Science.gov

Sample records for international law

  1. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  2. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  3. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  4. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  5. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international... international law....

  7. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  8. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  9. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  10. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  11. 50 CFR 665.966 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.966 Section 665... Monument § 665.966 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen,...

  12. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  13. 50 CFR 665.966 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.966 Section 665... Monument § 665.966 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not a citizen,...

  14. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  15. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  16. 50 CFR 665.906 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.906 Section 665... National Monument § 665.906 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  17. [Decision procedures and international law].

    PubMed

    Mahiou, A

    1992-01-01

    This work examines the significance of international spaces in the ocean, the polar regions, the air, and beyond the atmosphere; the importance of their resources; and the prospects for communal management of them in the future. International spaces and resources are considered those over which 1 country cannot exercise any right of appropriation and over which all countries exercise exactly the same rights. International spaces are more extensive than national spaces, and their extension and potential richness of resources incite nations to attempt to exercise control over them. Concerns about the environment have contributed to development of the notion of a common patrimony of humanity and the consequent rejection of traditional concepts of total freedom of action of states in regard to common spaces and resources. The existing governance of international spaces and resources was guided by a few simple principles that assured free access, with only the problems of harmonizing the uses and interests of the concerned countries. The idea of a common patrimony of humanity is closely linked to development of the law of the sea, in which it received its most complete expression to date. The emergence and recognition of juridical principles relative to common spaces and resources has been a long and controversial process, and not all such principles have attracted the same degree of support among nations. Even when consensus has been achieved regarding 1 of the principles, divergent interpretations have been made concerning the content and scope of the principle or the regulations that should result from it. 6 principles can be identified concerning nonappropriation, the oldest and long the only principle regulating use of international spaces; peaceful utilization; rational utilization; equitable utilization; protection of spaces and resources; and joint international administration or management. An important question concerning the development of a structure for

  18. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  19. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS)
    organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  20. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  1. Integrating International Business Law Concepts into a High School Business Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Cathleen J.; McDonald, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines international business content for a high school business law curriculum: history of international business law, World Trade Organization, international disputes, contracts and sales, financing/banking, currency, taxation, intellectual property, transportation, and multinational corporations. Considers whether to teach international…

  2. Beyond Rio? The Evolution of International Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnee, Jutta

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the expansion and innovation in the use of international environmental law mechanisms to address the problems of global environmental protection. Presents initiatives involving customary international law, forms of international agreements, nonbinding "soft law," and an example involving Canada's biodiversity commitments. (MDH)

  3. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  4. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  5. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  6. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  7. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law....

  8. International environmental law and world order

    SciTech Connect

    Guruswamy, L.D.; Palmer, G.W.R. Sir; Weston, B.H.

    1995-08-01

    A litany of dismal happenings - global warming, ozone layer depletion, desertification, destruction of biodiversity, acid rain, and nuclear and water accidents - are but some of the subjects covered by this book, a problem-solving casebook authored by three educators. This new book makes the obvious but important point, that environmental issues are not limited by national boundaries. The book is divided into three parts. The first three chapters of part I discuss the basic principals of traditional international law without any reference to environmental issues. Part II, comprised of seven chapters, deals with hypothetical problems that affect various aspects of the environment vis-a-vis the norms, institutions, and procedures through which the international legal system operates. The book concludes with two chapters dealing with future environmental concerns. The book focuses on issue-spotting, problem-solving, and synthesis over the assimilation and comprehension of raw, disembodied knowledge. The book helps to manage our common future on this planet, for which we will need a new global regime based essentially on the extension into international life of the rule of law, together with reliable mechanisms for accountability and enforcement that provide the basis for the effective functioning of national societies.

  9. Developments in international/European health law.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription. PMID:19353913

  10. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  11. International Law and the Society of Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law in the 1990s. Cases and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason Scott, Ed.; Scurti, Jason, Ed.; And Others

    This casebook on international law was developed by high school students around the globe and emphasizes the important role that students can play in furthering international law education. The text provides teachers and students with a summary review of 25 major cases heard by the International Court of Justice, along with additional materials.…

  12. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlish, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  13. Some international law aspects of the Bhopal disaster.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Y K; Rosencranz, A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores certain international law aspects of the Bhopal disaster, namely the principles and rules of international law establishing international accountability for environmental damage; the criteria for determining the liability of the Union Carbide Company (U. S. A.) for the Bhopal disaster; the criteria for determining compensation; and the international remedies available to the Indian government in the event that Bhopal victims fail to get justice within the Indian court system. The article discusses two applicable sets of proposed international standards--the U. N. Draft Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations, and the U. N. International Law Commission's Draft on International Liability for Injurious Consequences Arising out of Acts Not Prohibited by International Law. The scattered 'hard' and 'soft' jurisprudence of international environmental law establishes liability and accountability for environmental hazards. It makes both state and non-state entities liable to pay compensation to the victims of environmental pollution. This jurisprudence, in addition to domestic law analogies, can influence Indian courts in determining the amount of damages payable to the victims of the Bhopal disaster. The authors conclude that the Bhopal disaster has demonstrated that enforceable international standards are clearly and urgently needed for hazardous industries, especially those operating in developing countries. Such standards would eliminate, or at least narrow, the gap between standards prevailing in the developed countries and those in the Third World. Even without enforcement, international standards could provide norms for measuring the performance of individual companies engaged in hazardous activities such as the manufacture of MIC at Bhopal. PMID:3059509

  14. The United Nations: the embarrassment of international law.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Denis J

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations should be working towards an international community living in peace under the aegis of international law. Although progress was made in its early years, notably in decolonization, with its membership increased from 50 to 189, major inequalities remain between its nations and their peoples. The Security Council, and in particular its five permanent members (P5), has been guilty of double standards in enforcing international law. Investment should create prosperity and not increase demand for arms. Independent oversight of the UN, and particularly the Security Council, by civil society is needed. If the legitimacy of the UN is to be restored, the Security Council should become more representative, the power of the General Assembly should be restored and the role of the International Court of Justice should be increased. All members of the UN, especially the PS, must respect international law as enshrined in the UN Charter and Conventions. PMID:12498396

  15. The Anthropocene - and International Law of the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidas, D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly voicing a new concern: that the Earth may be undergoing a shift from the most recent known geological epoch, the Holocene (the latest 11,700 years, which have been characterized by relative environmental stability - a factor significant for the development of human civilization), to a new one - the Anthropocene (Zalasiewicz et al., 2010). In 2009, the Anthropocene Working Group was established within the International Commission on Stratigraphy in order to examine the stratigraphic basis for the term 'Anthropocene' and to consider the justification for its possible formalization as the most recent geological time unit. Formal change of the Geological Time Scale due to recognition of the Anthropocene as a new epoch in the geological history of our planet could critically raise awareness and highlight the magnitude of the human impact on the Earth System, prompting fundamental reflection on today's social structures. Important questions may arise about the sustainability of certain aspects of current International Law - a system of rules resting on foundations that evolved under the circumstances of the Holocene, assumed to be ever-lasting. Core challenges for International Law may now be on the horizon. Certain segments of international law, such as the Law of the Sea, involve causal links (historical and ideological) with the development towards the Anthropocene (Vidas, 2011). Other aspects, such as human rights, may gain in prominence and acquire new dimensions - all likely to require fundamental re-examination of accepted perspectives of International Law. The Law of the Sea - a branch of international law that applies to around 71 percent of the Earth's surface area - received its current framework in the near-universal 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (162 parties as of 1 July 2012), which in turn built on some four centuries of development. In our times, however, a thorough re-examination of the Law of the Sea

  16. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  17. First Law for fields with Internal Gauge Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik

    2016-03-01

    We extend the analysis of Iyer and Wald to derive the First Law of blackhole mechanics in the presence of fields charged under an `internal gauge group'. We treat diffeomorphisms and gauge transformations in a unified way by formulating the theory on a principal bundle. The first law then relates the energy and angular momentum at infinity to a potential times charge term at the horizon. The gravitational potential and charge give a notion of temperature and entropy respectively.

  18. The successes and limitations of international law and the International Court of Justice.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The first two sections of this article deal with the irony that international law has severe limitations, yet it also has a good record for compliance. The third section introduces the International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the fourth section deals specifically with the limitations of the ICJ. The article concludes with some ideas for action. Its main point is that international law is often a neglected topic, even by non-governmental organisations (NGOs). International law needs to be brought in from the cold, and there should be more support from the NGO community for the ICJ. PMID:15688885

  19. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner. PMID:23115826

  20. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  1. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  2. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  3. International Law in a Global Age. Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Maxey, Phyllis

    This global approach to teaching high school students about international law uses existing curriculum materials from a variety of social studies disciplines to present five major perspectives. Perspective I "Global Links," focuses on the meaning of citizenship in a global age and the interconnectedness between individuals and the international…

  4. International Law in a Global Age. A Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Maxey, Phyllis

    This global approach to teaching high school students about international law uses existing curriculum materials from a variety of social studies disciplines to present five major perspectives. Perspective I, "Global Links," focuses on the meaning of citizenship in a global age and the interconnectedness between individuals and the international…

  5. International Telecommunications and International Law: The Regulation of the Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leive, David M.

    The international regulation of the radio frequency spectrum is seen as an interplay of international law and technology. The means by which the radio frequency spectrum is apportioned among and used by the nations of the world are analyzed. An in-depth examination of the international agency responsible for regulating the use of the spectrum, the…

  6. 77 FR 32168 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... the law of immunity, international criminal law, transnational disincentive mechanisms, and future... of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Wednesday, June 13, 2012, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at...

  7. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  8. Taking older people's rights seriously: the role of international law.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kwong-leung

    2008-01-01

    Older people face many difficult challenges that amount to a deplorable violation of their basic human rights (poverty, discrimination, denial of social services, etc.). However, the world has been slow to react. Factors that limit global responses to the challenges of aging include: limited political will, the prevalence of neo-liberalism, and NGOs' longstanding advocacy for other seemingly "more" disadvantaged groups. Such oppression of and discrimination against older people require a concerted world-wide response. We contend that the introduction of an international convention on the human rights of older people is most relevant. Reinforced by a potent international monitoring system, the convention should contain comprehensive and legally binding provisions that require participating states to promote older people's rights. It is argued that international law would be a powerful force in defending and protecting older persons, operating as a baseline for establishing underlying values for national aging policies and linking older persons' concerns with other segments of society. PMID:18198162

  9. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization

    PubMed Central

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term “pharmaceuticalization” in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health. PMID:25431535

  10. 78 FR 22020 - State Department Advisory Committee on Private International Law; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Department Advisory Committee on Private International Law; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a... meeting of the full Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) to take place on May 13, 2013..., Private International Law. BILLING CODE 4710-08-P...

  11. 78 FR 24784 - State Department Advisory Committee on Private International Law; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Department Advisory Committee on Private International Law; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a..., tomsnn@state.gov . Dated: April 1, 2013. Keith Loken, Assistant Legal Adviser, Private International Law... meeting of the full Advisory Committee on International Law (ACPIL) to take place on May 13, 2013, at...

  12. 27 CFR 479.191 - Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws. 479.191 Section 479.191 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU... other provisions of internal revenue laws. All of the provisions of the internal revenue laws...

  13. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce. PMID:16213075

  14. 75 FR 32532 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Monday, June 21, 2010, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School (Michael K. Young Faculty Conference Center, 5th Floor), 2000...

  15. 76 FR 30229 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Monday, June 6, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School (Michael K. Young Faculty Conference Center, 5th Floor), 2000...

  16. 78 FR 70392 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Friday, December 13, 2013, from 9:00 a.m. to approximately 2:30 p.m. at the George Washington University Law School (Frederick Lawrence Student...

  17. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information. PMID:10191808

  18. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  19. 76 FR 72023 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Thursday, December 8, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at... anticipated that the agenda of the meeting will cover a range of current international legal topics,...

  20. 78 FR 34702 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Monday, June 24, 2013, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5... international legal topics, including the Supreme Court's recent decision in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch...

  1. Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Allyn L.

    2002-01-01

    The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy. PMID:12571727

  2. 77 FR 75696 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department... and Policy Council of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the Conference's...

  3. 78 FR 36816 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department... of a questionnaire on private international law issues surrounding the status of children,...

  4. 76 FR 77584 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) met.... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would...

  5. The Anthropocene and the international law of the sea.

    PubMed

    Vidas, Davor

    2011-03-13

    The current law of the sea provides a framework for various specific issues, but is incapable of responding adequately to the overall challenges facing humankind, now conceivably already living in the Anthropocene. The linkages between the development of the law of the sea and the current process towards formal recognition of an Anthropocene epoch are twofold. First, there is a linkage of origin. The ideological foundations of the law of the sea facilitated the emergence of forces that were to lead to the Industrial Revolution and, eventually, to levels of development entailing ever-greater human impacts on the Earth System. Second, there are linkages in interaction. Geological information has prompted key developments in the law of the sea since the introduction of the continental shelf concept in the mid-twentieth century. With the formalization of the Anthropocene epoch, geology might again act as a trigger for new developments needed in the law of the sea. This article explores those two aspects of linkages and examines prospects for further development of the law of the sea framework, through concepts such as the responsibility for the seas as well as those related to new approaches to global sustainability such as the 'planetary boundaries'. PMID:21282153

  6. International organizations and space law: their role and contributions. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The following topics were dealt with: international organizations participating in space activities (ESA, EUTELSAT, EUMETSAT, INTERSPUTNIK); international organizations engaged in space regulatory, policy-making and related activities (UN, ICAO, WIPO, ITU); problems arising from privatisation of international space organizations (IMMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT); contributions through international treaties and agreements; contribution in the main sectors of space activity: living and working in space transportation systems, Earth observation, telecommunications and navigation.

  7. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  8. IFLA General Conference, 1987. International Association of Law Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The five papers in this collection focus on computerized legal databases and their content: (1) "Disk and Dat: Recent Developments in Legal Databases and Emerging Information Technologies in the United States" (Howard Hood, United States); (2) "Online Databanken zum EG-Recht und ihr Angebot (Online Databases for European Community Law and Their…

  9. Law of the Sea, Resource Use, and International Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Fillmore C. F.

    1985-01-01

    An account of the evolution of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which set aside a major portion of the world's oceans as a common heritage of mankind, is presented. An examination of the Convention's precepts illustrates discussion questions for use with secondary or college students. (RM)

  10. 76 FR 51119 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law on Thursday, September 22 and Friday, September 23, 2011,...

  11. 75 FR 58465 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law on Thursday, October 28 and Friday, October 29, 2010 in...

  12. 77 FR 50758 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting on... Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a public meeting on... organized by UNIDROIT (the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law) produced a draft...

  13. 77 FR 52784 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law...

  14. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  15. 77 FR 32167 - Notice of Renewal of Advisory Committee on International Law Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Theodore P. Kill, Executive Director, Advisory Committee on International Law, Department of State, at 202-776-8344 or killtp@state.gov . Dated: May 23, 2012. Theodore P. Kill, Attorney Advisor, Office...

  16. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  17. Russian-English Glossary of International Maritime Law Terms (and Selected Terms in Related Disciplines.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Intelligence Support Center, Washington, DC.

    This glossary contains over 750 terms encountered in international maritime law texts. It includes terms of the art, fairly common abbreviations, geographic names, and prepositional phrases routinely encountered in international treaties, conventions, and agreements. The prepositional phrases are recorded exactly as they appear in formal texts.…

  18. 75 FR 70961 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on... international piracy; sovereign immunity of foreign government officials; U.N. resolutions and...

  19. Teaching International Business Law: A Liberal Arts Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Diane B.; Ramaglia, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Integrating the liberal arts perspective in the study of international commerce allows students to examine the human side of doing business outside the U.S. and stimulates the imagination by exploring the contributions made to business practices by other cultures. This approach is one way to enrich the student learning experience and to make the…

  20. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to...

  1. Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E; Shaikh, Aasef G; Green, Andrea M; Dickman, J David

    2004-07-29

    A critical step in self-motion perception and spatial awareness is the integration of motion cues from multiple sensory organs that individually do not provide an accurate representation of the physical world. One of the best-studied sensory ambiguities is found in visual processing, and arises because of the inherent uncertainty in detecting the motion direction of an untextured contour moving within a small aperture. A similar sensory ambiguity arises in identifying the actual motion associated with linear accelerations sensed by the otolith organs in the inner ear. These internal linear accelerometers respond identically during translational motion (for example, running forward) and gravitational accelerations experienced as we reorient the head relative to gravity (that is, head tilt). Using new stimulus combinations, we identify here cerebellar and brainstem motion-sensitive neurons that compute a solution to the inertial motion detection problem. We show that the firing rates of these populations of neurons reflect the computations necessary to construct an internal model representation of the physical equations of motion. PMID:15282606

  2. International law on ship recycling and its interface with EU law.

    PubMed

    Argüello Moncayo, Gabriela

    2016-08-15

    The regulation on ship recycling at international and European Union (EU) level has transitioned from the realm of transboundary movement of wastes to a specialized regime, i.e., the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships (2009) (Hong Kong Convention). Although this convention is not in force yet, the principal features of it have been incorporated in EU Regulation 1257/2013 on ship recycling. This paper examines the rationale behind developing a ship recycling regime, its disassociation from wastes, and the departure from the main principles of transboundary movement of wastes, such as the proximity principle, reduction of transboundary movement of wastes, and the prior informed consent procedure. While acknowledging some of the positive features of the emerging ship recycling, it is submitted that the Hong Kong Convention and EU Regulation 1257/2013 on ship recycling represent a step back in the regulation of ship recycling. PMID:27287868

  3. 77 FR 58606 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International...

  4. 78 FR 16754 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International...

  5. The rights of Turkish migrants in Europe under international law and EU law.

    PubMed

    Cicekli, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates three issues concerning female immigration in the European Union during the past decade: 1) the sequence of labor migration and family reunification is assessed; 2) family migration is examined in detail; and 3) the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration are studied. In addition, it presents arguments regarding the necessity of considering the reality of changing patterns of employment, households, and social structures to increase our knowledge of European immigration. Family reunion, as much as full-fledged labor migration, reveals the multiple personal and familial strategies involved in the process of migration. Theoretization of international migration emphasizes its diversification including the growing significance of minority skilled migrants. Absence of a sustained dialogue between feminist and mainstream researchers in the field of migration studies is one of the major problems in achieving change in the theoretical understanding of gender international migration in Europe. It was also observed that the communication between migrant women and mainstream European feminist movements has been poor. Lastly, it was proposed that migration theories and models should revolve around the multiple aspects of women's lives in order to catch up with the changes of the last few decades in employment, household and social structures. PMID:12319734

  6. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. The Right to Health Under International Law and Its Relevance to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there have been considerable developments in international law with respect to the normative definition of the right to health, which includes both health care and healthy conditions. These norms offer a framework that shifts the analysis of issues such as disparities in treatment from questions of quality of care to matters of social justice. Building on work in social epidemiology, a rights paradigm explicitly links health with laws, policies, and practices that sustain a functional democracy and focuses on accountability. In the United States, framing a well-documented problem such as health disparities as a “rights violation” attaches shame and blame to governmental neglect. Further, international law offers standards for evaluating governmental conduct as well as mechanisms for establishing some degree of accountability. PMID:15933233

  8. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  9. Revealing, Addressing, and Redressing Ethnocentricity: Teaching International Business Law with Process Response Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumnior, Elisabeth C.; Richards, Eric L.

    This paper demonstrates with specific examples from various students' journals how subtly and, at the same time, pervasively ethnocentricity expresses itself, and offers suggestions on how to assess and combat ethnocentric beliefs through writing assignments and classroom exercises in an international business law course at Indiana University. The…

  10. World Crisis as "Teachable Moment": Joining Global Issues, International Law, and the Internet in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, John E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a mock judicial proceeding that incorporated computers in the classroom and questioned international law. Explains that students were divided into interested parties in the Kosovo conflict (NATO members, the Yugoslavian government, Kosovo Albanians, Russians, and Chinese), a delegation of human-rights groups, and a panel of judges. (CMK)

  11. 78 FR 38430 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law Correction In notice document 2013-13719, appearing on page 34702 in the issue of Monday, June 10, 2013, make the following correction: In the...

  12. 19 CFR 147.22 - Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act. 147.22 Section 147.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS...

  13. 19 CFR 147.22 - Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compliance with the internal revenue laws and Federal Alcohol Administration Act. 147.22 Section 147.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS...

  14. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  15. 78 FR 64260 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Cross-Border..., gives notice of a public meeting to discuss potential future work related to cross-border insolvency... cross- border insolvency law, including the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency, a...

  16. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    PubMed

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future. PMID:24390082

  17. International and European Law on Protected Areas and Climate Change: Need for Adaptation or Implementation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliquet, A.

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  18. 78 FR 64259 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of...

  19. 78 FR 50480 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Arbitration The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, gives notice of a public meeting to discuss a...

  20. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like... electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Working Group IV... and, in so doing, may address related aspects of electronic commerce. The report of the...

  1. 77 FR 530 - Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter The Charter of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law has been renewed, effective for a two-year period. Pursuant to...

  2. 77 FR 75695 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting of the... International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a public meeting of the Study Group on the... they become available, to those individuals who advise that they intend to participate in the...

  3. 78 FR 55772 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on Monday, October 21 and Tuesday, October...

  4. 77 FR 12353 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting on (1) Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments, and (2) Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts The Office of...

  5. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849

  6. Laws and policies to support the wellbeing of children: an international comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Perron, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    The international community has raised concerns regarding the extent to which countries have implemented laws and policies to support the rights and wellbeing of children. This study evaluates the progress of least-developed countries (LDCs) and middle-income countries (MICs) in developing such legislation. Surveys were sent to 131 UNICEF country offices. Items included efforts to promote family preservation and family ties, family-based care over institutionalization, and child participation in placement decisions. A total of 68 surveys were returned, reflecting a 52 percent response rate (LDC, n = 25; MIC, n = 43). Legislation that addressed abuse and neglect of children, maternity leave, removal of children from the family, family care, adoption, and guardianship was widespread. Chi-square tests indicated that MICs had a substantially higher number of laws and policies related to child allowances, school feeding programs, maternity leave, and day care. PMID:24049510

  7. 76 FR 65318 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution Study... Law ACPIL online dispute resolution (ODR) study group would like to give notice of a public meeting...

  8. 75 FR 55846 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... UNCITRAL Working Group on Procurement The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Working Group on Procurement will next meet November 1-5, 2010 in Vienna. At that meeting, the Working... stakeholders. Time and Place: The public meeting will take place at The George Washington University Law...

  9. 78 FR 19062 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... meeting. Those who cannot attend but wish to comment are welcome to do so by email to Michael Coffee at.... Dated: March 20, 2013. Michael S. Coffee, Attorney-Adviser, Office of Private International Law,...

  10. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  11. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  12. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    PubMed Central

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

  13. International Law of Pollution: protecting the global environment in a world of sovereign states

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The reviewer considers this book ideal as a supplemental text for law students and upper-class political science students. It discusses, as it develops its theoretical framework, a variety of examples such as the Trail Smelter arbitration and the ozone depletion controversy. These examples help develop a sense that technical solutions are rare and that the art of diplomacy is still the paragon for resolving international environmental problems. The book closes with a brief case study of the licensing procedure for the Eastport Oil Refinery, which involves a question of the passage to the United States of oil tankers through waters in which Canada has an interest. The case study appears to suggest that the political structure is too fractured to arrive at assuredly optimal solutions. Although this lesson is unfortunately appropriate, the reviewer believes that it belies the greater lesson that politics supports as well as hinders the development of new standards of international behavior.

  14. Universal law for waiting internal time in seismicity and its implication to earthquake network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2012-02-01

    In their paper (Europhys. Lett., 71 (2005) 1036), Carbone, Sorriso-Valvo, Harabaglia and Guerra showed that the "unified scaling law" for conventional waiting times of earthquakes claimed by Bak et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 88 (2002) 178501) is actually not universal. Here, instead of the conventional time, the concept of the internal time termed the event time is considered for seismicity. It is shown that, in contrast to the conventional waiting time, the waiting event time obeys a power law. This implies the existence of temporal long-range correlations in terms of the event time with no sharp decay of the crossover type. The discovered power-law waiting event-time distribution turns out to be universal in the sense that it takes the same form for seismicities in California, Japan and Iran. In particular, the parameters contained in the distribution take the common values in all these geographical regions. An implication of this result to the procedure of constructing earthquake networks is discussed.

  15. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation

    PubMed Central

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  16. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    PubMed

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  17. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  18. The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2002-11-01

    In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.

  19. The Effect of Internal Possession Laws on Underage Drinking Among High School Students: A 12-State Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Lynn D.; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of internal possession (IP) laws, which allow law enforcement to charge underage drinkers with alcohol possession if they have ingested alcohol, on underage drinking behaviors. Methods. We examined Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from 12 states with IP laws and with YRBS data before and after each law’s implementation. We used logistic regression models with fixed effects for state to assess the effects of IP laws on drinking and binge drinking among high school students. Results. Implementation of IP laws is associated with reductions in the odds of past-month drinking. This reduction was bigger among male than among female adolescents (27% vs 15%) and only significant among younger students aged 14 and 15 years (15% and 11%, respectively). Male adolescents also reported a significant reduction (24%) in the odds of past-month binge drinking under IP laws. Conclusions. These findings suggest that IP laws are effective in reducing underage drinking, particularly among younger adolescents. PMID:23597385

  20. 77 FR 31682 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... hereby gives notice that the ACPIL Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group will hold a public...

  1. 75 FR 66420 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... legal instruments regarding online dispute resolution for resolving both business to business (B2B)...

  2. 77 FR 23318 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL); Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL); Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... State hereby gives notice that the ACPIL Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group will hold a...

  3. 77 FR 1972 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... State, hereby gives notice that the ACPIL Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group will hold a...

  4. 78 FR 24783 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... online dispute resolution providers and arbitrators, substantive legal principles for resolving...

  5. 77 FR 58607 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR... of annexes on guidelines and minimum requirements for online dispute resolution providers...

  6. An Exploration of Virginia Law on Recognition, University Officials, and Perceptions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kimberley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how university officials at five public universities in the Commonwealth of Virginia responded in the aftermath of a law concerning credit policies for International Baccalaureate (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) examinations. Mandated by the Code of Virginia § 23-9.2:3.8, this policy is unique in the area of AP and IB…

  7. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang; Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    There is the need for a reliable and valid measure to facilitate emotional intelligence (EI) research on international college students (ICSs). The present study examined the factorial invariance of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), a trait EI measure, in a sample of 628 ICSs. A web-based survey was developed to facilitate…

  8. Implications of international law for the treatment of cancer: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the TRIPS Agreement.

    PubMed

    Liberman, J

    2011-12-01

    The development, manufacture, trade and distribution of medicines all take place within a web of international legal obligations that states have accepted under a range of multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral agreements. International law can operate either to facilitate or hinder access, depending on how it is developed and implemented. This article examines two areas of international law that are relevant to cancer treatment: the international drug control system, which regulates opioid analgesics; and the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement. This article outlines recent developments in relation to both, including in the activities of the Vienna-based agencies that collectively oversee the implementation of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and in the negotiation of the recent United Nations General Assembly Political Declaration on Non-communicable Diseases. While underlining the importance of law, this article notes that battles over law should not distract from the importance of other essential efforts to enhance access to medicines within the context of the strengthening of health systems. PMID:22054908

  9. Fitness to stand trial under international criminal law: the historical context.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Decision-making about fitness to stand trial and the consequences of a finding of unfitness are fundamental to the integrity of any criminal justice system. They create thresholds for when mentally and physically unwell people are mandated to participate in criminal proceedings and they address the outcomes of such decisions for unwell accused persons. The jurisprudence relating to fitness to stand trial under international criminal law has particular challenges and complexities. The origins of contemporary controversies and the bases for modern decisions lie in rulings by the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. The decisions relating to Gustav Krupp, Rudolf Hess, Julius Streicher and Shumei Okawa wrestled with issues that have since recurred in respect of how trial systems should respond to unwellness going to the heart of whether persons can participate meaningfully in their own trials but dealing too with the temptation for persons accused of matters as serious as crimes against humanity and genocide to malinger, exaggerate symptomatology and to generate delays for strategic objectives. PMID:25087357

  10. Fluid flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid in an internally finned tube with different fin lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Kołodziej, Jan Adam

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid in an internally finned tube with different fin length is conducted. Nonlinear momentum equation of a power-law fluid flow and nonlinear energy equation are solved using the Picard iteration method. Then on each iteration step the solution of inhomogeneous equation consists of two parts: the general solution and the particular solution. Firstly the particular solution is obtained by interpolation of the inhomogeneous term by means of the radial basis functions and monomials. Then the general solution is obtained using the method of fundamental solutions and by fulfilling boundary conditions.

  11. The emergence of international terrorism and technological changes: have these changes made the Law of Armed Conflict obsolete?

    PubMed

    Kaar, Jason F

    2007-12-01

    The Geneva Conventions of 1949, the primary basis of the present Law of Armed Conflict, are primarily a reaction to past wars, including World War II. Since 1949, armed conflict had evolved from large armies controlled by nations to fighting by nations, groups, and organization, and are fought both nationally and internationally. This article explores some of the difficulties as a result of these changes. PMID:18214131

  12. Foreign Medical Graduates. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives on Public Law 94-484, Oversight on Immigration of Foreign Medical Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    Hearings before the House Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, and International Law are presented regarding the immigration of foreign medical graduates and the new restrictions placed on their entry into this country under the provision of Title IV of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-484). Testimony…

  13. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense... furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations is subject to disclosure, unless exempted by AR 25-55, AR...

  14. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense... furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations is subject to disclosure, unless exempted by AR 25-55, AR...

  15. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense... furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations is subject to disclosure, unless exempted by AR 25-55, AR...

  16. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense... furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations is subject to disclosure, unless exempted by AR 25-55, AR...

  17. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense... furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. (a) Information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations is subject to disclosure, unless exempted by AR 25-55, AR...

  18. "The ladder of the law has no top and no bottom": how therapeutic jurisprudence can give life to international human rights.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has become one of the most important theoretical approaches to the law. But, there has, as of yet, been puzzlingly little written about the relationship between TJ and international human rights law. To be sure, there has been some preliminary and exploratory work on the relationship between TJ and international law in general, but virtually nothing on its relationship to international human rights law in a mental disability law context. This paper seeks to focus on this lack of consideration, to speculate as to why that might be, and to offer some suggestions as to how to infuse some new vitality and vigor into this important area of law and social policy. In this article, first, I offer a brief explanation of TJ. Next, I discuss, also briefly, the impact (and the potential future greater impact) of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on this area. Then, I consider the sparse commentary currently available on the intersection between TJ and international law in general, and will speculate as to why this is so sparse. Then, I offer some thoughts as to the TJ/international human rights law connection, looking specifically at three questions that require far more attention from this perspective (access to counsel, the use of state-sanctioned psychiatry as a tool of political oppression, and the potential redemptive power of the CRPD), and describe a research agenda that scholars might turn to in furtherance of the investigation of the relationships between therapeutic jurisprudence, international human rights law and mental disability law. I conclude by calling on scholars, activists, advocates and practitioners to begin to take this connection seriously in their future work. PMID:24780300

  19. Determination of Henry’s Law Constants Using Internal Standards with Benchmark Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is shown that Henry’s law constants can be experimentally determined by comparing headspace content of compounds with known constants to interpolate the constants of other compounds. Studies were conducted over a range of water temperatures to identify temperature dependence....

  20. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations. PMID:17308722

  1. Peer Mentoring for International Students in a UK Law School: Lessons from a Pilot Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragavan, Shamini K.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study discusses the impact of a support network for international students of culturally diverse backgrounds using a peer mentoring scheme. The scheme focused on facilitating cultural integration in the international student community in Newcastle and sought to engender a cooperative community among new students. Data obtained…

  2. An exploration of conceptual and temporal fallacies in international health law and promotion of global public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti

    2007-01-01

    In February 2007, Indonesia withheld sharing H5N1 viral samples in order to compel the World Health Organization and Member States to guarantee future access to vaccines for States disproportionately burdened by infectious diseases. This article explores conceptual and temporal fallacies in the International Health Regulations (2005) and the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, as relates to global public health preparedness. Recommendations include adopting laws to facilitate non-pharmaceutical interventions; securing the rights of affected populations; and fostering inter-State collaborations to promote intra-State public health capacity building. PMID:18076510

  3. International Law Has a Role to Play in Addressing Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-01-01

    If an international legal agreement is needed for any of today's global health challenges, it would be antibiotic resistance (ABR). This challenge is transnational, its solution justifies coercion, tangible benefits are likely to be achieved, and other commitment mechanisms have thus far not been successful. Since addressing ABR depends on near-universal and interdependent collective action across sectors, states should utilize an international legal agreement - which formally represents the strongest commitment mechanism available to them. PMID:26243245

  4. Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates.

    PubMed

    Ramskold, Louise Anna Helena; Posner, Marcus Paul

    2013-06-01

    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy agreements--only a web of conflicting national laws that generates loopholes and removes safeguards for both the surrogate and commissioning couple. This article argues the need for evidence-based international laws and regulations as the only way to resolve both the ethical and legal issues around commercial surrogacy. In addition, a Hague Convention on inter-country surrogacy agreements is proposed to resolve the muddled state of affairs and enable commercial surrogacy to demonstrate its full potential. PMID:23443211

  5. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  6. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  7. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  8. In Search of Global Health Justice: A Need to Reinvigorate Institutions and Make International Law.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Shawn H E

    2015-12-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has killed thousands of people, including healthcare workers. African responses have been varied and largely ineffective. The WHO and the international community's belated responses have yet to quell the epidemic. The crisis is characteristic of a failure to properly comply with the International Health Regulations 2005. More generally, it stems from a failure of international health justice as articulated by a range of legal institutions and instruments, and it should prompt us to question the state and direction of approaches to the governance of global public health. This paper queries what might be done to lift global public health as a policy arena to the place of prominence that it deserves. It argues that there are at least two critical reasons for the past, present and easily anticipated future failings of the global public health regime. After exploring those, it then articulates a new way forward, identifying three courses of action that might be adopted in realising better health outcomes and global health justice, namely value, institutional and legal reform. PMID:26113422

  9. [The Bilbao declaration: international meeting on the law concerning the human genome project].

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The Bilbao statement was the result of a work meeting, held the day before the closing session by a group of representative experts, formed by general chairmen and meeting organizers. The compelled and necessary consent gave rise to the document that was read and communicated to the world's public opinion during the closing act on may 26, 1993. Notwithstanding, the working group considered that the divulged version was provisory and committed to continue the task of re-elaborating the statement. The aim was to complete and improve it, taking the greatest advantage of the important meeting achievements. The document that is next reproduced is the definitive integral version of the Bilbao Statement. The expert group that takes the responsibility of this Statement is Jean Dausset, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1980); Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1976); Santiago Grisolía president of UNESCO committee for the Genome Project; Michael Kirby, President of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, Australia; Aaron Klug, member of the Constitutional Council, Paris, France; Rafael Mendizábal, Judge of the Constitutional Court, Madrid, Spain; Juan Bautista Pardo, President of the Superior Court of Justice of the Basque Country and Carlos María Romeo Casabona, Director of the Chair of Law and Human Genome of the University of Deusto (Bilbao). PMID:7732218

  10. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  11. Marine legislation--the ultimate 'horrendogram': international law, European directives & national implementation.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex 'horrendograms' showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change. PMID:25088540

  12. Internal Thermodynamical Equilibrium And Consequences For Rate Law Expressions For Elementary Chemical And Physical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2009-07-01

    By viewing reactant species to be in a state of thermodynamical equilibrium with its various members which constitutes a set within a set of topological parameters various states of internal equilibrium within the same species would exist subject to the Gibbs thermodynamical criteria. Some examples from actual ab initio computer simulations show that there exists an empirical relationship between the activity coefficient ratio and the so-called reactivity coefficients, defined as a measure of departure of the rate constant with varying concentration of reactants in a system at equilibrium, where forward and backward rates can still be measured. These ideas are applied to charged reaction dynamics where a generalization of the Brönsted and Bjerrum rate expression is obtained.

  13. Evolution of different dual-use concepts in international and national law and its implications on research ethics and governance.

    PubMed

    Rath, Johannes; Ischi, Monique; Perkins, Dana

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies. PMID:24497004

  14. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  15. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  16. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part II - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Multidimensional Riemann solvers that have internal sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state have been formulated recently (D.S. Balsara (2012, 2014) [5,16]). Any multidimensional Riemann solver operates at the grid vertices and takes as its input all the states from its surrounding elements. It yields as its output an approximation of the strongly interacting state, as well as the numerical fluxes. The multidimensional Riemann problem produces a self-similar strongly-interacting state which is the result of several one-dimensional Riemann problems interacting with each other. To compute this strongly interacting state and its higher order moments we propose the use of a Galerkin-type formulation to compute the strongly interacting state and its higher order moments in terms of similarity variables. The use of substructure in the Riemann problem reduces numerical dissipation and, therefore, allows a better preservation of flow structures, like contact and shear waves. In this second part of a series of papers we describe how this technique is extended to unstructured triangular meshes. All necessary details for a practical computer code implementation are discussed. In particular, we explicitly present all the issues related to computational geometry. Because these Riemann solvers are Multidimensional and have Self-similar strongly-Interacting states that are obtained by Consistency with the conservation law, we call them MuSIC Riemann solvers. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.elsevier.com/xml/linking-roles/text/html". The MuSIC framework is sufficiently general to handle general nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions. It can also accommodate all self-similar one-dimensional Riemann solvers and subsequently produces a multidimensional version of the same. In this paper we focus on unstructured triangular meshes. As examples of different systems of conservation laws we

  17. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  18. Tobacco industry argues domestic trademark laws and international treaties preclude cigarette health warning labels, despite consistent legal advice that the argument is invalid

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the tobacco industry’s use of international trade agreements to oppose policies to strengthen health warning labels (HWLs). Design A review of tobacco industry documents, tobacco control legislation and international treaties. Results During the early 1990s, the tobacco industry became increasingly alarmed about the advancement of HWLs on cigarettes packages. In response, it requested legal opinions from British American Tobacco’s law firms in Australia and England, Britain’s Department of Trade and Industry and the World Intellectual Property Organisation on the legality of restricting and prohibiting the use of their trademarks, as embodied in cigarette packages. The consistent legal advice, privately submitted to the companies, was that international treaties do not shield trademark owners from government limitations (including prohibition) on the use of their trademarks. Despite receiving this legal advice, the companies publicly argued that requiring large HWLs compromised their trademark rights under international treaties. The companies successfully used these arguments as part of their successful effort to deter Canadian and Australian governments from enacting laws requiring the plan packaging of cigarettes, which helped delay large graphic HWLs, including ‘plain’ packaging, for over a decade. Conclusions Governments should not be intimidated by tobacco company threats and unsubstantiated claims, and carefully craft HWL laws to withstand the inevitable tobacco industry lawsuits with the knowledge that the companies’ own lawyers as well as authoritative bodies have told the companies that the rights they claim do not exist. PMID:23179728

  19. 75 FR 504 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...) of the Permanent Council of the OAS is carrying out work on consumer rights as part of its program on... guidelines/model laws/rules to promote consumer redress mechanisms such as small claims tribunals, collective... relevant to work at the OAS include the proposal at UNCITRAL for future work on on-line dispute...

  20. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1985. International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) Round-Table on Access to Information in International Legal Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on international access to information pertaining to legal research, which were presented at the 1985 conference of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) include: (1) "Materials of European Intergovernmental Organizations and Their Accessibility through Available Research Tools" (Irene Berkey, Northwestern University…

  2. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law*

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and non-working middle-school students. We combined data from the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) eighth-grade assessment with the country specific information on socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as the timing of each country's ratification of an international treaty regulating child labor. Our multilevel analyses show that, while student employment was generally negatively associated with academic performance, this negative association is smaller in countries that by 1995 had ratified the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 138 on child labor. These findings highlight the role of national and international policy in structuring the consequences of student employment for academic performance. PMID:25632163

  3. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and nonworking…

  4. 75 FR 47877 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... UNCITRAL Working Group on International Arbitration and Conciliation In June, the United Nations Commission... UNCITRAL Working Group on International Arbitration and Conciliation will take up the topic of transparency in investor-State arbitration. The Working Group is scheduled to meet in Vienna October 4-8, 2010....

  5. 77 FR 49851 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Study Group on International Arbitration and Conciliation The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for... on International Arbitration and Conciliation. A Working Group of the United Nations Commission on... investor-State arbitration. The Working Group, which has held four previous sessions on this topic,...

  6. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing. PMID:10994267

  7. Internal Quality Assurance Reviews: Challenges and Processes--Walter Sisulu University's Business, Management Sciences and Law Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodly, A.; Saunderson, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Higher Educations' (CHE) Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) requires internal quality evaluations to be performed on the various programmes offered by the Faculty before visitation by the HEQC. This article examines some of the challenges and processes followed by six of the departments of Walter Sisulu University's Faculty…

  8. Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG): a collaboration of scientists, law enforcement officials, and regulators working to combat nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-10-25

    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official Nuclear Forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with nearly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) (Figure 1). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist the global community during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. Past efforts to advance nuclear forensic science have also included scenarios that asked laboratories to adapt conventional forensics methods (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, tool marks, and document comparisons) for collecting and preserving evidence comingled with radioactive materials.

  9. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part I - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on structured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.

    2014-11-01

    up to quartic variation in the self-similar variables. While linear variations are sufficient for numerical work, the higher order terms in the series solution could prove useful for analytical studies of the multidimensional Riemann problem. The formulation presented here is general enough to accommodate any hyperbolic conservation law. It can also accommodate any one-dimensional Riemann solver and yields a multidimensional version of the same. It has been incorporated in the author's RIEMANN code. As examples of the different types of hyperbolic conservation laws, we use Euler flow, Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and relativistic MHD. As examples of different types of Riemann solvers, we show multidimensional formulations of HLL, HLLC and HLLD Riemann solvers for MHD all working fluently within this formulation. Several stringent test problems are presented.

  10. On the scaling laws derived from ice beacon trajectories in the southern Beaufort Sea during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead study, 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovich, J. V.; Babb, D. G.; Barber, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    Sea ice motion is an important element in mass balance calculations, ice thermodynamic modeling, ice management plans for industry, and ecosystems studies. In the historical literature, sea ice motion in the Beaufort Sea was characterized by a predominantly anticyclonic motion during winter months, with episodic reversals to cyclonic activity during summer. However, recent studies have shown an increase in cyclonic activity throughout the annual cycle. In this paper we examine circulation in the Beaufort Sea based on the trajectories of 22 ice beacons launched in the Franklin Bay area during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead (IPY-CFL) study during an over-wintering experiment in 2007-2008. Dispersion characteristics of ice motion show that absolute zonal dispersion follows a t2 scaling law characteristic of advection associated with Beaufort Gyre circulation, whereas absolute meridional dispersion follows a scaling law of t5/4 characteristic of floaters and dispersion in 2-D turbulence. Temporal autocorrelations of ice velocity fluctuations highlight definitive timescales with values of 1.2 (0.7) days in the zonal (meridional) direction. Near-Gaussian behavior is reflected in higher-order moments for ice velocity fluctuation probability density functions (pdfs). Non-Gaussian behavior for absolute displacement pdfs indicates spatial heterogeneity in the ice motion fields. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice is explored through analysis of daily North American Regional Reanalysis and in situ wind data, where it is shown that ice in the CFL study region travels with an average speed of approximately 0.2% and an average angle of 51.5° to the right of the surface winds during the 2007-2008 winter. The results from this analysis further demonstrate seasonality in ice drift to wind ratios and angles that corresponds to stress buoy data indicative of increases in internal ice stress and connectivity due to consolidation of the seasonal ice zone to the coast

  11. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  12. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as “market exclusivity” and in Europe as “data exclusivity,” these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers’ undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers’ clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers’ consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the

  13. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the growth and consequences of new intellectual property rights given to pharmaceutical developers, and it advocates treating clinical trials as a public good. Although the soaring cost of clinical trials is well known and discussed, too little attention is given to the underlying rationale for allowing drug developers to recoup their costs through the new intellectual property rights provided in multilateral, regional, and bilateral agreements. Known in the US as "market exclusivity" and in Europe as "data exclusivity," these rights prohibit would-be generic producers from obtaining regulatory approval based on the original producers' undisclosed test data. Market and data exclusivity is codified in US and European domestic law as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and, to a lesser degree, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Market and data exclusivity is binding an increasing number of developing countries via Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which hinder developing countries from manufacturing generic drugs. At a minimum, negotiators should replace the norm of exclusive control over data with a liability rule, or take and pay rule, in which generic manufacturers can use original manufacturers' clinical trial data in exchange for reasonable compensation. A more fundamental solution requires questioning the status quo of proprietary clinical trial data. The conventional wisdom is that market and data exclusivity, and drug developers' consequent ability to limit competition from generics above and beyond patent protection, are a necessary incentive for drug developers to fund ever more expensive clinical trials. Clinical trial data, however, are public goods that will be undersupplied and over protected so long as private actors provide them. Moreover, manufacturers have an incentive to present clinical trial data so that they support regulatory approval at the expense of public

  14. Performances of the fractal iterative method with an internal model control law on the ESO end-to-end ELT adaptive optics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Thiébaut, É.

    2008-07-01

    Adaptive Optics systems under study for the Extremely Large Telescopes gave rise to a new generation of algorithms for both wavefront reconstruction and the control law. In the first place, the large number of controlled actuators impose the use of computationally efficient methods. Secondly, the performance criterion is no longer solely based on nulling residual measurements. Priors on turbulence must be inserted. In order to satisfy these two requirements, we suggested to associate the Fractal Iterative Method for the estimation step with an Internal Model Control. This combination has now been tested on an end-to-end adaptive optics numerical simulator at ESO, named Octopus. Results are presented here and performance of our method is compared to the classical Matrix-Vector Multiplication combined with a pure integrator. In the light of a theoretical analysis of our control algorithm, we investigate the influence of several errors contributions on our simulations. The reconstruction error varies with the signal-to-noise ratio but is limited by the use of priors. The ratio between the system loop delay and the wavefront coherence time also impacts on the reachable Strehl ratio. Whereas no instabilities are observed, correction quality is obviously affected at low flux, when subapertures extinctions are frequent. Last but not least, the simulations have demonstrated the robustness of the method with respect to sensor modeling errors and actuators misalignments.

  15. International Sea-Bed Authority: the quest for efficiency and equity at the third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    El-Baghdadi, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines comprehensively the quest of the actors to attain their interests in terms of efficiency and equity in the establishment of the International Sea-Bed Authority (ISA) regime. The thesis of this study is that the proposed ISA regime represents a compromise among actors holding different views regarding efficiency and equity. This compromise, which poses a challenge to power, ideology, and nationalism, was developed by the coalitions of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. It is neither an example of Pareto optimality (economic efficiency) as emphasized by the developed countries, nor an ideal model of equity as demanded by the developing countries. The unrealistic assumptions that surround the concepts of efficiency and equity, the impact of power and interdependence, the constraining role of sovereignty and the effects of the formation of coalitions, make the proposed regime the most appropriate alternative for governing the Area beyond national jurisdiction of states. It can, however, serve the collective interests of the developed countries in economic efficiency and also meet the equity objectives of the developing countries by providing stability and certainty.

  16. Teaching and Research in International Law in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Consultation Meeting Including Nine Country Status Surveys (Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 10-13, 1984). Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Information on teaching and research in international law for countries of the Asia-Pacific region is presented in proceedings of a 1984 conference sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. In addition to a regional overview, suggestions are offered for promoting regional cooperation in international law.…

  17. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  18. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  19. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  20. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  1. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  2. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  3. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  4. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  5. The Coming Law School Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  6. I Phone, You Phone, We All Phone with iPhone: Trademark Law and Ethics from an International and Domestic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Tammy W.; Chumney, Wade M.

    2011-01-01

    In today's Internet-based and global business environment, the legal issues companies face will often involve issues of intellectual property. Virtually every product people purchase is protected by a trademark, a patent, and/or copyrights. Thus, basic concepts of intellectual property are a natural component in any business law or legal…

  7. Judicial Independence: An International Comparison Service. A Lesson Plan for High School Law-Related Educators To Support "Understanding the Federal Courts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    It is widely believed that the judiciary can maintain the rule of law and guarantee fundamental rights only if it is independent from political and other pressures. Most countries have provisions in their constitutions guaranteeing an independent judiciary. Usually, this independence has two faces: institutional measures that separate the…

  8. Teaching Comparative Law in the 21st Century: Beyond the Civil/Common Law Dichotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the inexorable shift to transnational and global legal practice demands a comparable shift in methods of teaching comparative law to move it beyond its current American common law/European civil law myopia. Proposes an introductory course, Law in Comparative Cultures, which exposes students to a panoply of international legal systems.…

  9. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  10. Space flights and questions of law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepen, E.

    1974-01-01

    Juridical aspects of space flights and international law are elaborated. Considered are manned orbital space stations, as well as lunar or planetary bases and the international exploration of extraterrestrial resources.

  11. Update on Law-Related Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of 3 volumes of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) offering background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three volumes include "International Law,""Crime and Freedom," and "Civil Law". Background articles are provided along with teaching…

  12. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 22 CFR 233.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 233.16 Section 233.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the...

  15. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  16. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  17. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  18. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  19. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  20. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  1. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews four recent court decisions affecting school law. A Circuit Court of Appeals ruling upheld Norfolk Schools' decision to abolish busing and reinstate neighborhood schools. The United States Supreme Court dismissed appeals to lower court decisions involving a minimum grade prerequisite, a teacher's privacy rights, and an "adult" movie…

  2. 50 CFR 300.3 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.3 Section 300.3 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.3 Relation to other laws. Other laws that may apply to fishing activities...

  3. 50 CFR 300.3 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.3 Section 300.3 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.3 Relation to other laws. Other laws that may apply to fishing activities...

  4. 50 CFR 300.3 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.3 Section 300.3 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.3 Relation to other laws. Other laws that may apply to fishing activities...

  5. Law school performance predicted by explanatory style.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, J M; Monahan, J; Seligman, M E

    1997-01-01

    The explanatory styles of 387 law students were assessed prior to law school using the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Longitudinal performance measures were collected throughout law school and related to each student's initial explanatory style. In contrast to studies with undergraduates, students who made stable, global, and internal attributions for negative events combined with the converse attributions for success (typically called pessimists) outperformed more optimistic students on measures of grade point averages and law journal success. We discuss the limitations of current attributional research methodologies and suggest the prudent and cautious perspective necessary for law or skill-based professions may account for our findings. PMID:9160992

  6. Does accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) ensure greater compliance with animal welfare laws?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories. PMID:25174609

  7. Considering the unthinkable—A review and discussion of current international law and suggestions regarding how we deal with a catastrophic incident in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamer-Downie, Darcy

    2013-12-01

    It is now clear that private enterprise and not nationally funded space agencies will be the driving force behind development of space for the "benefit" of private enterprise and the general public. It is also not unreasonable to say that in the next 20-30 years we will see the public accessing space via sub-orbital flights, orbital excursions, orbiting hotels and possibly even hotels located on a celestial body. The existing principles regarding the rescue and return of "astronauts" was never fit for purpose and is certainly not appropriate for this new era of private space activity. Activities in space are dangerous and the travelling public is generally risk adverse. So how do we balance the obvious risks associated with space travel, against the societal desire to seek adventures in space and with the prevailing risk adverse culture? It is now time to seriously consider the development of international safety standards for space vehicles and habitations in order to ensure that rescue and return from a space excursion is a reality for passengers and crew. If we fail to do so then the scenario set out below may become a tragic reality. Catastrophic ScenarioConsider a scenario in which a space hotel loses a significant amount of its in-orbit life support capability. Rescue is underway but it will take time. The Captain realises that there is not enough oxygen on board for all to survive until rescue. What if anything can be done?

  8. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  9. Nuclear weapons and the law.

    PubMed

    Murray, R K

    1999-01-01

    The history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is summarized, with a discussion of some of its earlier Advisory Opinions. The Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear arms is considered in the light of the principles of international humanitarian law and a review of nuclear weapons effects. The present government's position on nuclear weapons as outlined in the Strategic Defence Review (which ignores the issue of legality) is examined critically. PMID:10371869

  10. 26 CFR 301.7327-1 - Customs laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs laws applicable. 301.7327-1 Section 301.7327-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7327-1 Customs laws applicable. For...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7327-1 - Customs laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Customs laws applicable. 301.7327-1 Section 301.7327-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7327-1 Customs laws applicable. For...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7327-1 - Customs laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Customs laws applicable. 301.7327-1 Section 301.7327-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7327-1 Customs laws applicable. For...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7327-1 - Customs laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Customs laws applicable. 301.7327-1 Section 301.7327-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7327-1 Customs laws applicable. For...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7327-1 - Customs laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Customs laws applicable. 301.7327-1 Section 301.7327-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7327-1 Customs laws applicable. For...

  15. Unit III: International Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    This lesson helps students understand the global network involved in international events. Students have an opportunity to examine the impact of international law and the role of international organizations, national governments, and private individuals in the effort to secure the release of United States hostages in Iran. (AM)

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  18. NASA and the practice of space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for increased awareness in space law due to advances in space technology and a trend toward commercialization of space. A list of national and international treaties, conventions, agreements, laws, and regulations relevant to space activities is presented. NASA lawyers specialize in international and municipal laws that affect the NASA space mission; an example of the lawyers working with insurance companies in negotiating the first Space Shuttle liability policy is provided. The increased participation of the public sector in space activities, for example, the commercialization of the Space Shuttle transportation system, is examined.

  19. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. PMID:20880589

  20. 26 CFR 48.6420-5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6420-5 Section 48.6420-5... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6420-5 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  1. 26 CFR 48.6427-4 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6427-4 Section 48.6427-4... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-4 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  2. 26 CFR 48.6427-4 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6427-4 Section 48.6427-4... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-4 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  3. 26 CFR 48.6420-5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6420-5 Section 48.6420-5... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6420-5 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  4. 26 CFR 48.6421-6 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6421-6 Section 48.6421-6... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-6 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  5. 26 CFR 48.6421-6 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6421-6 Section 48.6421-6... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-6 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  6. 26 CFR 48.6427-4 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicable laws. 48.6427-4 Section 48.6427-4... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-4 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  7. 26 CFR 48.6420-5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6420-5 Section 48.6420-5... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6420-5 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  8. 31 CFR 10.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 10.70... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.70 Administrative Law Judge. (a..., firm or other entity, or appraiser will be conducted by an Administrative Law Judge appointed...

  9. 26 CFR 48.6421-6 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6421-6 Section 48.6421-6... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-6 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  10. 26 CFR 48.6421-6 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicable laws. 48.6421-6 Section 48.6421-6... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-6 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6420-5 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicable laws. 48.6420-5 Section 48.6420-5... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6420-5 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  12. 26 CFR 48.6427-4 - Applicable laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable laws. 48.6427-4 Section 48.6427-4... Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-4 Applicable laws. (a) Penalties, excessive claims, etc. All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable in respect of the tax imposed by...

  13. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  14. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  15. Law As a Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

  16. [Teaching about Family Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

  17. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  18. [Medicine aboard cruise ships--law insurance specifics].

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Frenzel, R; Muehlberger, T

    2013-04-01

    The booming cruise industry, associated with ships with more passengers and crew on board, results in growing medical needs for the ship doctor. The ship's doctor insurance policy includes different jurisdictions, namely national law, international law, tort law, insurance law and labor law. In addition, international agreements must be taken into account, which complicates the design of an adequate insurance policy. Equally high are the costs and defense costs for the ship's doctor in case of liability. In order to limit the liability for all parties is to ask for appropriately qualified medical staff, hired on board. PMID:23589048

  19. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  20. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  1. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  2. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  3. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  4. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  5. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  6. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  7. Contribution of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Ye. A. Korovin to the science of international space law. Anniversary of corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Professor Ye. A. Korovin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukov, G. P.

    1980-01-01

    The Soviet Union's participation in the solution of international legal problems as space flights became possible is reviewed with emphasis on the efforts of the most prominent Soviet international lawyer. Some of the professor's 230 writings are highlighted.

  8. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  9. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  10. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  11. 26 CFR 1.1502-80 - Applicability of other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of other provisions of law. 1.1502-80 Section 1.1502-80 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Administrative Provisions and Other Rules § 1.1502-80 Applicability of other provisions of law. (a)...

  12. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  13. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as…

  14. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  15. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  16. Law and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    Fourteen activity units are presented to help elementary and junior high students learn about laws, rules, and respect for others. A pretest introduces the materials by asking students why society has rules and laws, which ones apply to children, and what reactions students have to the word "cop." The subsequent units involve the students in group…

  17. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

  18. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  19. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  20. Nanotechnology and the Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  1. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  2. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  3. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  4. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  5. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  6. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  7. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  8. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  9. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  10. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  11. Impact crater scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

  12. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes...

  13. Draft Model Law on Archives: Description and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Salvatore; Gueze, Raoul

    A model law on archives which was prepared for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) by the International Council on Archives is presented. The aim of the law is to help countries in varying stages of development to construct legal guidelines for archival use which are in line with the exigencies of modern…

  14. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes...

  15. Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhihetty, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)--which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants--have been championed by leaders like…

  16. 20 CFR 401.125 - Disclosures prohibited by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 401.125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.125 Disclosures prohibited by law. We do not disclose information when a law specifically prohibits it. The Internal Revenue...

  17. 26 CFR 509.102 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... United States, shall not be included in gross income and shall be exempt from taxation under...

  18. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  19. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  20. The new energy law

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Z.

    1997-05-01

    Foreign companies, as well as Polish companies, have long awaited the introduction of a new environment for doing business in Poland`s energy sector. The adoption by the Sejm (lower house of the Polish Parliament) of a new Energy Law (Prawo Energetyczne) promises to move Poland into a brave new world for energy sector businesses. With this law, Poland hopes to leapfrog into the vanguard of European countries in terms of privatization and demonopolization of its energy sectors. Only the United Kingdom may be more progressive in this regard. During the past several months, a draft law was passed by the Sejm and sent to the Senate. The Senate introduced nearly 50 changes, passed the law and returned it to the Sejm. At that point, the Sejm committee responsible for this law recommended against almost all the Senate`s changes, returning the draft law to its original form. The actions by the Sejm, now awaited, will be final with only the signature of the president needed to put the law into force. Subsequently, this examination of the law is based upon the draft as originally passed by the Sejm and expected to be signed by Poland`s president. There are several key provisions of the proposed new law that make it so different from the current regulatory structure. The key terms that the Polish government likes to use are privatization and demonopolization, of which the latter is to come first. It is a leap forward from an energy sector that was owned entirely by the State, and where prices at all levels, from the coal mines to the residential consumer, were set without regard to cost.

  1. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Leontsinis, Stefanos

    2014-12-01

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the n-th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford's predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow the first digit law reasonable well, and that the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.

  2. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

  3. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:25770525

  5. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Subsidence: an emerging area of the law

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.

    1981-01-01

    This Note surveys various legal theories courts could employ to compensate property owners injured by subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. Many courts have clouded the subsidence issue by applying water law to determine liability. Dissatisfied with the results of applying water law to subsidence, the Texas Supreme Court held, in the landmark Friendswood decision, that negligence would be a cause of action to redress future subsidence. The best theory of liability for subsidence damage, however, is loss of subjacent support. The prevailing rule under the law of support is that the defendant is strictly liable for damage resulting from withdrawal of support. The Restatement and several cases have finally recognized that there is no valid distinction between withdrawal of solid and fluid substances for purposes of imposing strict liability under subjacent support principles. Since subsidence may result from groundwater pumping even in the absence of negligence, strict liability is superior to a negligence theory. Unlike any water law theory, the law of support recognizes that the injury is to rights in land rather than to water rights. Until legislatures respond to the problem, adherence to the law of subjacent support is the best approach to internalizing the costs of subsidence.

  7. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  8. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  9. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  10. What Is Benford's Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jonathan R.; Farnsworth, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The surprising property of many data sets that their first significant digits follow Benford's Law provides examples that can pique and hold students' interest. Several ideas for student activities are presented.

  11. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  12. Stokes' Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses limitations and corrections to be made in physics experiments involving the investigations of drag and terminal velocity on spheres falling through a liquid in accordance with Stokes' law. (SL)

  13. Reply to ``Electrodynamic force law controversy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalleri, G.; Tonni, E.; Spavieri, G.

    2001-05-01

    Our paper [Phys. Rev. E 58, 2505 (1998)] confirmed the validity of both Ampère and Grassmann's force law even for the action exerted on a part of a current loop. Since that part can be an element of a circuit, both force laws also predict the same internal stresses and the same recoil for a railgun. Graneau and Graneau [preceding paper, Phys. Rev. E 63, 058601 (2001)] neglected the action on the breech of the railgun, an action that produces the same recoil for both force laws. The reaction to the force exerted on the armature does not act on the rails but on the breech that, simply because of symmetry, undergoes a force equal and opposite to the one acting on the armature.

  14. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  15. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  16. 50 CFR 300.122 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.122 Section 300.122 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.122 Relation to other...

  17. 50 CFR 300.92 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-reservation fishing by treaty Indians are found at 25 CFR part 249, subpart A. Additional general and specific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.92 Section 300.92 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL...

  18. 50 CFR 300.33 - Compliance with applicable national laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with applicable national laws. 300.33 Section 300.33 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.33 Compliance with applicable...

  19. 50 CFR 300.33 - Compliance with applicable national laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with applicable national laws. 300.33 Section 300.33 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.33 Compliance with applicable...

  20. 50 CFR 300.33 - Compliance with applicable national laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with applicable national laws. 300.33 Section 300.33 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.33 Compliance with applicable...

  1. 50 CFR 300.33 - Compliance with applicable national laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with applicable national laws. 300.33 Section 300.33 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.33 Compliance with applicable...

  2. 50 CFR 300.33 - Compliance with applicable national laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with applicable national laws. 300.33 Section 300.33 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.33 Compliance with applicable...

  3. 50 CFR 300.122 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.122 Section 300.122 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.122 Relation to other...

  4. 50 CFR 300.92 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-reservation fishing by treaty Indians are found at 25 CFR part 249, subpart A. Additional general and specific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 300.92 Section 300.92 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL...

  5. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  6. Research on the Legislation of Chinese Space Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongwen

    2002-01-01

    1 Need and necessity for the legislation of Chinese space activities --Complying with UN treaties and principles on outer space --Adapting to the requirements of market economy --Promoting the further development of Chinese space activities --Developing international space cooperation 2 Research method for legislation of Chinese space activities The research method is ROCCIPI. This method was introduced into China with the project "Legislation Supports Economy Reform" supported by the UN Office of Development Planning - By analyzing the correlations among the seven factors: Rule, Opportunity, Capacity, Communication, Interest, Process and Ideology, the optimal legal measures can be found . Such analysis and research works on the master law of Chinese space activities have been made in the paper. 3 Research of international treaties &principles on outer space, and of national space laws of other countries. Studies have been made in this paper on many aspects of international outer space laws, such as framework, development stage, current characteristics, new problems will be faced with in new century, and development tendency in the future, etc. Based on the investigation and study of national space laws of other countries, analyses and researches on national space law have been made in the paper from some aspects, such as legislative purpose, legislative aim, legislative form, legislative content and etc, and some enlightenments, which can be used for reference in the legislation of Chinese Space Laws, are found. 4 Framework of Chinese Space Laws The jurisdiction of Chinese Space Laws lies in three areas: space technology - space applications and space science. Chinese Space Laws are divided into 3 levels: Master law, Administration Regulations of the State Council of the P.R.C, Rules of governmental sectors. 5 Conclusions and Suggestions --The legislation of Chinese Space Activities should be strengthened --More attentions should be paid to the research work in

  7. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  8. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  9. Environmental Law II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  10. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  11. School Law Update, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction" (Helm); (3)…

  12. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  13. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  14. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  15. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  16. Discipline and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1996-01-01

    Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

  17. Evolution and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  18. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  19. Wisconsin Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

    A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

  20. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  1. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  2. Law Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law…

  3. The Law and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report reviews and analyzes six books on the subject of the law and racial equality, especially as related to school desegregation. The books examined are: (1)"Government by Judiciary" by Raoul Berger, which examines the Supreme Court's interpretation of the 14th Amendment; (2) "Disaster by Decree," by Lino A. Graglia, which criticizes…

  4. Law and Ecomanagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayda, Jaro

    1986-01-01

    This article argues that environmental awareness has a substantial impact on law, both as a technical discipline and as a policy process. It further develops the concept of ecomanagement and reviews the role of environmental impact assessments in policy development. (JDH)

  5. Schools and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

    The basic areas of school law in the United States, from the governmental framework in which education functions to concerns about teachers, pupils, and school property, are covered in this book. Separate chapters describe the roles of governmental agencies at federal, state, and local levels and discuss regulation of what is taught as well as…

  6. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  7. Team Teaching School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

  8. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  9. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  10. The Hungarian Library Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This booklet includes the Law-Decree No. 15 on Libraries issued by the Presidium of the Hungarian People's Republic in 1976 and the decree of the Council of Ministers on its implementation. The purpose of the decree is to further the fulfilment of citizens' cultural demands, and meet the needs for special literature of both citizens and corporate…

  11. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  12. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  13. Law, Pirates, and Piracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    Maritime piracy has increasingly been in the news, and in the courtroom, in recent years. This article presents an interview with international legal and overseas piracy expert Douglas Guilfoyle. In this interview, Guilfoyle discusses why piracy is a growing problem and some of the challenges it creates for the international community. He also…

  14. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  15. Teaching "Law and Education" Outside the Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.

    A symposium discussion is presented on the topic, "Teaching 'Law and Education' Outside the Law School." The participants were: Walter J. McCann of Harvard Graduate School of Education; E. Edmund Reutter, Jr., of Teachers College of Columbia University; Robert J. Simpson of University of Miami Center for Policy and Law in Education; Tyll Van Geel…

  16. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  17. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  18. Healthy by law: heading towards a brave new world?

    PubMed

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    The law is a tool used by Government to protect public health. Health is an omnipresent preoccupation, inviting each one of us to protect ourselves against potential risks at all times and in all places. The right to health protection is a source of benefit entitlements and rights-obligations that render it effective. However, believing that the law can and should regulate all sectors of human life, still a utopian belief. International law suffers from intrinsic weaknesses that limit its effectiveness. The current economic context has lead to stricter controls over healthcare expenditure faced with the ever-growing demand for treatment, limiting the right to healthcare protection. Through health law, the State has developed controls over individuals. Individual liberties tend to be limited to the cause of the public health policy. Healthy by law, raises a question: are we heading towards a brave new world as described by Aldous Huxley? PMID:23447901

  19. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  20. Upstream health law.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." PMID:25565619

  1. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  2. [Abortion law in Italy].

    PubMed

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  3. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  4. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  5. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  6. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  7. Recent developments in health care law: partners in innovation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Roberta M; Bliss, Lisa; Caley, Sylvia; Lombardo, Paul A; Rooker, Jerri Nims; Todres, Jonathan; Wolf, Leslie E

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews recent developments in health care law, focusing on the engagement of law as a partner in health care innovation. The article addresses: the history and contents of recent United States federal law restricting the use of genetic information by insurers and employers; the recent federal policy recommending routine HIV testing; the recent revision of federal policy regarding the funding of human embryonic stem cell research; the history, current status, and need for future attention to advance directives; the recent emergence of medical-legal partnerships and their benefits for patients; the obesity epidemic and its implications for the child's right to health under international conventions. PMID:20490620

  8. International Child Abduction Prevention Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-07-16

    09/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Second law violations, continuum mechanics, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The violations of the second law are relevant as the length and/or time scales become very small. The second law then needs to be replaced by the fluctuation theorem and mathematically, the irreversible entropy is a submartingale. First, we discuss the consequences of these results for the axioms of continuum mechanics, arguing in favor of a framework relying on stochastic functionals of energy and entropy. We next determine a Lyapunov function for diffusion-type problems governed by stochastic rather than deterministic functionals of internal energy and entropy, where the random field coefficients of diffusion are not required to satisfy the positive definiteness everywhere. Next, a formulation of micropolar fluid mechanics is developed, accounting for the lack of symmetry of stress tensor on molecular scales. This framework is then applied to employed to show that spontaneous random fluctuations of the microrotation field will arise in Couette—and Poiseuille-type flows in the absence of random (turbulence-like) fluctuations of the classical velocity field. Finally, while the permeability is classically modeled by the Darcy law or its modifications, besides considering the violations of the second law, one also needs to account for the spatial randomness of the channel network, implying a modification of the hierarchy of scale-dependent bounds on the macroscopic property of the network.

  10. Freedom under Law. Revised edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Schools, CO.

    This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

  11. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  12. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  13. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  14. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

  15. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  16. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control. PMID:27418602

  17. Guide to International Studies at Canadian Universities = Guide pour les etudes internationales aux universites Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pari, Ed.

    Included in this guide is a list of 65 Canadian universities and colleges offering programs in international and Native studies. Programs encompass area studies, international development, international relations, international business, international law, international agriculture, and international and comparative education. Also included are…

  18. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  19. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879

  20. Why are Newton's laws laws and why is this question of importance in astrophysics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennison, R. C.

    Newton's law of gravitation has been well researched and one may now associate the cause with the geometry of space. Newton's third law is a general law not confined to inertial forces -any physically measurable force appears to require a physically measurable reaction in order that it may exist as a real observable quantity. Newton's first and second laws are in a different category for they are associated with relative motion and the physical reason for this has been an enigma since the publication of Principia Mathematica. Is the phenomenon associated with these two laws caused by the influence of the distance masses of the universe on point-like test masses, as Mach suggested but did not prove, or is it associated with a fundamental internal property of trapped energy within physically finite test masses, befitting to the principle of relativity, as has been proposed in the last decade? The resolution of this problem has profound implications for the identification of hidden matter in the Universe and for the cosmological modelling of the Universe as a whole.

  1. An Interface between Law and Science: The Climate Change Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Grandbois, M.; Kaniaha, S.

    2012-04-01

    Law and Science are jointly building the international climate change regime. Up to date, international law and climate science have been unable to take into consideration both regional law and Pacific climate science in this process. Under the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (the Australian Government Initiative to assist with high priority climate adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region) significant efforts were dedicated to improve understanding of climate in the Pacific through the Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP) and through the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program (PASAP). The first comprehensive PCCSP scientific report on the South Pacific climate has been published in 2011. Under the PASAP, web-based information tools for seasonal climate prediction have been developed and now outputs from dynamical climate model are used in 15 countries of the North-West and South Pacific for enhanced prediction of rainfall, air and sea surface temperatures which reduces countries' vulnerability to climate variability in the context of a changing climate. On a regional scale, the Meteorological and Geohazards Department of Vanuatu is preparing a full report on Climate change impacts on the country. These scientific reports and tools could lead to a better understanding of climate change in the South Pacific and to a better understanding of climate change science, for lawyers and policy-makers. The International climate change regime develops itself according to science findings, and at the pace of the four scientific reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In return, Law is a contributing factor to climate change, a structural data in the development and perception of environmental issues and it exerts an influence on Science. Because of the dependency of law on science, the PCCSP and PASAP outcomes will also stimulate and orientate developments in law of the Pacific

  2. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  3. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  4. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  5. Epilepsy and law.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration. PMID:18234559

  6. The International Climate Change Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Farhana; Depledge, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the increasing number of policy-makers, stakeholders, researchers, and other professionals working on climate change, this volume presents a detailed description and analysis of the international regime established in 1992 to combat the threat of global climate change. It provides a comprehensive accessible guide to a high-profile area of international law and politics, covering not only the obligations and rights of countries, but ongoing climate negotiations as well.

  7. X-38 Experimental Controls Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Estes, Jay; Bordano, Aldo J.

    2000-01-01

    X-38 Experimental Control Laws X-38 is a NASA JSC/DFRC experimental flight test program developing a series of prototypes for an International Space Station (ISS) Crew Return Vehicle, often called an ISS "lifeboat." X- 38 Vehicle 132 Free Flight 3, currently scheduled for the end of this month, will be the first flight test of a modem FCS architecture called Multi-Application Control-Honeywell (MACH), originally developed by the Honeywell Technology Center. MACH wraps classical P&I outer attitude loops around a modem dynamic inversion attitude rate loop. The dynamic inversion process requires that the flight computer have an onboard aircraft model of expected vehicle dynamics based upon the aerodynamic database. Dynamic inversion is computationally intensive, so some timing modifications were made to implement MACH on the slower flight computers of the subsonic test vehicles. In addition to linear stability margin analyses and high fidelity 6-DOF simulation, hardware-in-the-loop testing is used to verify the implementation of MACH and its robustness to aerodynamic and environmental uncertainties and disturbances.

  8. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  9. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  10. Composition law for polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, J.; Giust, R.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    2008-09-01

    The polarization process when polarizers act on an optical field is studied. We give examples for two kinds of polarizers. The first kind presents an anisotropic absorption—as in a Polaroid film—and the second one is based on total reflection at the interface with a birefringent medium. Using the Stokes vector representation, we determine explicitly the trajectories of the wave light polarization during the polarization process. We find that such trajectories are not always geodesics of the Poincaré sphere as is usually thought. Using the analogy between light polarization and special relativity, we find that the action of successive polarizers on the light wave polarization is equivalent to the action of a single resulting polarizer followed by a rotation achieved, for example, by a device with optical activity. We find a composition law for polarizers similar to the composition law for noncollinear velocities in special relativity. We define an angle equivalent to the relativistic Wigner angle which can be used to quantify the quality of two composed polarizers.

  11. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  12. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  13. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  14. The Emerging Significance of Biotechnology for the Study of International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegele, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    Considers biotechnology's influence on international relations, focusing on agriculture, environmental issues, law, commerce, and biological warfare. Claims that, because biotechnology cuts across international boundaries and affects public and private interests, it necessitates the rethinking of international systems theory. Urges international…

  15. Store Security: Internal Shrinkage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The document presents a 10-week training program designed to provide helpful and proven methods for controlling internal shrinkage in retail stores. Shrinkage includes the three problems of shoplifting, employee theft, and errors, each of which is addressed by the course. Ohio's laws are also discussed. The format for the course content section is…

  16. Arms control and the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  17. The politics of space - Who owns what? Earth law for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    Topics of concern in developing space law, i.e., international disagreements, the present status of space law, and requirements for future space activities, are discussed. Factors inhibiting agreements include governments that wish to control specific regions of GEO, the refusal of several countries to permit international DBS television broadcasts over their boundaries, the possibility that weapons may be placed in space, and the lack of international laws governing humans and industries in space. It is noted that any state entering an international agreement has relinquished some of its sovereignty. The Outer Space Treaty has removed celestial bodies from claims of national appropriation. States retain sovereignty over their citizens who travel in space, a problematical concept once internationally-manned settlements in space or on the moon are established. It is recommended that space law develop mainly in reaction to the implementation of new space capabilities in order to avoid hindering space activities.

  18. Unified scaling law for earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kim; Danon, Leon; Scanlon, Tim; Bak, Per

    2002-01-01

    We propose and verify a unified scaling law that provides a framework for viewing the probability of the occurrence of earthquakes in a given region and for a given cutoff magnitude. The law shows that earthquakes occur in hierarchical correlated clusters, which overlap with other spatially separated correlated clusters for large enough time periods and areas. For a small enough region and time-scale, only a single correlated group can be sampled. The law links together the Gutenberg–Richter Law, the Omori Law of aftershocks, and the fractal dimensions of the faults. The Omori Law is shown to be the short time limit of general hierarchical phenomenon containing the statistics of both “main shocks” and “aftershocks,” indicating that they are created by the same mechanism. PMID:11875203

  19. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  20. Regional differences in sodomy laws.

    PubMed

    Young, T J

    1991-02-01

    As of 1989, 24 states prohibited either heterosexual or homosexual sodomy. This raises for study the following question: in what ways do states with sodomy laws differ from states without sodomy laws. It was hypothesized that states with sodomy laws are more punitive (as measured by the rate of adults under correctional supervision and the number of restricted civil rights for a felony conviction), rural, and southern. Although the first two hypotheses were rejected, states with sodomy laws scored significantly higher than states without such laws on Gastil's Index of Southerness. Sodomy laws may be more commonly found in the South given regional differences in social values about sex, morality, and family life. PMID:2034763

  1. Rephrasing Faraday's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. Eric

    2010-09-01

    As physics educators, we must often find the balance between simplicity and accuracy. Particularly in introductory courses, it can be a struggle to give students the level of understanding for which they're ready without misrepresenting reality. Of course, it's in these introductory courses that our students begin to construct the conceptual framework that they'll flesh out over a physics curriculum. So a misrepresentation at this early stage will seed difficulties and stubborn misconceptions that can persist or even strengthen through subsequent courses, especially since many upper-level texts focus more on techniques and would not directly challenge mistaken concepts. In the worst cases, our students retain misunderstandings past graduation, and even pass them on to their own students. One important case is the common representation of Faraday's law as showing that a time-varying magnetic field causes a circulating electric field.

  2. LAWS hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, John

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.

  3. Justifying Torture: Explaining Democratic States' Noncompliance with International Humanitarian Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanstroom, Emily

    2007-01-01

    On June 28, 1951, France ratified the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which prohibited the torture of prisoners of war. On August 2, 1955, the United States of America ratified the same document. Between 1954 and 1962, France fought a war against Algeria, which sought its independence from colonial rule. From September 11, 2001 until the present, the…

  4. International Students as Peer Tutors: Is It Lawful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach-López, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…

  5. 26 CFR 301.7624-1 - Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies. 301.7624-1 Section 301.7624-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Discovery of Liability and Enforcement of Title Examination...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7624-1 - Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies. 301.7624-1 Section 301.7624-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Discovery of Liability and Enforcement of Title Examination...

  7. 26 CFR 1.162-22 - Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws. 1.162-22 Section 1.162-22 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-22 Treble damage payments...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9004-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9004-5 Section 1.9004-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-5 Terms;...

  9. 26 CFR 1.9003-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9003-5 Section 1.9003-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-5 Terms;...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9005-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9005-5 Section 1.9005-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-5 Terms;...

  11. 26 CFR 1.9003-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9003-5 Section 1.9003-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-5 Terms;...

  12. 26 CFR 1.9004-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9004-5 Section 1.9004-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-5 Terms;...

  13. 26 CFR 1.9005-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9005-5 Section 1.9005-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-5 Terms;...

  14. 26 CFR 1.9003-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9003-5 Section 1.9003-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-5 Terms;...

  15. 26 CFR 1.9004-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9004-5 Section 1.9004-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-5 Terms;...

  16. 26 CFR 1.9005-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9005-5 Section 1.9005-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-5 Terms; applicability of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9003-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9003-5 Section 1.9003-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-5 Terms;...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9004-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9004-5 Section 1.9004-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-5 Terms; applicability of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9004-5 - Terms; applicability of other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terms; applicability of other laws. 1.9004-5 Section 1.9004-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-5 Terms;...

  20. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally. PMID:27059132

  1. Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: the Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures…

  2. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  3. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  4. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  5. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  6. Everyday Law for Children. The Everyday Law Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to laws that affect children and families, and the dominant public debates that surround and drive these laws. Using real-world examples, the book exposes the tension between reliance on the private, autonomous family and the public's desire to secure child wellbeing. A look at some public systems,…

  7. 50 CFR 600.514 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 600.514 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.514 Relation to... vessel operator to enforcement action under the International Convention for the Protection of...

  8. Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsway, Kimberly A.

    Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are…

  9. 50 CFR 600.514 - Relation to other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 600.514 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.514 Relation to... vessel operator to enforcement action under the International Convention for the Protection of...

  10. A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kendrick, J. E.; De Angelis, S.; Petrakova, L.; Hornby, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic provinces are structurally active regions - undergoing continual deformation along faults. Within such fault structures, volcanic ash gouge, containing both crystalline and glassy material, may act as a potential fault plane lubricant. Here, we investigate the frictional properties of volcanic ash gouges with varying glass fractions using a rotary shear apparatus at a range of slip rates (1.3-1300 mm/s) and axial stresses (0.5-2.5 MPa). We show that the frictional behaviour of volcanic ash is in agreement with Byerlee's friction law at low slip velocities, irrespective of glass content. The results reveal a common non-linear reduction of the friction coefficient with slip velocity and yield a frictional law for fault zones containing volcanic ash gouge. Textural analysis reveals that strain localisation and the development of shear bands are more prominent at higher slip velocities (>10 mm/s). The textures observed here are similar to those recorded in ash gouge at the surface of extrusive spines at Mount St. Helens (USA). We use the rate-weakening component of the frictional law to estimate shear-stress-resistance reductions associated with episodic seismogenic slip events that accompany magma ascent pulses. We conclude that the internal structure of volcanic ash gouge may act as a kinematic marker of exogenic dome growth.

  11. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  12. When Do Laws Matter? National Minimum-Age-of-Marriage Laws, Child Rights, and Adolescent Fertility, 1989–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281

  13. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  14. Roles of “Law Librarian”, the legal information management division in our law firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosawa, Yumi

    This article discusses the present situation and future prospects of “collection,” “management,” and “provision” of legal information in large law firms, through the perspective of “Law Librarians,” who manage the internal sharing system of legal information in our firm. To improve and enhance the contents of “Law Librarian's Room,” which is open and accessed through the firm's intranet as a portal website with databases containing legal information, know-how, and other knowledge, and to develop it into a more user-friendly system with sufficient attention given to maintaining client information as confidential and maintaining Chinese walls, it is necessary to establish cooperation between database managers and users. According to the current trend of increase in international transactions, information on legal systems of foreign countries has become more important than ever, so enhancing the contents of this information on our firm's database is now one of the major tasks to be undertaken.

  15. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  16. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  17. On the Law of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  18. Lenz's law in the kitchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindorf, Wojciech

    1999-05-01

    A steel blade—a rather vital part of a mixer—has fallen behind a cupboard in my kitchen. The cupboard is heavy and quite permanently mounted between stove and fridge. Hopeless situation! Unless—you are an experimental physicist. This straightforward demonstration helps in appreciating the connection between Lenz's law and the law of conservation of energy.

  19. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  20. School Law in Review, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: (1) "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt); (2) "How Accommodating? High-Stakes Testing and Federal Laws That…

  1. Social Change and Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  2. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  3. [Psychiatric evaluation in civil law].

    PubMed

    Foerster, K

    1992-03-01

    Aspects of civil law of importance for the psychiatrist as expert witness are those dealing with disability pensions accident insurance, compensation in civil law and rights of the seriously disabled. The legal basis of each is briefly outlined, and some guidelines given for psychiatric court reports. Some outstanding theoretical and practical problems are mentioned. PMID:1579170

  4. Reference Service in Law Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasala, Kathleen M.

    Ten law librarians, at one private and three academic law libraries, were studied to ascertain what types of reference services they provide to their patrons. The current model employed in public libraries today was used as the baseline against which to measure these legal reference services. This model employs five traditional categories of:…

  5. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws. PMID:23086699

  6. 22 CFR 126.11 - Relations to other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relations to other provisions of law. 126.11 Section 126.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.11 Relations to other provisions of law. The provisions in this...

  7. The principles of gift law and the regulation of organ donation.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Alexandra K

    2011-04-01

    The principles of gift law establish a consistent international legal understanding of consent to donation under a range of regulatory systems. Gift law as the primary legal principle is important to both the foundation of systems that prevent organ sales and the consideration of strategies to increase organ donation for transplantation. PMID:21276090

  8. A Child's Right to Human Dignity: Reforming Anti-Bullying Laws in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, John; Dupre, Anne Proffitt

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and…

  9. 12 CFR 347.103 - Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart. 347.103 Section 347.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.103 Effect of state law on actions taken under...

  10. 12 CFR 347.103 - Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart. 347.103 Section 347.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.103 Effect of state law on actions taken under...

  11. 12 CFR 347.103 - Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart. 347.103 Section 347.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.103 Effect of state law on actions taken under...

  12. 12 CFR 347.103 - Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart. 347.103 Section 347.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.103 Effect of state law on actions taken under...

  13. 12 CFR 347.103 - Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of state law on actions taken under this subpart. 347.103 Section 347.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.103 Effect of state law on actions taken under...

  14. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption by law or treaty from passport and... Required for Certain Nonimmigrants § 41.1 Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements... Atlantic Treaty (TIAS 2978; 5 U.S.T. 875.) (f) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and...

  15. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption by law or treaty from passport and... Required for Certain Nonimmigrants § 41.1 Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements... Atlantic Treaty (TIAS 2978; 5 U.S.T. 875.) (f) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and...

  16. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption by law or treaty from passport and... Required for Certain Nonimmigrants § 41.1 Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements... Atlantic Treaty (TIAS 2978; 5 U.S.T. 875.) (f) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and...

  17. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption by law or treaty from passport and... Required for Certain Nonimmigrants § 41.1 Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements... Atlantic Treaty (TIAS 2978; 5 U.S.T. 875.) (f) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and...

  18. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption by law or treaty from passport and... Required for Certain Nonimmigrants § 41.1 Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements... Atlantic Treaty (TIAS 2978; 5 U.S.T. 875.) (f) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and...

  19. Laws of the United States Relating to Water Pollution Control and Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Public Works.

    This compilation of Federal legislation contains copies of twelve Public Laws, four Executive Orders, and five International Conventions relevant to water pollution control. It also contains two Public Laws and two Executive Orders pertaining to environmental quality. There is a brief introduction summarizing the provisions of each Act. (AL)

  20. 22 CFR 126.11 - Relations to other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relations to other provisions of law. 126.11 Section 126.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.11 Relations to other provisions of law. The provisions in this subchapter are in addition to, and are not in lieu...

  1. 22 CFR 126.11 - Relations to other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relations to other provisions of law. 126.11 Section 126.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.11 Relations to other provisions of law. The provisions in this...

  2. Trident and nuclear law.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, R

    1998-01-01

    On 8 July 1996, the International Court of Justice gave its Advisory Opinion on the legality of the use or threat of nuclear weapons, in response to a resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations. This paper considers the status of Trident, now the United Kingdom's only nuclear weapon system, in the light of the Opinion. While it cannot be concluded definitively that the threat or use of Trident is illegal, at the very least the legality of the programme is brought into considerable doubt. The continued deployment of Trident raises important legal and military issues, which must be addressed urgently. PMID:9838889

  3. Droit International De L'éducation: Une Discipline Nouvelle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Agostinho Reis

    2008-03-01

    INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION LAW: A NEW DISCIPLINE? - Education is one of the most highly regarded "human rights" and one which has been developed most extensively within the International Human Rights Law, so that its normative corpus already forms a very International Education Law. The right to education means a new right to a new education that, in the Rule of Law, may be qualified as Rightful Education. Such an expression is an operating concept for a human rights-based approach to education; that is, for an education no longer envisaged as a right of man over man. It amounts to a new paradigm. It is therefore high time to systematize the International Education Law in order to promote its study and the introduction of a legal dimension into pedagogic culture.

  4. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  5. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  6. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  7. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  8. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  9. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  10. Genetic discrimination and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Natowicz, M R; Alper, J K; Alper, J S

    1992-01-01

    The use of genetic tests can lead to genetic discrimination, discrimination based solely on the nature of an individual's genotype. Instances of the discriminatory uses of genetic tests by employers and insurance companies have already been reported. The recently enacted Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), together with other federal and state laws, can be used to combat some forms of this discrimination. In this article we define and characterize genetic discrimination, discuss the applicability of the various relevant federal and state laws, including the ADA, in the areas of employment and insurance discrimination, explore the limitations of these laws, and, finally, suggest some means of overcoming these limitations. PMID:1342778

  11. Generalized second law for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a novel generalized second law that can be applied in cosmology, regardless of whether an event horizon is present: the generalized entropy increases monotonically outside of certain hypersurfaces we call past Q-screens. A past Q-screen is foliated by surfaces whose generalized entropy (sum of area and entanglement entropy) is stationary along one future null direction and increasing along the other. We prove that our generalized second law holds in spacetimes obeying the quantum focusing conjecture. An analogous law applies to future Q-screens, which appear inside evaporating black holes and in collapsing regions.

  12. Country watch: international.

    PubMed

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism. PMID:12348687

  13. Control Laws for a Dual-Spin Stabilized Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes two attitude control laws suitable for atmospheric flight vehicles with a steady angular momentum bias in the vehicle yaw axis. This bias is assumed to be provided by an internal flywheel, and is introduced to enhance roll and pitch stiffness. The first control law is based on Lyapunov stability theory, and stability proofs are given. The second control law, which assumes that the angular momentum bias is large, is based on a classical PID control. It is shown that the large yaw-axis bias requires that the PI feedback component on the roll and pitch angle errors be cross-fed. Both control laws are applied to a vehicle simulation in the presence of disturbances for several values of yaw-axis angular momentum bias. It is seen that both control laws provide a significant improvement in attitude performance when the bias is sufficiently large, but the nonlinear control law is also able to provide improved performance for a small value of bias. This is important because the smaller bias corresponds to a smaller requirement for mass to be dedicated to the flywheel.

  14. The Law of Attrition

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a “science of attrition”, that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call “law of attrition” here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the appplication. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually “works”, ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a “usage half-life”, and

  15. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview.

    PubMed

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  16. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  17. First and Second Law of Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Udo

    2016-01-01

    For a small driven system coupled strongly to a heat bath, internal energy and exchanged heat are identified such that they obey the usual additive form of the first law. By identifying this exchanged heat with the entropy change of the bath, the total entropy production is shown to obey an integral fluctuation theorem on the trajectory level implying the second law in the form of a Clausius inequalilty on the ensemble level. In this Hamiltonian approach, the assumption of an initially uncorrelated state is not required. The conditions under which the proposed identification of heat is unique and experimentally accessible are clarified.

  18. First and Second Law of Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Udo

    2016-01-15

    For a small driven system coupled strongly to a heat bath, internal energy and exchanged heat are identified such that they obey the usual additive form of the first law. By identifying this exchanged heat with the entropy change of the bath, the total entropy production is shown to obey an integral fluctuation theorem on the trajectory level implying the second law in the form of a Clausius inequalilty on the ensemble level. In this Hamiltonian approach, the assumption of an initially uncorrelated state is not required. The conditions under which the proposed identification of heat is unique and experimentally accessible are clarified. PMID:26824534

  19. The South's First Black Woman Law Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1988-01-01

    Marilyn Yarbrough, the University of Tennessee's new law school dean, has impressive credentials, a reputation as an excellent administrator, and interests in increasing minority representation in law and reducing the financial burden of law students. (MSE)

  20. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  1. Law in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation is made of existing teacher guides and curricula, and proposals are given for curriculum improvements in the areas of Jurisprudence, Law, and Civics at the elementary and secondary level. (EJS)

  2. The brain and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  3. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  4. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  5. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  6. The brain and the law.

    PubMed

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-11-29

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement. PMID:21866179

  9. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  10. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  11. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  12. International Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  13. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  14. On the Teaching of Science, Technology and International Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and critical importance of science and technology in international affairs, their role receives insufficient attention in traditional international relations curricula. There is little literature on how the relations between science, technology, economics, politics, law and culture should be taught in an international context.…

  15. Sleep-related automatism and the law.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman; Fenwick, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Crimes carried out during or arising from sleep highlight many difficulties with our current law and forensic sleep medicine clinical practice. There is a need for clarity in the law and agreement between experts on a standardised form of assessment and diagnosis in these challenging cases. We suggest that the time has come for a standardised, internationally recognised diagnostic protocol to be set as a minimum standard in all cases of suspected sleep-related forensic cases. The protocol of a full medical history, sleep history, psychiatric history, neuropsychiatric and psychometric examination and electroencephalography (EEG), should be routine. It should now be mandatory to carry out routine polysomnography (PSG) to establish the presence of precipitating and modulating factors. Sleepwalking is classified as insane automatism in England and Wales and sudden arousal from sleep in a non-sleepwalker as sane automatism. The recent case in England of R v. Lowe (2005) highlights these anomalies. Moreover, the word insanity stigmatises sleepwalkers and should be dropped. The simplest solution to these problems would be for the law to be changed so that there is only one category of defence for all sleep-related offences--not guilty by reason of sleep disorder. This was rejected by the House of Lords for cases of automatism due to epilepsy, and is likely to be rejected for sleepwalkers. Removing the categories of automatism (sane or insane) would be the best solution. Risk assessment is already standard practice in the UK and follow up, subsequent to disposal, by approved specialists should become part of the sentencing process. This will provide support for the defendant and protection of the public. PMID:18533572

  16. Zoophilia and the law: legal responses to a rare paraphilia.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian; Newman, William

    2014-01-01

    Although societies' responses to bestiality have varied internationally, the response in the United States has typically involved condemnation and prosecution. Currently, there are 31 states with statutes prohibiting human-animal sexual contact. Despite the prevalence of antibestiality legislation, there is limited case law in the United States. Most commonly, bestiality arises in legal cases involving sexually violent predator (SVP) civil commitments. Identifying offenders who commit acts of bestiality is important, since these individuals may be at increased risk of committing a variety of other sexually and nonsexually violent acts against humans. Because of the different laws among the states, however, commonly used forensic risk assessment tools for sexual recidivism can yield different scores for individuals charged with or convicted of bestiality offenses. Forensic evaluators should consider this factor when conducting risk assessments. State legislatures should also consider modernizing their bestiality statutes to accord with current terminology and objectives for such laws. PMID:25492066

  17. Flutter suppression control law synthesis for the Active Flexible Wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    The Active Flexible Wing Project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. The objectives are the validation of methodologies associated with mathematical modeling, flutter suppression control law development and digital implementation of the control system for application to flexible aircraft. A flutter suppression control law synthesis for this project is described. The state-space mathematical model used for the synthesis included ten flexible modes, four control surface modes and rational function approximation of the doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamics. The design steps involved developing the full-order optimal control laws, reducing the order of the control law, and optimizing the reduced-order control law in both the continuous and the discrete domains to minimize stochastic response. System robustness was improved using singular value constraints. An 8th order robust control law was designed to increase the symmetric flutter dynamic pressure by 100 percent. Preliminary results are provided and experiences gained are discussed.

  18. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. PMID:26192018

  19. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  20. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  1. Education Law Texts Usage: Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the textbooks professors use in education law courses, based on a survey of 110 members of the Education Law Association during 1996-97. Almost half preferred Alexander and Alexander's "American School Law," with McCarthy and Caqmbron-McCabe's "Public School Law" a close second. Only 44% required or suggested additional nontextbook…

  2. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  3. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  4. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other laws. 15.17 Section 15... TRAINING CENTER § 15.17 Other laws. Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  5. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  6. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  7. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  8. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  9. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  10. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  11. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  12. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  13. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  14. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  15. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  16. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  17. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  18. COMMERCIAL SURROGACY: WHAT ROLE FOR LAW IN AUSTRALIA?

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli; Ludlow, Karinne; Sifris, Adiva

    2015-12-01

    This editorial begins by illuminating current conversations regarding the regulation of commercial surrogacy in Australia. It defines "commercial surrogacy" and explains the interaction between changes in social attitudes and changes to the law before setting out the current Australian law and practice in this area. An examination of current domestic law and practice reveals that surrogacy legislation in Australia is mired in inconsistencies and a lack of uniformity but that the one key common element is the prohibition of commercial surrogacy. The inability of couples to access commercial surrogacy within Australia has led to offshore reproductive tourism and unpredictable, contradictory decision-making as the Family Court attempts to apply legislation which was never intended to apply in this context. The editorial then turns to consider the international arena, discussing the approach of the Hague Conference on Private International Law before delving into a human rights analysis of commercial surrogacy arrangements. The adoption of a rights-based approach requires an analysis of this vexed issue from the perspective of the child, surrogate and intending parents. While questions surrounding the human rights implications of legalising commercial surrogacy continue to be the subject of passionate debate, the authors believe that the human rights of all parties are best protected through appropriate regulation rather than absolute prohibition. PMID:26939494

  19. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  20. Participation and Service Access Rights for People with Intellectual Disability: A Role for Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supported decision-making and personal budgets for services are the new paradigms. Method: Supported decision-making proposals from the Australian State of Victoria are analysed against international trends to determine the viability of laws reflecting new international norms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons…