, gene therapy, and reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells. PMID:24349195

  12. An Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) Mutant Library for Tuning Expression Level of Multiple Genes in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Esther Y. C.; Ho, Steven C. L.; Mariati; Song, Zhiwei; Bi, Xuezhi; Bardor, Muriel; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    A set of mutated Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements with varying strengths is generated by mutating the translation initiation codons of 10th, 11th, and 12th AUG to non-AUG triplets. They are able to control the relative expression of multiple genes over a wide range in mammalian cells in both transient and stable transfections. The relative strength of each IRES mutant remains similar in different mammalian cell lines and is not gene specific. The expressed proteins have correct molecular weights. Optimization of light chain over heavy chain expression by these IRES mutants enhances monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in stable transfections. Uses of this set of IRES mutants can be extended to other applications such as synthetic biology, investigating interactions between proteins and its complexes, cell engineering, multi-subunit protein production, gene therapy, and reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells. PMID:24349195

  13. RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Telias, G.; Day, K.; Dietrich, P.

    2011-01-01

    Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends in fuel cell vehicle technology and related policy. The technological description includes trends in system configuration as well as a review of the most relevant components including the fuel cell stack, batteries, and hydrogen storage. Results from fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects around the world and an overview of the successful implementation of fuel cells in specific transport niche markets will also be discussed. The final section of this report provides a detailed description of national research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts worldwide.

  14. Effects of niacin on Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells by modulating NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Fu, Yunhe; Zhou, Ershun; Tian, Yuan; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Niacin is a precursor of coenzymes NAD and NADP and plays a critical role in electron transfer during the metabolic process. In addition to its nutrimental function, niacin has long been used for the treatment of lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of niacin on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) remains unclear. Here we sought to examine the effect of niacin on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and to investigate the potential mechanism. In this study, the growth of S. aureus supplemented with niacin (0.5-2 mM) was monitored turbidimetrically at 600 nm for 24 h and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Gentamicin protection assay was carried out to determine the effect of niacin on S. aureus internalization into bMEC. To determine the potential mechanism, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and β-defensin (BNBD5) expressions were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that niacin (0.5-2 mM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability, whereas it inhibits S. aureus internalization ranging from 13% to 42% and down-regulated the mRNA expression of TAP and BNBD5 compared to the control group. No exactly relationship was discovered between S. aureus internalization into bMEC and antimicrobial peptide expression, while niacin inhibited S. aureus-induced NF-κB activation in a dose manner. These dates suggest that inhibiting NF-κB activation may be the potential mechanism of niacin on modulating S. aureus internalization into bMEC. PMID:24727647

  15. Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

    1985-03-01

    Incubation of (/sup 35/S)heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of /sup 35/S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular (/sup 35/S)heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free (/sup 35/S)sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading (/sup 35/S)heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule.

  16. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration

    PubMed Central

    Šantrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Šimková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Methods Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. 13C abundance (δ13C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. Key Results SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. Conclusions It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci–SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. PMID:24825295

  17. Immunoglobulins from scleroderma patients inhibit the muscarinic receptor activation in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagmohan; Mehendiratta, Vaibhav; Del Galdo, Francesco; Jimenez, Sergio A.; Cohen, Sidney; DiMarino, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) IgGs affecting the M3-muscarinic receptor (M3-R) have been proposed to be responsible for the gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in this disease. However, the effect of SSc IgGs on smooth muscle cell (SMC) function has not been studied. We determined the effect of SSc IgGs on the muscarinic receptor activation by bethanechol (BeCh; methyl derivate of carbachol) in SMC and smooth muscle strips from rat internal anal sphincter. IgGs were purified from GI-symptomatic SSc patients and normal volunteers, with protein G-Sepharose columns. SMC lengths were determined via computerized digital micrometry. The presence of M3-R and IgG-M3-R complex was determined by Western blot. IgGs from SSc patients but not from normal volunteers caused significant and concentration-dependent inhibition of BeCh response (P < 0.05). The maximal shortening of 22.2 ± 1.2% caused by 10−4 M BeCh was significantly attenuated to 8.3 ± 1.2% by 1 mg/ml of SSc IgGs (P < 0.05). Experiments performed in smooth muscle strips revealed a similar effect of SSc IgG that was fully reversible. In contrast to the effect on BeCh, the SSc IgGs caused no significant effect (P > 0.05) on K+ depolarization and α1-adrenoceptor activation by phenylephrine. Western blot studies revealed the specific presence of SSc IgG-M3-R complex. SSc IgGs attenuated M3-R activation, which was reversible with antibody removal. These data suggest that SSc GI dysmotility may be caused by autoantibodies that inhibit the muscarinic neurotransmission. Future treatment of SSc patients may be directed at the removal or neutralization of these antibodies. PMID:19779020

  18. Farrerol regulates antimicrobial peptide expression and reduces Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Ershun; Liu, Zhicheng; Song, Xiaojing; Li, Depeng; Zhang, Naisheng

    2013-12-01

    Mastitis, defined as inflammation of the mammary gland, is an infectious disease with a major economic influence on dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a common gram-positive pathogen that frequently causes subclinical, chronic infection of the mammary gland in dairy cows. Farrerol, a traditional Chinese medicine isolated from rhododendron, has been shown to have anti-bacterial activity. However, the effect of farrerol on S. aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of farrerol on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus. The expression of antimicrobial peptide genes by bMEC were assessed in the presence or absence of S. aureus infection. Our results demonstrated that farrerol (4-16 μg/ml) reduced > 55% the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC. We also found that farrerol was able to down-regulate the mRNA expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil β-defensin 5 (BNBD5) in bMEC infected with S. aureus. The Nitric oxide (NO) production of bMEC after S. aureus stimulation was decreased by farrerol treatment. Furthermore, farrerol treatment suppressed S. aureus-induced NF-κB activation in bMEC. These results demonstrated that farrerol modulated TAP and BNBD5 gene expression in mammary gland, enhances bMEC defense against S. aureus infection and could be useful in protection against bovine mastitis. PMID:24036182

  19. Hydrogen produced from ethanol for internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, S.; Mondello, N.; Freni, S.

    Ethanol is proposed as alternative fuel for the indirect internal reformer of molten carbonate fuel cells (IIR-MCFCs). At MCFCs working conditions ( T=923 K and P=1 bar), both Rh- and Co-based catalysts have been tested using diluted ethanol/water mixture. The steam/carbon ratio of the feed was selected close to 4.2 mol/mol, in the aim to simulate the composition of ethanol/water mixture produced from biomasses. A good performance on Rh-based catalysts was reached for a sample containing 5 wt.% of Rh on Al 2O 3, while Co-based catalysts were suitable only for higher loading of active phase (i.e. 20 wt.%). The supports influence has been also investigated as well as different behavior was been found as a function of their nature. In fact, while Rh (5 wt.%) doped Al 2O 3 seems to be stable and active catalyst, the Co (20 wt.%)/Al 2O 3 decays in short time because of coke deposition. The MgO represents a more suitable support for Co catalyst because of its lower acidity with respect to Al 2O 3. Samples of Co (20 wt.%)/MgO catalysts have been found more stable than Co/Al 2O 3 (low coke formation) and reached performance levels comparable to that of Rh/Al 2O 3. Although Co/MgO required higher contact times than Rh/Al 2O 3, to be used in IIR-MCFCs, it represents an interesting and cheaper alternative to noble metal (Rh).

  20. Pegylated siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle-driven amplification of cancer cell internalization in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Lisa A.; Xie, Yili; Tsokos, Maria; Chung, Su I.; Merz, Allison A.; Arnold, Michael A.; Li, Guang; Malech, Harry L.; Kwong, King F.

    2013-01-01

    The cell membrane is a critical barrier to effective delivery for many therapeutics, including those which are nanoparticle-based. Improving nanoparticle transport across the cell membrane remains a fundamental challenge. Cancer cells preferentially internalized pegylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles over normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, non-cytotoxic levels of doxorubicin markedly amplified this difference by increasing free unbound caveolin-1 and resulted in enhanced caveolin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis in cancer cells. Engineered pegylated siRNA-loaded triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoconstructs incorporating ultra-low levels of doxorubicin recapitulated these effects and delivered increased numbers of siRNA into cancer cells with target-specific results. Systemic administration of nanoparticles in vivo demonstrated highly preferential entry into tumors, little bystander organ biodistribution, and significant tumor growth arrest. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating non-cytotoxic amounts of doxorubicin markedly enhances nanoparticle internalization and results in increased payload delivery with concomitant on-target effects. PMID:23369215

  1. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08345a

  2. Investigation of low-temperature fixed points by an international star intercomparison of sealed triple-point cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellmuth, B.; Wolber, L.; Head, D. I.; Hermier, Y.; Hill, K. D.; Nakano, T.; Pavese, F.; Peruzzi, A.; Rusby, R. L.; Shkraba, V.; Steele, A. G.; Steur, P. P. M.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Tew, W. L.; Wang, L.; White, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    An overview of the results of an international star intercomparison of low-temperature fixed points is given. Between 1997 and 2005, 68 sealed triple-point cells (STPCs) of the twelve laboratories represented by the authors were investigated at PTB. The STPCs are used to realize the triple points of hydrogen, neon, oxygen and argon as defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990, ITS-90. The melting curves (MCs) of all STPCs have been measured on the same experimental equipment, adhering strictly to a single measurement program. This protocol enables separation of the effects influencing the MCs and direct comparison of the thermal behaviour of the STPCs, which are quite different with respect to design, age, gas source and filling technology. In the paper, special emphasis is given to the spread of the liquidus-point temperatures and to the uncertainty of their determination. Connections between the star intercomparison and completed and ongoing international activities are also discussed.

  3. Surface Phosphatidylserine Is Responsible for the Internalization on Microvesicles Derived from Hypoxia-Induced Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaozhong; Wang, Lisheng; Xiao, Fengjun; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous data have proven that microvesicles derived from hypoxia-induced mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-MVs) can be internalized into endothelial cells, enhancing their proliferation and vessel structure formation and promoting in vivo angiogenesis. However, there is a paucity of information about how the MSC-MVs are up-taken by endothelial cells. Methods MVs were prepared from the supernatants of human bone marrow MSCs that had been exposed to a hypoxic and/or serum-deprivation condition. The incorporation of hypoxia-induced MSC-MVs into human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) was observed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in the presence or absence of recombinant human Annexin-V (Anx-V) and antibodies against human CD29 and CD44. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted at Anx-V and PSR was delivered into HUVECs, or HUVECs were treated with a monoclonal antibody against phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) and the cellular internalization of MVs was re-assessed. Results The addition of exogenous Anx-V could inhibit the uptake of MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells by HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the anti-CD29 and CD44 antibodies had no effect on the internalization process. The suppression was neither observed in Anx-V siRNA-transfected HUVECs, however, addition of anti-PSR antibody and PSR siRNA-transfected HUVECs greatly blocked the incorporation of MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells into HUVECs. Conclusion PS on the MVs isolated from hypoxia-induced stem cells is the critical molecule in the uptake by HUVECs. PMID:26808539

  4. Internalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles induces transient but not sufficient osteogenic signals in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.-M. Chung, T.-H.; Hung, Y.; Lu, F.; Wu, S.-H.; Mou, C.-Y.; Yao, M.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2008-09-01

    The biocompatibility of nanoparticles is the prerequisite for their applications in biomedicine but can be misleading due to the absence of criteria for evaluating the safety and toxicity of those nanomaterials. Recent studies indicate that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can easily internalize into human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) without apparent deleterious effects on cellular growth or differentiation, and hence are emerging as an ideal stem cell labeling agent. The objective of this study was to thoroughly investigate the effect of MSNs on osteogenesis induction and to examine their biocompatibility in hMSCs. Uptake of MSNs into hMSCs did not affect the cell viability, proliferation and regular osteogenic differentiation of the cells. However, the internalization of MSNs indeed induced actin polymerization and activated the small GTP-bound protein RhoA. The MSN-induced cellular protein responses as believed to cause osteogenesis of hMSCs did not result in promotion of regular osteogenic differentiation as analyzed by cytochemical stain and protein activity assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). When the effect of MSNs on ALP gene expression was further examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, MSN-treated hMSCs were shown to have significantly higher mRNA expression than control cells after 1-hour osteogenic induction. The induction of ALP gene expression by MSNs, however, was absent in cells after 1-day incubation with osteogenic differentiation. Together our results show that the internalization of MSNs had a significant effect on the transient protein response and osteogenic signal in hMSCs, thereby suggesting that the effects of nanoparticles on diverse aspects of cellular activities should be carefully evaluated even though the nanoparticles are generally considered as biocompatible at present.

  5. Internal lipid synthesis and vesicle growth as a step toward self-reproduction of the minimal cell

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    One of the major properties of the semi-synthetic minimal cell, as a model for early living cells, is the ability to self-reproduce itself, and the reproduction of the boundary layer or vesicle compartment is part of this process. A minimal bio-molecular mechanism based on the activity of one single enzyme, the FAS-B (Fatty Acid Synthase) Type I enzyme from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, is encapsulated in 1-palmitoyl-2oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes to control lipid synthesis. Consequently molecules of palmitic acid released from the FAS catalysis, within the internal lumen, move toward the membrane compartment and become incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer. As a result the vesicle membranes change in lipid composition and liposome growth can be monitored. Here we report the first experiments showing vesicles growth by catalysis of one enzyme only that produces cell boundary from within. This is the prototype of the simplest autopoietic minimal cell. PMID:19957048

  6. Antibody to Ricin A Chain Hinders Intracellular Routing of Toxin and Protects Cells Even after Toxin Has Been Internalized

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kejing; Mize, R. Ranney; Marrero, Luis; Corti, Miriam; Kirk, Jason M.; Pincus, Seth H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization are of much interest. For plant and bacterial A-B toxins, A chain mediates toxicity and B chain binds target cells. It is generally accepted and taught that antibody (Ab) neutralizes by preventing toxin binding to cells. Yet for some toxins, ricin included, anti-A chain Abs afford greater protection than anti-B. The mechanism(s) whereby Abs to the A chain neutralize toxins are not understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We use quantitative confocal imaging, neutralization assays, and other techniques to study how anti-A chain Abs function to protect cells. Without Ab, ricin enters cells and penetrates to the endoplasmic reticulum within 15 min. Within 45–60 min, ricin entering and being expelled from cells reaches equilibrium. These results are consistent with previous observations, and support the validity of our novel methodology. The addition of neutralizing Ab causes ricin accumulation at the cell surface, delays internalization, and postpones retrograde transport of ricin. Ab binds ricin for >6hr as they traffic together through the cell. Ab protects cells even when administered hours after exposure. Conclusions/Key Findings We demonstrate the dynamic nature of the interaction between the host cell and toxin, and how Ab can alter the balance in favor of the cell. Ab blocks ricin’s entry into cells, hinders its intracellular routing, and can protect even after ricin is present in the target organelle, providing evidence that the major site of neutralization is intracellular. These data add toxins to the list of pathogenic agents that can be neutralized intracellularly and explain the in vivo efficacy of delayed administration of anti-toxin Abs. The results encourage the use of post-exposure passive Ab therapy, and show the importance of the A chain as a target of Abs. PMID:23638075

  7. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  8. Internalization of anti-nucleolin antibody into viable HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, J S; Ballou, B; Hofmeister, J K

    1996-01-01

    Anti-nucleolin antibodies have been detected in patients with systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD) including systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In vivo bound autoantibodies to nucleoli of epidermal keratinocytes have been demonstrated in skin from patients with SCTD. In this study, monoclonal antibody to nucleolin (D-3) was used to determine the distribution of nucleolin in different culture cells including HEp-2, HepG2, HRCC, Molt-4 and Wil2 cells. Nucleolin was found to be present on the surface of HEp-2 and HepG2 cells, but not on the surface of HRCC and lymphoblastoid (Molt-4 and Wil2) cells; in contrast, nucleolin was detected in the nucleoli of all permeabilized cells examined. In immunoprecipitation, using extracts from 32P-labeled HEp-2 cells as antigenic source, cell membrane as well as nuclear nucleolins were found to be phosphorylated with a molecular weight of 105 kDa. Viable HEp-2 and HepG2 cells were cocultured with IgG fraction of D-3 in a CO2 incubator for 1 to 24 h, and then permeabilized with acetone followed by immunofluorescence staining with FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Nucleolar staining was observed in cells after 10 h or longer of coculture. These data indicated that D-3 antibody reacted with cell membrane nucleolin and subsequently gain access into cells in a process related to pinocytosis. PMID:9112228

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for receptor internalization: studies in 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, J.M.; Kahn, C.R.; White, M.F.

    1989-05-01

    The relation between insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor and internalization of the receptor was studied in Fao rat hepatoma cells. Treatment of Fao cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol for 45 min depleted cellular ATP by 80% and equally inhibited insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation, as determined by immunoprecipitation of surface-iodinated or (/sup 32/P)phosphate-labeled cells with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. In contrast, internalization of the insulin receptor and internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin by 2,4-dinitrophenol-treated cells were normal. These data show that autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor is not required for the receptor-mediated internalization of insulin in Fao cells and suggest that insulin receptor recycling is independent of autophosphorylation.

  10. Photochemical internalization (PCI) of immunotoxins targeting CD133 is specific and highly potent at femtomolar levels in cells with cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Bostad, Monica; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Skarpen, Ellen; Stenmark, Harald; Selbo, Pål K

    2013-06-28

    CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for a number of different cancers and is suggested to be a therapeutic target. Since also normal stem cells express CD133 it is of paramount importance that targeting strategies provide a specific and efficient delivery of cytotoxic drugs in only CD133-positive CSCs. In this study, we have employed photochemical internalization (PCI), a minimally invasive method for light-controlled, specific delivery of membrane-impermeable macromolecules from endocytic vesicles to the cytosol, to specifically target CD133-positive cancer cells. We demonstrate that PCI increases the cytotoxic effect of an immunotoxin (IT) targeting CD133-expressing cancer cells of colon (WiDr and HCT116) and pancreas (BxPC-3) origin. The IT consisted of the mAb CD133/1 (AC133) bound to the ribosome inactivating plant toxin saporin (anti-CD133/1-sap). We show that TPCS2a-PCI of anti-CD133/1-sap is specific, and highly cytotoxic at femto-molar concentrations. Specific binding and uptake of CD133/1, was shown by fluorescence microscopy and co-localization with TPCS2a in endosomes/lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. CD133(high) WiDr cells, isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting, had a 7-fold higher capacity to initiate spheroids than CD133(low) cells (P<0.001) and were resistant to photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, PDT-resistance was bypassed by the PCI strategy. Tumor initiation and aggressive growth in athymic nude mice was obtained with only 10 CD133(high) cells in contrast to CD133(low) cells where substantially higher cell numbers were needed. The excellent high efficacy and selectivity of eliminating CD133-expressing cells by PCI warrant further pre-clinical evaluations of this novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23567040

  11. Pressure Regulator With Internal Ejector Circulation Pump, Flow and Pressure Measurement Porting, and Fuel Cell System Integration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An advanced reactant pressure regulator with an internal ejector reactant circulation pump has been developed to support NASA's future fuel cell power systems needs. These needs include reliable and safe operation in variable-gravity environments, and for exploration activities with both manned and un manned vehicles. This product was developed for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power plant reactant circulation systems, but the design could also be applied to other fuel cell system types, (e.g., solid-oxide or alkaline) or for other gas pressure regulation and circulation needs. The regulator design includes porting for measurement of flow and pressure at key points in the system, and also includes several fuel cell system integration options. NASA has recognized ejectors as a viable alternative to mechanical pumps for use in spacecraft fuel cell power systems. The ejector motive force is provided by a variable, high-pressure supply gas that travels through the ejector s jet nozzle, whereby the pressure energy of the fluid stream is converted to kinetic energy in the gas jet. The ejector can produce circulation-to-consumption-flow ratios that are relatively high (2-3 times), and this phenomenon can potentially (with proper consideration of the remainder of the fuel cell system s design) be used to provide completely for reactant pre-humidification and product water removal in a fuel cell system. Specifically, a custom pressure regulator has been developed that includes: (1) an ejector reactant circulation pump (with interchangeable jet nozzles and mixer sections, gas-tight sliding and static seals in required locations, and internal fluid porting for pressure-sensing at the regulator's control elements) and (2) internal fluid porting to allow for flow rate and system pressure measurements. The fluid porting also allows for inclusion of purge, relief, and vacuum-breaker check valves on the regulator assembly. In addition, this regulator could also be used with NASA's advanced nonflow-through fuel cell power systems by simply incorporating a jet nozzle with an appropriate nozzle diameter.

  12. Internalization: acute apoptosis of breast cancer cells using herceptin-immobilized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rathinaraj, Pierson; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M; Huh, Do Sung

    2015-01-01

    Herceptin, the monoclonal antibody, was successfully immobilized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to improve their precise interactions with breast cancer cells (SK-BR3). The mean size of the GNPs (29 nm), as determined by dynamic light scattering, enlarged to 82 nm after herceptin immobilization. The in vitro cell culture experiment indicated that human skin cells (FB) proliferated well in the presence of herceptin-conjugated GNP (GNP–Her), while most of the breast cancer cells (SK-BR3) had died. To elucidate the mechanism of cell death, the interaction of breast cancer cells with GNP–Her was tracked by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Consequently, GNP–Her was found to be bound precisely to the membrane of the breast cancer cell, which became almost saturated after 6 hours incubation. This shows that the progression signal of SK-BR3 cells is retarded completely by the precise binding of antibody to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptor of the breast cancer cell membrane, causing cell death. PMID:25709498

  13. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion and biofilm-producing genes and their expression during internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Elizabet A L; Picech, Florencia; Renna, María S; Baravalle, Celina; Andreotti, Carolina S; Russi, Romina; Calvinho, Luis F; Diez, Cristina; Dallard, Bibiana E

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis, causing chronic intramammary infections (IMI) that limit profitable dairying. The course of infection is often associated with factors both related to the host and the bacterium. Aims of this study were to select S. aureus isolates from bovine IMI with different genotypic profiles harboring genes involved in adherence and biofilm production, to determine the behavior of these strains in contact with bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) and the expression of those genes during bacterial-cell early interactions. The genetic diversity of 20 S. aureus strains that were isolated from milk samples taken from cows with persistent-P and non-persistent-NP IMI was high, discriminated into 13 fingerprint groups. The occurrence of genes coding for S. aureus surface proteins (clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, fib, cna) and biofilm formation (icaA, icaD, icaC, bap) and in vitro biofilm-forming ability was not related to strain clinical origin (NP or P). Internalization of S. aureus into MAC-T cells was strain-dependent and internalized bacteria overexpressed adherence and biofilm-forming genes compared with those that remained in the supernatant of co-cultures; particularly those genes encoding FnBPs and IcaD. Strains yielding highest invasion percentages were those able to overexpress fnBP, irrespectively of the presence of other evaluated genes. Strains from NP IMI showed a greater multiplication capacity in vitro compared with strains from P IMI. These results provide new insights about S. aureus differential gene expression of adhesion-internalization factors during early interaction with mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26790937

  14. Efficient internalization of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes by primary human macrophages and dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzmann, Andrea; Andersson, Britta; Vogt, Carmen; Feliu, Neus; Ye Fei; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Laurent, Sophie; Vahter, Marie; Krug, Harald; Muhammed, Mamoun; Scheynius, Annika; Fadeel, Bengt

    2011-06-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are being considered for a wide range of biomedical applications, from magnetic resonance imaging to 'smart' drug delivery systems. The development of novel nanomaterials for biomedical applications must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of their biocompatibility. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the possible interactions between nanoparticles and cells of the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. On the other hand, labeling of immune cells serves as an ideal tool for visualization, diagnosis or treatment of inflammatory processes, which requires the efficient internalization of the nanoparticles into the cells of interest. Here, we compare novel monodispersed silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with commercially available dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles displayed excellent magnetic properties. Furthermore, they were non-toxic to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages at all doses tested whereas dose-dependent toxicity of the smaller silica-coated nanoparticles (30 nm and 50 nm) was observed for primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not for the similarly small dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. No macrophage or dendritic cell secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed upon administration of nanoparticles. The silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were taken up to a significantly higher degree when compared to the dextran-coated nanoparticles, irrespective of size. Cellular internalization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was through an active, actin cytoskeleton-dependent process. We conclude that these novel silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for medical imaging, cell tracking and other biomedical applications.

  15. Capsaicin induces NKCC1 internalization and inhibits chloride secretion in colonic epithelial cells independently of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Patrice G; Tang, Xu; Weber, Christopher R; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-15

    Colonic chloride secretion is regulated via the neurohormonal and immune systems. Exogenous chemicals (e.g., butyrate, propionate) can affect chloride secretion. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the chili peppers, exerts various effects on gastrointestinal function. Capsaicin is known to activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), expressed in the mesenteric nervous system. Recent studies have also demonstrated its presence in epithelial cells but its role remains uncertain. Because capsaicin has been reported to inhibit colonic chloride secretion, we tested whether this effect of capsaicin could occur by direct action on epithelial cells. In mouse colon and model T84 human colonic epithelial cells, we found that capsaicin inhibited forskolin-dependent short-circuit current (FSK-I(sc)). Using PCR and Western blot, we demonstrated the presence of TRPV1 in colonic epithelial cells. In T84 cells, TRPV1 localized at the basolateral membrane and in vesicular compartments. In permeabilized monolayers, capsaicin activated apical chloride conductance, had no effect on basolateral potassium conductance, but induced NKCC1 internalization demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and basolateral surface biotinylation. AMG-9810, a potent inhibitor of TRPV1, did not prevent the inhibition of the FSK-I(sc) by capsaicin. Neither resiniferatoxin nor N-oleoyldopamine, two selective agonists of TRPV1, blocked the FSK-I(sc). Conversely capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and N-oleoyldopamine raised intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in T84 cells and AMG-9810 blocked the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by capsaicin and resiniferatoxin suggesting the presence of a functional TRPV1 channel. We conclude that capsaicin inhibits chloride secretion in part by causing NKCC1 internalization, but by a mechanism that appears to be independent of TRPV1. PMID:23139219

  16. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19+CD20+GM-CSF+ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19+CD20+GM-CSF- B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM+IgD+, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils. PMID:26066485

  17. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) differentially regulates antimicrobial peptide expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells: implications during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Pérez, Ana Dolores; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory functions regulating the expression of host defense genes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and antimicrobial peptide (AP) mRNA expression. Cholecalciferol (1-200 nM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability; but it reduced bacterial internalization into bMEC (15-74%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all AP genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. Cholecalciferol alone or together with bacteria diminished tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil β-defensin (BNBD) 5 mRNA expression; while alone induced the expression of lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), bovine β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and bovine psoriasin (S100A7), which was inhibited in the presence of S. aureus. This compound (50 nM) increased BNBD10 mRNA expression coinciding with the greatest reduction in S. aureus internalization. Genes of vitamin D pathway (25-hydroxylase and 1 α-hydroxylase) show basal expression, which was induced by cholecalciferol or bacteria. S. aureus induced vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression, but not in the presence of cholecalciferol. In conclusion, cholecalciferol can reduce S. aureus internalization and differentially regulates AP expression in bMEC. Thus, vitamin D could be an effective innate immunity modulator in mammary gland, which leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. PMID:22655972

  18. Effects of Soothing Liver and Invigorating Spleen Recipes on the IKKβ-NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Kupffer Cells of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiang-Wen; Xu, Yong-Jian; Yang, Qin-He; Liang, Yin-Ji; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Wang, Guan-Long; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of soothing liver and invigorating spleen recipes on steatohepatitis examining the IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway in KCs of NASH rats. SD male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups, and the NASH model was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). After 26 weeks, liver tissue was examined in H&E stained sections and liver function was monitored biochemically. KCs were isolated by Seglen's method, with some modifications. The mRNA and protein expression of the IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway components was examined by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The results show that the high-fat diet induced NASH in the rats, and the soothing liver recipe and invigorating spleen recipe decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in KCs, as well as inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of the IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway components. In conclusion, the experiment indicated the importance of the IKKβ-NF-κB signaling pathway in KCs for the anti-inflammatory effects of the soothing liver and invigorating spleen recipes. PMID:26504479

  19. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease: indications and management recommendations from an international expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Angelucci, Emanuele; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Baronciani, Donatella; Bernaudin, Françoise; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giardini, Claudio; Gluckman, Eliane; Hussein, Ayad Achmed; Kamani, Naynesh; Minkov, Milen; Locatelli, Franco; Rocha, Vanderson; Sedlacek, Petr; Smiers, Frans; Thuret, Isabelle; Yaniv, Isaac; Cavazzana, Marina; Peters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia major and sickle cell disease are the two most widely disseminated hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the world. The outlook for affected individuals has improved in recent years due to advances in medical management in the prevention and treatment of complications. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been increasing, and outcomes today have substantially improved compared with the past three decades. Current experience world-wide is that more than 90% of patients now survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and disease-free survival is around 80%. However, only a few controlled trials have been reported, and decisions on patient selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management remain principally dependent on data from retrospective analyses and on the clinical experience of the transplant centers. This consensus document from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Inborn Error Working Party and the Paediatric Diseases Working Party aims to report new data and provide consensus-based recommendations on indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management. PMID:24790059

  20. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help meeting the increasing energy demand. Power output of the P-MFC, however, needs to be increased to make it attractive as a renewable and sustainable energy source. To increase power output of the P-MFC internal resistances need to be reduced. With a flat-plate P-MFC design we tried to minimize internal resistances compared to the previously used tubular P-MFC design. With the flat-plate design current and power density per geometric planting area were increased (from 0.15 A/m2 to 1.6 A/m2 and from 0.22 W/m2 to and 0.44 W/m2)as were current and power output per volume (from 7.5 A/m3 to 122 A/m3 and from 1.3 W/m3 to 5.8 W/m3). Internal resistances times volume were decreased, even though internal resistances times membrane surface area were not. Since the membrane in the flat-plate design is placed vertically, membrane surface area per geometric planting area is increased, which allows for lower internal resistances times volume while not decreasing internal resistances times membrane surface area. Anode was split into three different sections on different depths of the system, allowing to calculate internal resistances on different depths. Most electricity was produced where internal resistances were lowest and where most roots were present; in the top section of the system. By measuring electricity production on different depths in the system, electricity production could be linked to root growth. This link offers opportunities for material-reduction in new designs. Concurrent reduction in material use and increase in power output brings the P-MFC a step closer to usable energy density and economic feasibility. PMID:22998846

  1. Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, H.; Schaefer, T.; Korsching, S.; Thoenen, H.

    1982-06-01

    The intracellular distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of /sup 125/I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that /sup 125/I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with /sup 125/I-NGF. /sup 125/I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter, about 60% of the cell-bound /sup 125/I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and /sup 125/I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action.

  2. Protein corona on magnetite nanoparticles and internalization of nanoparticle-protein complexes into healthy and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Lai, Kuilin; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) of different surface properties are incubated in complicated living fluid, including fetal bovine serum solution, cell complete culture medium and cell culture system with/without serum, to investigate the alteration of protein corona and its impact on cell internalization. The MNPs prepared by co-precipitation method are functionalized with L-Lysine (Lys), Glucosamic acid (GA) to obtain amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, separately. All the particles adsorb serum proteins to form MNPs-protein complexes with the surface charge changing into negative. 1D SDS/PAGE gel images analysis indicates that the composition and content of hard protein corona on the surface of NPs are related to their functional groups and agglomeration, and the total amount of protein in the medium. In cell culture system, particles not only adsorb serum proteins, but also associate with cytosolic proteins arising from HepG2 and L02 cells. GA modified MNPs (MNPs-GA) exhibit bovine serum albumin anti-adsorption capability because of the terminal hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. MNPs-GA also shows the highest cellular uptake and label efficiency compared with uncoated MNPs and Lys modified MNPs, due to larger aggregates formation and specific protein corona composition, rather than commonly approved electrostatic interaction between particles and cells. For the first time, our results provide visualized reports on previously neglected, but indispensable protein corona of the MNPs after interaction with both healthy and cancer cells, suggesting that cytosolic protein corona from cells and aggregation of particles are important factors needed to be account for on studying the nano-bio interface. PMID:24310098

  3. Reversible and Irreversible Adhesion of Motile Escherichia coli Cells Analyzed by Total Internal Reflection Aqueous Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vigeant, Margot A.-S.; Ford, Roseanne M.; Wagner, Michael; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2002-01-01

    The initial events in bacterial adhesion are often explained as resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals forces between the cell and the surface, as described by DLVO theory (developed by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek). Such a theory predicts that negatively charged bacteria will experience greater attraction toward a negatively charged surface as the ionic strength of the medium is increased. In the present study we observed both smooth-swimming and nonmotile Escherichia coli bacteria close to plain, positively, and hydrophobically coated quartz surfaces in high- and low-ionic-strength media by using total internal reflection aqueous fluorescence microscopy. We found that reversibly adhering cells (cells which continue to swim along the surface for extended periods) are too distant from the surface for this behavior to be explained by DLVO-type forces. However, cells which had become immobilized on the surface did seem to be affected by electrostatic interactions. We propose that the “force” holding swimming cells near the surface is actually the result of a hydrodynamic effect, causing the cells to swim at an angle along the glass, and that DLVO-type forces are responsible only for the observed immobilization of irreversibly adhering cells. We explain our observations within the context of a conceptual model in which bacteria that are interacting with the surface may be thought of as occupying one of three compartments: bulk fluid, near-surface bulk, and near-surface constrained. A cell in these compartments feels either no effect of the surface, only the hydrodynamic effect of the surface, or both the hydrodynamic and the physicochemical effects of the surface, respectively. PMID:12039734

  4. S1PR4 Signaling Attenuates ILT 7 Internalization To Limit IFN-α Production by Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dillmann, Christina; Ringel, Christian; Ringleb, Julia; Mora, Javier; Olesch, Catherine; Fink, Annika F; Roberts, Edward; Brüne, Bernhard; Weigert, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large amounts of type I IFN in response to TLR7/9 ligands. This conveys antiviral effects, activates other immune cells (NK cells, conventional DCs, B, and T cells), and causes the induction and expansion of a strong inflammatory response. pDCs are key players in various type I IFN-driven autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or psoriasis, but pDCs are also involved in (anti-)tumor immunity. The sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signals through five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate, among other activities, immune cell migration and activation. The present study shows that S1P stimulation of human, primary pDCs substantially decreases IFN-α production after TLR7/9 activation with different types of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, which occurred in an S1PR4-dependent manner. Mechanistically, S1PR4 activation preserves the surface expression of the human pDC-specific inhibitory receptor Ig-like transcript 7. We provide novel information that Ig-like transcript 7 is rapidly internalized upon receptor-mediated endocytosis of TLR7/9 ligands to allow high IFN-α production. This is antagonized by S1PR4 signaling, thus decreasing TLR-induced IFN-α secretion. At a functional level, attenuated IFN-α production failed to alter Ag-driven T cell proliferation in pDC-dependent T cell activation assays, but shifted cytokine production of T cells from a Th1 (IFN-γ) to a regulatory (IL-10) profile. In conclusion, S1PR4 agonists block human pDC activation and may therefore be a promising tool to restrict pathogenic IFN-α production. PMID:26783340

  5. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia Strain 17 Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain Protein AdpF with Eukaryotic Cells Promotes Bacterial Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Miyazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells. PMID:24711565

  6. Detection of DNA Damage by Space Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells Flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Beno, Jonathan; Countryman, Stefanie; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the early discovery of the Van Allen Belt, reports on effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation has been difficult due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and the difficulty in separating the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a small number of changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, attributed primarily to the exposure to space radiation. In a recent experiment, human fibroblast cells were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells fixed on Days 3 and 14 after reaching orbit were analyzed for phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX by immunofluorescent staining of cells, which is a widely used marker for DNA double strand breaks. The 3-dimensional gamma-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed a small fraction of foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern in the flight samples in comparison to the ground control. Human fibroblast cells were also exposed to low dose rate gamma rays, as well as to protons and Fe ions. Comparison of the pattern and distribution of the foci after gamma ray and charged particle exposure to our flight results confirmed that the foci found in the flown cells were indeed induced by space radiation.

  7. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Jada, Ajit S; Shrivastava, Raj K; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature. PMID:26251814

  8. Immunological characterization of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells--The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) working proposal.

    PubMed

    Krampera, Mauro; Galipeau, Jacques; Shi, Yufang; Tarte, Karin; Sensebe, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immune regulatory properties and are already used for clinical purposes, although preclinical data (both in vitro and in vivo in animal models) are not always homogeneous and unequivocal. However, the various MSC-based clinical approaches to treat immunological diseases would be significantly validated and strengthened by using standardized immune assays aimed at obtaining shared, reproducible and consistent data. Thus, the MSC Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy has decided to put forward for general discussion a working proposal for a standardized approach based on a critical view of literature data. PMID:23602578

  9. Rare Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in the Internal Auditory Canal: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jada, Ajit S.; Shrivastava, Raj K.; Mannan, Abul; Kobets, Andrew; Manolidis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor that usually involves the end of long bones. It is a relatively common neoplasm in patients, constituting 5 to 10% of all benign bone tumors. Approximately 2% of GCTs occur in the craniofacial skeleton with a predilection for the ethmoid, sphenoid, and temporal bones. The skull base location is unique and not commonly described. Hearing loss, headache, tinnitus, and subcutaneous masses are the most commonly reported symptoms in GCTs of the skull base. In this case report we present the first description of a GCT within the internal auditory canal causing cranial neuropathy and review the recent pertinent literature. PMID:26251814

  10. [Structural organization of the tubular system of the internal renal medulla interstitial cells].

    PubMed

    Anavi, B; Dragiev, M

    1981-01-01

    The tubular system of renal medulla interstitial cells includes multitubular complexes, mucrotubules and megatubules. Multitubular complexes are compact masses consisting of dozens of crosscut thin-walled tubular lumens. Megatubules are 2500 A in diameter, up to 5.25 micron in length, with the wall 120 A thick, and are grouped into bundles consisting of 3 to 44 megatubules. The elements of the tubular system have contacts with cell membrane pores, with each other, with parts of vesicles, lipid granules and with the nuclear membrane. It is assumed that megatubules are formed of tubuline. There are reasons to associate their appearance with the necessity of enzymatic transformation of granules of interstitial cells reaching a critical mass, the cells containing prostaglandine precursors. Megatubules become atrophied when prostaglandine-synthetase is inhibited by indometacine. PMID:7236026

  11. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress. PMID:26846246

  12. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Hager, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  13. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  14. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Is Expressed in Mesenteric Mesothelial Cells and Is Internalized in Caveolae upon Freund's Adjuvant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Petra; Szabó, Arnold; Katz, Sándor; Likó, István; Patócs, Attila; L.Kiss, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of epithelial cells into connective tissue cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT) is a complex mechanism involved in tumor metastasis, and in normal embryogenesis, while type II EMT is mainly associated with inflammatory events and tissue regenaration. In this study we examined type II EMT at the ultrastructural and molecular level during the inflammatory process induced by Freund's adjuvant treatment in rat mesenteric mesothelial cells. We found that upon the inflammatory stimulus mesothelial cells lost contact with the basal lamina and with each other, and were transformed into spindle-shaped cells. These morphological changes were accompanied by release of interleukins IL-1alpha, -1beta and IL-6 and by secretion of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) into the peritoneal cavity. Mesothelial cells also expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) as shown by immunolabeling at the light and electron microscopical levels, as well as by quantitative RT-PCR. The mRNA level of ER-α showed an inverse correlation with the secretion of TGF-β. At the cellular and subcellular levels ER-α was colocalized with the coat protein caveolin-1 and was found in the plasma membrane of mesothelial cells, in caveolae close to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or in the membrane of these organelles, suggesting that ER-α is internalized via caveola-mediated endocytosis during inflammation. We found asymmetric, thickened, electron dense areas on the limiting membrane of MVBs (MVB plaques) indicating that these sites may serve as platforms for collecting and organizing regulatory proteins. Our morphological observations and biochemical data can contribute to form a potential model whereby ER-α and its caveola-mediated endocytosis might play role in TGF-β induced type II EMT in vivo. PMID:24244516

  15. Photochemical internalization of tamoxifens transported by a "Trojan-horse" nanoconjugate into breast-cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Theodossiou, Theodossis A; Gonçalves, A Ricardo; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Skarpen, Ellen; Berg, Kristian

    2015-04-13

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) has shown great promise as a therapeutic alternative for targeted drug delivery by light-harnessed activation. However, it has only been applicable to therapeutic macromolecules or medium-sized molecules. Herein we describe the use of an amphiphilic, water-soluble porphyrin-β-cyclodextrin conjugate (mTHPP-βCD) as a "Trojan horse" to facilitate the endocytosis of CD-guest tamoxifens into breast-cancer cells. Upon irradiation, the porphyrin core of mTHPP-βCD expedited endosomal membrane rupture and tamoxifen release into the cytosol, as documented by confocal microscopy. The sustained complexation of mTHPP-βCD with tamoxifen was corroborated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and FRET studies. Following the application of PCI protocols with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), estrogen-receptor β-positive (Erβ+, but not ERβ-) cell groups exhibited extensive cytotoxicity and/or growth suspension even at 72 h after irradiation. PMID:25663536

  16. Super-resolution imaging-based single particle tracking reveals dynamics of nanoparticle internalization by live cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2016-03-31

    By combining super-resolution photoactivation localization microscopy with single particle tracking, we have visualized the endocytic process in the live-cell environment with nanoparticles (NPs) of different size and surface functionalization. This allowed us to analyze the dynamics of NPs interacting with cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. We identified two distinctly different types of pathways by which NPs are internalized via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Predominantly, NPs first bind to the membrane and, subsequently, CCPs form at this site. However, there are also instances where a NP diffuses on the membrane and utilizes a preformed CCP. Moreover, we have applied this new method to further explore the effects of size and surface functionalization on the NP dynamics on the plasma membrane and the ensuing endocytosis. PMID:27001905

  17. Internalization of C60 fullerenes into cancer cells with accumulation in the nucleus via the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Mackeyev, Yuri; Cheney, Matthew A.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    A highly water-soluble, non-ionic, and non-cytotoxic fullerene malonodiserinolamide-derivatized fullerene C60 (C60-ser) is under investigation as a potential nanovector to deliver biologic and cancer drugs across biological barriers. Using laser-scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we find that PF-633 fluorophore conjugated C60-ser nanoparticles (C60-serPF) are internalized within living cancer cells in association with serum proteins through multiple energy-dependent pathways, and escape endocytotic vesicles to eventually localize and accumulate in the nucleus of the cells through the nuclear pore complex. Furthermore, in a mouse model of liver cancer, the C60-serPF conjugate is detected in most tissues, permeating through the altered vasculature of the tumor and the tightly-regulated blood brain barrier while evading the reticulo-endothelial system. PMID:22245558

  18. A3 Adenosine Receptors in Human Astrocytoma Cells: Agonist-Mediated Desensitization, Internalization, and Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    TRINCAVELLI, M. L.; TUSCANO, D.; MARRONI, M.; FALLENI, A.; GREMIGNI, V.; CERUTI, S.; ABBRACCHIO, M. P.; JACOBSON, K. A.; CATTABENI, F.; MARTINI, C.

    2016-01-01

    A3 adenosine receptor activation has been previously demonstrated to result in both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects, depending upon specific pathophysiological conditions. This dual effect may depend on receptor regulation mechanisms that are able to change receptor availability and/or function. In the present study, we investigated desensitization, internalization, and down-regulation of native A3 adenosine receptors in human astrocytoma cells after exposure to the agonist 2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-N-methyl-5'-carbamoyladenosine (Cl-IBMECA). Cl-IBMECA induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity with an EC50 value of 2.9 ± 0.1 nM. The effect was suggested to be mediated by A3 adenosine receptor subtype by the use of selective adenosine receptor antagonists. Cell treatment with pertussis toxin abolished Cl-IBMECA-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, evidencing an A3 receptor coupling to inhibitory G protein. Short-term exposure to the agonist Cl-IBMECA (100 nM) caused rapid receptor desensitization, within 15 min. Agonist-induced desensitization was accompanied by receptor internalization: A3 adenosine receptor internalized with rapid kinetics, within 30 min, after cell exposure to 100 nM Cl-IB-MECA. The localization of A3 adenosine receptors on the plasma membrane and in intracellular compartments was directly revealed by immunogold electron microscopy. After desensitization, the removal of agonist led to the restoration of A3 adenosine receptor functioning through receptor recycling to the cell surface within 120 min. Prolonged agonist exposure (1–24 h) resulted in a marked down-regulation of A3 adenosine receptors that reached 21.9 ± 2.88% of control value after 24 h. After down-regulation, the recovery of receptor functioning was slow (24 h) and associated with the restoration of receptor levels close to control values. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that A3 receptors, in astrocytoma cells, are regulated after short- and long-term agonist exposure. PMID:12435805

  19. Super-resolution imaging-based single particle tracking reveals dynamics of nanoparticle internalization by live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    By combining super-resolution photoactivation localization microscopy with single particle tracking, we have visualized the endocytic process in the live-cell environment with nanoparticles (NPs) of different size and surface functionalization. This allowed us to analyze the dynamics of NPs interacting with cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. We identified two distinctly different types of pathways by which NPs are internalized via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Predominantly, NPs first bind to the membrane and, subsequently, CCPs form at this site. However, there are also instances where a NP diffuses on the membrane and utilizes a preformed CCP. Moreover, we have applied this new method to further explore the effects of size and surface functionalization on the NP dynamics on the plasma membrane and the ensuing endocytosis.By combining super-resolution photoactivation localization microscopy with single particle tracking, we have visualized the endocytic process in the live-cell environment with nanoparticles (NPs) of different size and surface functionalization. This allowed us to analyze the dynamics of NPs interacting with cells with high spatial and temporal resolution. We identified two distinctly different types of pathways by which NPs are internalized via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Predominantly, NPs first bind to the membrane and, subsequently, CCPs form at this site. However, there are also instances where a NP diffuses on the membrane and utilizes a preformed CCP. Moreover, we have applied this new method to further explore the effects of size and surface functionalization on the NP dynamics on the plasma membrane and the ensuing endocytosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures and videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01495j

  20. Report of the First International Consensus on Standardized Nomenclature of Antinuclear Antibody HEp-2 Cell Patterns 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edward K. L.; Damoiseaux, Jan; Carballo, Orlando Gabriel; Conrad, Karsten; de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson; Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio; Herold, Manfred; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Satoh, Minoru; von Mühlen, Carlos A.; Andrade, Luis E. C.

    2015-01-01

    During the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 28, 2014, a full day session was devoted to establishing a consensus on the nomenclature of staining patterns observed in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence test on HEp-2 cells. The current report summarizes the collective agreements with input from the host Brazilian and international communities that represented research, clinical, and diagnostic service laboratories. Patterns are categorized in three major groups (nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitotic patterns) and each pattern has been defined and described in detail. The consensus nomenclature and representative patterns are made available online at the international consensus on antinuclear antibody pattern (ICAP) website (www.ANApatterns.org). To facilitate continuous improvement and input, specific comments on ICAP are encouraged and these will be discussed in subsequent ICAP meetings. The ultimate goal with the establishment of the ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody test nomenclature, as well as interpretation guidelines for ANA testing, thereby optimizing usage in patient care. PMID:26347739

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Estradiol in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Staphylococcus aureus Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2), the predominant sexual hormone in females, is associated with the modulation of the innate immune response (IIR), and changes in its levels at parturition are related to intramammary infections, such as mastitis. In bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs), E2 regulates differentiation and proliferation, but its immunomodulatory functions have not been explored. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant pathogen causing mastitis, which can persist intracellularly in bMECs. The aim of this work was to analyze whether E2 modulates the IIR of bMECs during S. aureus internalization. bMECs treated with E2 (50 pg/mL, 24 h) reduced bacteria internalization (~50%). The host receptors α5β1 and TLR2 do not participate in this reduction. However, E2 activates ERα and modulates the IIR reducing the S. aureus induced-mRNA expression of TNF-α (~50%) and IL-1β (90%). E2 also decreased the secretion of these cytokines as well as IL-6 production; however, in infected bMECs, E2 induced the secretion of IL-1β. Furthermore, E2 upregulates the expression of the antimicrobial peptides DEFB1, BNBD5, and psoriasin S100A7 (~5-, 3-, and 6-fold, resp.). In addition, E2 induced the production of antimicrobial compounds in bMEC culture medium, which, together with the modulation of the IIR, could be related to the reduction of S. aureus internalization. PMID:27034592

  2. Modulation of the inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells by cholecalciferol (vitamin D) during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Téllez-Pérez, Ana Dolores; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D is an immunomodulator that exerts anti-inflammatory effects. In this work, the effects of cholecalciferol, a vitamin D precursor, on the inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) during the internalization of Staphylococcus aureus were analyzed. Cholecalciferol and S. aureus inhibited TLR2 mRNA expression, but cholecalciferol differentially modulated the TLR2 membrane abundance. In fact, 50 nM cholecalciferol inhibited the TLR2 membrane abundance in bMECs infected with S. aureus, and this concentration also exerted the highest inhibitory effect on internalization. Cholecalciferol down-regulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β and up-regulated that of RANTES and IL-10 but did not modify IL-6 and IL-8 expression. S. aureus strongly induced the mRNA expression of TNF-α, RANTES and IL-10 and inhibited IL-8 expression. Interestingly, cholecalciferol pre-treatments inhibited the bacterial-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and IL-10. In conclusion, cholecalciferol differentially regulates the inflammatory response of bMECs during S. aureus internalization and may be an effective innate immunity modulator in mammary gland tissues. PMID:25457796

  3. Relation between muscarinic receptor cationic current and internal calcium in guinea-pig jejunal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, P; Bolton, T B

    1991-09-01

    1. The action of carbachol, which activates muscarinic receptors, was studied in single patch-clamped cells where free internal calcium concentration in the cell (Cai2+) was estimated using the emission from the dye Indo-1. Cells were dialysed with potassium-free caesium solution to block any Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-current. 2. Carbachol applied to the cell evoked an initial peak in Cai2+ followed by a smaller sustained rise (plateau) upon which several oscillations in Cai2+ were often superimposed; the changes in inward, cationic current (icarb) followed changes in Cai2+ closely. Calcium entry blocker did not affect these responses. 3. The initial peak in Cai2+ produced by carbachol was due to calcium store release: it was essentially unchanged at +50 mV, and abolished by prior application of caffeine (10 mM) to the cell or by inclusion of heparin (which blocks D-myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors) in the pipette. In contrast, the rise in Cai2+ produced by ATP in rabbit ear artery smooth muscle cells was unaffected by caffeine or heparin as it was due to calcium entry into the cell. 4. The later sustained rise (plateau) in Cai2+ produced by carbachol was due to the entry of calcium into the cell down its electrochemical gradient as it was affected by changing the cell membrane potential or the calcium concentration of the bathing solution. As the sustained rise in Cai2+ produced by caffeine had similar properties, it was suggested that depletion of calcium stores can evoke an increased calcium entry into the cell through some pathway. 5. The cationic current evoked by carbachol was strongly dependent on Cai2+. It was small if any rise in Cai2+ due to calcium store release was prevented by the inclusion of heparin in the pipette solution and increased greatly if calcium entry was provoked through voltage-dependent channels by applying a depolarizing pulse or if calcium was released from stores by caffeine. 6. In the longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig small intestine, activation of muscarinic receptors by carbachol results in the opening of cationic channels; the resulting depolarization increases the frequency of action potential discharge and this determines the degree of contraction. Muscarinic receptor activation opens cationic channels by two mechanisms: release of stored calcium increases Cai2+ and this strongly potentiates a primary mechanism which may involve a G-protein. PMID:1667799

  4. Ethical issues and approaches in stem cell research: from international insights to a proposal.

    PubMed

    Vicini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    In recent years and months, human stem cell research has dominated many scientists' interests, the media, public debate, and social policy. This paper aims to consider, first, the major scientific data on stem cell research that are available. Second, I reflect on them by examining how they shaped policies in Europe and the United States. I also point to current changes in policy-making concerning the creation of ad hoc committees to address this novel issue and how, in a few instances, different ethical positions are part of the documents produced. In other words, diverse approaches are not solved but kept in tension. Finally, I suggest that the current state of research on human stem cell will benefit from an ethics of risk. PMID:15856599

  5. Hemoglobin level significantly impacts the tumor cell survival fraction in humans after internal radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is usually not taken into account in internal radiotherapy. We investigated whether the hemoglobin (Hb) level could have an impact on the tumor response, as observed in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods Absorbed doses of 25 hepatic metastatic sites in eight patients who underwent a liver selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) were computed by a 3D convolution of a dose deposition kernel with the 90Y time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) images acquired following therapy. Early tumor response was assessed by comparing a follow-up FDG TOF-PET scan with a baseline scan. Hb level was measured on the day of the SIRT procedure. Results All patients displayed early tumor response increasing with the tumor-absorbed dose. Significant differences between patients were noted, the response slope correlating with the Hb level. After applying a global fit on all metastases using a tumor radiosensitivity modulated by a Hb enhancement factor (HEF) linearly dependent on the Hb level, a strong correlation (R = 0.96) was observed between the early response and the absorbed dose. Hb level had a major impact on tumor response by modulating HEF by a factor 6. Conclusions These results prove the significant impact of Hb level on the tumor response and support the study of methods for correcting tumor hypoxia, such as intensively performed in EBRT. The quantitative analysis of the relationship between tumor doses and early response has the power to allow fast screening of such correction methods in limited patient series. Internal radiotherapy could be more efficient if performed earlier in the therapy line, when the disease- and treatment-related anemia remains limited. PMID:22608186

  6. Deformation and internal stress in a red blood cell as it is driven through a slit by an incoming flow.

    PubMed

    Salehyar, Sara; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the deformation and internal stress of a red blood cell when it is pushed through a slit by an incoming flow, we conduct a numerical investigation by combining a fluid-cell interaction model based on boundary-integral equations with a multiscale structural model of the cell membrane that takes into account the detailed molecular architecture of this biological system. Our results confirm the existence of cell 'infolding', during which part of the membrane is inwardly bent to form a concave region. The time histories and distributions of area deformation, shear deformation, and contact pressure during and after the translocation are examined. Most interestingly, it is found that in the recovery phase after the translocation significant dissociation pressure may develop between the cytoskeleton and the lipid bilayer. The magnitude of this pressure is closely related to the locations of the dimple elements during the transit. Large dissociation pressure in certain cases suggests the possibility of mechanically induced structural remodeling and structural damage such as vesiculation. With quantitative knowledge about the stability of intra-protein, inter-protein and protein-to-lipid linkages under dynamic loads, it will be possible to achieve numerical prediction of these processes. PMID:26865054

  7. The analysis of light trapping and internal quantum efficiency of a solar cell with DBR back reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuo-Hui; Yang, Jaw-Yen

    2009-11-15

    A theoretical analysis of the total internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of a flat-band p-n homo-junction silicon solar cell with back reflector using distributed Bragg reflectors to improve the light trapping is presented and contributions of different regions of the structure to IQEs are simulated. An optical model for the determination of generation profile of the cell is adopted and multiple light passes are considered and compared to previous single light pass approach. It is found that the spatial widths of the cell, the surface recombination velocities, the front surface transmittance and the back reflector have significant impacts on the IQEs. With two light passes and normal incident light, the simulation result shows the IQEs can be increased over the one pass value by 6.34% and with a 60 light reflection angle, the IQEs can be further increased by 9.01% while assuming the reflectance at back structure closed to 100%. The effect on IQEs by back reflectance is more significant than that by front transmittance. Under multiple light passes simulation, up to 51 light trapping passes have been considered at wavelength range 900-1100 nm, the cell IQEs can be enhanced by about 26.98%. (author)

  8. Identification of a Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA fragment associated with bacterial internalization into CHSE-cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Maulén, N P; Morales, P J; Aruti, D; Figueroa, J E; Concha, M I; Krauskopf, M; León, G

    1996-01-01

    We report here the isolation of a Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA sequence capable of transforming a non-invasive Escherichia coli strain into a microorganism able to enter the fish cell line, CHSE-214. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy techniques were used to assess the acquired invasive phenotype by HB101 E. coli cells, upon transformation with pPMV-189. This plasmid carries a 2282-bp R. salmoninarum DNA segment. The invasive phenotype is conserved upon deletion of approximately 1000 bp at the 3' end of the insert. The remaining segment contains an ORF region encoding a putative protein of about 30 kDa. PMID:8598275

  9. Effect of internal electric field on InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Kada, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Aiko; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    We studied time-resolved carrier recombination in InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells. The electric field in a p-i-n diode structure spatially separates photoexcited carriers in QDs, strongly affecting the conversion efficiency of intermediate-band solar cells. The radiative decay lifetime is dramatically reduced in a strong electric field (193 kV/cm) by efficient recombination due to strong carrier localization in each QD and significant tunneling-assisted electron escape. Conversely, an electric field of the order of 10 kV/cm maintains electronic coupling in the stacked QDs and diminishes tunneling-assisted electron escape.

  10. α-Hemolysin enhances Staphylococcus aureus internalization and survival within mast cells by modulating the expression of β1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Oliver; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Rohde, Manfred; Medina, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are important sentinels of the host defence against invading pathogens. We previously reported that Staphylococcus aureus evaded the extracellular antimicrobial activities of MCs by promoting its internalization within these cells via β1 integrins. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing this process. We found that S. aureus responded to the antimicrobial mediators released by MCs by up-regulating the expression of α-hemolysin (Hla), fibronectin-binding protein A and several regulatory systems. We also found that S. aureus induced the up-regulation of β1 integrin expression on MCs and that this effect was mediated by Hla-ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) interaction. Thus, deletion of Hla or inhibition of Hla-ADAM10 interaction significantly impaired S. aureus internalization within MCs. Furthermore, purified Hla but not the inactive HlaH35L induced up-regulation of β1 integrin expression in MCs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support a model in which S. aureus counter-reacts the extracellular microbicidal mechanisms of MCs by increasing expression of fibronectin-binding proteins and by inducing Hla-ADAM10-mediated up-regulation of β1 integrin in MCs. The up-regulation of bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, concomitantly with the increased expression of its receptor β1 integrin on the MCs, resulted in enhanced S. aureus internalization through the binding of fibronectin-binding proteins to integrin β1 via fibronectin. PMID:26595647

  11. Targeting CD13 (aminopeptidase-N) in turn downregulates ADAM17 by internalization in acute myeloid leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sandrine; Tang, Ruoping; Fava, Fanny; Legrand, Ollivier; Bauvois, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and membrane-anchored aminopeptidase-N/CD13 are abnormally expressed in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We previously showed that CD13 ligation by anti-CD13 monoclonal antibodies can induce apoptosis in AML cells. Here, we assessed ADAM17 expression in primary blood blasts CD13+CD33+ from patients with AML. Primary AML cells expressed ADAM17 transcript and its surface expression was higher in subtype M4 (myelomonocytic) and M5 (monocytic) AML specimens than in M0 and M1/M2 (early and granulocytic) specimens. In AML cell lines defining distinct AML subfamilies (HL-60/M2, NB4/M3, THP-1/M5, U937/M5) and primary AML cells cultured ex vivo, anti-CD13 antibodies downregulated surface CD13 and ADAM17 without affecting MMP-2/-9 release. Knockdown of CD13 by siRNA prevented anti-CD13-mediated ADAM17 downregulation, indicating that CD13 is required for ADAM17 downregulation. Soluble ADAM17 was not detected in the medium of anti-CD13 treated cells, suggesting that ADAM17 was not shed. After ligation by anti-CD13, CD13 and ADAM17 were internalized. Subsequently, we found that ADAM17 interacts with CD13. We postulate that the interaction of ADAM17 with CD13 and its downregulation following CD13 engagement has important implications in AML for the known roles of ADAM17 in tumour-associated cell growth, migration and invasion. PMID:25246708

  12. Detection of DNA Damage by Space Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells Flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board the spacecraft since the early discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation has been difficult due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and the difficulty in separating the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, attributed primarily to the exposure to space radiation. In a recent experiment, human fibroblast cells were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 370 C in space and fixed on Days 3 and 14 after reaching orbit. After returning to the ground, the fixed cells were analyzed for phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX by immunofluorescent staining of cells, which is a widely used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks. The 3-dimensional gamma-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed a small fraction of foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern in the flight samples in comparison to the ground controls. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, human fibroblast cells were exposed to low- and high-LET protons and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. High-LET protons and Fe ions were found to induce foci of the pattern that were observed in the flown cells.

  13. Internalization of bevacizumab by retinal endothelial cells and its intracellular fate: Evidence for an involvement of the neonatal Fc receptor.

    PubMed

    Deissler, Heidrun L; Lang, Gerhard K; Lang, Gabriele E

    2016-02-01

    Bevacizumab is one of the VEGF-binding proteins that are established in clinical practice to treat various ocular diseases. In view of therapeutic long-term application, potential accumulation of the antibody in retinal cells gave reason for safety concerns. Internalization of considerable amounts of bevacizumab by retinal endothelial (REC) and pigment epithelial cells has been observed which may affect their important functions. Therefore we investigated the transport and intracellular localization of bevacizumab in immortalized bovine REC (iBREC) in detail, considering possible roles of vesicles and receptors mediating uptake and intracellular transport. By performing transcytosis assays with iBREC monolayers cultivated on porous membrane inserts, we demonstrated that bevacizumab was transported efficiently through a tight monolayer from the lower to the upper chamber or vice versa. When added to the lower chamber in excess, the internalized antibody was transported through the cells, but it was also recycled to be set free at the same side of the cell into a bevacizumab-free environment. The rates of both processes strongly depended on the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the environment. This observation is important because in vivo REC might be exposed to varying amounts of serum, e.g. in patients with macular edema. FBS also affected the intracellular localization of bevacizumab as shown by analyses of subcellular fractions and direct immunofluorescence staining. When iBREC were cultivated in low-serum medium, most of the antibody was found in the fraction of cytoskeleton proteins and spots of high intensity of bevacizumab-specific staining close to the nuclei were observed. Cultivation in medium with FBS resulted in internalized bevacizumab predominately found in the membrane/organelle fraction in addition to its weaker association with proteins from the cytoskeleton and uniform staining of the cell. Bevacizumab-specific staining close to the cytoskeleton proteins α-tubulin or vimentin was also observed. Accumulation and association of the antibody with the cytoskeleton induced by serum reduction could be reversed by subsequent FBS addition. In uptake and transport of bevacizumab vesicles and binding to a receptor seems to be involved: Internalization was strongly temperature-dependent which ruled out paracellular passage and a fraction of the internalized bevacizumab was associated with early endosomes. Protein A inhibited transcytosis and affected intracellular localization suggesting a key role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Interestingly, FcRn expression was decreased when iBREC were cultivated without FBS. Our results suggest this pathway of bevacizumab uptake and transition through iBREC: Independent of serum, bevacizumab is taken up through a nonspecific mechanism. The subsequent sorting into transport vesicles depends on the presence of serum as regulator of FcRn expression. Without sufficient amounts of the receptor being expressed, a likely obstructed exocytosis results in intracellular accumulation and an increased association with cytoskeleton proteins. Interaction of substantial amounts of bevacizumab with the cytoskeleton may be the reason for under these conditions suppressed migration of iBREC. If long-term therapies by intravitreal injection lead to accumulation of bevacizumab in REC in vivo and potentially harmful consequences, will have to be revealed by future investigations. PMID:26481553

  14. Selection of internalization-deficient cells by interleukin-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin chimeric protein: the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain does not contribute to internalization of interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Furse, R K; Malek, T R

    1993-12-01

    To study the structural basis of ligand-induced receptor-mediated internalization of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a strategy has been developed to generate variant T cells that are deficient in internalization of this cytokine. IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha- and beta-bearing EL4 cells, that express high-affinity IL-2R and internalize IL-2, were treated with low doses of IL-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin chimeric protein (IL-2-PE40). This treatment resulted in isolation of a variant (CX1) that was unable to express high-affinity IL-2R or internalize IL-2. Transfection of CX1 with the IL-2R beta cDNA led to surface expression of IL-2R beta and high-affinity IL-2R as well as the ability to internalize IL-2. This finding indicates that the absence of the beta subunit was the sole defect in CX1 responsible for its failure to internalize IL-2. By transfecting CX1 with mutated beta cDNA, several CX1 transfectants were produced that expressed a beta-subunit that lacked all amino acids of the intracytoplasmic region. These transfectants expressed high-affinity IL-2R and internalized IL-2 at a rate comparable to cells expressing wild-type beta-chain. These results demonstrate that internalization of IL-2 is independent of any signals contained in the intracytoplasmic tail of the beta subunit and raise the possibility that such signals may be entirely contained within the gamma subunit. PMID:8258333

  15. External cadmium and internal calcium block of single calcium channels in smooth muscle cells from rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Quayle, J M; Worley, J F; Standen, N B; Nelson, M T

    1989-11-01

    The patch clamp technique was used to record unitary currents through single calcium channels from smooth muscle cells of rabbit mesenteric arteries. The effects of external cadmium and cobalt and internal calcium, barium, cadmium, and magnesium on single channel currents were investigated with 80 mM barium as the charge carrier and Bay K 8644 to prolong openings. External cadmium shortened the mean open time of single Ca channels. Cadmium blocking and unblocking rate constants of 16.5 mM-1 ms-1 and 0.6 ms-1, respectively, were determined, corresponding to dissociation constant Kd of 36 microM at -20 mV. These results are very similar to those reported for cardiac muscle Ca channels (Lansman, J. B., P. Hess, and R. W. Tsien. 1986. J. Gen. Physiol. 88:321-347). In contrast, Cd2+ (01-10 mM), when applied to the internal surface of Ca channels in inside-out patches, did not affect the mean open time, mean unitary current, or the variance of the open channel current. Internal calcium induced a flickery block, with a Kd of 5.8 mM. Mean blocking and unblocking rate constants for calcium of 0.56 mM-1 ms-1 and 3.22 ms-1, respectively, were determined. Internal barium (8 mM) reduced the mean unitary current by 36%. We conclude that under our experimental conditions, the Ca channel is not symmetrical with respect to inorganic ion block and that intracellular calcium can modulate Ca channel currents via a low-affinity binding site. PMID:2481511

  16. Etanercept blocks inflammatory responses orchestrated by TNF-α to promote transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Preeti; Kapoor, Sorabh; Kumaran, Vinay; Joseph, Brigid; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Engraftment of transplanted cells is critical for liver-directed cell therapy but most transplanted cells are rapidly cleared from liver sinusoids by proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/receptors after activation of neutrophils or Kupffer cells. To define whether TNF-α served roles in cell-transplantation-induced hepatic inflammation, we used TNF-α antagonist, etanercept, for studies in syngeneic rat hepatocyte transplantation systems. After cell transplantation, multiple cytokines/chemokines/receptors were overexpressed, whereas etanercept prior to cell transplantation essentially normalized these responses. Moreover, ETN downregulated cell transplantation-induced intrahepatic release of secretory cytokines, such as high mobility group box 1. These effects of etanercept decreased cell transplantation-induced activation of neutrophils but not of Kupffer cells. Transplanted cell engraftment improved by several-fold in etanercept-treated animals. These gains in cell engraftment were repeatedly realized after pretreatment of animals with etanercept before multiple cell transplantation sessions. Transplanted cell numbers did not change over time indicating absence of cell proliferation after etanercept alone. By contrast, in animals preconditioned with retrorsine and partial hepatectomy, cell transplantation after etanercept pretreatment significantly accelerated liver repopulation compared with control rats. We concluded that TNF-α played a major role in orchestrating cell transplantation-induced inflammation through regulation of multiple cytokines/chemokines/receptor expression. As TNF-α antagonism by etanercept decreased transplanted cell clearance, improved cell engraftment and accelerated liver repopulation, this pharmacological approach to control hepatic inflammation will help optimize clinical strategies for liver cell therapy. PMID:24844924

  17. Internalization and trafficking mechanisms of coxsackievirus B3 in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ku; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Park, Sang-Ick; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Nam, Jae-Hwan . E-mail: jnam66@yahoo.com

    2005-03-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is nonenveloped and has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. CVB3 induces myocarditis and ultimately dilated cardiomyopathy. Although there are mounting evidences of an interaction between CVB3 particles and the cellular receptors, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), very little is known about the mechanisms of internalization and trafficking. In the present study, we used the CVB3 H3 strain, which is CAR-dependent but DAF-independent Woodruff variant and found that during entry, CVB3 particles were colocalized in clathrin, after interacting primarily with CAR, which was not recycled to the plasma membrane. We also found that CVB3 internalization was dependent on the function of dynamin, a large GTPase that has an essential role in endocytosis. Heat-shock cognate protein, Hsc70, which acts as a chaperone in the release of coat proteins from clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV), played a role in CVB3 trafficking processes. Moreover, endosomal acidification was crucial for CVB3 endocytosis. Finally, CVB3 was colocalized in early endosome autoantigen 1 (EEA1) molecules, which are involved in endosome-endosome tethering and fusion. In conclusion, these data together indicate that CVB3 uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is transcytosed to early endosomes.

  18. Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Glenn (Inventor); Putt, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a prismatic zinc-air cell including, in general, a prismatic container having therein an air cathode, a separator and a zinc anode. The container has one or more oxygen access openings, and the air cathode is disposed in the container in gaseous communication with the oxygen access openings so as to allow access of oxygen to the cathode. The separator has a first side in electrolytic communication with the air cathode and a second side in electrolytic communication with the zinc anode. The separator isolates the cathode and the zinc anode from direct electrical contact and allows passage of electrolyte therebetween. An expansion chamber adjacent to the zinc anode is provided which accommodates expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. A suitable collapsible foam member generally occupies the expansion space, providing sufficient resistance tending to oppose movement of the zinc anode away from the separator while collapsing upon expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. One or more vent openings disposed in the container are in gaseous communication with the expansion space, functioning to satisfactorily minimize the pressure buildup within the container by venting gasses expelled as the foam collapses during cell discharge.

  19. An internal deletion enhances the transcriptional activity of a recombinant retrovirus in hematopoietic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K L; Bonham, L; Symonds, G

    1994-11-01

    Lv-myc is a recombinant retrovirus that spontaneously arose during experiments designed to express the provirus LNAv-myc in the hematopoietic system of bone marrow-reconstituted mice (L. Bonham, K. MacKenzie, S. Wood, P. B. Rowe, and G. Symonds, Oncogene 7:2219-2229, 1992). The recombinant provirus is of interest because it is able to promote long terminal repeat-initiated transcription in hematopoietic cells in vivo, whereas the parental provirus, LNAv-myc, is transcriptionally repressed in the same cells. Here we report that Lv-myc was generated by precise deletion of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) and the human gamma-actin promoter from LNAv-myc. In comparison with LNAv-myc, no sequence alterations in the viral regulatory regions of Lv-myc were detected. Thus, it appears that neo and/or the gamma-actin promoter exerted a cis-acting repressor effect on the long terminal repeat of LNAv-myc in vivo. The origin of Lv-myc was also investigated, and it was shown that Lv-myc was harbored as a productive provirus in a G418-resistant subpopulation of the LNAv-myc producer cell line, psi 2AV. It appears that Lv-myc arose during propagation of the psi 2AV cell line. Repeated sequence detected at the sites of the deletion suggest that Lv-myc was generated by a template misalignment during reverse transcription of LNAv-myc. PMID:7933073

  20. A Cell-Based Internalization and Degradation Assay with an Activatable Fluorescence–Quencher Probe as a Tool for Functional Antibody Screening

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peter Corbett; Shen, Yang; Snavely, Marshall D.; Hiraga, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    For the development of therapeutically potent anti-cancer antibody drugs, it is often important to identify antibodies that internalize into cells efficiently, rather than just binding to antigens on the cell surface. Such antibodies can mediate receptor endocytosis, resulting in receptor downregulation on the cell surface and potentially inhibiting receptor function and tumor growth. Also, efficient antibody internalization is a prerequisite for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into target cells and is critical for the development of antibody–drug conjugates. Here we describe a novel activatable fluorescence–quencher pair to quantify the extent of antibody internalization and degradation in the target cells. In this assay, candidate antibodies were labeled with a fluorescent dye and a quencher. Fluorescence is inhibited outside and on the surface of cells, but activated upon endocytosis and degradation of the antibody. This assay enabled the development of a process for rapid characterization of candidate antibodies potentially in a high-throughput format. By employing an activatable secondary antibody, primary antibodies in purified form or in culture supernatants can be screened for internalization and degradation. Because purification of candidate antibodies is not required, this method represents a direct functional screen to identify antibodies that internalize efficiently early in the discovery process. PMID:26024945

  1. A Cell-Based Internalization and Degradation Assay with an Activatable Fluorescence-Quencher Probe as a Tool for Functional Antibody Screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Peter Corbett; Shen, Yang; Snavely, Marshall D; Hiraga, Kaori

    2015-08-01

    For the development of therapeutically potent anti-cancer antibody drugs, it is often important to identify antibodies that internalize into cells efficiently, rather than just binding to antigens on the cell surface. Such antibodies can mediate receptor endocytosis, resulting in receptor downregulation on the cell surface and potentially inhibiting receptor function and tumor growth. Also, efficient antibody internalization is a prerequisite for the delivery of cytotoxic drugs into target cells and is critical for the development of antibody-drug conjugates. Here we describe a novel activatable fluorescence-quencher pair to quantify the extent of antibody internalization and degradation in the target cells. In this assay, candidate antibodies were labeled with a fluorescent dye and a quencher. Fluorescence is inhibited outside and on the surface of cells, but activated upon endocytosis and degradation of the antibody. This assay enabled the development of a process for rapid characterization of candidate antibodies potentially in a high-throughput format. By employing an activatable secondary antibody, primary antibodies in purified form or in culture supernatants can be screened for internalization and degradation. Because purification of candidate antibodies is not required, this method represents a direct functional screen to identify antibodies that internalize efficiently early in the discovery process. PMID:26024945

  2. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experi