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1

International Banking: The Framework Underlying Country Risk in International Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a fact sheet describing the statutory, regulatory, and administrative framework governing country risk in international bank lending. Before 1979, federal agencies did not uniformly evaluate country risk in international lending. Country ris...

1986-01-01

2

State institutions, risk, and lending in global capital markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines one component of the expansion of global capitalism, the lending of capital across national borders and the affect of national political institutions and arrangements upon that lending. Global capital markets expanded rapidly during the latter part of the twentieth century, prompting discussions about the role of mobile capital. This contribution makes three key points to the understanding

Andrew C. Sobel

2002-01-01

3

IMF Lending, Maturity of International Debt and Moral Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Monetary Fund lending continues to be criticized for possibly generating moral hazard in international financial markets. The empirical examination of this issue has focused exclusively on the potential distortions in the pricing of credit, in the form of lower spreads. To date no research has been conducted on the potential impact of IMF lending on the maturity composition of

Wasseem Mina; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

2002-01-01

4

12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States. (d) International business operations. A bank for...and facilitates the international business operations of such cooperatives...for imports, exports, or international business operations shall not...

2013-01-01

5

The International Exchange of Publications and International Lending--Is There a Useful Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exchange of publications and international lending are both international interlibrary activities for bringing to a library works which are not owned by the library or which are owned in insufficient quantity to meet demand. This paper examines the re...

A. Allardyce S. C. J. Vickers

1979-01-01

6

Foreign Banks in Transition Economies: Small Business Lending and Internal Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of focused interviews with managers of foreign parent banks and their affiliates in Central Europe and the Baltics, we analyse foreign banks’ small business lending and internal capital markets. This allows us to complement the standard empirical literature, which has difficulty in measuring important variables such as lending technologies and capital allocation systems. We find that the

Ralph de Haas; Ilko Naaborg

2005-01-01

7

IMF lending: how is it affected by economic, political and institutional factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seeking to understand IMF lending early large sample econometric studies tended to focus on economic factors. Political and institutional influences were often deemed to be reflected in the frequently large residual. At the same time increasing anecdotal evidence was being amassed to suggest that political factors were indeed important. However, more recent studies have claimed that, by using superior

Graham Bird; Dane Rowlands

2001-01-01

8

Where Is Credit Due? Legal Institutions, Connections, and the Efficiency of Bank Lending in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid development of the domestic private sector in communist China and Vietnam has been offered as evidence against a large literature that claims a solid legal infrastructure is required for the financial sector to contribute to economic development. One component of the counterargument holds that relationship-based lending has served as an effective substitute for legal institutions. In this article, we

Edmund J. Malesky; M. Taussig

2009-01-01

9

International lending with moral hazard and risk of repudiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the optimal pattern of lending in an environment in which there are two impediments to contracting. The first impediment is that lenders cannot observe whether borrowers invest or consume borrowed funds. This impediment leads to a moral hazard problem in investment. The second impediment is that the borrower may choose to repudiate his debts. The optimal contract

Andrew Atkeson

1991-01-01

10

Bank Examination for Country Risk and International Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. bank regulatory authorities have adopted a uniform examination system for evaluating and commenting on country risk to U.S. banks with relatively large foreign lending. GAO found that the system's objectives need to be better communicated, its st...

1982-01-01

11

International Monetary Fund: Lending Programs Allow for Negotiations and Are Consistent with Economic Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has significantly increased its total committed lending to countries from about $3.5 billion in August 2008 to about $170.4 billion in August 2009, as countries have been severely affected by the global economic crisi...

2009-01-01

12

International Computer Science Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Computer Science Institute is an independent, nonprofit basic research institute that is affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley. The goal of the Institute is to create "synergy between world-leading researchers in computer science and engineering" by bringing together academic and industrial researchers. Its research currently focuses on Internet research, such as Internet architecture, open-source routing, and network security, as well as Human Language Technology, such as speech and text processing. A significant portion of the Institute's work is in theoretical computer science and projects are chosen for their importance and their compatibility with the strengths its researchers. This website provides links to websites detailing several programs including Algorithm Projects, AI Projects, Networking Projects, and Speech Projects. Other areas of research include a project "to support historically underrepresented ethnic minorities and women in their desire to become leaders in the fields of computer science, engineering and information technology;" the development of a Community of Practice Environment utilizing the Internet for information sharing and collaboration; and a project exploring Robust Video Compression based on Distributed Source Coding techniques. A number of publications, such as conference proceedings, academic journals, technical reports, and some books, are available to search and download free of charge. The _ISCI Gazette_, available in the News section, periodically features a research area. Research in Bioinformatics is discussed in the March 2005 issue.

2005-11-02

13

International Computer Science Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Computer Science Institute is an independent, nonprofit basic research institute that is affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley. The goal of the Institute is to create "synergy between world-leading researchers in computer science and engineering" by bringing together academic and industrial researchers. Its research currently focuses on Internet research, such as Internet architecture, open-source routing, and network security, as well as Human Language Technology, such as speech and text processing. A significant portion of the Institute's work is in theoretical computer science and projects are chosen for their importance and their compatibility with the strengths its researchers. This website provides links to websites detailing several programs including Algorithm Projects, AI Projects, Networking Projects, and Speech Projects. Other areas of research include a project "to support historically underrepresented ethnic minorities and women in their desire to become leaders in the fields of computer science, engineering and information technology;" the development of a Community of Practice Environment utilizing the Internet for information sharing and collaboration; and a project exploring Robust Video Compression based on Distributed Source Coding techniques. A number of publications, such as conference proceedings, academic journals, technical reports, and some books, are available to search and download free of charge. The _ISCI Gazette_, available in the News section, periodically features a research area. Research in Bioinformatics is discussed in the March 2005 issue.

14

Institute for International Economics (IIE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for International Economics is a "private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy." This web site contains short abstracts and press releases of books published by the Institute. Speeches, testimonies and essays by the staff at the Institute on a variety of international economics issues are also available as is a collection of working papers published since 1994.

1998-01-01

15

Where is Credit Due? Legal Institutions, Relationships and the Impact of Bank Lending on Investment Growth in Vietnam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid development of the domestic private sector in communist China has been offered as evidence against a large literature that claims a solid legal infrastructure is required for the financial sector to contribute to economic development. The counter-argument holds that relationship-based lending has served as an effective substitute for legal institutions. In this paper, we address this counter-argument with empirical

Edmund J. Malesky; Markus Taussig

16

International Institute of Social History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute of Social History (IISH) is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions for social history in general and for the history of the labor movement in particular. Its homepage contains a formidable online catalog of the IISH's 2,000 archival collections which hold over one million printed volumes and about as many audio-visual items. Also included are a listing of current books put out by the Institute's publishing house, a digital social history archive of "relevant parts of the Internet," and the online newsletter of the Institute for the International Association of Labour History Institutions. Two other items of interest are a collection of useful social and labor history links, and digital editions of recent exhibitions at the IISH. (One of the latter, "The Chairman Smiles," was discussed in the June 13, 1997 Scout Report.)

1998-01-01

17

Corporate Taxes, Internal Borrowing, and the Lending Capacity within Multinational Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical model of multinational firms with an internal capital market. Main reasons for the emergence of such a market are tax avoidance through debt shifting and the existence of institutional weaknesses and financial frictions across host countries. The model serves to derive hypotheses regarding the role of local versus foreign characteristics such as profit tax rates,

Peter Egger; Christian Keuschnigg; Valeria Merlo; Georg Wamser

2011-01-01

18

Social lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosper, the largest online social lending marketplace with nearly a million members and $178 million in funded loans, uses an auction amongst lenders to finance each loan. In each auction, the borrower specifies D, the amount he wants to borrow, and a maximum acceptable interest rate R. Lenders specify the amounts ai they want to lend, and bid on the

Ning Chen; Arpita Ghosh; Nicolas S. Lambert

2009-01-01

19

International Institute for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) is an organization devoted to promoting change towards sustainable development. Through their research and effective communication of their findings, they hope to engage decision-makers in government, business, and other sectors to develop and implement policies that are simultaneously beneficial to the global economy, the global environment and to social well-being. The site has two major divisions. One contains information regarding business, energy, measurement and assessment, climate change, investment, natural resources, communities and livelihoods, knowledge networks, trade, economic policy, security, and leadership development. Some of these areas have basic policy statements while others contain notice of recent actions. Other features include press releases and announcements, commentaries, ask the experts, progress reports, and a calendar.

20

Institute of International Social Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of International Social Development (IISD) encourages "holistic development and empowerment of disadvantaged communities and societies and improving the quality of life all around." There are several welfare projects the organization runs, in India and Switzerland, as well as training for their programs, in New York. The "Programs" tab near the top of any page, allows visitors to see a list of the long-term projects of the Institute, as well as read the "objective" of each project, a "description" of it, and the "achievements". Each program is run to accomplish one or more of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the UN, and visitors can read the MDG listed in the objective of each program. Visitors shouldn't miss the link on the far right hand side of the programs page "Arts and Craft", which is a ten-page PDF that showcases one of the projects in West Bengal, India. The report includes photos, a map, and text that explain how IISD has encouraged teams of women artisans to create and execute traditional embroidery to be used in the creation of hats, saris, and coin purses. The items are then sold by the artisans themselves, in order to empower their community.

21

International lending of last resort and moral hazard: A model of IMF's catalytic finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the trade-off between official liquidity provision and debtor moral hazard in international financial crises. In the model, crises are caused by the interaction of bad fundamentals, self-fulfilling runs and policies by three classes of optimizing agents: international investors, the local government and an international official lender. Limited contingent liquidity support helps to prevent liquidity runs by raising

Giancarlo Corsetti; Bernardo Guimarães; Nouriel Roubini

2006-01-01

22

International lending of last resort and moral hazard: a model of IMF's catalytic flnance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the trade-ofi between o-cial liquidity provision and debtor moral hazard in international flnancial crises. In the model, crises are caused by the interaction of bad fundamentals, self-fulfllling runs and policies by three classes of optimizing agents: international investors, the local government and an international o-cial lender. Limited contingent liquidity support helps to prevent liquidity runs by raising

Nouriel Roubini; Bernardo Guimaraes

2004-01-01

23

Political Determinants Of IMF Balance of Payments Lending: The Curse of Carabosse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do political interests shape International Monetary Fund balance of payments lending decisions? We suggest that the institutional structure governing IMF decision- making creates an opportunity for American policymakers to influence IMF lending decisions. We then suggest two reasons, one based on interest group politics and one based on foreign policy objectives, why American policymakers have an incentive to exploit

Thomas Oatley; Jason Yackee

2000-01-01

24

International financial institutions and the provision of international public goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the role of collective action at the international level, in the international economic envi- ronment, and, most importantly, our better understanding of economics in general require that we rethink the role of international financial institutions (IFIs). For multilateral development banks like the World Bank, their central mission, the promotion of growth and the reduction of poverty, is clear.

Joseph E. Stiglitz

25

Worldsteel: International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Iron and Steel Institute provides this all steel website. This site covers steel news, a steel data center, publications from the institute, and links to steel companies all over the world. Key sections include Automobiles, where you can learn about the Ultralight Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) project, and Construction, where you can see steel being used for residential buildings and "remarkable engineering feats." Other sections include Packaging, Sustainability, Economics/Business, and 21st Century Technology (under construction).

1997-01-01

26

International Statistical Institute - Glossary of Statistical Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site shows the International Statistical Institutes alphabetical list of technical terms showing the translation in a number of languages. The page covers a myriad of different terms and our translated into many languages such as: English, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, Romanian, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Greek and many more. This is a nice reference site for anyone interested in statistics.

2009-12-08

27

International Perspectives on Institutional and Police Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Police Executive Symposium, police practitioners, government officials, researchers and academics from 24 countries met in Szczytno, Poland in May 2001 to define and identify the forms and causes of institutional and police corruption, to describe and document the extent and effects of this corruption and to propose methods to deal with and

PETER C. KRATCOSKI

2002-01-01

28

International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)|

Mostertman, L. J.

1977-01-01

29

Institute for the Study of International Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1998 and part of the Walsh School of Foreign Service, the Institute for the Study of International Migration at Georgetown University focuses its work on "all aspects of international migration." Along with administering a certificate program, the Institute sponsors a number of ongoing research projects, including ones dealing with cooperative efforts to manage emigration, immigration homeownership, and forced migration. Persons visiting the DC area will want to take a look at the Institute's schedule of upcoming human events forums, whose topics in the past have included "Children in War," "Human Rights and Human Trafficking," and "Globalization and Landlessness in Guatemala." Scholars and persons working in this field will most definitely want to look at the Publications section of the site, which is thematically organized, and contains working papers and final reports from the past five years.

1998-01-01

30

Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1974, the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID) is an interdisciplinary center at Harvard University whose mission is to assist the economic growth of developing nations. Publications on-site include an extensive compilation of Development Discussion Papers (1974-present) with selected full text on agricultural and food policy, education, taxation, economic reform, and environmental issues (1995-present), as well as research stemming from the Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform project (CAER) and International Tax Program. Recent HIID book reviews are also available, and interested parties may examine compilations on the East Asian Financial Crisis and the External Debt Problem in Central America at the Research page.

Development., Harvard I.

1998-01-01

31

IPGRI: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is the homepage of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), "an international research institute with a mandate to advance the conservation and use of genetic diversity for the well-being of present and future generations." The site is packed with informative resources on agricultural biodiversity, including IPGRI breaking news, downloadable publications, links to online databases, and much more. The publications library is quite a find, with a number of downloadable IPGRI reports available free of charge. The most recent publication is a 55-page report on the conservation and use of "underutilized and neglected crops." Visitors will also find training materials (such as an introduction to plant collecting and conducting ecogeographic surveys) available in a number of different languages.

32

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.

33

Collateral Damage: Interlibrary Loan Lending Denials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this paper is to explore the potential of utilizing interlibrary loan (ILL) data relating to lending denials to improve ILL services while highlighting institutional policies that have a negative impact on lending fulfillment rates. Reasons for denial as well as the types of requests being denied are reviewed. In addition, the author…

Leykam, Andrew

2009-01-01

34

The Toy Lending Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the concept of toy lending libraries. The first six chapters discuss: (1) the history of toy lending libraries; (2) the values and purposes of using games and toys with children; (2) the contribution of games and toys to the goals of a children's services library division; (3) examples of toy lending service in public…

Wiscont, Jeanne Mull

35

International Institute for Environment and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its founding in 1971, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) has committed itself to Âworking for more sustainable and equitable global developmentÂ. Through a number of partnerships, the IIED continues to work in a cooperative fashion with national governments, regional non-governmental organizations, and other agencies. In terms of their thematic focuses, their work lies primarily in five areas, including climate change, human settlements, natural resources, and governance. New visitors to the site will want to explore these five areas through a series of clickable tabs featured prominently on the homepage. Within each area, visitors will find news updates on each topic, along with working papers and conference reports. For those looking for specific publications, a search engine offered here allows users to search by keyword, author, title, series, or region.

Development, International I.

36

The Ability of Banks to Lend to Informationally Opaque Small Businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2001Large and foreign-owned institutions may have difficulty extending relationship loans to informationally opaque small firms. Bank distress does not appear to affect small business lending, although even small firms may react to bank distress by borrowing from multiple banks.Consolidation of the banking industry is shifting assets into larger institutions that often operate in many nations. Large international financial institutions

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Gregory F. Udell

1999-01-01

37

Can Social Cohesion Be Harnessed to Repair Market Failures? Evidence from Group Lending in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of group lending in developing countries has been attributed to the ability of the institution to mitigate asymmetric information problems in credit markets. Previous research has offered a number of explanations for this phenomenon: social ties between borrowing group members, internal group pressure to repay loans, and peer monitoring. This research presents empirical tests on borrowing group data

Bruce Wydick

1999-01-01

38

International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is a member of six international financial institutions (IFIs): the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Asian Development Bank (AsDB), African Development Bank (AfDB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), a...

J. E. Sanford

2005-01-01

39

Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

2008-01-01

40

Australian Educational Institutions International Markets: A Correspondence Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The global market for international students have become highly competitive and many institutions, particularly higher education institutions, rely heavily on fee income from overseas students. This study aims to examine the countries from which Australian education institutions draw such students and used this information to better…

Mazzarol, Timothy W.; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

2008-01-01

41

International Academic Success: Institutional Planning & Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was requested by the Senate International Affairs Committee. The research questions included: (1) What factors affect the cumulative GPA (CGPA) of International students at TRU?; (2) What factors affect the retention of International students at TRU?; and (3) Are Student Success Courses among the significant factors for GPA and…

Hamilton, Kristen; Kennedy, Matthew; Crespin-Mueller, Dorys

2010-01-01

42

Legitimacy, humanitarian intervention, and international institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legitimacy of humanitarian intervention has been contested for more than a century, yet pressure for such intervention persists. Normative evolution and institutional design have been closely linked since the first debates over humanitarian intervention more than a century ago. Three norms have competed in shaping state practice and the normative discourse: human rights, peace preservation, and sovereignty. The rebalancing

Miles Kahler

2011-01-01

43

The Role of Multilateral Institutions in International Trade Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Trade Organization (WFO) lacks the power to directly enforce agreements. It is, therefore, important to understand what role the WTO can play to facilitate international cooperation and whether a multilateral institution can offer distinct advantages over a web of bilateral agreements. This paper examines two potential benefits of a multilateral trade institution: first, verifying violations of the agreements

Giovanni Maggi

1999-01-01

44

US foreign policy and the pragmatic use of international institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of international institutions by the United States is characterised by pragmatism. US officials approach institutions as instruments of convenience across time, across regions, and across economic and security issues. US political rhetoric since the end of World War II has emphasised the importance of multilateralism. But in practice, the US approach reflects a process of trial and error

Michael Mastanduno

2005-01-01

45

Divergence in Labor Market Institutions and International Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the international GDP synchronization within the international real business cycle framework (Backus, Kehoe and Kydland, 1992). It sheds new light on the comovement issue by highlighting the role of cross-country divergence in labor market institutions (LMIs). We first document the empirical link between labor market heterogeneity and GDP comovement in a sample of 15 OECD countries over

Raquel FONSECA; Lise PATUREAU; Thepthida SOPRASEUTH

2009-01-01

46

II. Replies received from international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations International Institute of Space Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The International Institute of Space Law (IISL) was founded by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) in 1960 with the purpose of carrying out activities for fostering the development of space law and studies of legal and social science aspects of the exploration and use of outer space. IISL currently has individual and institutional elected members from over 40 countries,

Judge Abdul Koroma; Judge Peter Tomka; Judge Bernardo Sepúlveda

47

Search for Life on Exoplanets: Toward an International Institutional Coordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for life in the universe will make use of several large space missions in the visible and thermal infrared, each with increasing spectral and angular resolution. They will require long-term planning over the coming decades. We present the necessity for building an international structure to coordinate activities for the next several decades and sketch the possible structure and role of a dedicated international institution.

Schneider, Jean; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Ollivier, Marc

2009-08-01

48

SMALL STATES AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF ICELAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting a constructive relationship with international financial institutions (IFIs) and in fact deciding which IFIs to seek membership of can be a challenge for small states like Iceland. Iceland is a member of the World Bank Group and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, but not a member of the regional development banks, i.e.: the Asian Development Bank, the

Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

49

International Student Persistence in U.S. Postsecondary Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study used the data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study data set to observe the characteristics of international students in their first-year in college and examine the factors that influenced their persistence in U.S. postsecondary institutions. Results from logistic regression analysis revealed that GPA, degree…

Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

2012-01-01

50

International Power Institute's quarterly technical progress report, July-- September 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Power Institute (IPI) at Morehouse College has organized a team to design and create a Short Term Training Program for ESKOM Union Leaders which will last four weeks and take place at a location in South Africa to be designated by ESKOM....

J. E. Coles

1998-01-01

51

The International Erwin Schrodinger Institute for Mathematical Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Erwin Schrodinger Institute for Mathematical Physics (ESI) was founded in 1993 "with the aim of providing a meeting place for leading experts in Mathematical Physics and Mathematics in the international scientific community, nurturing the development and exchange of ideas not only in the international arena, but also in Austria through its affiliations with Austrian universities." Visiting scientists have contributed over 1,500 preprints, which are posted online by report number. The Evaluation section provides available data on the publication of the preprint articles in mathematical journals, showing that "in less than 10 years of the existence of the ESI, 144 ESI preprints have been published in top 10% journals."

52

United Nations University: International Institute for Software Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Software Technology is part of the United Nations University and is located in Macau. The InstituteÂs mission is "to help developing countries strengthen their education and research in computer science and their ability to produce computer software." They work with universities to develop curricula and provide training and collaborate with research institutes, as well as public and private institutions, to develop software. The website highlights the tools they developed for the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering). A summary of their most recent work is available in the annual report with further details provided in their technical reports, both of which are free online. Additional information on the University is also available.

53

Information from Relationship Lending: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the economic role of banks’ soft information, which evolved from repeated lending relationships, in the context of loan default. Using a proprietary database from one of the largest state-owned commercial banks in China, we find that the bank’s internal credit rating scores play a significant role in default prediction. While the internal credit rating incorporates firm-specific hard information

C. Chang; G. Liao; X. Yu; Z. Ni

2009-01-01

54

International Marine Science Research Projects: Second Inventory of International Projects at Sea Grant Institutions, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inventory of marine science projects at Sea Grant institutions was completed in order to gauge the level and enhance a database of U.S./foreign collaboration in international marine research initiated at U.S. Sea Grant institutions. The inventory was ...

J. Fenwick D. A. Ross C. T. Schramm

1991-01-01

55

International Power Institute`s quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Power Institute (IPI) at Morehouse College has organized a team to design and create a Short Term Training Program for ESKOM Union Leaders which will last four weeks and take place at a location in South Africa to be designated by ESKOM. This proposal envisions a group of no more than 25 union leaders to be trained at

Coles

1998-01-01

56

International Power Institute quarterly report, October--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The International Power Institute (IPI) held a meeting in Washington, DC, on July 30, 1997, to plan the future strategy and activities for IPI. This meeting was attended by the staff of the IPI, the Morehouse College Provost, Department of Energy officials and energy sector representatives. There were a total of 13 people attending this meeting that focused the country/regional focus of IPI and how best to achieve private sector participation in IPI activities. Based on the discussions held, it was decided that South Africa and Mexico would be the countries of initial principal focus for IPI, given the Institute`s staff`s expertise and the attractiveness of these markets for US investors in energy sector projects. In addition, the meeting concluded that the proposed fundraising program presented during the meeting should be revised and made more product oriented and other methods for private sector financing should be explored.

NONE

1998-04-02

57

Babcock Institute for International Dairy Research and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In keeping with the tradition of "The Wisconsin Idea," the Babcock Institute for International Dairy Research and Development Web site features material that will be of great interest to the general public, researchers, and those directly involved in the dairy industry. Pertinent sections on the site include areas devoted to recent publications dealing with topical dairy research, the Institute's current research agenda, outreach projects, and educational tools. The educational tools section of the site offer information to those seeking to learn more about dairy science, or for those who seeking to translate dairy terms into several different languages. Additionally, all of the materials on the site are available in Spanish, and a calendar highlights upcoming events sponsored by the Institute.

2002-01-01

58

Recent Changes in IMF Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

IMF lending has risen sharply in the wake of the global financial crisis from the lows in the mid 2000s. Despite increasing recently, the number of new IMF financing arrangements has been relatively small, but the average size of these arrangements is high by historical standards. Much of the new lending has been to Europe, which has resulted in marked

Kim Edwards; Wing Hsieh

2011-01-01

59

Empirical determinants of relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. We explore self-assessments of German universal banks with respect to their Hausbank status in corporate lending and relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to this attribution. The analysis shows that Hausbank status is positively related to better access to information and the bank's influence on borrower management. While the duration

Ralf Elsas

2005-01-01

60

Loan Officers and Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and empirical work suggests that commercial loan officers play a critical role in relationship lending by producing soft information about their SME borrowers. We test whether loan officers in the Japanese SME loan market perform this role in a manner that is consistent with the theoretical predictions in the relationship lending literature. While we find limited evidence that soft

Hirofumi Uchida; Gregory F. Udell; Nobuyoshi Yamori

2006-01-01

61

Empirical Determinants of Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. We ex- plore self-assessments of German universal banks with respect to their Hausbank status in corporate lending and relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to this attribution. The analysis shows that Hausbank status is positively related to better access to information and the bank's influence on borrower management. While the

Ralf Elsas

2004-01-01

62

Till Debt Do Us Part: The US Capital Market and Foreign Lending, 1920-1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes United States experience with foreign lending in the half-century from 1920. A first question raised by this experience is what triggered the process of United States foreign lending. I conclude that lending was restrained at the beginning of the period by the debt overhang associated with reparations and by the post World War I disruption of international

Barry Eichengreen

1987-01-01

63

Debt Maturity and Relationship LendingAn Analysis of European SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes, such as Basel II, might affect the SME—bank relationship and hence, SME access to financing. Our results indicate

Ginés Hernández-Cánovas; Johanna Koëter-Kant

2008-01-01

64

Lending sociodynamics and economic instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich's sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

Hawkins, Raymond J.

2011-11-01

65

South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

2011-01-01

66

Constrained at Home: The Effect of Domestic and International Institutions on Domestic Respect for Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation consists of four papers that contribute to literatures on human rights, domestic political institutions, and international cooperation. Specifically, I look at how domestic and international political institutions affect commitment to international human rights law and domestic respect for human rights. In Chapter 2, I argue that the domestic incentives dictators face to support the Convention Against Torture (CAT)

Courtenay Ryals Conrad

2010-01-01

67

How Does Social Capital Influence Online P2P Lending? A Cross-Country Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online People-to-People (P2P) lending marketplace allows individuals to lend and borrow directly among each other without the mediation of a creditor bank institution. Prior literature has examined how social capital influences P2P loan performance, but has largely been limited to the Western context. This paper thus explores how social capital influences P2P lending in the U.S. and China. Based on

Yun Xu; Jiaxian Qiu; Zhangxi Lin

2011-01-01

68

Energy crises and cooperation: Do international institutions matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk of an oil supply disruption still exists. Oil reserves are increasingly concentrated in a handful of unreliable regimes, plagued by piracy and terrorism. Natural disasters and chokepoint incidents have increased in frequency. In addition, oil is expected to remain a significant part of the energy mix up until 2030. By that time Europe will be importing 90% of its oil. Thus, oil supply security will become an increasingly important feature of European politics. One way to counter the noxious consequences of an oil disruption is to cooperate. International cooperation is a critical factor in any type of crisis, however, it is especially important when it comes to a finite, highly concentrated and critical commodity like oil. The lack of coordination might lead to scrambling and oil hoarding, which dramatically exacerbate the crisis. Yet cooperation in the oil issue-area has been the subject of only a few studies, none of which provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis. They are also limited in their scope and findings. This dissertation aims to partially fill this lacuna. It employs a structured focused comparison to study European consumer countries' cooperation in times of oil supply shortages. There have been fifteen such crises since the Second World War, three of which with dramatic consequences for the world economy. The analysis evaluates European cooperative efforts in seven of these cases, starting with the Abadan crisis in 1951. The cases are selected on the basis of their magnitude and economic impact. In particular, I look at intergovernmental negotiations within existing international bodies prior to, during and immediately after the crisis. The findings suggest that institutions are more likely to facilitate interstate cooperation in the presence of a strong leader (a hegemon) - a role, which in the case of the oil issue-area was assumed by the US until the early 1970s.

Chakarova, Vessela P.

69

Securities lending, shorting, and pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of asset valuation in which short-selling requires searching for security lenders and bargaining over the lending fee. If lendable securities are difficult to locate, then the price of the security is initially elevated, and expected to decline. This price decline is to be anticipated, for example, after an initial public offering, and is increasing in the

Darrell Duffie; Nicolae Gârleanu; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2002-01-01

70

Preschool Lending Libraries: What Works?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive lending libraries that included books for children and adults, videos, toys, games, and puzzles were an integral part of a program designed to reduce the likelihood of future substance abuse in children attending preschool centers in high?risk neighborhoods in Wilmington, Delaware. This study examined 4 centers to identify possible factors resulting in higher library usage by parents. Quantitative data

Georgia A. Franyo; Barbara H. Settles

1996-01-01

71

Securities lending, shorting, and pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of asset valuation in which short-selling is achieved by searching for security lenders and by bargaining over the terms of the lending fee. If lendable securities are difficultto locate, then the price of the security is initially elevated, and expected to decline over time. This price decline is to be anticipated, for example, after an initial

Darrell Darrell Duffie; Nicolae Bogdan Garleanu; Lasse Heje Pedersen

2002-01-01

72

Toolkit for stimulating corporate lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the 2009 recession, a turnaround in corporate lending has not occurred in Hungary. Therefore, the risk of the phenomenon known in the literature as a creditless recovery has risen significantly. Based on empirical analyses, a creditless recovery leads to a slower and protracted economic recovery. Moreover, the escalating sovereign debt crisis in the peripheral euro area and banking regulatory

Gergely Fábián; Péter Fáykiss; Gábor Szigel

2012-01-01

73

The impact of institutional distance on the international diversity–performance relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of institutional distance on the international diversity–performance relationship. We first discussed the international diversity–performance relationship for large multinational firms and later showed the moderation effect of regulative and normative institutional distance. Based on a sample of Fortune 500 firms, we found an inverted U-shaped curve. Regulative institutional distance has a negative moderating effect on the international

Mike Chen-Ho Chao; Vikas Kumar

2010-01-01

74

"Institutional Autism" in Children Adopted Internationally: Myth or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Institutional autism" is understood as a "learned behavior" produced by an institutional environment such as an orphanage. Some autistic-like behaviors may be adaptive in an institution, but become mal-adaptive after the child's adoption into a family. A differential diagnosis between autism as a medical condition and learned autistic-like…

Gindis, Boris

2008-01-01

75

International Power Institute`s quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The International Power Institute (IPI) at Morehouse College has organized a team to design and create a Short Term Training Program for ESKOM Union Leaders which will last four weeks and take place at a location in South Africa to be designated by ESKOM. This proposal envisions a group of no more than 25 union leaders to be trained at the same time but the program could be expanded to accommodate up to 40 trainees. The program is designed around interactive training with lectures followed by discussion, case studies, trainee work groups, homework assignments and two field study visits. Also, the program is designed to have a number of ESKOM management people join the course for one day in the second week and one day at the end, in each case after a half day of preparation in separate sessions from the union leaders, to share with the trainees expectations and, at the end of the program, their course experiences. In addition, IPI has prepared a follow on proposal for a Long Term Training Program. This LT program is specified in less detail but can be expanded based on future discussions with ESKOM management. The training program is designed with the following objectives: determine and identify the most pressing problems facing ESKOM Union Leadership in their relationship with management; instill in the union leadership a heightened sense of purpose and willingness to take ownership of a process that will increase effective outcomes of meaningful, good faith bargaining; develop skills and experience leading to improved union administration; enhance realistic expectations and improve process knowledge to facilitate future labor negotiations and grievance proceedings; and provide participants with enhanced skills and knowledge to develop and/or strengthen a functioning, democratic work culture and structure internal to the union.

Coles, J.E.

1998-10-30

76

ECORS Truc Vert'08: a Multi-Institutional International Nearshore Field Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large multi-institutional international field experiment (ECORS Truc Vert'08) was conducted Feb-April 2008 on the southern part of the French Atlantic coastline. More than 120 scientists, students and technicians participated to this effort coming from 3 continents and 6 countries : Australia (University of New South Wales), France (SHOM, University Bordeaux I, University Pau et Pays de l'Adour, University Sud-Toulon Var, University Joseph Fourier, University Perpignan, BRGM, University Lyon 1), Great Britain (Plymouth University), New Zealand (NIWA), The Netherlands (Delft University of Technology, University of Utrecht) and USA (Naval Postgraduate School, University of Miami, Franklin and Marshall College). Truc Vert beach is a high-energy, dynamic, macrotidal, double-barred beach representative of most of the beaches on this 250 km long coastline. The inner bar can go through all the states within the intermediate classification and usually exhibits a transverse bar and rip morphology (380 m alongshore wavelength). The outer bar is changeable from linear to crescentic (720 m alongshore wavelength). The goals were to measure the hydrodynamic processes, sedimentary processes and morphologic responses on a macrotidal beach during energetic wave conditions and covering a large spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. This dataset will facilitate the validation of surf zone wave, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic models, it will lend insight into the morphodynamic evolution of three dimensional beaches and it will fill the gaps in previous nearshore data sets. A wide range of unique instrumentation was used including continuously sampled 2Hz high-resolution surfzone video cameras, daily topographic surveys, bathymetric surveys from the French naval vessels and personal watercrafts, high frequency velocity and pressure sensors, acoustic Doppler current profilers, sediment transport devices, sand porosity and grain size devices, and position-tracking drifters. Measurements were taken during various wave conditions including short-period sea waves (Hs=1m, Tp=7s) and energetic long-period swell waves (Hs=8.2m, Tp=18s). In particular, 4 consecutive storms with significant wave height greater than 5 m including a 10-year storm were measured. Tidal ranges varied between 1.8m (neap tide) and 5m (spring tide). Observations include several cycles of crescentic bar development and destruction, cross-shore and alongshore migration of the bar, diurnal berm destruction and development. For instance, the outer bar migrated 350 m alongshore during the experiment. The large storms generated intensive alongshore currents (averaged velocity greater than 1.5m/s) and transport, resulting in rapid migration of the inner bar and the reshaping of the outer crescentic bar into a linear bar.

Senechal, N.; Ardhuin, F.

2008-12-01

77

Payday Lending on the Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More and more poor and middle-class workers in need of fast cash are turning to high interest payday lending establishments in order to meet their financial demands. This growing trend is alarming to economists, legislators, and consumer advocates who see payday lending as a kind of "legal loan sharking." Most users want to borrow between $100 and $300, and will write a post-dated check for that amount, plus a 15-20 percent fee. Typically, along with the post-dated check, the borrower will also provide proof of a checking account, employment, and permanent residence to one of these store-front lenders. The loan is due on the borrower's next payday, at which time, the borrower may choose to pay another fee and roll over the loan, or the lender will cash the check or accept cash payment and destroy the check. Lenders took in "more than $1 billion in fees last year and expect to take in another $2 billion this year." Although the practice of payday lending is illegal in eighteen states, these businesses continue to flourish. In 1995, there were fewer than 1,000 "payday lenders" in the US. Now, however, in 2000, there are over 10,000 such stores.

Missner, Emily D.

78

Institutions in International Relations: Understanding the Effects of the GATT and the WTO on World Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) have been touted as premier examples of international institutions, but few studies have offered empirical proof. This article comprehensively evaluates the effects of the GATT WTO and other trade agreements since World War II. Our analysis is organized around two factors: institutional standing and institutional embeddedness.

Judith L. Goldstein; Douglas Rivers; Michael Tomz

2007-01-01

79

Managing an Open Access, Multi-Institutional, International Digital Library: The Digital Library of the Caribbean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing an Open Access, multi-institutional, multilingual, international digital library requires robust technological and institutional infrastructures that support both the needs of individual institutions alongside the needs of the growing partnership and ensure continuous communication and development of the shared vision for the digital…

Wooldridge, Brooke; Taylor, Laurie; Sullivan, Mark

2009-01-01

80

The fair lending laws and their enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ournalists, businessmen, politicians, and regulators are paying increasing attention to the subject of discrimination in lending, with particular em- phasis on mortgage lending. It sometimes seems as though the main issues in antidiscrimination efforts have shifted from education and labor markets to the credit markets. Two different federal laws deal with discrimination in lending: the Fair Housing Act (FHAct) and

John R. Walter

1995-01-01

81

Judicial Institution Builders: NGOs and International Human Rights Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current theories on international courts, civil society, and global governance overlook the burgeoning relationships between international courts and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). NGO participation at international courts takes many forms, including representing individual petitioners and acting as third parties as well as promoting and supporting the court through outreach, political advocacy, administrative support, and enforcement of judgments. However, substantial variation exists

Heidi Nichols Haddad

2012-01-01

82

International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Counc...

1994-01-01

83

Relationship Lending and Denovo Banks: An examination of Bank Lending to Small Farm Borrowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the lending by small banks to small farms. We find that relationships, as measured by the length of tenure of farm operators, are positively related to bank lending. We also find that denovo banks have a positive tendency to lend to small farms, similar to the tendency of denovo banks to lend to small businesses

Jalal Akhavein; Lawrence G. Goldberg; Lawrence J. White

2002-01-01

84

The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a simple framework showing that the extent of competition in credit markets is important in determining the value of lending relationships. Creditors are more likely to finance credit-constrained firms when credit markets are concentrated because it is easier for these creditors to internalize the benefits of assisting the firms. The paper offers evidence from small business data

Mitchell A Petersen; Raghuram G Rajan

1995-01-01

85

Lending Policies of the IMF: HIPC and Debt Relief in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the issue of aid effectiveness takes centre stage in the context of the looming deadline of the Millennium Development Goals, a spotlight shines on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lending practices to low-income countries; particularly those in Africa. The IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (PRGF) is a lending facility fraught with contestation regarding both the conditionalities embedded in

Nancy Dubosse

86

Democracy’s Friend or Foe? The Effects of Recent IMF Conditional Lending in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural adjustment is commonly prescribed as a condition for receiving loans from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, but the effects of structural adjustment and conditionality are controversial. While much research has been devoted to examining the economic effects of conditional lending, far fewer studies have looked at the political consequences. How do conditional lending agreements affect democracy?

Chelsea Brown

2009-01-01

87

The moral hazard of IMF lending: Making a fuss about a minor problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is under serious attack. Some critics blame IMF lending for having contributed to the spreading of financial crises in emerging markets. Consequently, they call for putting an end to IMF lending. This radical proposal rests on the contention that official financial support has discouraged IMF borrowers to pursue appropriate economic policies, and private creditors to

Peter Nunnenkamp

1999-01-01

88

Resolving the International Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since August 1982 the international debt crisis has dominated economic policymaking in the developing countries, economic relations between the debtor and creditor countries, the attention of the multilateral institutions in their dealings with the debtor nations, and private sector decisions on lending to the developing countries. The period since 1982 has seen some progress. Neither the commercial nor central banks

Stanley Fischer

1987-01-01

89

The Role of Canadian Colleges and Technical Institutions in International Education: A 40-Year Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examining Canadian involvement in postsecondary technical or vocational international education since the 1960s surveyed international education practitioners at 61 postsecondary institutions. Respondents felt that international education promoted economic growth in Canada and abroad and had positive effects on recipient nations. The…

Hurabielle, Jacques P. E.; Grace, Michael G. A.; Andrews, Michael

2002-01-01

90

Adjustment problems among international students in Malaysian private higher education institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malaysian government aims to internationalize tertiary education in the country. In order to attract more international students, it is important to understand and develop measures to overcome the various kinds of adjustment problems they face. A quantitative survey using the ‘International Student Problem Inventory’ was conducted on randomly selected international students from five major private higher education institutions in

Suseela Malaklolunthu; Poovaikarasi Sateyen Selan

2011-01-01

91

The Origins of Information Science and the International Institute of Bibliography/International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of the historical background of information science and documentation focuses on Paul Otlet and the creation of the International Institute of Bibliography which later became the FID (International Federation for Information and Documentation). Topics include systems and organizational arrangements, the monographic principle,…

Rayward, W. Boyd

1997-01-01

92

Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.  

PubMed

Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis. PMID:23161586

Gómez, Eduardo J

2012-11-17

93

American Employment Generally Favorable at International Financial Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the employment of Americans at multilateral development banks and the International Monetary Fund. The report recommends actions the Congress and Department of the Treasury should take to help solve American employment problems found a...

1980-01-01

94

Roles of Women's Higher Education Institutions in International Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women's colleges and universities persist around the world, even as the vast majority of tertiary institutions are open to men and women. In nearly every nation, women can attend even the most elite formerly all-male universities, and in several nations women are the majority of all college students. Questions therefore arise about the continued…

Renn, Kristen A.

2012-01-01

95

The evolving roles of the clubs in the management of international debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The regularity of default by countries on their sovereign debt has led to the establishment of a number of evolving institutions or “Clubs”. These institutions' objective is to optimise the impact of imminent default or actual default on both international lending and borrowing. The purpose of this article is to discuss the informal institutions concerned with managing debt

Richard P. C. Brown; Timothy J. Bulman

2006-01-01

96

ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) Annual Report, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) focuses on sorghum, millet, chickpeas, pigeon peas, and groundnuts. The report provides comprehensive coverage of research conducted during 1984 at ICRISAT Center a...

1985-01-01

97

Relationship lending: empirical evidence for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship lending is a common practice in credit financing all over the world, particularly in Germany. On the basis of a comprehensive data set comprising information on firm-bank relationships for more than 16,000 observations, this study analyses the determinants of relationship lending in Germany. We find that small, young and R&D-intensive firms tend to choose relationship lending. Furthermore, we find

Christian Schmieder; Christoph Memmel; Ingrid Stein

2007-01-01

98

[Institute role in occupational health and industrial ecology scientific investigation development. International and national aspects].  

PubMed

The analyses of Institute activity main directions are briefly presented as well as Institute role in preventive medicine development, occupational health and industrial ecology key problems solving, international collaboration development, and WHO Global Plan of Action on Workers' Health 2008-2017 realization in the Russian Federation. PMID:23986944

Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Rubtsova, N B

2013-01-01

99

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE NATION'S FIRE SERVICE, INTERNATIONAL FIRE ADMINISTRATION INSTITUTE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS PUBLICATION IS A REVISED AND UP-DATED EDITION OF A PUBLICATION, "FIRE SERVICE TECHNOLOGY CURRICULA SURVEY," BASED ON A SURVEY CONDUCTED IN 1966 BY THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE ADMINISTRATION INSTITUTE FOR THE PURPOSE OF ASCERTAINING THE SCOPE OF THE FIRE EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN THE NATION'S INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING. A DIRECTORY OF…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Center for Executive Development.

100

Creating Shared Leadership Environments in Institutional and International Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates literature on leadership to specific distance-education settings, including international settings, and presents cases in higher education that reflect relevant leadership issues and dimensions of leadership. Topics include theory- and practice-based applications, and networking and collaboration as leadership strategies. (Author/LRW)

Poley, Janet K.

1998-01-01

101

ICED Data Bank on International Programs of Higher Educational Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Data Bank is an on-going information system that collects and stores data on international programs conducted by U.S. accredited 4-year colleges and universities. Information collected is coded and stored on punch cards and processed by computer. Each program is coded in 2 ways. Data cards are prepared that contain quantitative information…

Brumberg, Stephan F.

102

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN SAUDI ARABIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL THEORY PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses institutional theory to interpret the results of two questionnaires and research interviews concerned with internal audit in the Saudi Arabian corporate sector. The results show that internal audit is not well developed. Where it does exist it operates in departments that are inadequately resourced, lack qualified staff, have restrictions on their degree of independence, concentrate on compliance

Abdulrahman A. M Al-Twaijry; John A Brierley; David R Gwilliam

2003-01-01

103

Gendered lending: Gender, context and the rules of business lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three existing areas of research activity are addressed: (1) the local gendering of entrepreneurship; (2) gendered relationship between institutions and resource mobilization in place; and (3) gendered spaces of engagement. Looking through the lens of geography, a case study involving interview data from loan officers in Worcester, Massachusetts in the US are used to examine how financial institutions and the

Megan K. Blake

2006-01-01

104

Competition and Relationship Lending: Friends or Foes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical findings by Elsas (2005) and Degryse and Ongena (2007) document a U-shaped effect of market concentration on relationship lending whichvcannot be easily accommodated to the investment and strategic theory of relationship lending. In this paper, we show that this non-monotonicity can be explained by looking at the organisational structure of local credit markets. We provide evidence that marginal

Andrea Filippo Presbitero; Alberto Zazzaro

2009-01-01

105

Relationship lending: a survey of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the recent literature on relationship lending. First, the effect of relationship lending on firm value is examined in the context of the event studies investigating the impact of announcement of bank loans on stocks of the borrowing firms. Second, the effects on funds availability, loan rates, and collateral requirements are appraised. Third, the evidence on the impact

Elyas Elyasiani; Lawrence G. Goldberg

2004-01-01

106

Competition and relationship lending: Friends or foes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical findings by Elsas (2005) and Degryse and Ongena (2007) document a U-shaped effect of market concentration on relationship lending which cannot be easily accommodated by the investment and strategic theories of bank lending orientation. In this paper, we suggest that this non-monotonicity can be explained by looking at the organizational structure of local credit markets. We provide evidence

Andrea F. Presbitero; Alberto Zazzaro

2011-01-01

107

RELATIONSHIP LENDING - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationship lending is a common practice in credit financing all over the world, notably also in the European Union, which has been assumed to be particularly beneficial for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). During recent years, there has been the impression that relationship lending loses ground due to a change of the banks' business models, which could ultimately yield to

Christoph Memmel; Christian Schmieder; Ingrid Stein

2008-01-01

108

Til Debt Do Us Part: The U.S. Capital Market and Foreign Lending, 1920-1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes U.S. experience with foreign lending in the half-century from 1920. A first question raised by this experience is what ignited the process of U.S. foreign lending. I conclude that lending was restrained at the beginning of the period by the debt overhang associated with reparations and by the post World War I disruption of international trade. Intervention

Barry Eichengreen

1989-01-01

109

77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identical to a repurchase agreement when the collateral received by the institution is cash. If the collateral is securities, the economics are slightly...loaned and the securities received as collateral. For example, the value of the...

2012-06-21

110

Technology assessment network building: The International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions  

SciTech Connect

With the globalization of trade and the increased understanding of transboundary problems such as global climate change, the need for understanding the consequences of technological change has never been higher. Institutional arrangements necessary to assess these changes and make decision makers aware of the consequences have not necessarily adapted to these world conditions. In response to this leading technology assessment and forecasting institutions formed an international association of technology assessment and forecasting institutions to assist in the diffusion of technology assessment in the decision-making process. This paper discusses the origins of the International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions (IATAFI) and the goals and the vision for the organization. The articles cited represent some of the topics discussed at the first IATAFI conference in Bergen, Norway in May 1994.

Williams, G.; Andersen, J. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01

111

Incoming Interns' Perspectives on the Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Residents' Duty Hours  

PubMed Central

Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has announced revisions to the resident duty hour standards in light of a 2008 Institute of Medicine report that recommended further limits. Soliciting resident input regarding the future of duty hours is critical to ensure trainee buy-in. Purpose To assess incoming intern perceptions of duty hour restrictions at 3 teaching hospitals. Methods We administered an anonymous survey to incoming interns during orientation at 3 teaching hospitals affiliated with 2 Midwestern medical schools in 2009. Survey questions assessed interns' perceptions of maximum shift length, days off, ACGME oversight, and preferences for a “fatigued post-call intern who admitted patient” versus “well-rested covering intern who just picked up patient” for various clinical scenarios. Results Eighty-six percent (299/346) of interns responded. Although 59% agreed that residents should not work over 16 hours without a break, 50% of interns favored the current limits. The majority (78%) of interns desired ability to exceed shift limit for rare cases or clinical opportunities. Most interns (90%) favored oversight by the ACGME, and 97% preferred a well-rested intern for performing a procedure. Meanwhile, only 48% of interns preferred a well-rested intern for discharging a patient or having an end of life discussion. Interns who favored 16-hour limits were less concerned with negative consequences of duty hour restrictions (handoffs, reduced clinical experience) and more likely to choose the well-rested intern for certain scenarios (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.42–3.85, P??=??.001). Conclusions Incoming intern perceptions on limiting duty hours vary. Many interns desire flexibility to exceed limits for interesting clinical opportunities and favor ACGME oversight. Clinical context matters when interns consider the tradeoffs between fatigue and discontinuity.

Arora, Vineet M.; Farnan, Jeanne M.; Lypson, Monica L.; Anderson, R. Andy; Prochaska, Meryl H.; Humphrey, Holly J.

2010-01-01

112

12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower...credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's...

2013-01-01

113

12 CFR 195.22 - Lending test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the savings association's assessment area(s); ...credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a savings...

2013-01-01

114

12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower...credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's...

2013-01-01

115

12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower...credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's...

2013-01-01

116

12 CFR 563e.22 - Lending test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper- income geographies in the savings association's assessment area(s); ...credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a savings...

2013-01-01

117

Value to Banks of Small Business Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the contribution of relationship lending to the value of banks by estimating the market premium placed on the small business loan portfolios of banks. This approach contrasts with the previous literature that has focused almost exc...

J. Peek

2007-01-01

118

Do CRA Agreements Influence Lending Patterns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the broader impact of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) agreements-bank pledges to extend a certain volume of lending to targeted groups and communities-by examining whether they are associated with changes in lending to lower-income and minority communities in the markets where they are initiated. We find the number of newly initiated CRA agreements in a county to be

Raphael W. Bostic; Breck L. Robinson

2003-01-01

119

Collateral, relationship lending and family firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research suggested that relationship lending could play a role in solving asymmetric information problems between borrower\\u000a and lender. Other studies suggest a relationship between family ownership and the shareholder–bondholder agency conflict.\\u000a The present paper investigates the impact of relationship characteristics, family ownership and their interaction effects\\u000a upon the use of collateral in SME lending. We examine the determinants of

Tensie Steijvers; Wim Voordeckers; Koen Vanhoof

2010-01-01

120

Documentation of the lending process  

Microsoft Academic Search

US DOE has forged a partnership with the American Bankers Association, the US League of Savings Associations, and the National League of Savings and Loans to develop training materials for senior financial institution officials, loan officers and staff appraisers in the area of energy efficient considerations at the residential time of transfer. Also, training materials will be developed to enable

S. H. Chase; J. S. Manion; J. Garcia-Hohmann

1981-01-01

121

The Behavioral Development of Korean Children in Institutional Care and International Adoptive Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors compared the behavioral development of 4- to 8-year-old South Korean children placed in institutional care (n = 230) or adopted internationally (n = 382), with age of entry, parental status, reason for institutionalization, and postinstitutionalization parental contact as risk factors for institutionalized children. There was a placement effect of adoption and support for age of

Richard M. Lee; Kyoung Ok Seol; Miyoung Sung; Matthew J. Miller

2011-01-01

122

The Behavioral Development of Korean Children in Institutional Care and International Adoptive Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors compared the behavioral development of 4- to 8-year-old South Korean children placed in institutional care (n = 230) or adopted internationally (n = 382), with age of entry, parental status, reason for institutionalization, and postinstitutionalization parental contact as risk factors for institutionalized children. There was a placement effect of adoption and support for age of

Richard M. Lee; Kyoung Ok Seol; Miyoung Sung; Matthew J. Miller

2010-01-01

123

International Activity or Internationalisation Strategy? Insights from an Institutional Pilot Study in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Set in a context of increasing competition and changing dimensions of internationalisation, the paper offers an analysis of one institution's approach to changing its strategy and practice in the light of both the external context and the internal drivers to internationalise. The research methodology was based on OECD/IMHE's Internationalisation…

Middlehurst, Robin; Woodfield, Steve

2007-01-01

124

Sweden's International Training Programme in Education for Sustainable Development Enables Students to Change Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Swedish International Training Programme in Education for Sustainable Development, which has been run annually for the past 10 years, is a five-phase program that supports participants to develop and implement a change project in their work places. It requires a team of students from an institution and provides extensive follow up. The course…

Taylor, Jim; Neeser, Marie

2012-01-01

125

International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three decades, practitioners have been reminded at workshops, seminars, and conferences that gender equity is an issue for effectiveness of development programs, not just a matter of political correctness, or as some colleagues believe, kindness to women. This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa…

UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2005

2005-01-01

126

Sweden's International Training Programme in Education for Sustainable Development Enables Students to Change Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Swedish International Training Programme in Education for Sustainable Development, which has been run annually for the past 10 years, is a five-phase program that supports participants to develop and implement a change project in their work places. It requires a team of students from an institution and provides extensive follow up. The course…

Taylor, Jim; Neeser, Marie

2012-01-01

127

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, INTEREST GROUPS, AND THE RATIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how domestic political institutions and interest group pressures jointly determine the probability that a country ratifies an international environmental agreement. We build a model of government decision-making where multiple gove rnment units (such as the president, the prime minister, the legislative chambers in parliament or congress, and the government coalition parties) are offered political contributions from environmental

Per G. Fredriksson; Gergely Ujhelyi

2005-01-01

128

International collaborative ventures between higher education institutions: a British–Russian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a case study analysis of an ongoing international collaborative venture (ICV) between a British and a Russian higher education (HE) institution. The paper provides evidence of how knowledge migration and management learning, have been achieved in the partnership under study through trust, commitment, forbearance, diplomacy and other soft communication skills. It offers an alternative perspective to the

John Walton; Gisèle Guarisco

2008-01-01

129

Cosmopolitan or ethnically identified selves? Institutional expectations and the negotiated identities of international students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identities of young people, including students, are influenced by their institutional contexts. In central Melbourne over the past decade, international students largely from Southeast Asia have been presented with the expectations of universities in which they are enrolled and churches with which many are affiliated. But the subject positions offered to students by universities and churches diverge: universities expect

Ruth Fincher

2011-01-01

130

International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) Newsletter, published bi-annually in English and French, sheds light on the needs of teachers and teacher training in emergency situations with practical approaches and strategies provided on capacity building in the area of teacher education. Furthermore, it…

UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, 2005

2005-01-01

131

HUD Report: What We Know About Mortgage Lending Discrimination in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study conducted by the Urban Institute for the Department of Housing and Urban Development reports that there continues to be discrimination against mortgage candidates on the basis of race and ethnic background. The study examines all aspects of the lending process from the way pre-application inquiries were handled to the higher interest rates quoted minority candidates to denial rates that are not accounted for by considerations of creditworthiness. The report makes detailed recommendations for changes in lending procedures that the authors believe will do far more than the genuinely "good intentions" of many institutions cited in the report.

132

What's in a relationship? The case of commercial lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a survey and an analysis of the academic literature on relationship lending to small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is noted herein that relationship lending depends on soft (non-quantifiable) information, while other “lending technologies” depend on hard (quantifiable) information. Based on relative benefits and costs, relationship lending may be best suited for some types of SMEs, with

Gregory F. Udell

2008-01-01

133

Country of origin as a source of sustainable competitive advantage: the case for international higher education institutions in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lucrative higher education market has intensified the competition among higher education providers as they aggressively promote their institutions to international students. In this study, we explore the factors which are important to Chinese international students when deciding on a study destination and higher tertiary education (ITE) institution. The results of this study provided the impetus to understand the factors

Sussie Celna Morrish; Christina Lee

2011-01-01

134

Technologies development for environmental restoration and waste management: International university and research institution and industry partnerships  

SciTech Connect

The Institute for Central and Eastern European Cooperative Environmental Research (ICEECER) at Florida State University was formed in 1990 soon after the end of the Cold War. ICEECER consists of a number of joint centers which link FSU, and US as well as international funding agencies, to academic and research institutions in Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, and the other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. Areas of interest include risk assessment, toxicology, contaminated site remediation/characterization, waste management, emergency response, environmental technology development/demonstration/transfer, and some specialized areas of research (e.g., advanced chemical separations). Through ICEECER, numerous international conferences, symposia, training courses, and workshops have also been conducted on a variety of environmental topics. This paper summarizes the mission, structure, and administration of ICEECER and provides information on the projects conducted through this program at FSU.

Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.; Kuperberg, J.M.

1996-12-31

135

[Establishment and support of the International Power Institute]. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the quarterly report of the International Power Institute for October--December 1997. The topics of the report include pre-cooperative agreement activities, a discussion of the deputy director position, the IPI brochure, exploration of collaborative arrangements, formation of the IPI advisory board, a review of the advisory board meeting, report of a meeting with African electric utility executives, report of a visit to South Africa to explore a collaborative relationship.

Coles, J.E.

1998-04-02

136

On US politics and IMF Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political factors, which shape IMF lending to LDCs, have attracted much attention. The same goes for the role and influence of the US. However, formal modelling is scant. In this paper, we assume that the US is principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive the optimal loan

Thomas Barnebeck Andersen; Thomas Harr; Finn Tarp

2004-01-01

137

On US politics and IMF lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its

Thomas Barnebeck Andersen; Thomas Harr; Finn Tarp

2006-01-01

138

Loan officers and relationship lending to SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that loan officers may play a critical role in relationship lending by producing soft information about SMEs. For the first time, we analyze this hypothesis and find empirical evidence that indicates that loan officer activities are associated with bank production of soft information. We also find that loan officers at small banks produce more soft information than

Hirofumi Uchida; Gregory F. Udell; Nobuyoshi Yamori

2009-01-01

139

Bank involvement with SMEs: Beyond relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “conventional wisdom” in academic and policy circles argues that, while large and foreign banks are generally not interested in serving SMEs, small and niche banks have an advantage because they can overcome SME opaqueness through relationship lending. This paper shows that there is a gap between this view and what banks actually do. Banks perceive SMEs as a core

Augusto de la Torre; María Soledad Martínez Pería; Sergio L. Schmukler

2010-01-01

140

The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.  

PubMed

This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context. PMID:17902585

Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

141

Race, class and spatial dimensions of mortgage lending practices and residential foreclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American dream of homeownership for low?income minority households has been sustained by reliance on a complex web of public programs and private institutions during the past several decades. This paper explores the racial, class and spatial dimensions of mortgage lending practices and residential foreclosures for underserved neighborhoods in Cuyahoga County, Ohio using multiple regression analysis with a spatial?lag model.

Sugie Lee; Mark S. Rosentraub; Timothy F. Kobie

2010-01-01

142

The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test hypotheses about the effects of bank size, foreign ownership, and distress on lending to informationally opaque small firms using a rich new data set on Argentinean banks, firms, and loans. We also test hypotheses about borrowing from a single bank versus multiple banks. Our results suggest that large and foreign-owned institutions may have difficulty extending relationship loans to

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Gregory F. Udell

2001-01-01

143

Bank Size and Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank

Ying Bai; Minggao Shen; Zhong Xu

2009-01-01

144

The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth  

SciTech Connect

Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site`s assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it`s land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world.

Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

1994-02-01

145

Global health: the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health: vision and mission, programs, and accomplishments.  

PubMed

The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the US National Institutes of Health has supported long-term training and research for more than 3600 future leaders in science and public health from low-income and middle-income countries; tens of thousands more persons have received short-term training. More than 23 extramural training and research programs plus an intramural program are now operating. Newer FIC training programs are addressing chronic, noncommunicable diseases and strengthening the quality of medical schools and health care provider training. Most FIC trainees return to their countries of origin, where they mentor and train thousands of individuals in their home countries. PMID:21896356

Breman, Joel G; Bridbord, Kenneth; Kupfer, Linda E; Glass, Roger I

2011-09-01

146

1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

Not Available

1993-07-01

147

12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...real estate lending policies adopted pursuant to this section should reflect consideration of the Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies established by the Federal bank and thrift supervisory...

2013-01-01

148

Teaching international public relations: An examination of individual and institutional attributes of public relations educators in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here provides an examination of the attributes of selected public relation educators and their institutions in relation to the teaching of international public relations as a course or as a part of a course.

Jane W. Peterson; Angela Mak

2006-01-01

149

[Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to antimalarial drugs: global data issued from the Pasteur Institutes international network].  

PubMed

Malaria research units within the Institut Pasteur international network (RIIP-Palu) located in Africa, in South-East Asia and in South America, work for many years in close collaboration with the National malaria control programmes. Relying on technical platforms with well-equipped laboratories and scientific expertise, they are at the forefront of research on the antimalarial drug resistance by working together for training young scientists and developping similar protocols allowing comprehensive comparisons. Including fundamental and operational researches, they conduct regional and international projects which aim (1) to detect the emergence of antimalarial drugs resistant parasites and to evaluate their spatio-temporal distribution, (2) to develop in vitro and molecular tools, (3) to identify epidemiological factors involved in the emergence and the spread of antimalarial drugs resistant parasites and (4) to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated in resistance. In this review, will be presented methodological approaches and data obtained since 2000. PMID:23859522

Ménard, Didier; Ariey, Frédéric; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

2013-07-12

150

The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

2006-01-01

151

The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

2006-01-01

152

Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)|

Rettig, Michael A.

1998-01-01

153

Related Lending:Evidence of Tunnelling and Propping in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a comprehensive sample of listed firms in China from 2001 to 2004 to provide evidence of tunnelling and propping via related lending. My evidence shows that controlling owners engage in tunnelling and propping through related lending, although tunnelling dwarfs propping in terms of number and magnitude. State ownership and pyramidal structure increase the level of tunnelling lending,

Fei Guo

154

The impact of institutional impediments and information and knowledge exchange on SMEs’ investments in international business relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of institutional impediments and of knowledge and information exchange in international business relationships on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) specific investments in international business relationships and the outcome of such investments on the performance of SMEs. Using a sample of 255 internationalising SMEs, we develop and test three hypotheses with the linear structural relations (LISREL)

Sara Jonsson; Jessica Lindbergh

2010-01-01

155

Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

156

An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Ministry of Education, Culture and

Wende van der Marijk; Eric Beerkens

1999-01-01

157

Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

158

Recruitment Dynamic of Foreign Students into United States Postsecondary Institutions: The Implications for Education and International Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enrollment of foreign students in U.S. postsecondary educational institutions has far reaching implications for world education and international development. An analysis of enrollment data, however, indicates a wide variation in enrollment by region and country. In 1992-93, approximately 59% of the 439,000 international students enrolled in…

Ubadigbo, Fidelis Njide

159

The Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Senegal: Untangling the Interactions Between International Institutions and National Actors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International institutions, understood as sets of rules contained in international agreements, are aimed at orienting national governments towards specific policy options. Nevertheless, they can determine a change in national policies and practices only if states are willing and capable of incorporating international obligations into their national legislations and ensuring their application and enforcement in areas that follow completely under national jurisdiction. The establishment of marine protected areas promoted by international agreements as a tool for the protection of marine resources represents an interesting case for revealing the complex interactions between international institutions and national actors. Particularly, the establishment of these areas in Senegal shows the salience of domestic constellations of actors who may support or undercut national commitments to international regimes: political elites, bureaucracies, the general public and target groups. By anchoring the empirical analysis to an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, the article explains how dynamic constellations of actors can distort the penetration of international objectives in the national policy framework. Different constellations of national actors can indeed bend international institutions at different moments: during the formulation of a new law in line with international obligations; in the definition of its implementation framework; and in the enforcement of national policies.

Ferraro, Gianluca; Brans, Marleen; Dème, Moustapha; Failler, Pierre

2011-04-01

160

Application of the International Life Sciences Institute Key Events Dose-Response Framework to food contaminants.  

PubMed

Contaminants are undesirable constituents in food. They may be formed during production of a processed food, present as a component in a source material, deliberately added to substitute for the proper substance, or the consequence of poor food-handling practices. Contaminants may be chemicals or pathogens. Chemicals generally degrade over time and become of less concern as a health threat. Pathogens have the ability to multiply, potentially resulting in an increased threat level. Formal structures have been lacking for systematically generating and evaluating hazard and exposure data for bioactive agents when problem situations arise. We need to know what the potential risk may be to determine whether intervention to reduce or eliminate contact with the contaminant is warranted. We need tools to aid us in assembling and assessing all available relevant information in an expeditious and scientifically sound manner. One such tool is the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF). Developed as an extension of the WHO's International Program on Chemical Safety/ILSI mode of action/human relevance framework, it allows risk assessors to understand not only how a contaminant exerts its toxicity but also the dose response(s) for each key event and the ultimate outcome, including whether a threshold exists. This presentation will illustrate use of the KEDRF with case studies included in its development (chloroform and Listeriaonocytogenes) after its publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (chromium VI) and in a work in progress (3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol). PMID:23077190

Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

2012-10-17

161

The Origins of Information Science and the International Institute of Bibliography\\/International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the ideas and practices em- fundamental importance in the development of what we braced by the term ''documentation,'' introduced by Paul now call information science. Otlet and his colleagues to describe the work of the In- The Office and the Institute were closely related orga- ternational Institute of Bibliography (later FID) that they nizations. The Office

W. Boyd Rayward

1997-01-01

162

Study Abroad: A Review of the Kentucky Institute for International Studies (KIIS) and Geographers' Role in the Consortium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Kentucky Institute for International Studies is a consortium of colleges and universities that provides semester length and short summer semester over-seas study programs. This article traces the growth of the consortium from its roots at Murray State University in 1975 through the celebration of its thirtieth anniversary in 2005. Aspects…

Sambrook, Richard Alan

2008-01-01

163

Impact Assessment of biological control in Africa -20 years experience of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experience of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) with impact assessment of biological control in Africa. The history of four case studies are presented: cassava mealybug, cassava green mite, mango mealybug and water hyacinth. To counter these alien pests, natural enemies was identified in the region of origin, studied in quarantaine, raised and released. All

Peter Neuenschwander; Hugo De Groote; Boru Douthwaite

164

Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

2008-01-01

165

International Joint Project of Engineering Design Education among Three Institutions in Japan, U.S. and Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An international joint program of Engineering Design has started in 2004 between Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Singapore Polytechnic in Singapore, and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in the United States. Students from the three institutions worked on the same engineering design project, the main theme of which was, “Bus Transportation/Urban Transportation System in the 21st Century”. Student teams chose their own project themes from specific design areas, which were related to the main theme. Their achievements were unique in their solutions due to the differences in society and culture in Japan, the United States and Singapore, although all the design teams followed the same engineering design procedures. In this paper, the international joint project is discussed in details.

Matsuishi, Masakatsu; Takemata, Kazuya; Furukawa, Tetsuro; Sanders, Wayne; Loo, Chin Non

166

Commercial Lending and Distance: Evidence from Community Reinvestment Act Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of large banking organizations have substantially broadened the distances at which they are willing to extend commercial loans, but there is also evidence to suggest that this has occurred primarily at the high side of the distribution of lending distances. In this paper, we employ a new source of data to examine the relationship between lending decisions and

Kenneth P. Brevoort; Timothy H. Hannan

2006-01-01

167

Tying knots: lending to win equity underwriting business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the practice of “tying,” which occurs when an underwriter lends to an issuer around the time of a public securities offering. We examine whether there are efficiencies from tying lending and underwriting which lead to benefits for issuers and underwriters. We find evidence consistent with tying occurring for issues when there are informational economies of scope from

Steven Drucker; Manju Puri

2004-01-01

168

Lines of Credit and Relationship Lending in Small Firm Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of relationship lending using a data set on small firm finance. The abilities to acquire private information over time about borrower quality and to use this information in designing debt contracts largely define the unique nature of commercial banking. Recently, a theoretical literature on relationship lending has appeared which provides predictions about how loan interest

Allen Berger; Gregory Udell

1994-01-01

169

Is wholesale lending to SACCOs a win-win encounter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the case of the CRDB Bank in Tanzania, this study finds that wholesale lending creates a win-win situation for banks, as well as for Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs). Banks minimise costs of lending, widen outreach and 'cherry-pick' the best borrowers. SACCOs are able to meet their members' demand for credit, negotiate lower interest rates and produce graduates

Kassim Hussein; Abdullah Makame

2008-01-01

170

Asymmetric information and price competition in small business lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between bank lending rates and their cost of funds in New Zealand. Our results show that on average mortgage rates respond more quickly to changes in the cost of funds than base business lending rates. We also find an asymmetry in the initial (short-run) response of banks to changes in funding costs; in particular, our

Ming-Hua Liu; Dimitris Margaritis; Alireza Tourani-Rad

2011-01-01

171

Lines of Credit and Relationship Lending in Small Firm Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper examines the role of relationship lending using a data set on smallfirm finance. The abilities to acquire private information over time about borrower qualityand to use this information in designing debt contracts largely define the unique nature ofcommercial banking. Recently, a theoretical literature on relationship lending has appearedwhich provides predictions about how loan interest rates evolve over

Allen N. Berger; Gregory F. Udell

1995-01-01

172

Multiple but Asymmetric Bank Financing: The Case of Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence suggests that even those firms presumably most in need of monitoring-intensive financing (young, small, and innovative firms) have a multitude of bank lenders, where one may be special in the sense of relationship lending. However, theory does not tell us a lot about the economic rationale for relationship lending in the context of multiple bank financing.To fill this

Ralf Elsas; Frank Heinemann; Marcel Tyrell

2004-01-01

173

On the profitability and cost of relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide some preliminary evidence on the costs and profitability of relationship lending by commercial banks. Drawing on recent research that has identified loan rate smoothing as a significant element in lending relationships between banks and firms, the authors carry out a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the authors derive bank-specific measures of the extent to which the

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1997-01-01

174

International Socialization in the New Europe:Rational Action in an Institutional Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international relations of the `new Europe' are shaped by a process of international socialization in which the Western community transmits its constitutive liberal norms to Central and Eastern Europe. This process neither fits rationalist assumptions about international politics in a technical environment nor sociological theories of action. Rather, international socialization in the new Europe is best explained as a

FRANK SCHIMMELFENNIG

2000-01-01

175

Prudent versus Imprudent Lending to Africa: From debt relief to emerging lenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent years, a number of emerging creditors have increased their aid and lending to Africa’s Low-Income Countries (LICs). This has fed worries that new official lenders may be undoing years of international efforts to rein in over-indebtedness in Africa, to reduce the continent’s exposure to foreign-currency denominated debt and to encourage good governance by making loans conditional on political

Helmut Reisen; Sokhna Ndoye

2008-01-01

176

8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...University. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Missouri Botanical Garden (research and educational programs only) Natural Science Foundation, Philadelphia, PA. New York...

2009-01-01

177

8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...University. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Missouri Botanical Garden (research and educational programs only) Natural Science Foundation, Philadelphia, PA. New York...

2010-01-01

178

From vision to reality: managing tensions in the development and implementation of an international collaborative partnership programme for institutional change and sustainable development in inclusive education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to consider the practical implications of international collaborative partnerships between and within higher education institutions (HEIs) in terms of the development of an international programme in Special Needs Education as well as its implementation. We first look at the heavy institutional demands set within national boundaries and their associated quality assurance procedures. We argue

Jan Šiška; Jacqueline van Swet; Sulochini Pather; David Rose

2012-01-01

179

Nurturing the Global Workforce in Clinical Research: The National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Clinical Scholars and Fellows Program  

PubMed Central

The Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program's goal is to foster the next generation of clinical investigators and to help build international health research partnerships between American and international investigators and institutions. Through June 2012, 61 sites in 27 countries have hosted 436 Scholars (American students or junior trainees from the host countries) and/or 122 Fellows (American and host country postdoctoral fellows) for year-long experiences in global health research. Initially, the program was oriented toward infectious diseases, but recently emphasis on chronic disease research has increased. At least 521 manuscripts have been published, many in high-impact journals. Projects have included clinical trials, observational studies, translational research, clinical-laboratory interface initiatives, and behavioral research. Strengths of the program include training opportunities for American and developing country scientists in well-established international clinical research settings, and mentorship from experienced global health experts.

Heimburger, Douglas C.; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Warner, Tokesha L.; Vermund, Sten H.

2011-01-01

180

A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and

Tatiana L Taylor; Helen Killaspy; Christine Wright; Penny Turton; Sarah White; Thomas W Kallert; Mirjam Schuster; Jorge A Cervilla; Paulette Brangier; Jiri Raboch; Lucie Kališová; Georgi Onchev; Hristo Dimitrov; Roberto Mezzina; Kinou Wolf; Durk Wiersma; Ellen Visser; Andrzej Kiejna; Patryk Piotrowski; Dimitri Ploumpidis; Fragiskos Gonidakis; José Caldas-de-Almeida; Graça Cardoso; Michael B King

2009-01-01

181

Do Industrial Relations Institutions Impact Economic Outcomes?: International and U.S. State-Level Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of government social and labor market institutions on economic outcomes have generated a great deal of attention by economists and policymakers in the U.S. and in other nations. The theoretical model suggests that there are trade offs of higher levels of economic outcomes with more equity-producing labor market institutions. This study examines the impact of national levels of

Morris M. Kleiner; Hwikwon Ham

2002-01-01

182

Corporate Responses to Climate Change: The Role of Internal Scientists as Institutional Entrepreneurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we argue that institutional discourses and practices do not pass undisturbed across organizational boundaries. We look at how corporate scientists in the automobile industry, acting as institutional entrepreneurs, influence way in which corporations perceive and respond to climate science.

Sandra Rothenberg

183

The influence of institutional involvement in international education on United States students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is focused on the impact of international education upon United States students. The research question tested was: does the involvement of a US university in international education programs affect the international outlook of United States students? Seven concept areas were developed and tested on a randomly selected group of 663 United States senior students enrolled at six universities:

Madhav P. Sharma; Loren B. Jung

1984-01-01

184

12 CFR 614.4100 - Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations...POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Bank/Association Lending Relationship § 614.4100 Policies governing lending through Federal land bank...

2010-01-01

185

12 CFR 614.4100 - Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations...POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Bank/Association Lending Relationship § 614.4100 Policies governing lending through Federal land bank...

2009-01-01

186

Study Abroad: A Review of the Kentucky Institute for International Studies (KIIS) and Geographers' Role in the Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kentucky Institute for International Studies is a consortium of colleges and universities that provides semester length and short summer semester over-seas study programs. This article traces the growth of the consortium from its ro-ots at Murray State University in 1975 through the celebration of its thirtieth anniversary in 2005. Aspects considered include the overall growth of the consor-tium and

Richard Alan Sambrook

2009-01-01

187

The National Lending Library: Information Resource Center Extraordinaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief glimpse of the National Lending Library at Boston Spa in Yorkshire which is the primary bibliographic resource center for science and technology in Great Britain. (Author)

Peck, Theodore P.

1973-01-01

188

Effects of Interstate Banking on Small Business Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates how bank acquisitions influence the willingness of a banking organization to lend to small businesses. The concern that bank consolidation may reduce credit availability to small businesses is related to several factors. First, duri...

J. Peek

1997-01-01

189

Using Bank Mergers and Acquisitions to Understand Lending Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how firm-bank lending relationships affect firms' access to and terms of credit. We use bank mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as exogenous events that affect lending relationships. Bank M&As lead to organisational changes at the involved banks, which may reduce the amount of soft information encompassed in the firm-bank relationship. Using a unique Norwegian dataset, which combines information on

Ove Rein Hetland; Aksel Mjøs

2011-01-01

190

Assessment of Professional Training Programmes in International Agricultural Research Institutions: The Case of ICRAF  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…

Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank

2010-01-01

191

Learning Outcomes of International Mobility at Two Dutch Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For more than 20 years, the benefits of international mobility for students have been taken for granted. Now, policy makers and educators have started to realize that internationalization and globalization do not magically happen by sending ever higher numbers of students abroad. The quality of international mobility has taken center stage of the…

Stronkhorst, Robert

2005-01-01

192

The International Regimes Database: Designing and Using a Sophisticated Tool for Institutional Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the International Regimes Database (IRD), an analytical tool designed to (i) move regime analysis from its current emphasis on the use of discrete case studies to the use of a relational database encompassing comparable data on a large number of cases and (ii) facilitate quantitative as well as qualitative analyses of hypotheses dealing with international regimes. The

Oran R. Young; Michael Zürn

2006-01-01

193

An Analysis of Individual and Institutional Contributors to the "Journal of Teaching in International Business"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study traces the development of the "Journal of Teaching in International Business (JTIB)" in terms of its contributors of published research in the field of international business education. The study is based on an analysis of the 245 articles published in the first twelve volumes of "JTIB". The reported results provide evaluative…

Urbancic, Frank R.

2003-01-01

194

76 FR 11597 - Truth in Lending  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cost-effectively, or else to satisfy the escrow requirement by outsourcing to a sub-servicer, generally exist when a mortgage servicer...their systems and internal procedure manuals and to provide training for relevant staff to comply with the new disclosure...

2011-03-02

195

8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Faculty of Pure Science), New York, NY. Cornell University (International...Foundation, 477 Madison Avenue, New York, NY. Free Europe, Inc. (formerly Free...School for Social Research, New York, NY. Harvard University (research and...

2013-01-01

196

Reconsidering institutional cosmopolitanism: global poverty and the importance of the state in international political theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmopolitan scholarship has been at the forefront of efforts to consider political structures capable of realising justice in a more robust manner than prevailing global governance arrangements. In particular, the arguments of Thomas Pogge have contributed significantly to scholarly thinking about global poverty and his scheme of ‘institutional cosmopolitanism’ aspires to institutionalise human rights in the structures of global governance.

Steven Slaughter

2009-01-01

197

Determinants of Agricultural Protection in an International Perspective: The Role of Political Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

—This paper studies the role of political institutions in determining the political success of agriculture in avoiding taxation or attracting government transfers in developing and industrialized countries, respectively. The model is based on a probabilistic voting environment, where in industrialized countries rural districts are less ideologically committed than urban districts, while in developing countries urban districts are less ideologically committed

Christian H. C. A. Henning

2008-01-01

198

Institutions and International CooperationAn Event History Analysis of the Effects of Economic Sanctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a new issue in sanctions research: the determinants of the time it takes for nations to return to presanctions levels of trade after a sanctions episode ends. The authors argue that democratic institutions reduce transaction costs and promote trust between economic agents. Their primary hypothesis is that jointly democratic dyads return to their presanctions level of trade

David Lektzian; Mark Souva

2001-01-01

199

A Case Study: Innovation of Internal Teaching and Learning Evaluation System in Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ultimate target of the education and teaching reform in higher education institutions is to improve the quality of teaching and talent training. As a key comprehensive university under the jurisdiction of the provincial government, Heilongjiang University sees its responsibility as training qualified talent to promote local economic…

Huiru, Yin

2009-01-01

200

An International Perspective: The School as an Organization and Social Institution: Current Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is about the current challenges facing the school as an organization and social institution with respect to information technology. It is concluded that the school ought to educate broadly when preparing students for the workplace because we can not accurately predict what their needs will be due to rapid advances in technology.…

Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

2007-01-01

201

International crises and global health electives: lessons for faculty and institutions.  

PubMed

Student participation in global health electives and community service initiatives is associated with a number of favorable outcomes, and student interest in participating in such experiences is high. Increasingly, medical schools are facilitating and supervising global health opportunities. The inherent risks and uncertainties of global community service deserve careful consideration as schools engage more actively in this area. This article presents how one institution managed three crises in three electives in a single year. The H1N1 flu epidemic impacted a group of students bound for Mexico, a political upheaval affected a student group working in Honduras, and a hurricane threatened a student group in Nicaragua. This article outlines lessons learned from responding to these crises. Well-defined institutional travel policies, clear communication plans in the event of an emergency, a responsible administrative entity for global experiences, and formal predeparture training for students and faculty can help institutions better respond to unpredictable events. A comprehensive examination of these lessons and reflections on how to institutionalize the various components may help other institutions prepare for such events and lessen negative impact on student learning. PMID:20881675

Steiner, Beat D; Carlough, Martha; Dent, Georgette; Peña, Rodolfo; Morgan, Douglas R

2010-10-01

202

Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.  

PubMed

In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts. PMID:2699159

Singer, H L

1989-01-01

203

Who Gets the Credit? And Does It Matter? Household vs. Firm Lending across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

While theory predicts different effects of household credit and enterprise credit on the economy, the empirical literature has mainly used aggregate measures of overall bank lending to the private sector. We construct a new dataset from 45 developed and developing countries, decomposing bank lending into lending to enterprises and lending to households and assess the different effects of these two

Thorsten Beck; Berrak Büyükkarabacak; Felix Rioja; Neven Valev

2009-01-01

204

Who Gets the Credit? And Does It Matter? Household vs. Firm Lending Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

While theory predicts different effects of household credit and enterprise credit on the economy, the empirical literature has mainly used aggregate measures of overall bank lending to the private sector. We construct a new dataset from 45 developed and developing countries, decomposing bank lending into lending to enterprises and lending to households and assess the different effects of these two

Thorsten Beck; Felix K. Rioja; Neven T. Valev

2012-01-01

205

Low-Income Contries: International Financial Institutions Met Many Goals in Response to Financial, Food, and Fuel Crises, But Impact on Spending Difficult to Establish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 40 poorest countries in the world, known as low-income countries (LICs), have been negatively impacted by successive food, fuel, and financial crises since 2007. In response, international financial institutions (IFI), including the World Bank and Int...

2011-01-01

206

Radiation Physics. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Radiation Physics Held at Bose Institute, Calcutta (India) on November 30-December 4, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings contain invited and contributed papers presented at the International Symposium on Radiation Physics organized by and held at the Bose Institute, Calcutta, India Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1974. The purpose of this symposium, recognizing radiation ...

A. M. Ghose D. V. Gopinath J. H. Hubbell S. C. Roy

1977-01-01

207

Nuclear responsibility and nuclear trade: international rules and institutions to manage nuclear fuel cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike diffusion of earlier weapons as by-products of trade, the diffusion of nuclear weapons and nuclear wastes as by-products of nuclear-electric fuel impose apparently irrevocable inter-generational costs. However, constraints upon nuclear fuel cycle use and improvement may also have inter-generational impacts, through depletion of non-renewable fossil fuel and uranium resources. Rules-of-trade and institutions should be designed to safeguard nuclear-electric fuel

1977-01-01

208

Why are some Spanish manufacturing firms internationalizing rapidly? The role of business and institutional international networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the profile of international manufacturing firms located in Spain. After reviewing previous research on the internationalization of small and medium companies, we will look at whether the relevance of certain characteristics and key internationalization factors differ between firms following the traditional gradual internationalization process and firms internationalizing rapidly. Basically, economic literature points

José A Belso-Martínez

2006-01-01

209

International Students' Experiences and Attitudes at a US Host Institution: Self-Reports and Future Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines international students' experiences at a US university and how these might influence them to recommend or not recommend that others from their home country attend it. Data were collected via online survey at a large public university in the US Southwest. Students from predominantly non-White regions of origin had more…

Lee, Jenny J.

2010-01-01

210

International institutions and educational policy: A review of education-sector policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, the World Bank published a study entitledEducation Sector Working Paper which set forth its policy in the field of education. This study, the second the Bank had published, was widely read, analysed and discussed for some time after its publication and had a considerable influence on thinking in education and development at the international level.

Martin Carnoy

1980-01-01

211

Dual Economies and International Total Factor Productivity Differences: Channelling the Impact from Institutions, Trade, and Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a framework that decomposes aggregate total factor productivity (TFP) into a component reflecting relative efficiency across sectors, and another component that reflects the absolute level of efficiency. A development accounting analysis suggests that as much as 85% of the international variation in aggregate TFP can be attributed to variation in relative efficiency across sectors. Estimation results show

AREENDAM CHANDA; CARL-JOHAN DALGAARD

2008-01-01

212

International nanotechnology development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based on USPTO patent database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the National Nanotechnology Initiative definition of nanotechnology (which

Zan Huang; Hsinchun Chen; Zhi-kai Chen; Mihail C. Roco

2004-01-01

213

An international fellowship in trauma research and the potential benefits for fellows, sponsoring institution, and the global trauma community.  

PubMed

For over a decade, the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Hospital has supported an international fellowship in trauma that provides research experience, education, and opportunity for clinical observation at a high-volume American College of Surgeons (ACS) designated Level I trauma center. We performed a descriptive study of the design, implementation, and results of an international fellowship in trauma and critical care. Fellows from 27 countries throughout the world have actively engaged in trauma research at Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Hospital. Our program involves intensive education and clinical observation components designed to facilitate dissemination of evidence-based trauma practices throughout the world by graduates. The majority of alumni responding to a survey returned to their countries of origin, remaining active in trauma care and research. Motivation for participation varied, but former fellows universally rated their experience highly and stated they would recommend the program to their colleagues. An international research fellowship in trauma and critical care provides foreign medical trainees opportunities for exposure to research and evidence-based practices at a high-volume trauma center. The program is designed to be beneficial to both the participating fellow and sponsoring institution; and is constructed to effectively promote improved trauma education and the dissemination of quality trauma practices internationally. PMID:19385294

Dubose, Joseph J; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Recinos, Gustavo; Barmparas, Galinos; Ottochian, Marcus; Inaba, Kenji; Petrone, Patrizio; Demetriades, Demetrios

2009-04-01

214

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian-made instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) is young brother of another Russian instrument HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), which continues to perform well in its fifth year of science measurements onboard NASA Mars Odyssey. LEND and HEND have similar types of neutron sensors, and valuable science data from HEND about Martian water resources has proved adequate selection of these sensors for purposes of orbital neutron spectroscopy of the planet. The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) has been selected for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to provide the global search of hydrogen distribution through 1-2 meters of lunar subsurface from 50 km circular polar orbit of LRO. The most important property of LEND is its capability to provide high spatial resolution mapping of epithermal neutrons with collimated neutron detectors. LEND is able to detect hydrogen-rich spot at a pole with about 100 ppm of hydrogen with spatial resolution of 5 km (Half Width Half Maximum) and to produce global mapping of hydrogen content with resolution of 5-20 km. If hydrogen is associated with water, detection limit of 100 ppm of hydrogen corresponds to ~ 0.1 wt% of water in the regolith. Neutron radiation from the regolith could have as large an impact on astronaut safety as energetic charged particles from Galactic Comic Rays and Solar Particle Events. LEND will have a full set of sensors for thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons to provide data for neutron component of radiation environment in the broad range of more than 9 decades of energy.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Schvetsov, V. N.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Vostrukhin, A.

2006-12-01

215

Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System conducts the Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices on a quarterly basis to ensure the availability of results for the January, May, August, and November meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee. Typically, fifty-seven large domestic banks and twenty-four US branches and agencies of foreign banks are queried on changes in the standards and terms of bank lending and the state of business and household demand for loans.

1997-01-01

216

International relations scholarship, academic institutions and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of academic scholarship and practice in constituting, aggravating, and resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The first section of the paper examines how scholarly discourse and methods of analysis contribute to shaping (mis)understandings of on-the-ground conflict dynamics. To demonstrate this point, the paper first overviews conventional social science methods used in mainstream international relations (IR) scholarship that

Maia Hallward

2010-01-01

217

Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

2010-01-01

218

Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

2012-01-01

219

Turning a Blind Eye: Wall Street Finance of Predatory Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Wall Street finances up to eighty percent of subprime home loans through securitization. The subprime sector, which is designed for borrowers with blemished credit, has been dogged by predatory lending charges, many of which have been substantiated. As subprime securitization has grown, so have charges that securitization turns a blind eye to financing abusive loans. In this paper, we

Kathleen C. Engel; Patricia A. McCoy

2007-01-01

220

Media ownership, concentration and corruption in bank lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the pioneering study by Beck, Demirguc-Kunt, and Levine (2006), this study examines the effects of media ownership and concentration on corruption in bank lending using a unique World Bank data set covering more than 5,000 firms across 59 countries. We find strong evidence that state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption. We also

Joel F. Houston; Chen Lin; Yue Ma

2011-01-01

221

MicroCredit and Group Lending: The Collateral Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional banking practices do not easily accommodate the financial needs of poor persons. Group-lending, on the other hand, has found several advantages in the context of poor borrowers with no collateral to offer. An important advantage is that the bank's losses due to unsuccessful projects are dramatically reduced, because group members cover at least part of those losses. In effect,

Lykke Eg Andersen; Osvaldo Nina

222

12 CFR 160.101 - Real estate lending standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

223

12 CFR 390.265 - Real estate lending standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

224

12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

225

Soft information, relationship lending and the advantages of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft information is a such kind of information that is difficult to quantify and transmit. The relationship lending, in which the loan decision is based on soft information about borrowing firms and their owners that is collected in long- term, can contribute to bridge the credit gap existing in small businesses due to their shortage of qualified financial messages and

Gujun Yan; Sijiang He

2011-01-01

226

On the profitability and cost of relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the costs and profitability of relationship lending by banks. We derive bank-specific measures of loan rate smoothing for small business borrowers in response to exogenous shocks to their credit risk and to interest rates, and then estimate cost and profit functions to examine how smoothing affects bank costs and profits.Our results suggests that, in general, loan

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J Mester

1998-01-01

227

A relational theory of relationship lending under contractual incompleteness  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the literature has focused on relationships as a technology for solving hidden information problems in credit markets, hidden action has been very little explored as an explanation for the existence of relational lending. In this paper, we propose a theory in which relationships are driven by the problem of contractual incompleteness in instances in which a borrower, by taking

Vinicius Carrasco; João Manoel Pinho de Mello

2006-01-01

228

Qualitative Risk Scoring in Relationship Lending: Case of Karafarin Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unreliability of financial statements in Iran has urged this country's financial services industry management to manipulate practices by which they could gain reliable risk scores for borrowers. The purpose of this paper is to model the qualitative risk of relationship in relationship lending. This research extracts the most important qualitative factors that would impact the default of a business relationship

Roudabeh Gharaee; Amir Albadvi

229

Firm Failure and Relationship Lending: New Evidence from Small Businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of relationship lending on small firms´ failure probability using a uniquely rich data set comprised of information on individual loans of a large number of small firms in Colombia. We control for firm-specific variables and find that small firms involved in long-term liaisons with commercial banks have a significantly lower probability of becoming bankrupt than otherwise

José Eduardo Gómez-González; Nidia Ruth Reyes

2011-01-01

230

Relationship lending and the transmission of monetary policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated interactions allow lenders to uncover private information about their clients, decreasing the informational asymmetry between a borrower and his lender but introducing one between the lender and competing financiers. This paper constructs a credit-based model of production to analyze how learning through lending relationships affects monetary transmission. I examine how monetary policy changes the incentives of borrowers and lenders

Kinda Hachemy

2011-01-01

231

The Efect of Relationship Lending on Firm Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how relationship lending affects firm performance using a panel dataset of about 70,000 small and medium Spanish firms in the period 1993-2004. We model firm performance jointly with the firm's choice of the number of bank relationships. Controlling for firm fixed effects and using instrumental variables for the decision on the number of bank relationships, we found that

Judit Montoriol

2006-01-01

232

The Internet and Global Telecommunications: Exploring the Boundaries of International Coordination. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on International Telecommunications (4th, Shonan Village Center, Japan, September 21-24, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goals of the Fourth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on International Telecommunications were: to address procedural and substantive solutions for international coordination of Internet policy issues; to suggest different models for dispute resolution and policy coordination that might be employed in the various contexts of Internet usage;…

Kleeman, Michael J.

233

Sustainability and Governance of Microfinance Institutions: Recent Experiences and Some Lessons for Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance has become an important tool for poverty reduction in many parts of the world, including Asia and the Pacific region. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) target the poor through innovative approaches which include group lending, progressive lending, regular repayment schedules, and collateral substitutes. This paper reviews the experiences of microfinance institutions in different parts of the world in the areas of

Ganesh Thapa

234

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 365 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies A Appendix...Part 365âInteragency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies The...diversification policy and set limits for real estate loans by type and...

2010-01-01

235

12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies C Appendix...Part 208âInteragency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies The...diversification policy and set limits for real estate loans by type and...

2009-01-01

236

37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition . A...

2013-07-01

237

12 CFR 723.4 - What other regulations apply to member business lending?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What other regulations apply to member business lending? 723.4 Section 723...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.4 What other regulations apply to member business lending? (a) The provisions...

2013-01-01

238

12 CFR 31.2 - Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements...OF THE TREASURY EXTENSIONS OF CREDIT TO INSIDERS AND TRANSACTIONS WITH AFFILIATES § 31.2 Insider lending restrictions and reporting...

2009-01-01

239

12 CFR 31.2 - Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insider lending restrictions and reporting requirements...OF THE TREASURY EXTENSIONS OF CREDIT TO INSIDERS AND TRANSACTIONS WITH AFFILIATES § 31.2 Insider lending restrictions and reporting...

2010-01-01

240

Lines of Credit and Relationship Lending in Small Firm Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of relationship lending using a data set on small firm finance. We specifically examine price and nonprice terms of commercial bank lines of credit (L\\/C) extended to small firms. Our focus on bank L\\/Cs allows us to examine a type of loan contract where the bank-borrower relationship is likely to be an important mechanism for

Allen N. Berger; Gregory F. Udell

1999-01-01

241

Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of relationship lending in small firm finance. We examine price and nonprice terms of bank lines of credit (L\\/C) extended to small firms. Our focus on bank L\\/Cs allows us toe examine a type of loan contract in which the bank-borrower relationship is likely to be an important mechanism for solving asymmetric information problems associated

Allen N. Berger; Gregory F. Udell

1994-01-01

242

Payday Lending: A Business Model that Encourages Chronic Borrowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous growth in the demand for very small, short-term loans by credit constrained households is being largely filled by companies offering payday loans. This article explores the explosive growth of payday lending as a source of short-term consumer credit in low- and moderate-income communities, with a special emphasis on the relationship between industry business practices and the high incidence

Michael A. Stegman; Robert Faris

2003-01-01

243

A Dynamic Approach for Evaluating the Validity of Mortgage Lending Policies in Korean Housing Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent periodical boom and burst of house price have made mortgage lending issues become the main public interest in Korean real estate market. However, because mortgage- lending issues had not been discussed until then, housing market forecasting associated with mortgage lending has been difficult while using an empirical approach. Thus, comprehensive and systematic approach is required as well as validity

Sungjoo Hwang; Hyun-Soo Lee

244

Local versus aggregate lending channels: the effects of securitization on corporate credit supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

While banks may change their credit supply due to bank balance-sheet shocks (the local lending channel), firms can react by adjusting their sources of financing in equilibrium (the aggregate lending channel). We provide a methodology to identify the aggregate (firm-level) effects of the lending channel and estimate the impact of banks’ ability to securitize realestate assets on credit supply for

Gabriel Jiménez; Atif Mian; José-Luis Peydró; Jesús Saurina

2011-01-01

245

JOINT LIABILITY LENDING IN MICROCREDIT MARKETS WITH ADVERSE SELECTION: A SURVEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent literature on joint liability lending in micro-credit markets characterized by adverse selection. This mode of lending consists of granting individual loans to wealthless borrowers provided that they form groups. If a group does not fully repay its obligations, then the microlender cuts off all members from future credit until the debt is repaid. Joint liability lending

Alessandro Fedele

2006-01-01

246

12 CFR 614.4110 - Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank associations and agricultural credit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank associations...POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Bank/Association Lending Relationship § 614.4110 Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank...

2010-01-01

247

12 CFR 614.4110 - Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank associations and agricultural credit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank associations...POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Bank/Association Lending Relationship § 614.4110 Transfer of direct lending authority to Federal land bank...

2009-01-01

248

Recruiting trainees for a global health research workforce: the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars Program selection process.  

PubMed

Between 2004 and 2012, the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars (FICRS) Program provided 1-year mentored research training at low- and middle-income country sites for American and international health science doctoral students. We describe the centralized application process, US applicant characteristics, and predictors of selection/enrollment. FICRS received 1,084 applicants representing many health professions and biomedical disciplines at 132 US academic institutions; 219 students from 72 institutions were accepted and enrolled. Medical/osteopathic students comprised 88.9% of applicants and 85.8% of enrollees. Applicants from institutions with higher applicant numbers were two times as likely to be selected. In 2012, FICRS was decentralized among 20 institutions in five consortia (Global Health Fellows), with autonomous selection processes that emphasize post-doctoral trainees. If academia, government, or charitable foundations offer future opportunities to health professions students for international research, the FICRS experience predicts that they can attract substantial numbers of motivated trainees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:23798584

Heimburger, Douglas C; Warner, Tokesha L; Carothers, Catherine Lem; Blevins, Meridith; Thomas, Yolanda; Gardner, Pierce; Primack, Aron; Vermund, Sten H

2013-06-24

249

Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There will be differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available 'practical'. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

1992-07-01

250

EDITORIAL: Invited papers on numerical relativity, related to the Banff International Research Station programme 16 21 April 2005 and the Newton Institute programme 8 August 23 December 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two meeetings gave rise to this special issue on numerical relativity: the workshop 'Numerical relativity' at the Banff International Research Station on 16 21 April 2005 and the conference 'New directions in numerical relativity' which was held at Southampton University on the 18 and 19 August 2005 as a satellite meeting of the Newton Institute Programme 'Global problems in mathematical

C. Gundlach; L. Lehner

2006-01-01

251

Evaluating Higher Education. Papers from the International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 24 essays addressing higher education evaluation and published in the International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education between 1979 and 1986. They are as follows: "The Evaluation of Higher Education: An Introductory Note" (Maurice Kogan); "Allocation of Public Funds on Instructional Performance/Quality…

Kogan, Maurice, Ed.

252

International Student Adaptation to a U.S. College: A Mixed Methods Exploration of the Impact of a Specialized First-Year Course at a Large Midwestern Institution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study assessed a first-year course for international students, entitled the U.S. Education and Culture, at a large Midwestern public institution. The quantitative results indicated that participation in the course improved students' academic skills, psychosocial development, understanding of social diversity in the U.S., use of…

Kovtun, Olena

2011-01-01

253

India and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics: A Study of Their Collaboration in Agricultural Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on the contribution of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to increasing the agricultural production and research capacity of the semi-arid tropics of India. It differs from the other country st...

I. C. Mahapatra D. R. Bhumbla S. D. Bokil

1986-01-01

254

The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision

Mehrdad M. Nazari; Mehrdad M

2003-01-01

255

Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

Hernes, Gudmund

2004-01-01

256

The effect of government ownership on bank lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper,studies the effects of government,ownership,on bank,lending behavior. Using information on individual loan contracts, I compare the interest rate charged to two sets of companies,with identical characteristics borrowing,respectively from,state- owned,and privately owned,banks. State-owned banks,charge lower interest rates than do privately owned banks to similar or identical firms, even if the company is able to borrow,more from privately owned,banks. State-owned

P. Sapienza

2004-01-01

257

The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: New Tendencies and Changes. Final Report of the Seminar Organized by the International Bureau of Education and Held at the International Institute for Educational Planning (Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 2-3, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was presented and discussed at a seminar on "The Secondary Education Curriculum in Latin America: The View of Specialists" which took place at UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning. It also incorporates information and comments put forward at the seminar by participants from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil.…

Braslavsky, Cecilia

258

Success of the International Year of the Planet Earth through Targeted High-impact Programs at the American Geological Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Geological Institute (AGI) is one of the 12 founding partners of the International Year of the Planet Earth (IYPE) and as such AGI serves on its governing board. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 44 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists. AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice of shared interests in our profession, plays a major role in strengthening geoscience education, and strives to increase public awareness of the vital role the geosciences play in society's use of resources, resilience to natural hazards, and the health of the environment. The outreach and educational opportunities afforded by IYPE provide AGI with an international venue to promote the role of the geosciences in the daily life of society. AGI's successful release of the 4-part television series entitled Faces of Earth done in partnership with the Discovery Communications is a hallmark example of an outreach product that is technically accurate but designed to engage the non-scientific audience in the wonderment of our science. The series focuses on building the planet, shaping the planet, assembling America, and the human world. Custom short cuts have been produced for special purposes and one of these may be used as part of an IYPE-launch event in Europe. AGI's news magazine, Geotimes will highlight appropriate IYPE events to increase the awareness of the American geoscience community. In addition, Geotimes will promote IYPE by using its logo routinely and through publishing advertisements reminding its professional and public readership of the importance of the IYPE triennium. Similarly, as part of AGI's K-12 educational efforts and teacher training and through its development of Earth Science Week materials, the goals, accomplishments, and importance of IYPE will be incorporated into the targeted educational audiences. IYPE activities will be highlighted on the 2007 Earth Science Week web site, and AGI staff is participating as "first bloggers" for the IYPE Earthlearningidea online investigations. A major AGI contribution to IYPE will be an assessment of the geoscience workforce in the United States. This effort will involve analyzing supply and demand statistics for workforce and working with academia to provide material aimed at ensuring both an adequate and high-quality supply of geoscientists for the future. Such an assessment can be used in collaboratively building a global assessment of the geoscience profession.

Leahy, P.

2007-12-01

259

Collaborative International Research: Ethical and Regulatory Issues Pertaining to Human Biological Materials at a South African Institutional Research Ethics Committee.  

PubMed

Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. OBJECTIVE: To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. STUDY DESIGN: Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. RESULTS: Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P < 0.0001). In 148 protocols informed consent (IC) was obtained from research participants, 116 protocols (76.8%) solicited broad consent compared to specific consent (32; 21.2%) [p < 0.0001]. In 105 cases a code was used to maintain confidentiality. HBMs were anonymised in 14 protocols [p < 0.0001]. More protocols informed the REC (90) than the research participants (67) that HBMs would be exported (p = 0.011). Export permits (EPs) and Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) were not available in 109 and 143 protocols, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and the REC did not adequately address the inter-related ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. PMID:23724945

Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

2013-05-31

260

Planning for International Collaboration in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Multi-Institutional Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evidence of the increasing connection between higher education institutions around the globe is well documented, but what is less understood is how this connectivity is enacted or manifested on specific nodes of the global higher education network. The objective of this research is to examine the planning process of a multi-institutional

Witt, Mary Allison

2010-01-01

261

Are commercial bank lending propensities useful in understanding small firm finance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider recent criticism by Berger et al. (J Bank Finance 31:11–33, 2007) of the use of commercial bank lending propensities (e.g., small business loans\\/total assets) as research tools. We use 2SLS\\u000a cross sectional regressions with bank fixed effects to examine the relationship between small business lending and bank size.\\u000a Our results indicate that the propensity to lend to small

James E. McNulty; Marina Murdock; Nivine Richie

262

Lending to Small Businesses by Financial Institutions in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The funding markets for small firms in the United States consist of multitudes of markets of varying sizes, scattered in widely dispersed geographic areas with various numbers of borrowers and fund suppliers in each market. Banking markets for small firms...

C. Ou V. Williams

2009-01-01

263

Effects of Collateral Pledges in Reducing Credit Risks - Confronting Banks in Jordan, as Lending Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research aims at investigating the effects of Collaterals pledges in reducing credit Risks .To achieve research goals data were collected from all commercial banks operating in Jordan. Research concluded that banks in Jordan use collaterals effectively and in a wide range, and collaterals size have a direct impact on credit risk. Credit risk differs with collaterals. This study aims

Ahmad Zakaria Siam

2007-01-01

264

Survey Based Assessment of Financial Institution Use of Credit Scoring for Small Business Lending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whereas the use of credit scoring for consumer loans has been commonplace in banks for quite some time, the use of credit scoring for small business loans is a more recent phenomenon. The study attempts to answer several questions related to the use of cr...

A. M. Cowan C. D. Cowan

2006-01-01

265

The European Institutional Environment and SME Relationship Lending: Should We Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of country specific determinants on multiple banking using a unique survey sample of 4959 SMEs from 19 European countries. Our data shows that (1) SMEs in countries with inefficient loan enforcement mechanisms are more likely to maintain multiple bank relationships, (2) the association between multiple banking and bank fragility is non-monotonous, being negative when the

Gines Hernandez-Canovas; Johanna Koeter-Kant

2006-01-01

266

Frederick National Lab: Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick  

Cancer.gov

The Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is designed to expose high school seniors to research and administrative management in a health care environment. The scientific interns experience the basic methods of biomedical research through “hands-on” laboratory training.

267

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending A Appendix A to...Part 34âInteragency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending The agencies...diversification policy and set limits for real estate loans by type and...

2009-01-01

268

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending A Appendix A to...Part 34âInteragency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending The agencies...diversification policy and set limits for real estate loans by type and...

2010-01-01

269

76 FR 29992 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing...and leasing limits (lending limits) and loan and lease concentration risk mitigation...measure and monitor their exposures to loan and lease (collectively loan)...

2011-05-24

270

Household Credit in the New Europe: Lending Boom or Sustainable Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retail lending grew very fast in the New Europe region in the last years, prompting a debate on whether such a rapid growth can be considered sustainable. This paper investigates the main determinants of retail lending growth throughout the region. It tries to identify episodes of credit boom and analyzes the possible correlation between such booms, consumption booms and a

Fabrizio Coricelli; Fabio Mucci; Debora Revoltella

2006-01-01

271

Collateral and Risk Sharing in group lending: evidence from an urban microcredit program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research on the impact and determinants of group lending is by now substantial. However, very little is known about the possible role of collateral to mitigate incentive problems in group lending. This is because microcredit programs have normally been implemented in rural areas of developing countries. Indeed, the reason for this choice is lack of credit access since agents

Maurice Kugler; Rossella Oppes

2005-01-01

272

The Impact of Lending, Borrowing, and Anti-Smoking Policies on Cigarette Consumption by Teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major factor contributing to smoking initiation and experimentation by teenagers is the ability to 'bum' cigarettes. Yet research until now has ignored the impact of a lending\\/borrowing market on the smoking decisions of teenagers. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model where smoking decisions are determined by an individual's utility maximization process that includes an incentive to lend

Brett Katzman; Sara Markowitz; Kerry Anne McGeary

2002-01-01

273

Impact of World Bank lending in an adjustment-led growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a financial- and growth-programming framework, this paper develops a policy-driven growth model and addresses the effects of World Bank lending on economic growth in a sample of 30 countries, after having controlled for the effects of key macroeconomic variables. Both static and dynamic panel estimates suggest a positive significant effect of the rate of growth in World Bank lending

Sushanta Mallick; Tomoe Moore

2005-01-01

274

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27...TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR...

2013-01-01

275

12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27...TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to...Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet eR20MY94.003 [59 FR...

2010-01-01

276

Corporate Governance, Relationship Lending and Monetary Policy: Firm-Level Evidence for the Euro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show by means of a bank relationship model that after monetary policy tightening, public firms (having easier access to public capital markets) are more likely to decrease their demand for bank loans than private firms (which are typically more dependent on bank credit and benefit more from relationship lending). This `relationship lending' hypothesis is opposite to the `credit view'

L. de Haan; E. Sterken

2002-01-01

277

International.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)|

Hoover, Linn

1979-01-01

278

THE ROLE OF US INSTITUTIONS IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL LINKAGES FOR ANIMAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING IN LATIN AMERICA l  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary US Institutions and scientists have an important role to play in increasing world food production. At no time in history has such a tremendous concentration of scientific capability been so underutilized to remove the barriers that limit world food production that is so important to feed the millions of people who live in abject poverty and are plagued by

Jerome H. Maner

279

Analysis of Institutional Sustainability Issues in USAID (United States Agency for International Development) 1985-86 Project Evaluation Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some 212 A.I.D. evaluation reports for FY85 and FY86, 50 of them analyzed in-depth, provided the basis for the study of the sustainability of the institutional components of A.I.D. projects. The study showed that only 11% of the projects received highly p...

J. Kean A. Turner D. H. Wood J. M. Wood

1987-01-01

280

Beyond the Classroom: International Education and the Community College. Volume III: Creating Institutional Links in Asia and the Pacific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a four-volume set in which community college educators discuss their efforts to internationalize the educational experience of the students and communities they serve, volume III in this series addresses the development of programmatic links among five two-year colleges and institutions in Japan, Taiwan, the People's Republic of China,…

Franco, Robert W., Ed.; Shimabukuro, James N., Ed.

281

Academic and Social Integration of International and Local Students at Five Business Schools, a Cross-Institutional Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An increasing number of students choose to study at a university in a foreign country. A common belief among educators is\\u000a that international students are insufficiently academically adjusted. Recent research has found a mixed picture on whether\\u000a international students underperform in academic integration and academic performance. Therefore, Morrison et al. (2005) argue\\u000a that research should extend its focus to understanding

Bart Rienties; Therese Grohnert; Piet Kommers; Susan Niemantsverdriet; Jan Nijhuis

282

Reflections on the Function and Facilities for IMF Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the International Monetary Fund provides financial support to mem- ber countries from its general resources, the IMF is what it is supposed to be—the primary official international lender of final resort to countries fac- ing actual or potential difficulties in meeting their international payments obligations. To a strictly limited extent, the IMF also functions as a pro- vider of

MICHAEL MUSSA

283

[International collaboration of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine: assistance for public health in the Republic of Guinea].  

PubMed

Within the framework of international collaboration, the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IMPTM), I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, assisted the Public Health System of the Republic of Guinea in detecting, diagnosing, studying, and preventing tropical infections of viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies, and in training national scientific manpower. The work was under way in the Soviet-Guinea Research Microbiology and Virology Laboratory, USSR Ministry of Health, in the Republic of Guinea (now the Pasteur Institute in Guinea (PIG)) in 1978-1991. The circulation of pathogens of a number of tropical infections, the fauna of vectors and carriers of transmissible infections, and their involvement of the circulation of pathogens of these diseases were found in this period. Consultative-and-methodological and medical assistance was given; national higher- and middle-level brainpower trained. It is expedient to restore scientific ties between the IMPTM and the PIG. PMID:22536739

Konstantinov, O K

284

Controversy and conversation continue about the transparency of microcredit lending organizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microfinance programs harness Web to connect borrowers and lendershttp://www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_13726179?nclick_check=1Kiva is Not Quite What It Seemshttp://blogs.cgdev.org/open_book/2009/10/kiva-is-not-quite-what-it-seems.phpInnocuous Changes vs. Grand Designshttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/dennis-whittle/innocuous-changes-vs-gran_b_350588.htmlMicrofinance Gateway [pdf]http://www.microfinancegateway.org/p/site/m/Kivahttp://www.kiva.org/Since Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 2006 for their work on microcredit lending, a number of institutions working on similar issues have received a great deal of attention and press coverage. One such organization is Kiva, which was founded in 2005 by Matt and Jessica Flannery. Kiva prides itself on serving as a link "between small individual lenders and small individual borrowers", and on their website visitors can select the person they would like to support. Recently, this personal connection came under question by David Roodman, a research fellow at the Center for Global Development. In a lengthy blog post, Roodman questioned the direct one-to-one relationship between the lender and the borrower, while remaining largely positive about Kiva's mission. Some commentators have continued to raise the question of transparency, and in the wake of the news, Kiva amended a statement on their website to state simply "Kiva connects people through lending to alleviate poverty." This controversy has not been bad for Kiva, and the president of Kiva, Premal Shah, commented this week "If anything, it has drawn more people into the nuance and beauty of this model of microfinance. It's highly imperfect, but it's like a 3 � year-old child: it has a lot of potential."The first link will take users to an article from this Monday's New York Times which talks about this recent controversy surrounding Kiva. The second link leads to an article from the Mercury News that provides additional background on the nature of microfinance programs and their mission. Moving on, the third link leads visitors to David Roodman's original blog post about Kiva. The fourth link will whisk users away to a post on creating a "real marketplace for development" by Dennis Whittle, the CEO of Global Giving. The fifth link leads to the Microfinance Gateway homepage. Here visitors can learn about how microfinance works in different countries around the world, read papers from their online library, and peruse announcements from the microfinance industry. The last link leads to the homepage of Kiva, and it's well worth looking at some of the profiles and success stories featured here.

Grinnell, Max

2009-11-13

285

Military Personnel: DOD's Predatory Lending Report Addressed Mandated Issues, but Support Is Limited for Some Findings and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

You requested that we review DOD's 2006 report on predatory lending practices. Specifically, we evaluated DOD's approach and support in preparing its mandated report on predatory lending practices. This report documents findings that we briefed to your of...

B. S. Farrell

2007-01-01

286

Institutional Identity and School-Community Matters: "Encapsulated" and "Inclusive" Lessons for Engagement from Two International Schools in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An engaging education attends to how students perceive and experience schooling. This article uses data, collected as part of a mixed-methods PhD study of the conditions that make international schools engaging places for students, to explore the school culture and community contexts that impact student engagement. The twin notions of…

Jabal, Eric

2013-01-01

287

Effects of Group Work on English Communicative Competence of Chinese International Graduates in United States Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated 14 Chinese international graduate students' lived experiences with group work and the effects of group work on their English communicative competence. The interview results showed that these participants' attitudes towards group work went through changes from initial inadaptation or dislike to later adaptation…

Xue, Mo

2013-01-01

288

DATARIs: Database on Research Institutes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), in cooperation with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), maintain DATARIs, a collection of databases providing information from and about research institutes specializing in international relations and security. DATARIs includes directory databases on research institutes and documentation centers, bibliographic databases on research institute projects and publications, and a database providing information about databases maintained by associated research institutes. Each searchable database offers an easy-to-use search form interface, facilitating queries for users.

1998-01-01

289

26 CFR 1.6050P-2 - Organization a significant trade or business of which is the lending of money.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...trade or business of which is the lending of money. 1.6050P-2 Section 1.6050P-2...trade or business of which is the lending of money. (a) In general. For purposes...6050P(c)(2)(D), the lending of money is a significant trade or business...

2013-04-01

290

The Global Credit Crunch and Foreign Banks' Lending to Emerging Markets: Why Did Latin America Fare Better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent global financial turmoil raised questions about the stability of foreign banks' financing to emerging market countries. While foreign banks' lending growth to most emerging market regions contracted sharply, lending to Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was significantly more resilient. Analyzing detailed BIS data on global banks' lending to LAC countries-whether extended directly by their headquarters abroad or

Herman Kamil; Kulwant Rai

2010-01-01

291

International analysis of institutional review boards registered with the u.s. Office for human research protections.  

PubMed

INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS form the backbone of the human subject protection system. Yet little is known about the characteristics of these committees. This study compiles and analyzes the data on 1,326 IRBs in 113 countries registered with the Office for Human Research Protections. The study analyzes data on the following IRB characteristics: institutional affiliation, number of full-time administrative positions, approximate total number of protocols, and number of currently active protocols supported by DHHS or regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The analysis found that the most common IRB profile is to be affiliated with a clinical organization (41.9% of IRBs) and to have one full-time staff member (40.0%). Regarding protocol volume, the most common IRB profile was to have 26-99 currently active protocols (42.0% of IRBs), to have 1-25 DHHS protocols (46.6%), and 1-25 FDA-regulated protocols (45.6%). Further analyses reveal considerable differences among countries. This study can provide a baseline for future IRB evaluations. PMID:19385756

Bartlett, Edward E

2008-12-01

292

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International

Bennett M. Brooks

2005-01-01

293

Policy convergence and policy diffusion by governmental and non-governmental institutions: an international comparison of eco-labeling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with eco-labeling systems that have spread faster than other types of new policy instruments. The paper focuses on the diffusion of two different types of eco-labels: (1) general eco-labeling systems such as the German Blue Angel (Blauer Engel), and (2) the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification program. We start with three different explanations for policy convergence: international

Kristine Kern; Ingrid Kissling-Näf; Ute Landmann; Corine Mauch; Tina Löffelsend

2001-01-01

294

Ethical issues in umbilical cord blood banking: a comparative analysis of documents from national and international institutions.  

PubMed

The issues of collection, storage, and use of cord blood (CB) stem cells have been addressed extensively in national and international guidelines, policies, and regulations. Many of these documents are not binding, but are nonetheless accorded considerable respect on account of the authority of the issuing organizations. Most discussion has to date focused on two topics: informed consent for collection, banking, and use and the debate between those who favor public storage for altruistic purposes and those who advocate private storage for autologous use. There is generally agreement or consensus in the guidelines that public storage for allogeneic transplants is preferable and that private storage should be discouraged. Given the consensus in national and international guidance on these two issues, it is time for other ethical issues to be examined in greater detail. These include additional uses of CB samples, for example, for research or for the production of blood-derived drugs, and the economic implications arising from the extensive international network for the exchange of CB for transplantation. PMID:22845856

Petrini, Carlo

2012-07-31

295

Investing in Human Capital. Leadership for the Challenges of the 21st Century. Edited Proceedings of the Institute of International Education Forum (75th, New York, New York, October 27, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These proceedings highlight the Institute for International Education's forum on the implications of the emergence of a global economy and the worldwide communications revolutions for international education and training. Over 200 individuals from the corporate, foundation, government, academic, and diplomatic communities participated in the…

Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

296

12 CFR 160.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...304 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, 12 U.S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by Federal savings associations and all their includable subsidiaries, as defined in 12...

2013-01-01

297

78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lending Act (Regulation Z); Prohibition...Financing Credit Insurance Premiums...concern that the regulation text and preamble...certain credit insurance products can...requirements of the regulation. Creditors and the credit insurance industry...

2013-05-10

298

12 CFR 614.4150 - Lending policies and loan underwriting standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lending policies and loan underwriting standards. 614.4150...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS General Loan Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4150...

2013-01-01

299

People-to-People Lending: The Emerging E-Commerce Transformation of a Financial Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the concept of people-to-people (P2P) lending, a relatively new e-commerce phenomenon that has the potential to radically change the structure of the loan segment of the financial industry. P2P lending creates a marketplace of individuals and a social fabric through which these individuals interact. It provides efficient information transfer, thus perhaps creating more perfect markets. P2P lending requires information systems support to make it function, and to provide a social network mechanism that may be crucial for its success. We discuss different P2P lending marketplace models, and how information systems support the creation and management of these new marketplaces, and how they support the individuals involved. We conclude by providing some important research questions and directions, and issues for which further investigation is called.

Wang, Hui; Greiner, Martina; Aronson, Jay E.

300

Lending for Community Economic Development: A Guide for Small Town and Rural Lenders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Banks and other lenders in small towns can be vital development engines in their communities once they understand the unique roles they can play. The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) has focused attention on lending activities to lower-income individuals,...

A. W. Hogwood A. Shabecoff

1992-01-01

301

Does Relationship Lending Still Matter in the Consumer Banking Sector? Evidence from the Automobile Loan Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of relationship lending in the automobile loan market at a community development credit union (CDCU) and at a traditional community bank. Copyright (c) 2007 Southwestern Social Science Association.

Jessica Holmes; Jonathan Isham; Ryan Petersen; Paul M. Sommers

2007-01-01

302

Small Business Lending in the United States, 2009-2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small businesses are important to the national and local economy, but their existence depends on their ability to access credit. Institutional depository lenders play a major role as suppliers of cre-dit to small firms in the United States and have a key ...

G. Haynes V. Williams

2011-01-01

303

Recent Advances in Lending to the Poor with Asymmetric Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance institutions have successfully extended unsecured small loans to poor and opaque borrowers at the bottom of the economic pyramid. This success is largely due to innovative financial contracts that impose joint liability and create dynamic incentives to mitigate the effects of asymmetric information. Given recent advances in microfinance contracts, there is a need to map the theoretical developments. This

Emilios Galariotis; Christophe Villa; Nurmukhammad Yusupov

2011-01-01

304

Proceedings from the National Cancer Institute's Second International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Introduction.  

PubMed

Despite advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, relapse remains the leading cause of death after transplant. Biologic and clinical investigations are needed to combat this primary cause of death after transplantation. The National Cancer Institute held international workshops in 2009 and 2012 to help address this problem. Three major initiatives for coordinated research were proposed: 1) To establish multicenter networks for basic, translational, epidemiologic and clinical research; 2) To establish a network of biorepositories for the collection of samples before and after HSCT to aid in laboratory and clinical studies; and 3) To refine, implement and study proposed definitions for disease-specific response and relapse and for monitoring of minimal residual disease. The workshop in 2012 also featured nine presentations, summaries of which follow in three manuscripts. PMID:24035783

Wayne, Alan S; Giralt, Sergio; Kröger, Nicolaus; Bishop, Michael R

2013-09-10

305

"Internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures using the Polarus intramedullary nail: our institutional experience and review of the literature"  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome, union and complication rates after surgical treatment of unstable or displaced proximal humeral fractures using the Polarus intramedullary nail, by reviewing our institutional experience and the relevant current literature. Methods Twenty-seven patients were treated operatively for proximal humeral fracture using the Polarus nail. Fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. A number of parameters including patient demographics, mechanism of injury, operative time, time to union and complications were recorded. Functional outcome was evaluated using the Constant Shoulder Score. A comparison among functional outcomes in patients >60?years in relation to the younger ones was performed. Moreover, a review of the literature was carried out to evaluate the overall union and complication rates. Results Two patients lost to follow-up were excluded from the analysis. For the twenty-five patients (mean age: 61?years), the mean follow-up was 36?months. There were 7 complications (28%), including one fixation failure, four protruded screws, one superficial infection and one case of impingement. The union rate was 96% (mean time to union: 4.2?months). The mean Constant score was 74.5 (range: 48–89). Patients under the age of 60 had a better functional outcome compared to patients >60?years of age (p<0.05). From the literature review and from a total of 215 patients treated with a Polarus nail, the mean union rate was 95.8%, the overall reported complication rate, including both minor and major complications, ranged widely from 9.3% up to 70%. Conclusions The Polarus nail was found to be an effective implant for stabilisation of proximal humeral fractures. Functional outcome is for the vast majority of the cases excellent or good, but in elderly patients a lower Constant score can be expected.

2012-01-01

306

Multiple overlapping stents as monotherapy in the treatment of 'blister' pseudoaneurysms arising from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery: a single institution series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The 'blister-type' aneurysm is one of the most devastating cerebrovascular lesions. Flow diversion with stent reconstruction is an emerging treatment and has shown promising initial results. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience of one institution using stent reconstruction for pseudoaneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and to compare with a review of the literature. METHODS: A retrospective review from one institution identified eight patients with 'blister' aneurysms over a 47-month period. The Raymond scale was used to classify the aneurysms. Clinical data were obtained using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. A literature review was performed and compared with our results. Clinical and angiographic data were obtained. RESULTS: After treatment, two aneurysms were Raymond class 1 (25%) and six were class 3 (75%). Of the class 3 aneurysms, two required retreatment, three (50%) progressed to complete occlusion and three (50%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Clinical data revealed two patients with mRS score of 0 (25%), five with mRS score of 1 (62.5%) and one with mRS score of 2 (12.5%). From the literature review, residual filling was evident in nine patients (64.3%) and complete occlusion in four (28.6%). On follow-up angiography, nine (64.3%) were occluded, two (14.3%) had residual neck filling and one (7.1%) had persistent aneurysm filling. Thirteen patients (92.9%) had an mRS score of 2 or better. Combining the available experience, patients demonstrated either improvement (n=9, 41%) or stability (n=11, 50%). Only two (9%) had progression requiring retreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular stent remodeling of 'blister-type' aneurysms is a safe and effective strategy. PMID:23543733

Walsh, Kevin M; Moskowitz, Shaye I; Hui, Ferdinand K; Spiotta, Alejandro M

2013-03-30

307

Infants' responsiveness, attachment, and indiscriminate friendliness after international adoption from institutions or foster care in China: application of Emotional Availability Scales to adoptive families.  

PubMed

In a short-term longitudinal design we investigated maternal sensitivity, child responsiveness, attachment, and indiscriminate friendliness in families with children internationally adopted from institutions or foster care in China. Ninety-two families with 50 postinstitutionalized and 42 formerly fostered girls, aged 11-16 months on arrival, were studied 2 and 6 months after adoption. Maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness were observed with the Emotional Availability Scales, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure, and mothers reported on children's indiscriminate friendliness. The postinstitutionalized children showed less secure attachment, whereas the former foster children did not differ from the normative distribution of attachment security. However, at both assessments the two groups of adopted children showed more disorganized attachments compared to normative data. Adoptive mothers of postinstitutionalized and former foster children were equally sensitive and their sensitivity did not change over time. Postinstitutionalized and former foster children did not differ on indiscriminate friendliness, but children with more sensitive adoptive mothers showed less indiscriminate friendliness. The former foster children showed a larger increase in responsiveness over time than the postinstitutionalized children, suggesting that children's responsiveness is more sensitive to change than attachment, and that preadoption foster care is more beneficial for the development of children's responsiveness after adoptive placement than preadoption institutional care. PMID:22292993

Van Den Dries, Linda; Juffer, Femmie; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A

2012-02-01

308

The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention.

Nazari, Mehrdad M

2003-07-01

309

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

Brooks, Bennett M.

2005-09-01

310

Lending activities of black-owned commercial banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of economic growth lead us to expect that an economy (or a ghetto subeconomy) will experience a rising debt\\/income ratio as its financial growth proceeds. The rising debt\\/income ratio is the natural outgrowth of two other financial trends: (1) increasing use of external rather than internal finance; and (2) the tendency for such finance to be increasingly indirect, moving

Timothy Bates

1976-01-01

311

Strategic Aspects of International Lending and Borrowing: A Two-Country Dynamic Game Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is consideration of strategic aspects of national saving policies in a game theory setting. In pure exchange economy involving two countries, each government chooses a future time path of the national consumption-wealth ratio in order to maximize its citizens' utility. When private time preference rates of two countries are different, the government of the country with the lower

Kyoji Fukao

1990-01-01

312

International Financing for Developing Countries: The Unfulfilled Promise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International financing for developing countries has failed to fulfill its potential not only because bankers were lending too much or countries borrowing too much, but also because of the structure of the financial arrangements - overwhelmingly general o...

D. R. Lessard

1986-01-01

313

Research guidelines for chronic prostatitis: consensus report from the First National Institutes of Health International Prostatitis Collaborative Network 1 1 A complete list of the contributing participants of the first meeting of the International Prostatitis Collaborative Network is given in the Appendix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized the first International Prostatitis Collaborative Network workshop (November 5 and 6, 1998, Washington, DC) to address the confusion surrounding the diagnostic and treatment strategies in chronic prostatitis.Methods. A panel of North American and international urologic researchers, interested physicians, medical industry representatives, and patients were invited to participate and reviewed current definitions, classification

J. Curtis Nickel; Leroy M Nyberg; Mike Hennenfent

1999-01-01

314

International Institute of Tropical Forestry  

Treesearch

Losses of native fauna above dams dramatically altered their basal food resources ... nine times more algal biomass, 20 times more fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), ... differences in basal resources between pools above large dams vs. without ... Decapoda; fishes; freshwater shrimps; migratory fauna; natural experiment; ...

315

International Institute of Tropical Forestry  

Treesearch

Description: Identifying the determinants of habitat quality for a species is essential ... were directly proportional to body mass change as the dry season progressed. ... having a delayed rate of fat deposition compared with those in wet habitats.

316

Reports by the Members of the Institution of Defectology of the APS USSR/Moscow/to the First Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 14 reports given by members of the Institute of Defectology in Moscow to the First Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency held in Montpellier, France, in 1967. The papers have the following titles: "The Soviet Education Scheme for Mentally Retarded Children", "Main Trends in Studying…

Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

317

Drama and Theatre in Education: The Research of Practice, the Practice of Research. Papers Originally Presented at the International Drama in Education Research Institute (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, July 3-8, 1997).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers represents the thinking of distinguished research practitioners of drama and theatre education, who presented keynotes and master classes at the second International Drama in Education Research Institute, held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, in 1997. They provide a diversity of approaches to classroom drama and to…

Saxton, Juliana, Ed.; Miller, Carole, Ed.

318

Diagnostic Standards for Dopaminergic Augmentation of Restless Legs Syndrome: Report from a World Association of Sleep Medicine – International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Consensus Conference at the Max Planck Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAugmentation of symptom severity is the main complication of dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The current article reports on the considerations of augmentation that were made during a European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (EURLSSG)-sponsored Consensus Conference in April 2006 at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) in Munich, Germany, the conclusions of which were endorsed by the International

Diego García-Borreguero; Richard P. Allen; Ralf Kohnen; Birgit Högl; Claudia Trenkwalder; Wolfgang Oertel; Wayne A. Hening; Walter Paulus; David Rye; Arthur Walters; Juliane Winkelmann

2007-01-01

319

The Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (11th, Aspen, Colorado, August 1-4, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is an interpretive synthesis of the discussion at a conference sponsored by the Aspen Institute that sought to develop new ways to understand how the Internet is changing the powers of the nation-state, the conduct of international relations, and the definitions of nation security. This report examines how the Internet and other…

Bollier, David

320

Race, Gender, and Familial Status: Discrimination in One US Mortgage Lending Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, using data from the 1992 Boston Federal Reserve study of mortgage lending, reports preliminary evidence of patterns of gender and familial status discrimination that differ markedly by race in the US. White couples with children experienced familial status discrimination if the female partner was in the labor market, but not if she was at home raising her children.

Judith K. Robinson

2002-01-01

321

The Relation between Borrower Risk and Loan Maturity in Small Business Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically test a set of hypotheses on the relation between borrower risk and loan maturity in small business lending. Analyzing data on new loan approvals and renewals made by a German bank in 2005, we find a robust, significantly positive and monotonic risk- maturity relation. This relation is more pronounced in case of loans to commercially active individuals (relative

KAROLIN KIRSCHENMANN; LARS NORDEN

322

Congress Protected the Troops: Can the New CFPB Protect Civilians from Payday Lending?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, Congress enacted a law, commonly referred to as the Military Lending Act (MLA), which placed a 36% interest rate cap on several consumer loans, including payday loans, and prohibits lenders from engaging in several practices considered predatory. However, the MLA grants these protections only to active-duty military members and their dependent family members. In the wake of the

Creola Johnson

2012-01-01

323

The impact of supply constraints on bank lending in the euro area - crisis induced crunching?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregate loan development typically hinges on a combination of factors that impact simultaneously on the demand and the supply side of bank lending. The financial turmoil starting in mid-2007 had detrimental consequences for banks’ balance-sheets, cost of funds and profitability, thus weighing negatively on their ability to supply new loans. This paper examines the impact of supply constraints on bank

Hannah Sabine Hempell; Christoffer Kok Sørensen

2010-01-01

324

12 CFR 128.9 - Guidelines relating to nondiscrimination in lending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discrimination in lending on the basis of sex. The Equal Credit Opportunity...requirements on, members of one sex or individuals of one marital...is discrimination based on sex or marital status. Loan underwriting...apply jointly for a loan, the determination as to whether a...

2013-01-01

325

12 CFR 528.9 - Guidelines relating to nondiscrimination in lending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discrimination in lending on the basis of sex. The Equal Credit Opportunity...requirements on, members of one sex or individuals of one marital...is discrimination based on sex or marital status. Loan underwriting...apply jointly for a loan, the determination as to whether a...

2013-01-01

326

12 CFR 390.150 - Guidelines relating to nondiscrimination in lending.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discrimination in lending on the basis of sex. The Equal Credit Opportunity...requirements on, members of one sex or individuals of one marital...is discrimination based on sex or marital status. Loan underwriting...apply jointly for a loan, the determination as to whether a...

2013-01-01

327

Bank lending channel of monetary policy transmission: India and the global financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of bank lending channel of monetary policy in India during the global financial crisis, especially following the collapse of Lehman Brothers in late 2008. Contrary to popular perceptions, and in contrast to the USA, this paper shows that following the Reserve Bank of India's aggressive monetary easing measures, bank credit growth in India maintained robust

M. Shahidul Islam; Ramkishen S. Rajan

2011-01-01

328

The Bank Lending Channel in the Netherlands: The Impact of Monetary Policy on Households and Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence of the existence of a bank lending channel in the Netherlands by analyzing the responses of different borrower groups to a contraction of monetary policy. It is found that corporate loans are depressed only after a lapse of over a year, whereas household loans decrease almost instantly due to an interest rate rise. However, since

Harry Garretsen; Job Swank

2003-01-01

329

Exploring the Neighborhood Contingency of Race Discrimination in Mortgage Lending in Columbus, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination in mortgage lending on the basis of race and the racial composition of neighborhoods has emerged as a hotly debated issue over the last several years. Part of the problem with the existing debate, however, is that the geographically contingent nature of discrimination has not been recognized. This paper argues that discrimination motivated by prejudice is contingent on the

Stephen R. Holloway

1998-01-01

330

The Risk Alleviating Role of Interbank Market Lending in Central and Eastern European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banking sectors in several Central and Eastern European countries are characterized by a two-tier structure, in which a few large banks dominate the deposit market but are very inactive in the loan market with private borrowers, while many small banks engage in lending but have only small shares of the deposit market. The large banks act as net lenders

Juergen von Hagen; Valeriya Dinger

2004-01-01

331

75 FR 50936 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing...measure and monitor their exposures to loan and lease concentration risks. This proposed...measure, limit and monitor exposures to loan and lease concentration risks,...

2010-08-18

332

Bank consolidation and small business lending: It's not just bank size that matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that acquirers tend to recast the target in their own image, causing the small business loan portfolio share of the consolidated bank to converge toward the pre-merger portfolio share of the acquirer. However, concerns that this pattern will necessarily reduce bank small business lending may be overblown. First, most mergers are of two (or more) small banks. Second,

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren

1998-01-01

333

IMF concern for reputation and conditional lending failure: theory and empirics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IMF is entrusted with the twofold task of enforcing conditionality and deciding whether or not to continue financial assistance. In this paper we examine the implications on IMF lending behaviour of the existence of uncertainty about its ability to monitor governments’ actions and to enforce conditionality. It is shown that the existence of an even small degree of uncertainty

Silvia Marchesi; Laura Sabani

2005-01-01

334

Relationship Lending within a Bank-based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds to the relationship lending debate by investigating detailed contract information obtained from examining nearly eighteen thousand bank loans. The beneficiaries all were very small firms that operate within the continental European bank-based system. That is, with data gathered for Belgium, we investigate price and non-price terms of the loan contract. We test for the possibility of intertemporal

Hans Degryse; Partick Van cayseele

1998-01-01

335

DEBT FORGIVENESS AND STOCK PRICE REACTION OF LENDING BANKS: THEORY AND EVIDENCE FROM JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a simple model for analyzing how debt forgiveness affects the stock price of a lending bank. Our model shows that although debt forgiveness increases shareholder wealth of a bank in healthy financial condition, it decreases shareholder wealth of a bank in unhealthy financial condition. We empirically investigate the announcement effect of debt forgiveness on bank stock prices in

Nobuyuki Isagawa; Satoru Yamaguchi; Tadayasu Yamashita

2010-01-01

336

A Project to Support a Utilization Program for the Parent/Child Toy Lending Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to stimulate the fullest and most rapid possible utilization of the Parent/Child Toy Lending Library. The Library is an eight-week course for parents of pre-school children. Parents learn how to teach concepts such as color match...

1973-01-01

337

A History of Toy Lending Libraries in the United States Since 1935.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper traces the history of the toy library, a facility or program created to loan toys to children, parents, child care providers, teachers, and play therapists. Types of toy lending libraries are the community toy library, the supplemental toy library, the cooperative neighborhood toy library, and the mobile toy library. The first toy…

Moore, Julia E.

338

Moral Duties in Business and Their Societal Impacts: The Case of the Subprime Lending Mess  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTA worldwide recession of unusual breadth and depth is causing harm to many individuals and businesses. While the causes are complex, the recession got its start with failures in the subprime mortgage market. The process of creating such loans is complex and often includes securitization after loans are approved. The reasons for the subprime lending mess can be at least

JOSEPH GILBERT

339

Moral Duties in Business and Their Societal Impacts: The Case of the Subprime Lending Mess  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide recession of unusual breadth and depth is causing harm to many individuals and businesses. While the causes are complex, the recession got its start with failures in the subprime mortgage market. The process of creating such loans is complex and often includes securitization after loans are approved. The reasons for the subprime lending mess can be at least

JOSEPH GILBERT

2011-01-01

340

The relationship between default prediction and lending profits: Integrating ROC analysis and loan pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluating credit risk models, it is common to use metrics such as power curves and their associated statistics. However, power curves are not necessarily easily linked intuitively to common lending practices. Bankers often request a specific rule for defining a cut-off above which credit will be granted and below which it will be denied. In this paper we provide

Roger M. Stein

2005-01-01

341

Small business lending by commercial banks in Colorado : 1994 to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of Colorado's banking industry has recently undergone significant change and, therefore, provides a good case study with which to gauge the impact of consolidation on sources of loans and access to credit for small business. We find that between 1994 and 1996, lending to small businesses in Colorado by small to medium size banking organizations grew much faster

Richard J. Sullivan; Richard D. Johnson; Ronnie J. Phillips; Kenneth R. Spong

1998-01-01

342

Lending Relationships and Information Rents: Do Banks Exploit Their Information Advantages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of lending to a firm, a bank acquires proprietary firm-specific information that is unavailable to nonlenders. This asymmetric evolution of information between lenders and prospective lenders grants the former an information monopoly. This article empirically investigates whether relationship banks exploit this advantage by charging higher interest rates than those that would prevail were all banks symmetrically informed.

Carola Schenone

2010-01-01

343

So What Do I Get? The Bank s View of Lending Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of empirical studies have documented benefits of lending relationships to borrowers (lower loan rates, better credit availability, etc.), not much is known about benefits of such relationships for lenders. For a relationship lender, its comparative advantage in information gathering\\/processing yields two potential benefits. First, a relationship lender would have a higher probability of selling future information-sensitive products

Sreedhar Bharath; Sandeep Dahiya; Anthony Saunders; Anand Srinivasan

2004-01-01

344

The study on the relationship among banking relationship, lending contract and bank operational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to discuss the relationship between bank lending screening signal and bank operational performance. The study finds that the information asymmetry phenomenon has significant influence to the health running of financial market based on the review of relevant existing literatures; while most studies emphasize on the discussion upon the influence of banking relationship to the operational performance of

Chang Hsiu-chen; Huang Gow-liang; Yu Chang-hsi

2008-01-01

345

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

346

12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

347

12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lending. ⢠Establish a loan portfolio diversification policy and...management monitor the loan portfolio and provide timely and adequate...studies and sensitivity and risk analyses (e.g., sensitivity...procedures for its real estate portfolio that address: â¢...

2013-01-01

348

Do bank lending relationships always enhance financial distress resolution? The case of Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the financial distress resolution benefit of bank lending relationships in a system where because of the lack of access to public debt and equity markets, banks do not face competition as providers of capital. For a sample of German firms, this article finds that companies in financial distress are more likely to be liquidated if they have

Andreas Rauterkus

2009-01-01

349

Annual Report on the Latin America Small Business Lending Initiative (1st).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the first year of implementation of the Latin America Small Business Lending Initiative (the Initiative), launched by U.S. Treasury Secretary Paulson in June 2007 to expand and improve the access of small businesses in Latin America...

2008-01-01

350

Is relationship lending special? Evidence from credit-file data in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German financial market is often characterized as a bank-based system with strong bank–customer relationships. The corresponding notion of a housebank is closely related to the theoretical idea of relationship lending. It is the objective of this paper to provide a direct comparison between housebanks and “normal” banks as to their credit policy. Therefore, we analyze a new data set,

Ralf Elsas; Jan Pieter Krahnen

1998-01-01

351

Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate relationship lending using detailed contract information from nearly 18,000 bank loans to small Belgian firms operating within the continental European bank-based system. Specifically, we investigate the impact of different measures of relationship strength on price and nonprice terms of the loan contract. We test for the possibility of rent shifting by banks. The evidence shows two opposing effects.

Hans Degryse; Patrick Van Cayseele

2000-01-01

352

HOW NEW LENDING METHODOLOGIES MAY INFLUENCE WHO WE REACH AND THE IMPACT THAT WE HAVE ON THE POOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on microfinance has largely attributed the industry's success to joint liability and peer monitoring, which are direct results of the group lending methodology. As individual lending has become more common in microfinance, especially in Latin America 1 , we need to revisit the reasons for these successes. This paper uses a dynamic model with endogenously determined repayment incentives

Gwendolyn Alexander

353

17 CFR 240.13k-1 - Foreign bank exemption from the insider lending prohibition under section 13(k).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Foreign bank exemption from the insider lending prohibition under section 13(k). 240.13k-1...13d-G § 240.13k-1 Foreign bank exemption from the insider lending prohibition under section 13(k). (a) For...

2009-04-01

354

Does Relationship Lending Still Matter in the Consumer Banking Sector? Evidence from Two Financial Service Organizations in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use actual loan applications submitted to a community development credit union (CDCU) and a traditional community bank to examine the role of relationship lending in the automobile loan market. We first show that the community bank relies upon credit scoring, not relationship lending; low-income households with poor credit histories are very unlikely to receive car loans from this traditional

Jessica Holmes; Jonathan Isham; Ryan Petersen; Paul Sommers

2005-01-01

355

Congressional Politics of Financing the International Monetary Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the question of how international public goods are financed by analyzing voting in the U.S. Congress on legislation to increase the U.S. contribution to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). We argue that legislators are more likely to vote in favor of an increase (1) the more campaign contributions they obtain from banks that specialize in international lending, and

J. Lawrence Broz; Michael Brewster Hawes

2006-01-01

356

Small Business Administration Agricultural and Agriculture-Related Lending and Its Relationship to the Farm Loan Programs of USDA's Farm Service Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the agricultural and agriculture-related lending authority and activities of the SBA and makes comparisons with the activities of USDA's FSA. Although the SBA has a long record of agricultural production and agricultural services lend...

G. B. Wallace J. M. Stam S. R. Koenig

1997-01-01

357

International Law Students Association (ILSA) International Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the making of a new order in seventeenth-century European international society by taking international institutions and their development in the 'longue durée ' as markers of historical change. It assesses the impact of the peace process of Westphalia on both core and procedural international institutions. The argument is that several developments in the seventeenth century, including the

Belo Horizonte

358

Testing polar spots of water-rich permafrost on the Moon: LEND observations onboard LRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for the LEND instrument onboard LRO for the detection of local spots of suppression and excess of epithermal neutron emission at the lunar poles. Twelve local Neutron Suppression Regions (NSRs) and Neutron Excess Regions (NERs) are detected. It is shown using the data from the LOLA and Diviner instruments that six NSRs have the empirical property “less local irradiation and lower temperature - fewer local neutrons.” These NSRs may be identified with spots of water-ice rich permafrost on the Moon. It is shown that detected NSRs are include in both permanently shadowed and illuminated areas, and they are not coincident with Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) at the bottom of polar craters, as has been commonly expected before LEND presented neutron data with high spatial resolution.

Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Sanin, A.; Malakhov, A.; Golovin, D.; Boynton, W.; Droege, G.; Chin, G.; Evans, L.; Harshman, K.; Fedosov, F.; Garvin, J.; Kozyrev, A.; McClanahan, T.; Milikh, G.; Mokrousov, M.; Starr, R.; Sagdeev, R.; Shevchenko, V.; Shvetsov, V.; Tret'yakov, V.; Trombka, J.; Varenikov, A.; Vostrukhin, A.

2012-07-01

359

The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms and conditions on which bank loans are made to non-financial firms and households play a key role in the transmission of monetary policy. This paper analyses the relationship between German bank lending rates and both money market and capital market rates in the 1990s. This study reveals evidence of structural differences in the interest rate pass-through across German

Mark Andreas Weth

2002-01-01

360

When Is U.S. Bank Lending to Emerging Markets Volatile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bank-specific data on U.S. bank claims on individual foreign countries since the mid-1980s, this paper: 1) characterizes the size and portfolio diversification patterns of the U.S. banks engaging in foreign lending; and 2) econometrically explores the determinants of fluctuations in U.S. bank claims on a broad set of countries. U.S. bank claims on Latin American and Asian emerging markets,

Linda S. Goldberg

2001-01-01

361

The Creation of a Scenic Design for Lend Me a Tenor by Ken Ludwig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ken Ludwig’s Lend Me a Tenor is a play about mistaken identity, farcical plot twists, innuendoes, and constant entrances and exits through many doors. The design of the play must address the farcical and over-the- top nature of the play while still adhering to the structure of a hotel environment. The play takes place in a 1934 upscale two-room penthouse

Alessa Karlin

2011-01-01

362

Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer) lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market

Sven C. Berger; Fabian Gleisner

2009-01-01

363

A Two-step Analysis of Standardized Versus Relationship Bank Lending to Small Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances and banking data to produce a bank-firm match, the author tests for evidence of standardized versus relationship lending methods in both total bank credit and credit emanating from the firm’s most important source of financial services, its primary bank. The author employs a two-step Heckman procedure to test the likelihood a small

Polly Hardee

2007-01-01

364

Gender Bias Claims in Farm Service Agency’s Lending Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the courts’ denial of women farmers’ motion for class-action certification of their lawsuits alleging gender discrimination in Farm Service Agency (FSA) lending decisions. The plaintiffs’ claim of “commonality†of circumstances in women farmers’ dealings with FSA is tested using a four-year sampling of Georgia FSA loan applications. The econometric framework has been developed after accounting for the

Cesar L. Escalante; James E. Epperson; Uthra Raghunathan

2009-01-01

365

The Group-lending Model and Social Closure: Microcredit, Exclusion, and Health in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage.

Johnston, Heidi Bart

2009-01-01

366

The group-lending model and social closure: microcredit, exclusion, and health in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage. PMID:19761085

Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart

2009-08-01

367

Will World Bank and IMF Lending Lead to HIPC IV? Debt Déjà-Vu All Over Again  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years ago, the G-7 pushed through an unprecedented initiative forcing the international financial institutions to cancel 100 percent of their outstanding debt claims on the world’s poorest countries. Through the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), these heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) stand to receive up to $60 billion in debt relief over time. Moreover, the World Bank, African Development

Benjamin Leo

2009-01-01

368

As founder of the Grameen Bank receives Nobel Peace Prize, the profile of microcredit lending grows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony 2006 [Windows Media Player]http://nobelprize.org/award_ceremonies/ceremony_oslo/video/2006/index.htmlGrameen [pdf, Windows Media Playerhttp://www.grameen-info.org/The Microcredit Summit Campaign [pdf]http://www.microcreditsummit.org/Web-Based Microfinancinghttp://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/magazine/10section4.t-6.html?ex=1323406800&en=72e9b0bb93393330&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rssKiva.org: Loans that change liveshttp://kiva.org/This Sunday, the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize was formally awarded in equal parts to Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank "for their efforts to create economic and social development from below." In his remarks, Yunus commented "Grameen has given me an unshakeable faith in the creativity of human beings. This has led me to believe that human beings are not born to suffer the misery of hunger and poverty." Over the past thirty years, Yunus and his colleagues at the Bank have championed the cause of microcredit lending. The idea behind microcredit lending is relatively simple, and it has seen its greatest application in the developing world. Essentially, it involves making small loans to people so that they can engage in any number of self-employment projects, such as selling foodstuffs or engaging in the small-scale production of goods. When the Bank was founded thirty years ago, there were many who maintained that the Bank was lending to people who would never be able to repay their small loans, much less generate a profit. While some skeptics maintain that microcredit lending may encourage national governments to focus less on providing a social service safety net, others remain adamant about the benefits of these programs. The first link will take users to a NPR report on Yunus and the Nobel speech he gave this past Sunday. For those whose interests are piqued by the first link, the second link leads to Nobelprize.org, where they can watch a video of the entire award ceremony. The third link leads to the homepage of the Grameen Bank. Here visitors can learn about their lending practices and philosophy and they can also find a selection of writings by Yunus. The forth link leads to the homepage of the Microcredit Summit Campaign, which is based in Washington, DC. Moving along, the fifth link leads to a news article from Sunday's New York Times on how various groups are using the power of the web to bring microfinancing to more and more people. Finally, the last link leads to Kiva.org, which is a website where people can assist persons seeking a microcredit loan in making their businesses a reality.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

369

12 CFR 211.45 - Accounting for fees on international loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lending Supervision § 211.45 Accounting for fees on international loans...effective life of the loan. (b) Accounting treatment. Subject to paragraph...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. [Reg. K, 68 FR...

2013-01-01

370

12 CFR 28.53 - Accounting for fees on international loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lending Supervision § 28.53 Accounting for fees on international loans...effective life of the loan. (b) Accounting treatment. Subject to paragraph...accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. [63 FR 57048, Oct....

2013-01-01

371

ICED Data Bank on International Programs of Higher Educational Institutions. Technical and Final Report for Year of Research June 1, 1970 to May 31, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ICED Data Bank is an information system which collects and stores data on international programs conducted by accredited 4-year colleges and universities in the US. The types of international programs defined by the Data Bank are: area studies, topical, other on-campus, work-study and in-service, training, faculty abroad, exchange, technical…

Brumberg, Stephan F.

372

Institution Closures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter theme issue focuses on the need to accelerate the closing of institutions for people with mental retardation. Articles are by both current and former residents of institutions and by professionals, and include: "The Realities of Institutions" (Tia Nelis); "I Cry Out So That I Won't Go Insane" (Mary F. Hayden); "Trends in…

Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

1995-01-01

373

Institutional Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main obstacles for successful economic development is the formation of institutional traps, inefficient yet stable norms of behaviour. Domination of barter exchange, arrears, corruption and black market activities are examples of institutional traps that have hampered reforms in transition economies. Institutional traps are supported by mechanisms of coordination, learning, linkage and cultural inertia. The acceleration of economic

Victor Polterovich

2007-01-01

374

Institution Closures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue focuses on the need to accelerate the closing of institutions for people with mental retardation. Articles are by both current and former residents of institutions and by professionals, and include: "The Realities of Institutions" (Tia Nelis); "I Cry Out So That I Won't Go Insane" (Mary F. Hayden); "Trends in…

Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

1995-01-01

375

Unequal Burden: Income and Racial Disparities in Subprime Lending in America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) "has released a study showing that the number of subprime home loans is skyrocketing in predominantly black neighborhoods and low-income neighborhoods." Statistics presented here indicate that lenders may be engaged in "predatory lending," charging much higher interest rates to minorities and the poor than to whites and the middle class. Among the findings: "homeowners in high-income black areas are twice as likely as homeowners in low-income white areas to have subprime loans."

2000-01-01

376

August 1998: Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System conducts the Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices on a quarterly basis to ensure the availability of results for the January, May, August, and November meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee. The August 1998 survey includes questions of changes in standards on home equity, consumer, and commercial real estate loans, and the causes and effects of reduced participation of US branches and agencies of foreign banks in the US loan market.

1998-01-01

377

Third UNITAR/UNDP (United Nations Institute for Training and Research/United Nations Development Program) international conference on heavy crude and tar sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research programs on oil sands and heavy crude are presented. Areas of research include: international cooperation, information exchange and legal framework; economics, marketing, and trade; resources and geology; geochemistry and microbiology; drilling a...

R. F. Meyer

1988-01-01

378

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group 1996 guidelines  

PubMed Central

Standardized criteria for diagnosis and response assessment are needed to interpret and compare clinical trials and for approval of new therapeutic agents by regulatory agencies. Therefore, a National Cancer Institute–sponsored Working Group (NCI-WG) on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) published guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials for patients with CLL in 1988, which were updated in 1996. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in defining new prognostic markers, diagnostic parameters, and treatment options. This prompted the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) to provide updated recommendations for the management of CLL in clinical trials and general practice.

Hallek, Michael; Cheson, Bruce D.; Catovsky, Daniel; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Dighiero, Guillaume; Dohner, Hartmut; Hillmen, Peter; Keating, Michael J.; Montserrat, Emili; Rai, Kanti R.; Kipps, Thomas J.

2008-01-01

379

Strut fracture with Björk-Shiley 70U convexo-concave valve An international multi-institutional follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1980 and 1983,831 BjSrk-Sbiley 70' convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves were implanted at five institutions in Sweden, Germany, The Netherlands, and Canada. As of January 1991, there were 34 outlet strut fractures occurring from 0.2 to 10.1 years (median = 4.6 years) after implantation. In addition, there were 28 sudden, unexplained deaths. The mortality after strut fracture was 84%. The

A. Ericsson; D. Lindblom; G. Semb; H. A. Huysmans; L THULIN; H SCULLY; J BENNETT; J OSTERMEYER; G GRUNKEMEIER

1992-01-01

380

75 FR 5798 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant...Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse, Special Emphasis Panel; International...Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of...

2010-02-04

381

Using Existing Data Sources/Programs and Multilevel Modeling Techniques for Questions in Institutional Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multilevel modeling (MLM) gives researchers the ability to make inferences about organizations where nesting factors will bias results and the assumption of independence is not tenable. This article provides an overview of the variety of data sources that lend themselves to conducting institutional research (IR). It not only serves as a…

King, Joe P.; Hernandez, Jose M.; Lott, Joe L., II

2012-01-01

382

75 FR 7990 - Use of Community Development Loans by Community Financial Institutions To Secure Advances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2590-AA24 Use of Community Development Loans by Community Financial Institutions To...Advances; Secured Lending by Federal Home Loan Banks to Members and Their Affiliates...2008 (HERA) amended the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act) to expand the...

2010-02-23

383

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... of 8 experienced a horrific accident. He awoke one night to a house engulfed in flames... Read More Jerry Davee In 1978, Jerry Davee suffered severe burns while trying to ... severe burns. One year later, Jerry received the Burn Institute’s Spirit ...

384

Smithsonian Institution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Smithsonian Institution. The main web site provides access to online exhibits, education resources, library catalogs and archives, and publications. There are also links to each of the Institution's many museums, research centers, and outreach programs. Other materials include links to Smithsonian television programs, podcasts, and blogs.

385

Institutional Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reports cover the adult literary programs in Himachal Pradesh, the Madras Regional Council for Adult Education (AE), the AE institution Lik Shikshan Vibhag, the Bikaner AE Association, the Varanasi Council of literacy and AE, the AE department (extension) of Rajasthan, the Indore Workers Institute, and the Ministry of Education's Directorate…

Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1973

1973-01-01

386

Sustainability Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainability Institute is a nonprofit organization that provides information, analysis, and practical demonstrations that help promote the development of sustainable systems locally, regionally, and globally. Users can read about recent projects and services that the Sustainability Institute has been involved in .

2007-01-20

387

The stigma of people with epilepsy is demonstrated at the internalized, interpersonal and institutional level in a specific socio-cultural context: findings from an ethnographic study in rural China  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease. One of its characteristics is that it can bring severe stigma for patients. At the same time as controlling the epileptic seizures, taking appropriate measures to reduce the stigma of epilepsy is an important aspect of any comprehensive intervention strategy. We examined the views of 106 participants of different target groups, including patients with epilepsy (PWE), their family members, neighbors, teachers, employers, community administrators, doctors and nurses, using one to one in-depth interviews and group discussions. The discussions covered the following aspects related to epilepsy: the participants’ understanding of epilepsy, the patients’ own perception of epilepsy, the attitudes of surrounding people, the social and cultural environment, the social support available to them, and government regulations and policies. We found that the stigma of epilepsy is a very negative self-feeling from the patients’ perspective. Many complex and diverse factors determine its formation and severity. The stigma of epilepsy, in a particular social and cultural context, can be demonstrated in the internalized, interpersonal and institutional levels. Hence, we suggest that effective measures to alleviate stigma should be based on ways of eliminating factors which cause institutional stigma. Additionally, depending on the specific circumstances of PWE, a personalized approach to eliminate factors which cause internalized and interpersonal stigma needs to be adopted. Only by addressing impacting factors at each of these three levels, can the stigma of PWE in China be alleviated or even eliminated.

Guo, Wencui; Wu, Jianzhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Guan, Biyan; Snape, Dee; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann

2012-01-01

388

Regulating Online Peer-to-Peer Lending in the Aftermath of Dodd–Frank: In Search of an Evolving Regulatory Regime for an Evolving Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2010 Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act called for a government study of the regulatory options for on-line Peer-to-Peer lending. On-line P2P sites, most notably for-profit sites Prosper.com and LendingClub.com, offer individual “investors” the chance to lend funds to individual “borrowers.” The sites promise lower interest rates for borrowers and high rates of return for investors. In

Eric C. Chaffee; Geoffrey C. Rapp

2012-01-01

389

Phenomenology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phenomenology Institute at the University of Wisconsin-Madison pursues "a broad range of research in particle physics theory and phenomenology." At this website, users can view concise summaries of its many focuses including in neutrino physics, string theory and extra dimensions, and electroweak physics. Visitors can find links to the homepages of many of the researchers involved with the Institute. The website features the upcoming and past events held by the Institute such as the Pheno Symposiums. Individuals can examine abstracts and compressed postscripts of the phenomenology preprints since 1994 as well as articles about the newest issues in phenomenology written for the popular press.

390

Urban Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute is a Washington DC-based, nonprofit organization devoted to economic and social policy research. Its Website holds a wealth of information featuring in-depth reports on social and economic issues facing the US and abroad. These reports are updated frequently and focus on such issues as American health care reform, child support, and social security. The Research section contains a huge database of Urban Institute reports and can be searched by topic, author, and date. The site also links to Urban Institute special programs including the National Center for Charitable Statistics and The Retirement Project.

391

The Institute for Psychohistory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Institute for Psychohistory sponsors this new Website which features articles from The Journal of Psychohistory and chapters from Lloyd deMause's, book-in-progress, Childhood and History. Titles such as "The Political Consequences of Child Abuse" by Alice Miller or "The Gulf War as a Mental Disorder" should prove of interest both to those new to psychohistory, "the science of historical motivation," and to those already involved in the field. The site also links to the Institute branches, the International Psychohistorical Association, related links of interest, and PSYCHOHISTORY, a discussion list and chat room (discussed in the September 19, 1997 Scout Report), with archives.

1998-01-01

392

Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Land Institute is devoted to researching sustainable agriculture. This site contains archives of present and past research activities along with down-loadable publications for use by scientists or the general public.

2008-12-02

393

SETI Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute has as its mission to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature, prevalence and distribution of life in the universe. The Web site contains the history and makeup of the institute, a science section that details ongoing projects and explains its telescope arrays, an education and outreach area, and other interesting news and facts. The page also links users to external resources on the web pertaining to this type of research.

2009-03-20

394

The Core: Uranium Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Uranium Institute (UI) is an international organization comprised of members who are involved in all "stages of the production of nuclear generated electricity" in the hopes of promoting the use of nuclear energy to supply energy demands, while minimizing environmental risks. The goals of the Institute are to monitor the outlook for the world's nuclear fuel markets, provide a forum between the nuclear fuel industry and the international organizations concerned with environmental issues as well as energy policy, and to make the public gain a general understanding of the nuclear fuel cycle. Sections are divided into three categories: Features, the UI, and the Industry. Although the site is somewhat news-oriented, it informs users about industries involved with nuclear-generated electricity and how they manage radioactive waste.

1999-01-01

395

Bank Foreign Lending, Mandatory Disclosure Rules, and the Reaction of Bank Stock Prices to the Mexican Debt Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of the Mexican debt mora torium in August 1982 on bank valuation. The Mexican default resulted in the passage of regulations requiring public disclosure of bank fo reign-lending exposure. The authors find that, even in the absence of public disclosure regulations, investors were able to discriminate a mong banks with different levels of exposure. Copyright

Michael Smirlock; Howard Kaufold

1987-01-01

396

Using banks : The effect of national attitudes to public intervention in mortgage lending and eviction in French and English law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the different attitudes to bank ownership and regulation, residential lending and eviction in the UK and France, with their effects in the credit crunch and how these factors are connected. UK non-interventionism stems from a history of private banking, where competition produced plentiful finance but high risks for borrowers, where

Jane Ball

2010-01-01

397

"Lawfully Made under This Title": The Implications of "Costco v. Omega" and the First Sale Doctrine on Library Lending  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While initially it seems that libraries would have no interest in a case involving a big-box company and a luxury watch manufacturer, the outcome of "Costco v. Omega" will have important implications for libraries' ability to lend the foreign-printed, imported materials in their collections that were lawfully acquired.|

Chamberlain, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

398

The Roles of Relationship Lending and Utilization of Soft Information on Bank Performance in Competitive Local Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the influence of soft information used in relationship lending on banks' financial profitability and credit risk, especially focusing on inter-bank competition. This paper is the first one to use an inter-bank competition perspective to analyze what kind of soft information is important and should be collected by banks to raise their profitability and improve their

Tadanori Yosano; Takayoshi Nakaoka

399

Stillbirth Classification--Developing an International Consensus for Research: Executive Summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop  

PubMed Central

Stillbirth is a major obstetric complication, with 3.2 million stillbirths worldwide and 26,000 stillbirths in the United States every year. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop from October 22–24, 2007, to review the pathophysiology of conditions underlying stillbirth to define causes of death. The optimal classification system would identify the pathophysiologic entity initiating the chain of events that irreversibly led to death. Because the integrity of the classification is based on available pathologic, clinical, and diagnostic data, experts emphasized that a complete stillbirth workup should be performed. Experts developed evidence-based characteristics of maternal, fetal, and placental conditions to attribute a condition as a cause of stillbirth. These conditions include infection, maternal medical conditions, antiphospholipid syndrome, heritable thrombophilias, red cell alloimmunization, platelet alloimmunization, congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities including confined placental mosaicism, fetomaternal hemorrhage, placental and umbilical cord abnormalities including vasa previa and placental abruption, complications of multifetal gestation, and uterine complications. In all cases, owing to lack of sufficient knowledge about disease states and normal development, there will be a degree of uncertainty regarding whether a specific condition was indeed the cause of death.

Reddy, Uma M.; Goldenberg, Robert; Silver, Robert; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Pauli, Richard M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Gardosi, Jason; Pinar, Halit; Grafe, Marjorie; Kupferminc, Michael; Varli, Ingela Hulthen; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Fretts, Ruth C.; Willinger, Marian

2009-01-01

400

Institute of Development Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Sussex, England, the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is an international authority on development. IDS serves as a center for research and education on development and offers conferences and workshops, as well as a host of online information about research and publications. Full-text working and discussion papers are available online, as are several special research reports and descriptions of projects on such subjects as Globalization, Governance and Civil Society, and Environment.

401

Earth Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

402

Teacher Institutes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By putting teachers back into an intense learning and leadership environment, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is embarking on a major effort to improve the mathematics and science education of the nationâs youth. The three-year $5.5 million Teacher Institute project in Park City, Utah, involves middle and high school mathematics teachers from three school districts, including a small system in McAllen, Texas, and larger systems in Cincinnati, Ohio and Seattle, Washington. In summer resident sessions, the institute at Park City will train middle and secondary school teachers to become teacher-leaders.

403

Undignifying institutions.  

PubMed

Declarations of the importance of dignity in health care are commonplace in codes of practice and other mission statements, yet these documents never clarify dignity's meaning. Their vague aspirations are compared to comments from staff and patients about opportunities for and barriers against the promotion of dignity in elderly care institutions. These suggest that while nurses and health care assistants have an intuitive understanding of dignity, they either do not or cannot always bring it about in practice. Thus, despite stated intentions to promote dignity, it appears that the circumstances of at least some elderly care institutions cause patients to experience avoidable indignities. Such institutions are "undignifying institutions" because they fail to acknowledge dignity's basic components, focus excessively on quantifiable priorities, and have insufficient resources available to assure consistently dignifying care. As a partial solution, we argue that health workers should be taught to understand and specify the components of dignity, which will better prepare them to challenge undignifying practices and to recognise opportunities for dignity promotion. PMID:12468656

Seedhouse, D; Gallagher, A

2002-12-01

404

Trust and Uncertainty: A Study of Bank Lending to Private SMEs in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the question of how – in the absence of institutions that legitimate markets, contracts, and private property, and the lack of business data – banks make loan decisions to the private sector. We conducted in-depth interviews with 23 bankers of state-owned and private banks in Vietnam. Our results suggests that in the absence of effective market institutions

THANG V. NGUYEN; NGOC T. B. LE; NICK J. FREEMAN

2006-01-01

405

Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ˜2%, with low statistical confidence. A ˜2% suppression corresponds to ˜125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

2012-06-01

406

Institutional obligation  

SciTech Connect

The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines.

Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US))

1988-01-01

407

NSTA Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A professional development gateway for science educators. Provides face-to-face learning opportunities, as well as on-line courses and web seminars year round. Offerings from several respected institutions cover diverse topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, math, science education methods and more. Programs range from 90-minute sessions to 50-hour courses. Continuing education units and graduate credits available for some. Tuition fees apply.

408

Bargaining with bureaucrats: Debt negotiations in the international monetary fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Monetary Fund lends hard currency to foreign governments for short-term adjustment of balance of payments imbalances. While this is well-known, few understand the process through which the IMF decides what will be the conditions of receipt of those loans in each case. In this paper, it is proposed that such decisions are arrived at through a complex and

Kendall W. Stiles

1987-01-01

409

Money laundering and income tax evasion: the determination of optimal audits and inspections to detect abnormal prices in international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a statistical auditing system which gives a methodology for statistical analysis of international trade prices. Discusses how this can help governments and international lending agencies, or internationally trading firms, determine the optimal level of audits and physical inspections of cargoes in order to detect abnormally priced imports and exports, using a cost - benefit approach. Applies a computer program

Maria E. de Boyrie; Simon J. Pak; John S. Zdanowicz

2004-01-01

410

Estimating the magnitude of capital flight due to abnormal pricing in international trade: The Russia–USA case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental and international lending agencies, as well as private sector firms, who engage in international trade, have long been concerned with detecting and determining the magnitude of abnormal pricing in international trade. To detect such abnormal pricings, we present a framework analyzing millions of import\\/export transactions between the U.S. and Russia. The objectives of this study are to estimate the

Maria E. de Boyrie; Simon J. Pak; John S. Zdanowicz

2005-01-01

411

The Internal-Candidate Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

Barden, Dennis M.

2008-01-01

412

78 FR 14562 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant...Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; International...Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC...

2013-03-06

413

Terrorism and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the major threats to the security and survival of Western political institutions, international terrorism is surely the greatest. Terrorism rejects morality and the political process, promotes totalitarianism and threatens only democratic systems. It has now become an international phenomenon, with links between terrorist groups of all types and nationalities, irrespective of their political, religious, or ideological origins. International terrorism

Lord Chalfont

1982-01-01

414

Partnering with libraries to promote walking among community-dwelling adults: a Kingston gets active pilot pedometer-lending project.  

PubMed

Most adults do not walk enough to obtain health benefits. Pedometers have been successfully utilized to motivate and increase walking. Given that libraries are a place where community members seek health resources, they are a logical setting for increasing community accessibility to pedometers. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of lending pedometers to library patrons to increase walking. In five Canadian public libraries, 90 pedometers were made available for 6 months. A total of 41 library patrons (33 women, 8 men, age range 18 to 65 or older) completed a survey about their walking patterns and pedometer use. More than 330 loans were made. Chisquare analysis found significant associations between walking and motivation to walk more (p < .05), walking and goal setting (p < .05), and motivation to walk more and setting a walking goal (p < .001). Results provide preliminary evidence that lending pedometers through local libraries is an effective, low-cost approach to enhance walking in community members. PMID:18349147

Ryder, Holly H; Faloon, Kathryn J; Lévesque, Lucie; McDonald, Deanna

2008-03-18

415

UN MARCHÉ FINANCIER INORGANISÉ: L'USURE EN THAÏLANDE \\/ AN UNORGANIZED FINANCIAL MARKET: MONEY-LENDING IN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Money-lending is a wide-spread phenomenon in most developing countries and especially in Asia. Since time immemorial, in rural areas, farmers borrow from money-lenders at very difficult conditions on a personal basis. They pay sky-high interest rates, sometimes as high as 100% or more, for a few-month loan. Although this phenomenon is so wide-spread and a true handicap for development it

Michel Lelart

1982-01-01

416

Subprime Mortgage Tremors: An International Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subprime mortgage crisis has negatively affected individuals, investors, lenders, and economies worldwide. This paper\\u000a first examines contributing factors of the crisis: predatory lending, predatory borrowing and mortgage fraud, unethical practices,\\u000a unregulated mortgage brokers, off-balance-sheet activity, and the infusion of capital from Asia that provided the fuel for\\u000a subprime mortgage activity to continue. International markets have both suffered from and

Gerald H. Lander; Katherine Barker; Margarita Zabelina; Tiffany A. Williams

2009-01-01

417

Institute for Global Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Global Communications (IGC), an Internet service provider, maintains a meta website for PeaceNet, EcoNet, LaborNet, ConflictNet, and WomensNet. Members include Amnesty International, Catholic Charities, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Essential Information, Greenpeace, National Audubon, Planned Parenthood, Socialist Labor Party, and many others. In all, the Internet sites of close to 400 member organizations are linked. Each sub-site contains a Recent Headlines, Action Alerts, and Features section in addition to an option to view news group or web site information by issue (e.g. atmosphere & climate, habitats & species, women), allowing users to create and follow their own reading list.

418

Institutional uncertainties in international fisheries management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world, many commercial fisheries are in crisis. The failure of the traditional management models, centered on calculations of maximum sustainable yields (MSY) from individual species or stocks has complicated efforts to come to terms with this situation. A growing emphasis both on interdependencies in large marine ecosystems (LMEs) and on the non-linear or chaotic changes that are prominent

Oran R Young

1998-01-01

419

International Institute of Tropical Forestry - Treesearch  

Treesearch

We determined recovery potential using an established recovery index and ... atyid shrimp abundance and community and ecosystem properties influenced by atyid ... Keywords: Decapoda, macroinvertebrates, Puerto Rico, pulse disturbance, ...

420

International Institute of Tropical Forestry - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Source: Journal of Tropical Ecology 16 :499-516. ... When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. ... in streams in ®ne-mesh bags which excluded macro-invertebrate leaf processors. ... suggesting a change in riparian zone / stream dynamics following bamboo invasion.

421

Classifying Applicants for Fair Lending Analyses: What Do the Data Have to Say. Economics and Policy Working Paper 2009-4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testing for discrimination in mortgage lending requires classifying consumers into treatment groups and control groups. Although this may seem like a straightforward task, it is actually quite complicated. Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, the pri...

J. Dietrich

2009-01-01

422

Small Business Administration Agricultural and Agriculture-Related Lending and Its Relationship to the Farm Loan Programs of USDA's Farm Service Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the agricultural and agriculture-related lending authority and activities of the SBA and makes comparisons with the activities of the USDA's FSA. Although the SBA has a long record of agricultural production and agricultural services ...

G. B. Wallace J. M. Stam S. R. Koenig

1997-01-01

423

Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute

R. E. Bell; M. Cane; J. Mutter; R. Miller; S. Pfirman; J. Laird

2004-01-01

424

International Marketing Institutute for Sports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the history and development of the International Marketing Institute for Sports which offers a comprehensive educational program providing total information to members of the industry on international marketing exports.

H. Landstrom

1984-01-01

425

34 CFR 661.4 - What definitions apply to the Business and International Education Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 661.4...the Business and International Education Program? (a) Definitions...institutions Institution of higher education (Authority: 20...

2013-07-01

426

Rodale Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

J.I. Rodale was into organic farming for many decades before it became a bit more "hip". The Rodale Institute has been doing research on organic farming versus conventional farming for over 60 years, and their website is aimed at farmers, gardeners, and the general public alike. The "New Farm" link is the online incarnation of their print publication that has been providing "farmer-to-farmer resources, articles and personal stories" for over 29 years. Under the "Tools" menu in New Farm, visitors and farmers can find a "Crop Conversion Calculator", "Organic Price Report", and "NewFarm Forums". The Crop Conversion Chart gives five choices of crops, soybeans, oats, corn, wheat, and barley to compare, and shows how many pounds of CO2 will be saved based on the number of acres planted organically, and how many cars would be removed from the world as a result. The "Nutrition" link presents visitors with "Research", "Organic News", and even book reviews. There is also an "Advocacy" heading with a request to support Farm to School funding "to boost health, students, farms".

427

Economy-wide corruption and bad loans in banking: international evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of economy-wide corruption on bad loans across a large sample of countries. The evidence reveals that greater corruption is associated with more bad loans. Loan defaults are lower in faster growing economies, in economies with higher lending rates and in nations in the Euro zone, ceteris paribus. However, other institutional controls, including central bank autonomy,

Rajeev K. Goel; Iftekhar Hasan

2011-01-01

428

12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's...

2009-01-01

429

12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's...

2010-01-01

430

31 CFR 561.308 - Foreign financial institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Foreign financial institution. 561...OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...other international financial institution so notified...Office of Foreign Assets Control. [77 FR...

2013-07-01

431

Comparative Studies in Military Institutions. Part B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Abstract is the first of a series of statistical compilations which are being prepared at ABERDEEN as part of an international exercise in data collection to facilitate Comparative Research on Military Institutions.

G. Harries-Jenkins

1977-01-01

432

Internal exiles: What next for internally displaced persons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the situation of internally displaced persons ( idps ) a decade after the first mandate for the Representative of the Secretary-General on idps . Paradoxically, this fastest growing category of war-affected populations has no institutional sponsor or agreed international legal framework, whereas refugees, whose numbers are diminishing, benefit from well developed institutional and legal efforts through the

Thomas G Weiss

2003-01-01

433

Marine Environmental Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.

434

Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.  

PubMed

The continued rise in obesity rates in most countries suggests that current programs and initiatives designed to combat obesity have not been successful in reversing the obesity epidemic. Obesity rates are increasing because of a gradual weight gain in most populations. There has been little long-term success in treating established obesity through lifestyle change, perhaps because of the large permanent changes in diet and physical activity required to keep weight off. An alternative strategy to address the obesity epidemic involves not focusing on weight loss but promoting small changes in diet and physical activity to initially prevent further weight gain. With the use of this strategy, obesity rates could first be stabilized in most populations and then, over time, decrease gradually. Supporting data show that small reductions in conscious energy intake and increases in physical activity can reduce excessive weight gain. The opportunity exists to use the small-changes approach to bring different stakeholders together to create a national initiative to address the global epidemic of obesity. The Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council believe that a small-changes framework, aimed at helping people make conscious small changes in lifestyle behaviors, in combination with efforts by the private sector to gradually "ratchet down" some of the environmental factors that have contributed to excessive energy intake and the declining rates of physical activity, can be successful in reducing obesity rates. Such an initiative would benefit from the support of educational and social marketing campaigns developed with governmental input and support. PMID:19088151

Hill, James O

2008-12-16

435

Default, Settlement, and Signalling: Lending Resumption in a Reputational Model of Sovereign Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple model of sovereign debt in which defaulting nations are excluded from capital markets and regain access by making partial repayments. This implication of the model is consistent with the historical evidence that defaulting countries return to international loan markets soon after a settlement but after varying periods of exclusion. Copyright 1995 by Economics Department of

Harold L Cole; James Dow; William B English

1995-01-01

436

Default, settlement, and signalling: lending resumption in a reputational model of sovereign debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simple model of sovereign debt in which defaulting nations are excluded from capital markets and regain access by making partial repayments. This is consistent with the historical evidence that defaulting countries return to international loan markets soon after a settlement, but after varying periods of exclusion.

Harold L. Cole; James Dow; William B. English

1994-01-01

437

Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Kennedy School's Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation has the worthy goal to foster "creative and effective government problem-solving." The Institute uses research, education, international programs, and government innovations awards to affect such problem solving. Users can choose to read some of the publications the Institute puts out, peruse recent news and events or browse resources of interest to students and educators.

438

Howard Hughes Medical Institute dose assessment survey  

SciTech Connect

Biomedical science researchers often express frustration that health physics practices vary widely between individual institutions. A survey examining both internal and external dose assessment practices was devised and mailed to fifty institutions supporting biomedical science research. The results indicate that health physics dose assessment practices and policies are highly variable. Factors which may contribute to the degree of variation are discussed. 2 tabs.

O`Brien, S.L.; McDougall, M.M.; Barkley, W.E. [Office of Lab. Safety, Chevy Chase, MD (United States)

1996-12-01

439

Migration Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 2001, the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) evolved from a program at the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace. Since its inception, the MPI has been dedicated to examining the trends and processes associated with the movement of various people worldwide. The homepage offers a wide array of resources for the general public, journalists, and academicians. Looking at the ÂIn Focus area on the homepage, visitors can download new working papers and reports with titles such as ÂThe New ÂBoat People and ÂImmigration Enforcement at the Worksite, Making it WorkÂ. From the homepage, users can also make their way to the Migration Information Source website which contains global migration data, country migration profiles, and a glossary of migration terms. Visitors with specific questions can also view a list of experts in a variety of topics related to migration and email them directly.

440

Ecuador and the international adventures of neoliberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international relations of Ecuador have experienced three major transformations at the domestic institutional level. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Ecuador's domestic institutions changed from classic dependent institutions to reflect national and international liberal philosophies and policies. At the height of the Cold War, Ecuador's foreign policy establishment was fragmented and institutionalized along the interests of the military,

Raul Carrera

2003-01-01

441

78 FR 39299 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special, Emphasis Panel, International...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special, Emphasis Panel,...

2013-07-01

443

The Getty Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1985, The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) "works internationally to advance conservation practice in the visual arts." Their mission is quite broad, as it includes conservation projects that involve architecture, individual objects, and site examinations. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the "What's New" area on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find short videos on Asian orange colorants, information about Middle East heritage databases, and a direct link to the latest edition of the GCI's newsletter, "Conservation". Moving on, the "Free PDF Publications" area contains access to full-length books, reports, glossaries, and short papers published by the GCI. The "Videos and Audio" area contains a number of compelling talks, including a conversation with a panel of experts about long-term preservation plans for the bridges that span the Los Angeles River. Finally, the site also contains information for potential visiting scholars, graduate students, and interns within the "Public Programs" area of the site.

2008-01-01

444

Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

2008-06-06

445

Academic Institutional Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

... Academic Institutional Profiles: 2002 The Academic Institutional Profiles are produced annually by ... in statistical tables within each Profile. Individual Profiles can be selected using either an ...

446

Paper for the IIM\\/LSE Workshop on Theory and Methods for Studying Organizational Processes: Institutional, Narrative, and Related Approaches (co-sponsored by the The International Public Management Network) 17 - 18 February 2005, London School of Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines public management policymaking in Denmark in the period 1983-2005 using a historical-institutional perspective. Public management policymaking has revolved around three versions of a modernization programme. The Conservative-Liberal government launched the first \\

Niels Ejersbo; Carsten Greve

447

75 FR 49502 - Fogarty International Center; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center...Place: National Institutes of Health, Lawton Chiles International...Global Research Priorities in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health. Place: National...

2010-08-13

448

Austin's Home Performance with Energy Star Program: Making a Compelling Offer to a Financial Institution Partner  

SciTech Connect

Launched in 2006, over 8,700 residential energy upgrades have been completed through Austin Energy's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. The program's lending partner, Velocity Credit Union (VCU) has originated almost 1,800 loans, totaling approximately $12.5 million. Residential energy efficiency loans are typically small, and expensive to originate and service relative to larger financing products. National lenders have been hesitant to deliver attractive loan products to this small, but growing, residential market. In response, energy efficiency programs have found ways to partner with local and regional banks, credit unions, community development finance institutions (CDFIs) and co-ops to deliver energy efficiency financing to homeowners. VCU's experience with the Austin Energy HPwES program highlights the potential benefits of energy efficiency programs to a lending partner.

Zimring, Mark

2011-03-18

449

The Foundation-Institution Partnership: The Role of Institutionally Related Foundations in Public Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Institutionally related foundations have played a vital role in raising and managing private resources in support of public institutions of higher education. Unlike private grant-making foundations, college and university foundations are typically incorporated as public charities under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Although they…

Bass, David

2010-01-01

450

Institutional Quality of a Higher Education Institution from the Perspective of Employers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper proposes a theoretical model of institutional quality of a higher education institution (HEI) which, in addition to the internal dimensions of quality, incorporates also the external dimension, i.e. the outcomes dimension. This dimension has been neglected by the quality standards and models examined in our paper. Furthermore,…

Rodman, Karmen; Biloslavo, Roberto; Bratoz, Silva

2013-01-01

451

Patents, Public Health, and the WTO: Developing Countries and the Strengthening of International Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses the contemporary international politics of intellectual property rights (IPRs) as a lens to examine North-South conflicts over international economic governance and the possibilities of institutional reform. Although developing countries have limited control over the distributional and substantive dimensions of international institutions, they retain an important stake in a rule-based international order. Because international institutions provide small states

Kenneth C. Shadlen

452

Reforming Russian Higher Education: Towards More Autonomous Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the status and prospects of the government's stated policy promoting institutional autonomy in Russian higher education. Institutional operations are currently fraught with serious problems. At least three areas are in jeopardy: institutional financial sustainability, decentralized government control, and internal balance of power. (22…

Bain, Olga

1999-01-01

453

Trajectories of Pure and Co-Occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Age 2 to Age 12: Findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How and why do internalizing and externalizing problems, psychopathological problems from different diagnostic classes representing separate forms of psychopathology, co-occur in children? We investigated the development of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from ages 2 to 12 with the use of latent class growth…

Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

2010-01-01

454

Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute, began in 1983 after a series of meetings between the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska, to discuss the retention rates of Alaska Native and rural students. RAHI is a six-week college-preparatory summer bridge program on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and

D. Wartes; G. Owens

2007-01-01

455

The Rise and Fall of Adult Education Institutions and Social Movements: Proceedings of the International Conference on the History of Adult Education (7th, Dundee, Scotland, July 12-16, 1998). Studies in Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Gerontagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, which focuses on the relationship between adult education institutions and social movements, contains 31 papers originally presented at a 1998 conference on the history of adult education. Following an Introduction (Cooke), the papers are: Mobilisation, Popular Participation and Sustainable Development: Themes in the Recent History of…

Cooke, Anthony, Ed.; MacSween, Ann, Ed.

456

National Sovereignty and the International Criminal Court.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is intended to be a permanent institution with the power to exercise jurisdiction over individuals for the most serious crimes of international concern: genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. However, as ...

D. J. Boland

1999-01-01

457

12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...institution in establishing effective control over, and accountability for...responsibility for the internal control function (financial, credit, credit review, collateral...Adoption of internal audit and control procedures that evidence...

2013-01-01

458

International Business Education: Identifying the Emergent Topics in International Business and Their Relevance for Knowledge Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sampled faculty in international business (IB) to better understand emerging themes in that area. Seven major topical areas were uncovered: general knowledge of IB, international trade and institutions, cross-cultural issues, managing global operations, international ethics, international monetary systems, and international political/regulatory…

Yeoh, Poh-Lin

2001-01-01

459

International Education/International Business: A Model for Cooperation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to strengthen cooperation among institutions of higher education and businesses with global connections in Silicon Valley, a project was undertaken by San Jose City College to compile a list of the internationally oriented business-related courses available at local institutions and identify existing gaps in the curricula. Information…

Rookstool, Judy

460

National Institutes of Health  

Cancer.gov

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 26th Meeting DIRECTOR’S CONSUMER LIAISON GROUP September 13-15, 2004 HOLIDAY INN SELECT BETHESDA 8120 Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20814

461

Institutional plan. Fiscal year, 1997--2002  

SciTech Connect

The Institutional Plan is the culmination of Argonne`s annual planning cycle. The document outlines what Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) regards as the optimal development of programs and resources in the context of national research and development needs, the missions of the Department of Energy and Argonne National Laboratory, and pertinent resource constraints. It is the product of ANL`s internal planning process and extensive discussions with DOE managers. Strategic planning is important for all of Argonne`s programs, and coordination of planning for the entire institution is crucial. This Institutional Plan will increasingly reflect the planning initiatives that have recently been implemented.

NONE

1996-10-01

462

Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining's website provides information about the institute's efforts to become a "leading international professional body for the advancement of materials, minerals, and mining to governments, industry, academia, the public and the professions." Researchers can learn about the Institute's main event of 2004, the Materials Congress, along with many other seminars and conferences. Students can discover scholarship opportunities, career opportunities, and more. Everyone can take advantage of the technical enquiry and the library-style assistance provided by the Materials Information Services.

463

Institutions: Rules or Equilibria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent scholarship has demonstrated the power of the rational choice framework for advancing our understanding of institutions\\u000a and institutional change. Stimulated by these developments, the conceptual frameworks employed by scholars studying institutions\\u000a have also been evolving, as old frameworks have been adapted and new frameworks have emerged to explore how institutions function,\\u000a how they change, and how they affect economic

Avner Greif; Christopher Kingston

464

Institutions and ICT Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the global diffusion process for three ICT technologies: cellular telephony, Internet and personal computers to test the hypothesis that the difference between countries in institutional characteristics significantly affects the time to adoption of these technologies. The analysis shows that the quality of economic and financial institutions and, to a smaller degree political institutions, significantly affects the time

Johan Kiessling

2006-01-01

465

Media as Social Institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass media have emerged as a social institution, assuming many of the functions formerly served by traditional social institutions such as the church, school, government, and family. However, in Western countries operating on the private-ownership model (most notably the United States), media systems were never intended to serve as a social institution. Instead, the primary objective of a privately owned

Art Silverblatt

2004-01-01

466

Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (HIA) is the Institute within the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL of Canada responsible for providing astronomical facilities, and developing related instrumentation and software for Canadian researchers. The Institute was established in 1975, and now operates 1.8 m and 1.2 m optical telescopes at the DOMINION ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY close to Victoria, BC, as we...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

467

Institutions, Innovation, and Incentives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is important to achieve effective innovation in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Meaningful innovation can be achieved only by changing the system--that is, by changing not only the technology, but also the institutions and persons involved. Two institutions are proposed: a National Institute of Education which would support creation of a…

Levien, Roger E.

468

Stress during Pregnancy: The Role of Institutional Racism.  

PubMed

Institutional racism, also known as structural racism, can be defined as differential access to resources and opportunities by race as well as policies, laws, and practices that reinforce racial inequity. This study examines how institutional racism in the form of residential redlining (neighbourhood-level racial inequities in mortgage lending) and segregation (geographic separation of groups by race) is associated with self-reported stress among a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Institutional racism was measured by a residential redlining index using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data and residential segregation using 2000 US Census data. These redlining and segregation indices were linked with data from a pregnancy cohort study (n?=?4652), which included individual measures of reported stress. We ran multilevel linear regression models to examine the association between redlining, segregation and reported stress. Hispanic women compared with all other women were slightly more likely to report stress. There was no significant relationship between redlining and stress among this population. However, higher neighbourhood percentage black was inversely associated with stress. This study suggests that some forms of segregation may be associated with reported stress. Future studies should consider how redlining and segregation may provide an understanding of how institutional racism and the neighbourhood context may influence stress and health of populations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23055409

Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F

2012-10-10

469

The Institutional Framework for Food Regulation and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past twenty years has seen a remarkable change in the international environment in which farms and food firms operate. In a Conference devoted to the changes in the nature of food regulation and trade, it may be useful to review the new set of institutions and market structures that make up the international environment.1 This international environment has been

Tim Josling

2006-01-01

470

Expert Working Group Report on International Organized Crime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January of 2010, the International Center of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) assembled international experts and practitioners to assess the state of research on international organized crime (IOC). Two recent developments made this an opportun...

J. T. Picarelli

2010-01-01

471

Internal Transfer and Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1989, a descriptive study was conducted of internal transfer and articulation within the context of two-year branch campuses of four-year institutions. Data were gathered from a survey sent to the chief executive officers (CEO's) of 408 campuses delivering two-year tracks within a four-year college or university. Study findings, based on…

Prager, Carolyn

472

Technology and international affairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major issues in the interplay between technology and international affairs are examined to see how technology has impacted cultural and social organization, values, and the distribution of political power. Since technology use has both negative and positive effects, societies must develop institutions that will help them make positive choices. The book begins with a general discussion of the concepts and

Szyliowicz

1981-01-01

473

Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

2004-01-01

474

Variability in hand hygiene practices among internal medicine interns.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene compliance remains suboptimal among physicians despite quality improvement efforts. We observed hand hygiene compliance among 29 medicine interns at 2 large academic institutions. Overall compliance was 75%. Although 4 interns averaged <40% compliance, 14 averaged at least 80%. Given variability observed among individuals in the same training programs, targeting those with poor performance may be important in improving overall compliance. PMID:24176771

Block, Lauren; Habicht, Robert; Oluyadi, Fareedat O; Wu, Albert W; Desai, Sanjay V; Niessen, Timothy; Silva, Kathryn Novello; Oliver, Nora; Feldman, Leonard

2013-11-01

475

Teaching International Relations through Simulation: Intercollegiate Exercise on International Terror.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of simulation in teaching international relations is examined by evaluating how a simulation approach helped students in three institutions of higher education understand international terror. The project involved 97 students from three colleges and universities, and people with expertise in the community including campus police, the…

Duly, Leslie C.; Wadlow, Joan K.

476

Analysis of data from LEND instrument on LRO: May water deposits be expected on poles of Mercury?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) of LRO measured the flux of epithermal neutrons with high spatial resolution ˜10 km for the amplitude of 50 km. The LEND data from the polar caps above 80° latitude were tested for the presence of local spots of epithermal Neutron Suppression Regions (NSRs), which have been identified with wa-ter ice permafrost. The model has been proposed, which explains the origin of water at lunar poles by chemical reactions between hydrogen of solar wind with oxygen of lunar regolith. The so-called solar water could be produced under the sunlit surface, and than migrate either at cold traps in he local vicinity from the irradiated spot of origin, or at cold subsur-face layer just below of the uppermost layer of origin. Similarly to the Moon, there are data of radio sensing of Mercury, which points out that this planet might have the water ice deposits at poles. Therefore, one may suspect that the main physics could also be similar at poles of the Moon and the Mercury: - if the water ice deposits are on the lunar poles, they should be at the Hermean poles as well; - if comets are not the main source for the water at lunar poles, they should not also be the main source for the polar water deposits on the Mercury. However, one should also take into account that the Moon and the Mercury have rather different physics of inter-action between the plasma of solar wind and the surface: - the Mercury have the dipole magnetic field, which is large enough to shield the equatorial belt of the planet from the direct interaction with the plasma of solar wind; - flux of solar wind and solar radiation at the orbit of Mercury are much larger than they are at the Earth orbit; - the average temperature of illuminated spots at Hermean poles is much larger than the temperature of illuminated spots at poles of the Moon. In addition to current neutron data from LRO, the data from MESSENGER should be studied for better under-standing of polar water ice deposits at the Moon and at the Mercury. Additional data will be provided by neutron mapping from the BeppiColombo spacecraft, which will map neutron albedo of bother Hermean poles (the MESSENGER maps only the southern hemisphere). First of all, one have to test that Mercury have extended suppression regions of epithermal neutrons around both poles, as the Moon has. If hydrogen at polar regolith is delivered by the solar wind, the polar suppression of Mercury should be rather different from one of the Moon, because Hermean magnetosphere should chanelize the plasma of solar wind plasma toward the poles. Second, one have to test the presence of local NSEs at the Hermean poles and to compare them with the lunar NSRs. If NSRs at both celestial bodies are associated with deposits of solar water, one could expect to find more water rich permafrost on the Mercury than on the Moon at areas with similarly cold surfaces, because at the same thermal conditions production rate of water molecules from the solar wind should be higher on Mercury than on the Moon.

Mitrofanov, I.

2012-04-01

477

IMF lending and geopolitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing awareness that the distribution of IMF facilities may not be influenced only by the economic needs of the borrowers. This paper focuses on the fact that the IMF may favour geopolitically important countries in the distribution of IMF loans, differentiating between concessional and nonconcessional facilities. To carry out the empirical analysis, we construct a new database that

Julien Reynaud; Julien Vauday

2008-01-01

478

Deposits and Relationship Lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

We empirically examine whether access to deposits with inelastic rates (core deposits) permits a bank to make contractual agreements with borrowers that are infeasible if the bank must pay market rates for funds. Such access insulates a bank's costs of funds from exogenous shocks, allowing it to insulate its borrowers against exogenous credit shocks. We find that, controlling for loan

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1999-01-01

479

Deposits and relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors empirically examine the hypothesis that access to deposits with inelastic rates (core deposits) permits a bank to make contractual agreements with borrowers that are infeasible if the bank must pay market rates for its funds. Access to core deposits insulates a bank's costs of funds from exogenous shocks, allowing the bank to insulate its borrowers against exogenous credit

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1997-01-01

480

Deposits and relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors empirically examine the hypothesis that access to deposits with inelastic rates (core deposits) permits a bank to make contractual agreements with borrowers that are infeasible if the bank must pay market rates for its funds. Access to core deposits insulates a bank's costs of funds from exogenous shocks, allowing the bank to insulate its borrowers against exogenous credit

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1998-01-01

481

International capital flows and the returns to safe assets in the United States 2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad array of domestic institutional factors –including problems with the originate-to-distribute model for mortgage loans, deteriorating lending standards, deficiencies in risk management, conflicting incentives for the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), and shortcomings of supervision and regulation– were the primary sources of the US housing boom and bust and the associated financial crisis. In addition, the extended rise in US house

B. S. Bernanke

2011-01-01

482

International capital flows and the returns to safe assets in the United States, 2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad array of domestic institutional factors--including problems with the originate-to-distribute model for mortgage loans, deteriorating lending standards, deficiencies in risk management, conflicting incentives for the GSEs, and shortcomings of supervision and regulation--were the primary sources of the U.S. housing boom and bust and the associated financial crisis. In addition, the extended rise in U.S. house prices was likely also

Ben S. Bernanke; Carol Bertaut; Laurie Pounder DeMarco; Steven Kamin

2011-01-01

483

The International Atomic Energy Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of nuclear energy and the attendant concern about nuclear weapons proliferation have brought into focus considerable attention to the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Many political and journalistic accounts have provided quite mixed evaluations of the IAEA. This article analyses the role of the IAEA as an international institution, arguing that the role of the IAEA is

Thomas L. Brewer

1978-01-01

484

Institutional report - Assisted circulation Association between prothrombin activation fragment (F1.2), cerebral ischemia (S-100b) and international normalized ratio (INR) in patients with ventricular assisted devices ?? ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prothrombin time, expressed as international normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), are standard methods of monitoring coumadin and heparin administration. Prothrombin activation fragment (F1.2) is an index of in vivo thrombin generation. We hypothesized that F1.2 would provide a better surrogate of thromboembolism risk than standard coagulation assays during ventricular assist device (VAD) support. INR, PTT and

Ashish Joshi; Laurence S. Magder; Zachary Kon; Seeta Kallam; Michael Kwon; Rupali Sangrampurkar; Richard Pierson; Robert Poston

2010-01-01

485

Ranking of Russian Higher Education Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers some patterns of ranking higher education institutions which are used in the Russian Federation to reveal strengths and weaknesses in meeting the national individual, societal and state-related needs, as well as those of the international academic community concerning relevant information on Russian higher education…

Pokholkov, Yuri P.; Chuchalin, Alexander I.; Agranovich, Boris L.; Mogilnitsky, Sergey B.

2007-01-01

486

Group lending, local information and peer selection 1 This paper is based on the first chapter of my PhD thesis entitled Essays on the Economics of Contracts submitted to Harvard University (June, 1996) that was circulated earlier as the working paper “Group Lending and the Peer Selection Effect” (November, 1995). 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how group lending programs use joint liability to utilize local information that borrowers have about each other's projects through self-selection of group members in the group formation stage. These schemes are shown to lead to positive assortative matching in group formation. Faced with the same contract, this makes the effective cost of borrowing lower to safer borrowers:

Maitreesh Ghatak

1999-01-01

487

The institution of marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institution of marriage is both old and ubiquitous. Yet, little work has been done by economists on why this social institution\\u000a exists and why throughout history it has been intimately linked to fertility. We explain the institution of marriage as a\\u000a societal consensus on the need to curb cuckoldry for the purpose of paternity certainty and biparental investment in

Dirk Bethmann; Michael Kvasnicka

2011-01-01

488

Academic Institutional Profiles  

NSF Publications Database

Home | Publications | Topic index | Surveys | Databases | Search Keep Current! Subscribe to NSF's ... Academic Institutional Profiles Parent Surveys: Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at ...

489

Detection: International update, and some emerging di-lemmas involving calibration, the blank, and multiple detection decisions 1 Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright. 1 2 Based on an invited lecture at the International Conference on Environmetrics and Chemometrics (Las Vegas, September 1995). 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and quantification capabilities represent fundamental performance characteristics of measurement processes, yet there have been decades of confusion and miscommunication regarding the underlying concepts and terminology. New, coordinated documents prepared by the International organization for standardization (ISO) [1] and the International union of pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC) [2] promise to alleviate this situation by providing, for the first time,

L. A. Currie

1997-01-01

490

Institutional Foundations for Cyber Security: Current Responses and New Challenges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper profiles institutions that are responsible for addressing threats to cyber security. Rather than focusing primarily on the private sector, we analyze key organizations at the national, international, and intergovernmental level. Our purpose is ...

J. Ferwerda N. Choucri S. Madnick

2010-01-01

491

Cooperation Among Unlike Institutions for Todays Learning Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our thinking and institutions must be channeled to meet new challenges created by changes in communcations, the international scene, science and technology, and emotional and social behavior. Ten trends are identified in Higher Education from reduced grow...

C. C. Rochell

1976-01-01

492

Contribution of Credit Institutions to the Renewal of the Economy,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book contains the Proceedings of the sixth symposium of the Commission of the European Communities on the Financing of innovation and the 1985 session of the Journees D:Etudes financiere of the Institute Universitaire International, Luxemburg. The aim...

J. M. Gibb

1986-01-01

493

Astronomy education activities for the international community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today s world technology allows students from around the globe to interact and share learning experiences in a variety of subjects Astronomy by its nature as a science and cultural phenomena lends itself to a variety of educational activities that can be shared across borders and cultures While teaching astronomy at East Carolina University and working with the International Planetarium Society a program is being piloted to link students in grades 3 and 6 from the United States and India to study phases of the Moon This project is in its early stages but will enhance students understanding of a basic astronomical concept while sharing cultural ideas regarding our nearest neighbor in space The International Planetarium Society has a number of educational programs and opportunities for astronomy and space science educators around the globe A variety of programs and opportunities will be discussed

Laatsch, S.

494

Institutions, routines, and crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of how planning institutions deal with crisis recovery; that is, recovery from situations marked by complexity, uncertainty, and sudden change that increasingly characterize contemporary cities. Based on an analytical framework derived from institutional literature and planning theory, the study examines two successful housing recovery programs during crisis situations: the Renovación Habitacional Popular program in Mexico City

Aseem Inam

1999-01-01

495

National Institutes of Health  

Cancer.gov

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 23RD Meeting DIRECTORS CONSUMER LIAISON GROUP March 13, 2003 2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. EST TELECONFERENCE- AGENDA 2:00 P.M. - 2:05 P.M. I. Welcome and

496

Engagement and Institutional Advancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all…

Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

497

Observing in Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document offers guidelines for observing the nature of life in a variety of closed institutions (state mental hospitals and state schools). An initial section offers guidelines for asking questions, conducting evaluation, and making observations while visiting institutions. The remainder of the document lists questions for 17 areas: building…

Bogdan, Robert; Taylor, Steven J.

498

Salk Institute: Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salk Institute was founded in 1960 by the late Jonas Salk and to this day researchers there investigate cancer, aging, Alzheimer's, diabetes, and infectious diseases. The Institute's media and press relations team is actively involved with publicizing various works and accomplishments, to which end this site allows public access to videos created at the Institute. The videos here are divided into seven sections, including Diabetes and Metabolism, Plant Biology, and AIDS. Each of these sections includes videos that feature researchers and others talking about everything from new insights into cell aging to how the common cold virus might be used to target and disrupt cancer cells. Perhaps the most remarkable section here is titled Institute Videos. This section includes videos on the relationship between art and science, along with profiles of the glassworks of Dale Chihuly that reside at the Institute.

2012-01-01

499

Rural Policy Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past several decades, a number of policy institutes and think-tanks have been formed to open a substantial dialogue about issues affecting rural communities. The Rural Policy Research Institute is one of these organizations, and involves scientists and policy analysts from Iowa State University, the University of Missouri, the University of Nebraska and other affiliated institutions. The Web site is divided into a number of sections, including a publications area, a section that contains editorials written by Institute fellows and staff members, and an area dedicated to providing information about helpful resources such as basic statistics about rural America. On the left side of the home page, visitors can also browse the Web pages of the Institute's affiliated centers such as the Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis and the Rural Poverty Research Center. Finally, users can elect to sign up for an electronic newsletter that will update them about upcoming events, conferences, and publications related to rural policy issues.

500

Cholinesterase research at the National Institutes of Health, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented below is a brief description of research supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on cholinesterases that was discussed at the IXth International Meeting on Cholinesterases in Suzhou, China. It is a partial description of the research conducted by researchers at academic and other institutions supported by the NIH, and by some of the researchers in NIH intramural

David A. Jett

2008-01-01