Science.gov

Sample records for international seismic safety

  1. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  2. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  3. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-07-01

    The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

  4. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  5. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  6. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  7. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8004 Seismic Safety Coordinators. (a) The Justice Management Division shall designate...

  8. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8004 Seismic Safety Coordinators. (a) The Justice Management Division shall designate...

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  14. Safety Training in Reed International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, J.

    1974-01-01

    The safety training provided within Reed International Limited and its relationship to production operations are outlined, demonstrating that safety works when management is committed to it on both humanitarian and economic grounds. (MW)

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic Safety Coordinators. 128-1.8004 Section 128-1.8004 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety...

  16. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Seismic analysis of safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in building 232-Z 200 W Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the seismic evaluation for the existing safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in 232Z Building. The glovebox is no longer in use and most of the internal mechanical equipment have been removed. However, the insulation firebricks are still in the glovebox for proper disposal.

  18. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P. D.; Dong, R. G.; Bernreuter, D. L.; Bohn, M. P.; Chuang, T. Y.; Cummings, G. E.; Johnson, J. J.; Mensing, R. W.; Wells, J. E.

    1981-03-06

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. 66 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. The SISIFO project: Seismic Safety at High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Dusi, Alberto; Grimaz, Stefano; Malisan, Petra; Saraò, Angela; Mucciarelli, Marco

    2014-05-01

    For many years, the Italian scientific community has faced the problem of the reduction of earthquake risk using innovative educational techniques. Recent earthquakes in Italy and around the world have clearly demonstrated that seismic codes alone are not able to guarantee an effective mitigation of risk. After the tragic events of San Giuliano di Puglia (2002), where an earthquake killed 26 school children, special attention was paid in Italy to the seismic safety of schools, but mainly with respect to structural aspects. Little attention has been devoted to the possible and even significant damage to non-structural elements (collapse of ceilings, tipping of cabinets and shelving, obstruction of escape routes, etc..). Students and teachers trained on these aspects may lead to a very effective preventive vigilance. Since 2002, the project EDURISK (www.edurisk.it) proposed educational tools and training programs for schools, at primary and middle levels. More recently, a nationwide campaign aimed to adults (www.iononrischio.it) was launched with the extensive support of civil protection volounteers. There was a gap for high schools, and Project SISIFO was designed to fill this void and in particular for those schools with technical/scientific curricula. SISIFO (https://sites.google.com/site/ogssisifo/) is a multidisciplinary initiative, aimed at the diffusion of scientific culture for achieving seismic safety in schools, replicable and can be structured in training the next several years. The students, helped by their teachers and by experts from scientific institutions, followed a course on specialized training on earthquake safety. The trial began in North-East Italy, with a combination of hands-on activities for the measurement of earthquakes with low-cost instruments and lectures with experts in various disciplines, accompanied by specifically designed teaching materials, both on paper and digital format. We intend to raise teachers and students knowledge of the

  20. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  1. Development of the seismic input for use in the seismic safety margins research program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chung, D.H.

    1980-01-29

    This paper briefly outlines the overall systems approach being developed for the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. The unique features of the approach being taken to reduce the uncertainty in the seismic input for this program are discussed. These unique features will include extensive use of expert opinion, earthquake rupture simulation studies and the way in which the seismic hazard is incorporated into the overall systems analysis. Some very preliminary results are also given for the Zion site which is the power plant chosen for analysis in Phase I of the program.

  2. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  3. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  4. Reducing Seismic Hazard and Building Capacity Through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergino, E. S.; Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Durgaryan, R.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Kalogeras, I.; Karakhanyan, A.; Martin, R. J.; Yetirmishli, G.

    2012-12-01

    During the last 50 years, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea regions have experienced several devastating earthquakes. While each country in the region has worked with its neighbors on small, ad-hoc projects to improve preparedness, deeply ingrained political and ethnic rivalries, and severely stressed economies have severely hindered sustained regional cooperation. Future damaging earthquakes are inevitable and without proper planning the negative impact on public safety, security, economics and stability in these regions will be devastating. We have, through twelve years of international scientific cooperation, focused on the development of an expanded skill base and infrastructure, through the installation of new, modern, digital seismic monitoring networks, building of historic databases, sharing seismic, geologic and geophysical data, conducting joint scientific investigations utilizing the new digital data and applying modern techniques, as well as the development of regional hazard models that the scientists of the region share with their governments and use to advise them on the best ways to mitigate the impact of a damaging earthquake. We have established specialized regional scientific task-force teams who can carry out seismological, geological and engineering studies in the epicentral zone, including the collection of new scientific data, for better understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes as well to provide emergency support in crisis and post-crisis situations in the Southern Caucasus countries. "Secrecy" in crisis and post-crisis situations in the former Soviet Union countries, as well as political instabilities, led to an absence of seismic risk reduction and prevention measures as well as little to no training of scientific-technical personnel who could take action in emergency situations. There were few opportunities for the development of a next generation of scientific experts, thus we have placed emphasis on the inclusion

  5. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  6. Seismic measurements of the internal properties of fault zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Ginzburg, A.

    1986-01-01

    The internal properties within and adjacent to fault zones are reviewed, principally on the basis of laboratory, borehole, and seismic refraction and reflection data. The deformation of rocks by faulting ranges from intragrain microcracking to severe alteration. Saturated microcracked and mildly fractured rocks do not exhibit a significant reduction in velocity, but, from borehole measurements, densely fractured rocks do show significantly reduced velocities, the amount of reduction generally proportional to the fracture density. Highly fractured rock and thick fault gouge along the creeping portion of the San Andreas fault are evidenced by a pronounced seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ), which is either very thin or absent along locked portions of the fault. Thus there is a correlation between fault slip behavior and seismic velocity structure within the fault zone; high pore pressure within the pronounced LVZ may be conductive to fault creep. Deep seismic reflection data indicate that crustal faults sometimes extend through the entire crust. Models of these data and geologic evidence are consistent with a composition of deep faults consisting of highly foliated, seismically anisotropic mylonites. ?? 1986 Birkha??user Verlag, Basel.

  7. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  8. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  9. Effects of relay chatter in seismic probabilistic safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.; Shiu, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the Zion and Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Studies, relay chatter was dismissed as a credible event and hence was not formally included in the analyses. Although little discussion is given in the Zion and Indian Point PSA documentation concerning the basis for this decision, it has been expressed informally that it was assumed that the operators will be able to reset all relays in a timely manner. Currently, it is the opinion of many professionals that this may be an oversimplification. The three basic areas which must be considered in addressing relay chatter include the fragility of the relays per se, the reliability of the operators to reset the relays and finally the systems response aspects. Each of these areas is reviewed and the implications for seismic PSA are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future research are given.

  10. International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Ley, H.; Turski, R.B.

    1997-08-01

    As an integral part of DOE`s International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) at Argonne National Laboratory, the INSC Database has been established to provide an interactively accessible information resource for the world`s nuclear facilities and to promote free and open exchange of nuclear safety information among nations. The INSC Database is a comprehensive resource database aimed at a scope and level of detail suitable for safety analysis and risk evaluation for the world`s nuclear power plants and facilities. It also provides an electronic forum for international collaborative safety research for the Department of Energy and its international partners. The database is intended to provide plant design information, material properties, computational tools, and results of safety analysis. Initial emphasis in data gathering is given to Soviet-designed reactors in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. The implementation is performed under the Oracle database management system, and the World Wide Web is used to serve as the access path for remote users. An interface between the Oracle database and the Web server is established through a custom designed Web-Oracle gateway which is used mainly to perform queries on the stored data in the database tables.

  11. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program... statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program... INFORMATION CONTACT: Manager of the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50), Flight...

  12. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  13. Worldwide Assessment of the Status of Seismic Zonation, Fourth International Forum on Seismic Zonation, Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Italy/Appendix D). 2. United States Geological Survey, 1992, The Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program, Reston, Virginia, 19 p (Paul Thenhaus or S.T. Algermissen - USA/ Appendix D). 3. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia Historia, 1992, Revista Geofisica, Lima, Peru, No. 37, July-December, 234 p (Alberto Giesecke- Peru/Appendix D). 4. Annali di Geofisica, 1992, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) (Special Issue), International Lithosphere Program, Publication 209, Bologna, Italy, 257 p (Domenico Giardini-Italy/Appendix F). 5. International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior and European Seismological Commission, 1993, The Practice of Hazard Assessment, Golden, Colorado, 284 p (Write Bob Engdahl, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 967, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA).

  14. Importance of international cooperation in food safety.

    PubMed

    Canet, C

    1993-01-01

    All countries need to ensure that national food supplies are safe, of good quality and available in adequate amounts at affordable prices to ensure good nutrition and health for all population groups. The enforcement of food standards by efficient national food control authorities in domestic markets and at the points of import and export has been increasingly recognized as a means of raising the value of exported goods by reducing the number of rejected or reconditioned consignments, and of ensuring the safety of the food and its acceptability by the final consumer. However, those national efforts have sometimes induced some non-tariff barriers to food trade and distribution. In addition, new developments in the technologies of food production, processing and marketing pose a new challenge to ensure safety of food. The strengthening of national food control infrastructures in particular in developing countries including the strengthening of staff capabilities, the need for harmonization of food at international levels, the need for collection and exchange of data on food control and food contamination issues are essential elements to ensure food safety in the world. International cooperation has an important role to play in achieving these essential elements. PMID:8504878

  15. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. 49 CFR 659.27 - Internal safety and security reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal safety and security reviews. 659.27... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.27 Internal safety and security reviews. (a) The oversight agency...

  17. Seismic safety margins research program. Project I SONGS 1 AFWS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-02-24

    The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values.

  18. [Earthquakes and healthcare. Considerations and proposals for improving seismic safety of hospitals].

    PubMed

    Polesani, L; Cocuzza, S; Nachiero, D

    2012-01-01

    The Italian territory faces a high seismic risk. Moreover the high vulnerability of health facilities increases the danger for the population. This study departs from an analysis of the state of conservation of the national hospitals and builds upon the data gathered on the recent earthquakes that have shaken Italy. Indeed, the study provides a bulk of preventive measures directed to improve seismic safety of both the national health system and the hospitals strategic value. The focus is mainly centered on emergency management aspects and the maintenance of the functionality of the medical services necessary to overcome the health crisis following an earthquake of high intensity. The research is conducted considering how these issues were addressed in foreign countries. In particular; California represents a central case study, since the high seismicity of the territory requires heavy investments to deal with the seismic safety of the hospitals. PMID:22755504

  19. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  20. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  1. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  2. Subsystem response review. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Wesley, D. A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models.

  3. Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed can sustain loads equivalent to a design basin earthquake (DBE). Load transmission from the structure to piping/equipment indicated significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies, while the response of tanks/vessels depended mainly on their support conditions. The evaluation of various piping support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is important to limiting pipe greens. Piping at loads exceeding the DBE eightfold still had significant margins and failure is improbable inspite of multiple support failures. The mean value for pipe damping, even under extreme loads, was found to be about 4%. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computational results with piping response measurements showed that predictions have a wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces. For the soil/structure system the quality of the predictions did not depend so much on the complexity of the modeling, but rather on whether the model captured the salient features and nonlinearities of the system.

  4. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  5. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  6. Safety identifying of integral abutment bridges under seismic and thermal loads.

    PubMed

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an "always on" load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs--designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code--under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed. PMID:25405232

  7. Safety Identifying of Integral Abutment Bridges under Seismic and Thermal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an “always on” load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs—designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code—under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed. PMID:25405232

  8. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  9. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  10. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  11. A passive control methodology for seismic safety enhancement of monumental structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalou, Angeliki; Roubien, Denis; Triantafillou, Thanasis; Strepelias, Elias

    2015-04-01

    A passive control methodology to increase the seismic safety of multi-drum columns is presented. The response of a large scale column-model to dynamic excitations is investigated experimentally. A particle damper is used to replace one of the columns' original drums. The influence of the system parameters on the response of the column is also examined. The seismic response of the column can be considerably reduced if a particle damper replaces a drum above the mid-height. Guidelines and a design methodology are proposed to restore and protect monumental structures consisting of multi-drum columns.

  12. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  13. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are...

  16. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described. PMID:25660755

  17. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna. Part 2: General dynamic response and a seismic safety check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive dynamic analysis for the new JPL 70-meter antenna structure is presented. Analytical procedures are based on the normal mode decomposition which include dumping and special forcing functions. The dynamic response can be obtained for any arbitrarily selected point on the structure. A new computer program for computing the time-dependent, resultant structural displacement, summing the effects of all participating modes, was developed also. Program compatibility with natural frequency analysis output was verified. The program was applied to the JPL 70-meter antenna structure and the dynamic response for several specially selected points was computed. Seismic analysis of structures, a special application of the general dynamic analysis, is based also on the normal modal decomposition. Strength specification of the antenna, with respect to the earthquake excitation, is done by using the common response spectra. The results indicated basically a safe design under an assumed 5% or more damping coefficient. However, for the antenna located at Goldstone, with more active seismic environment, this study strongly recommends and experimental program that determines the true damping coefficient for a more reliable safety check.

  18. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  19. Marine seismic observation of internal solitary wave packets in the northeast South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Wang, Dongxiao; Sun, Longtao; Zheng, Chan; Li, Jiabiao; Dong, Chongzhi

    2015-12-01

    Recently the novel seismic oceanography method has been reported to be an effective way to study the energetic internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the northern South China Sea. An optimized seismic-oceanographic cruise was carried out to observe such near-surface ISWs on Dongsha Plateau in July 2014. Several soliton trains rather than single solitons were captured using the seismic technique. After seismic data processing, one prototypical rank-ordered ISW packet on northeast side of Dongsha Island was clearly identified for further analysis. This included waveforms, propagation velocities, and vertical velocities for individual solitons. In this study, an improved scheme was applied to derive the transient phase velocities from the seismic data which is verified from independent satellite and hydrographic data. Analytical predictions from Korteweg-de Vries equation fit better than the extended Korteweg-de Vries equation ignoring background currents. Our results show that the seismic method can be successfully used to image targets in shallow water below 40 m and that seismic oceanography is a promising technique for studying near-surface phenomena with high spatial resolution.

  20. The International Student Safety Debate: Moving beyond Denial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, C.; Forbes-Mewett, H.; Marginson, S.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 international student safety became an issue of immediate concern to Australian international education exporters following a series of demonstrations by Indian students and interventions by concerned foreign governments. With these developments the "industry" became fixated on how best to secure Australia's share of the international…

  1. Overpressure Prediction From Seismic Data: Implications on Drilling Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, O. O.; Oladunjoye, M. A.; Olayinka, A. I.

    2007-12-01

    High rate of sediment influx into the Niger Delta via river Niger coupled with high rate of basin subsidence, very thick clayey members of Agbada and Akata Formations as well as prevailing presence of growth faults had been identified as the main factors responsible for overpressure generation and preservation in the Niger Delta basin. Analysis of porosity dependent parameters such as interval transit times and interval velocities derived from the seismic records of a field in the Western Niger Delta revealed the presence of overpressured formation at depth of 8670 feet, which is the top of the overpressured zone. The plot of interval transit times against depth gave a positive deflection from normal at the region of overpressure while interval velocity plot gave negative deflection; the ratio of this deviation in both cases is as high as 1.52. Pressure gradient in the upper, normally pressured part of the field was determined to be 0.465 psi/ft., which is within the established normal pressure gradient range in Niger Delta, while the abnormal formation pressure gradient in the overpressured region was determined to be 0.96 psi/ft., and this is also within the published abnormal pressure gradient range of 0.71 to 1.1 psi/ft. in Niger Delta. Formation fracture pressure gradients were determined from the formation pressure information to be 0.66psi/ft. in the upper part of the field and 1.2psi/ft. in the overpressured horizon. Mud weight window (MWW); mud density range necessary to prevent formation kick without initiating hydraulic fracturing was determined to be 10.2 to 12.5lbm/gal in the upper part of the field and 22.1 to 22.63lbm/gal in the overpressured horizon. MWW is indispensable for the selection of the mud pump type, capacity, pumping rate and mud densities at different formation pressure regimes. Overpressure prediction is also requisite for drilling program design, casing design as well as rig capacity choice before spudding. It is necessary to reduce

  2. Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

  3. Seismic safety of earth dams: A probabilistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J.; Reich, M.

    1994-08-01

    The evaluation of the potential for slope sliding and/or liquefaction failure of earthen dams subjected to earthquake loadings is most often based on deterministic procedures of both the excitation input and of the physical model. Such treatment provides answers in the form of either factor of safety values or a yes or no as to whether liquefaction will occur or not. Uncertainties in the physical properties of the soil in the embankment and the foundation layers underlying the dam are typically treated with parametric studies. Consideration of probabilities pertaining to the uncertainties of the earthquake and of the site characterization is expected to augment the prediction of failure potential by associating slope and liquefaction failure to generic properties of the earthquake and of the site characterization. In this study, the procedures for conditional slope failure/liquefaction probabilities are formulated based on a series of simulated deterministic analyses of a dam cross section . These synthetic earthquakes emanate from a 1-D stationary stochastic process of zero mean and an analytical form of power spectral density function. The response of the dam section is formed upon a dynamic finite element approach which provides the temporal variations of the stresses, strains and pore water pressure throughout the model. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion with nonlinear terms compensated for into soil hysteretic damping. Lastly, a stochastic approach to liquefaction based on the transferring of the input motion statistics to the cross section is presented.

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: Phase II program plan (FY 83-FY 84)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M.P.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Cover, L.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Shieh, L.C.; Shukla, S.N.; Wells, J.E.

    1982-08-02

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is an NRC-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its goal is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. The analysis procedure is based upon a state-of-the-art evaluation of the current seismic analysis and design process and explicitly includes the uncertainties inherent in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. As currently planned, the SSMRP will be completed in September, 1984. This document presents the program plan for work to be done during the remainder of the program. In Phase I of the SSMRP, the necessary tools (both computer codes and data bases) for performing a detailed seismic risk analysis were identified and developed. Demonstration calculations were performed on the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. In the remainder of the program (Phase II) work will be concentrated on developing a simplified SSMRP methodology for routine probabilistic risk assessments, quantitative validation of the tools developed and application of the simplified methodology to a Boiling Water Reactor. (The Zion plant is a pressurized water reactor.) In addition, considerable effort will be devoted to making the codes and data bases easily accessible to the public.

  5. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  6. Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suitability of multichannel seismic systems for imaging the internal structure of the water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, V.; Biescas, B.; Carbonell, R.; Danobeitia, J.; Hobbs, R.

    2007-05-01

    Seismic oceanography is slowly becoming a popular tool to investigate the internal structure of the water column. The principle of this technique is that the energy generated by seismic sources is partially reflected at the boundaries between water masses with contrasting physical properties. The reflected wavefield is recorded and processed to create continuous images of these boundaries. Since the pioneer work of Holbrook was published (Holbrook et al., 2003), numerous papers have appeared showing the potential of seismic oceanography to image the ocean's fine structure with unprecedented lateral resolution (10 m), the spatial coincidence of seismic reflectivity and temperature/salinity contrasts, and the correlation between seismic reflections and internal wave spectra. Despite the relatively large amount of recent work, little has been done concerning the existing issues to adapt seismic systems to oceanographic research. In this work we present a set of basic synthetic tests to illustrate the relative significance of different parameters for imaging the oceanic fine structure using seismic methods. The parameters considered include the frequency content and energy of the source wavelet, the ambient noise level, as well as the shooting rate, signal redundancy and fold. We show that powerful (>200 dB re 1 microPa), low-frequency (20-60 Hz) sources such as those commonly used in deep seismic soundings (DSS) are, purposelessly, well-suited to image also the oceans fine structure at all depth ranges. The reason for this is that, on one hand, the acoustic impedance (i.e., reflection coefficients) associated to intra-oceanic boundaries are two orders of magnitude smaller than those associated to geological boundaries (10-3/10-1), so it is crucial to use energetic sources to overcome ambient noise regardless of the target proximity. On the other hand, the limits between water layers, in contrast to the geological ones, do not show abrupt impedance contrasts but rather

  8. International and NASA SSA and Safety of Flight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas K,

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the international and NASA interests in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space debris as it affects space flight safety. The international interesrt has increased since the collision of the Iridium and Cosmos satellites in 2009. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) has commenced a multi-year effort to review the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.

  9. Safety sans Frontières: An International Safety Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Noort, Mark C; Shorrock, Steven; Kirwan, Barry

    2015-05-01

    The management of safety culture in international and culturally diverse organizations is a concern for many high-risk industries. Yet, research has primarily developed models of safety culture within Western countries, and there is a need to extend investigations of safety culture to global environments. We examined (i) whether safety culture can be reliably measured within a single industry operating across different cultural environments, and (ii) if there is an association between safety culture and national culture. The psychometric properties of a safety culture model developed for the air traffic management (ATM) industry were examined in 17 European countries from four culturally distinct regions of Europe (North, East, South, West). Participants were ATM operational staff (n = 5,176) and management staff (n = 1,230). Through employing multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, good psychometric properties of the model were established. This demonstrates, for the first time, that when safety culture models are tailored to a specific industry, they can operate consistently across national boundaries and occupational groups. Additionally, safety culture scores at both regional and national levels were associated with country-level data on Hofstede's five national culture dimensions (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation). MANOVAs indicated safety culture to be most positive in Northern Europe, less so in Western and Eastern Europe, and least positive in Southern Europe. This indicates that national cultural traits may influence the development of organizational safety culture, with significant implications for safety culture theory and practice. PMID:25683474

  10. optimization of seismic network design: application to a geophysical international lunar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, R.; Garcia, R. F.; Lognonne, P.; Calvet, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2010-12-01

    During the next decade, some lunar seismic experiments are planned under the international lunar network initiative, such as NASA ILN Anchor nodes mission or Lunette DISCOVERY proposal, JAXA SELENE-2 and LUNA-GLOB penetrator missions, during which 1 to 4 seismic stations will be deployed on the lunar surface. Yamada et al. (submitted) have described how to design the optimized network in order to obtain the best scientific gain from these future lunar landing missions. In this presentation, we will describe the expected gain from the new lunar seismic observations potentially obtained by the optimized network compared with past Apollo seismic experiments. From the Apollo seismic experiments, valuable information about the lunar interior structure was obtained using deep and shallow moonquakes, and meteoroid impacts (e.g., Nakamura et al., 1983, Lognonné et al., 2003). However, due to the limited sensitivity of Apollo lunar seismometers and the narrowness of the seismic network, the deep lunar structure, especially the core, was not properly retrieved. In addition, large uncertainties are associated with the inferred crustal thickness around the Apollo seismic stations. Improvements of these knowledge will help us to understand the origin of the Earth-Moon system and the initial differentiation of the Moon. Therefore, we have studied the optimization of a seismic network consisting of three or four new seismometers in order to place better constraints on the lunar mantle structure and /or crustal thickness. The network is designed to minimize the a posteriori errors and maximize the resolution of the velocity perturbations inside the mantle and /or the crust through a linear inverse method. For the inversion, the deep moonquakes from active sources already located by Apollo seismic data are used, because it is known that these events occur repeatedly at identical nests depending on tidal constraints. In addition, we use randomly distributed meteoroid impacts

  11. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  12. Internal deformation of the subducted Nazca slab inferred from seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Caroline M.; Long, Maureen D.; Scire, Alissa; Beck, Susan L.; Wagner, Lara S.; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Within oceanic lithosphere a fossilized fabric is often preserved originating from the time of plate formation. Such fabric is thought to form at the mid-ocean ridge when olivine crystals align with the direction of plate spreading. It is unclear, however, whether this fossil fabric is preserved within slabs during subduction or overprinted by subduction-induced deformation. The alignment of olivine crystals, such as within fossil fabrics, can generate anisotropy that is sensed by passing seismic waves. Seismic anisotropy is therefore a useful tool for investigating the dynamics of subduction zones, but it has so far proved difficult to observe the anisotropic properties of the subducted slab itself. Here we analyse seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab beneath Peru and find that the fast direction of seismic wave propagation aligns with the contours of the slab. We use numerical modelling to simulate the olivine fabric created at the mid-ocean ridge, but find it is inconsistent with our observations of seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab. Instead we find that an orientation of the olivine crystal fast axes aligned parallel to the strike of the slab provides the best fit, consistent with along-strike extension induced by flattening of the slab during subduction (A. Kumar et al., manuscript in preparation). We conclude that the fossil fabric has been overprinted during subduction and that the Nazca slab must therefore be sufficiently weak to undergo internal deformation.

  13. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety... International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this... consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS),...

  14. Progress toward international agreement to improve reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, J.I.; Graham, B.

    1993-05-14

    Representatives of nearly one-half of the 114 member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the United States, have participated in the development of an international nuclear safety conventions proposed multilateral treaty to improve civil nuclear power reactor safety. A preliminary draft of the convention has been developed (referred to as the draft convention for this report), but discussions are continuing, and when the final convention text will be completed and presented to IAEA member states for signature is uncertain. This report responds to the former and current Chairman`s request that we provide information on the development of the nuclear safety convention, including a discussion of (1) the draft convention`s scope and objectives, (2) how the convention will be implemented and monitored, (3) the views of selected country representatives on what provisions should be included in the draft convention, and (4) the convention`s potential benefits and limitations.

  15. Walkdown procedure: Seismic adequacy review of safety class 3 & 4 commodities in 2736-Z & ZB buildings at PFP facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1995-03-29

    Seismic evaluation of existing safety class (SC) 3 and non-SC 4 commodities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is integrated into an area walkdown program. Field walkdowns of potential PFP seismic deficiencies associated with structural failure and falling will be performed using the DOE SQUG/EPRI methodology. Potential proximity interactions are also addressed. Objective of the walkdown is to qualify as much of the equipment as practical and to identify candidates for further evaluation.

  16. Ethical concerns in international occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Kisting, Sophia

    2002-01-01

    The number of preventable occupational health and safety (OHS) tragedies that occur yearly requires a deeper examination of the ethics that inform health and safety policies and practices. This article selects a few industrial sectors for closer examination to illustrate challenges and opportunities. Topics addressed include: equitable distribution of resources, ethically acceptable global standards for OHS for all workers, and international use of pesticides and the export of banned chemicals. The authors focus on the relationship between less developed and developed countries and attempt to identify areas of collaboration and potentially positive channels for addressing shortcomings. The agricultural sector is examined in particular because of the major role this sector plays in developing countries. Finally, the authors examine the impact of globalization on the international ethical practice of OHS, especially in relation to vulnerable and marginalized groups such as women, children, and informal sector workers, and conclude with recommendations for working towards more equitable global ethical standards in international OHS. PMID:12225928

  17. Seismic Monitoring of the Arctic region by the International Monitoring System CTBTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinskaya, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Arctic region is less studied in terms of geophysical explorations because of its harsh climatic conditions and low density population. Nowadays increasing the importance of this area leads us to conduct researches in collaboration with relevant international and regional organizations. The International Monitoring System (IMS) network is setup by Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) as the key element of the CTBT verification regime providing data from 50 primary and 120 auxiliary seismic stations deployed all over the world. The aim of this study is to quantify the effective detection capability of the current state of IMS network in order to monitor the Arctic region and evaluate the accuracy of seismic event locations based on the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the CTBTO. A total of 3.928 earthquakes recorded by the IMS Network and reviewed by analysts at the International Data Centre (IDC) during the period from January 2009 to December 2015 at an area above 60°N surrounding the North Pole have been selected. The studied areas cover several tectonic provinces of the Eurasian Arctic, such as Fennoscandia, Eastern Siberia together with Iceland, Greenland, northern Canada and Alaska.

  18. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  19. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  1. International Collaboration to Improve The Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. C.; Begnaud, M. L.; Ballard, S.; Bondar, I.; Storchak, D. A.; Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) method (Myers et al., 2010) was developed to facilitate the use of regional data in routine seismic monitoring. RSTT improves prediction accuracy for Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg travel times using a 3-dimensional model of the Earth's crust and laterally varying seismic wave speed in the upper mantle. Upper mantle velocity is parameterization as a linear function of depth, so that travel times can be computed accurately and in real time. Real-time computation on readily available computers is key to the usefulness of the method by seismic centers that utilize today's flexible networks. In areas where the RSTT model is well constrained by tomography (Eurasia and North America) we have demonstrated improvement in event location accuracy. Extension of RSTT tomographic datasets to new regions is being pursued through international outreach efforts that are coordinated between the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the International Seismological Centre (ISC). Our efforts to date have expanded the collection of regionally recorded events with well-constrained hypocenters in South America, Australia, and Africa. We have also incorporated recently published models of crust and upper mantle structure into the RSTT model. Tests in regions sampled by newly compiled data suggest that the RSTT model improves travel time predictions with respect to the ak135 model (Kennett et al., 1995), which is the global standard for travel time prediction. We are continuing to collect and freely distribute ground-truth data in new regions as well as updates to the RSTT model. This work performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Seismic response of rock slopes: Numerical investigations on the role of internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Applegate, K.; Gibson, M.; Wartman, J.; Adams, S.; Maclaughlin, M.; Smith, S.; Keefer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The stability of rock slopes is significantly influenced and often controlled by the internal structure of the slope created by such discontinuities as joints, shear zones, and faults. Under seismic conditions, these discontinuities influence both the resistance of a slope to failure and its response to dynamic loading. The dynamic response, which can be characterized by the slope's natural frequency and amplification of ground motion, governs the loading experienced by the slope in a seismic event and, therefore, influences the slope's stability. In support of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) project Seismically-Induced Rock Slope Failure: Mechanisms and Prediction (NEESROCK), we conducted a 2D numerical investigation using the discrete element method (DEM) coupled with simple discrete fracture networks (DFNs). The intact rock mass is simulated with a bonded assembly of discrete particles, commonly referred to as the bonded-particle model (BPM) for rock. Discontinuities in the BPM are formed by the insertion of smooth, unbonded contacts along specified planes. The influence of discontinuity spacing, orientation, and stiffness on slope natural frequency and amplification was investigated with the commercially available Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). Numerical results indicate that increased discontinuity spacing has a non-linear effect in decreasing the amplification and increasing the natural frequency of the slope. As discontinuity dip changes from sub-horizontal to sub-vertical, the slope's level of amplification increases while the natural frequency of the slope decreases. Increased joint stiffness decreases amplification and increases natural frequency. The results reveal that internal structure has a strong influence on rock slope dynamics that can significantly change the system's dynamic response and stability during seismic loading. Financial support for this research was provided by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF

  3. Seismicity of the North Atlantic as measured by the International Data Centre using waveform cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, Ivan; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The Technical Secretariat (TS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will carry out the verification of the CTBT which obligates each State Party not to carry out nuclear explosions. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives, collects, processes, analyses, reports on and archives data from the International Monitoring System. The IDC is responsible for automatic and interactive processing of the International Monitoring System (IMS) data and for standard IDC products. The IDC is also required by the Treaty to progressively enhance its technical capabilities. In this study, we use waveform cross correlation as a technique to improve the detection capability and reliability of the seismic part of the IMS. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain obtained by cross correlation on the current sensitivity of automatic and interactive processing we compared seismic bulletins built for the North Atlantic (NA), which is a seismically isolated region with earthquakes concentrating around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This allows avoiding the spill-over of mislocated events between adjacent seismic regions and biases in the final bulletins: the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the IDC and the cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL). To begin with, we cross correlated waveforms recorded at 18 IMS array stations from ~1500 events reported in the REB between 2009 and 2011. The resulting cross correlation matrix revealed the best candidates for master events. We have selected 60 master events evenly distributed over the seismically active zone in the NA. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded by 10 most sensitive array stations were used as waveform templates. These templates are used for a continuous calculation of cross correlation coefficients in the first half of 2012. All detections obtained by cross-correlation are then used to build events according to the current IDC definition: at least three primary stations with accurate

  4. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  5. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal safety reporting and incident... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1021 Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety...

  10. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  11. Seismicity of the North Atlantic as measured by the International Data Centre using waveform cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Technical Secretariat (TS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will carry out the verification of the CTBT which obligates each State Party not to carry out any nuclear explosions, independently of their size and purpose. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives, collects, processes, analyses, reports on and archives data from the International Monitoring System(IMS). The IDC is responsible for automatic and interactive processing of the IMS data and for standard IDC products. The IDC is also required by the Treaty to progressively enhance its technical capabilities. In this study, we use waveform cross correlation as a technique to improve the detection capability and reliability of the seismic part of the IMS. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain obtained by cross correlation on the current sensitivity of automatic and interactive processing we compared seismic bulletins built for the North Atlantic (NA), which is an isolated region with earthquakes concentrating around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This avoids the influence of adjacent seismic regions on the final bulletins: the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the International Data Centre and the cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL). We have cross correlated waveforms from ~1500 events reported in the REB since 2009. The resulting cross correlation matrix revealed the best candidates for master events. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded at eighteen array stations from approximately 50 master events evenly distributed over the seismically active zone in the NA were selected as templates. These templates are used for a continuous calculation of cross correlation coefficients since 2011. All detections obtained by cross-correlation are then used to build events according to the current IDC definition, i.e. at least three primary stations with accurate arrival times, azimuth and slowness estimates. The qualified event hypotheses populated the XSEL. In

  12. Examining markers of safety in homecare using the international classification for patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Homecare is a growth enterprise. The nature of the care provided in the home is growing in complexity. This growth has necessitated both examination and generation of evidence around patient safety in homecare. The purpose of this paper is to examine the findings of a recent scoping review of the homecare literature 2004-2011 using the World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS), which was developed for use across all care settings, and discuss the utility of the ICPS in the home setting. The scoping review focused on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF); two chronic illnesses commonly managed at home and that represent frequent hospital readmissions. The scoping review identified seven safety markers for homecare: Medication mania; Home alone; A fixed agenda in a foreign language; Strangers in the home; The butcher, the baker, the candlestick maker; Out of pocket: the cost of caring at home; and My health for yours: declining caregiver health. Methods The safety markers from the scoping review were mapped to the 10 ICPS high-level classes that comprise 48 concepts and address the continuum of health care: Incident Type, Patient Outcomes, Patient Characteristics, Incident Characteristics, Contributing Factors/Hazards, Organizational Outcomes, Detection, Mitigating Factors, Ameliorating Actions, and Actions Taken to Reduce Risk. Results Safety markers identified in the scoping review of the homecare literature mapped to three of the ten ICPS classes: Incident Characteristics, Contributing Factors, and Patient Outcomes. Conclusion The ICPS does have applicability to the homecare setting, however there were aspects of safety that were overlooked. A notable example is that the health of the caregiver is inextricably linked to the wellbeing of the patient within the homecare setting. The current concepts within the ICPS classes do not capture this, nor do they capture how care

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J B; Foxall, W

    2002-04-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site Seismic Safety Program was conceived in 1979 during the preparation of the site Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The impetus for the program came from the development of new methodologies and geologic data that affect assessments of geologic hazards at the LLNL site; it was designed to develop a new assessment of the seismic hazard to the LLNL site and LLNL employees. Secondarily, the program was also intended to provide the technical information needed to make ongoing decisions about design criteria for future construction at LLNL and about the adequacy of existing facilities. This assessment was intended to be of the highest technical quality and to make use of the most recent and accepted hazard assessment methodologies. The basic purposes and objectives of the current revision are similar to those of the previous studies. Although all the data and experience assembled in the previous studies were utilized to their fullest, the large quantity of new information and new methodologies led to the formation of a new team that includes LLNL staff and outside consultants from academia and private consulting firms. A peer-review panel composed of individuals from academia (A. Cornell, Stanford University), the Department of Energy (DOE; Jeff Kimball), and consulting (Kevin Coppersmith), provided review and guidance. This panel was involved from the beginning of the project in a ''participatory'' type of review. The Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC, a committee sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DOE, and the Electric Power Research Institute) strongly recommends the use of participatory reviews, in which the reviewers follow the progress of a project from the beginning, rather than waiting until the end to provide comments (Budnitz et al., 1997). Following the requirements for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) stipulated in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1023-95, a special

  14. Seismic Safety Analysis of Heavy Element Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, W J; Hildum J S

    2001-06-06

    The Heavy Element Facility is a cold war legacy facility at Livermore National Laboratory. The facility's mission has varied over its lifetime, but operations included the preparation of radioactive heavy element tracers used in underground nuclear weapons testing and the conduct of a heavy element research program. It is a one story concrete masonry structure constructed in several phases between 1955 and 1981. In 1993, a seismic re-evaluation of the facility determined that portions of the building did not meet the PC-2 requirements applicable to it. A seismic upgrade evaluation determined it was not practical to upgrade the facility to support continued programmatic operations. It is now maintained in a storage mode awaiting Department of Energy disposition. In this mode the operations are limited to (1) storage of radioactive material from previous operations, (2) clean-up and decontamination of facility work areas and equipment, (3) removal of contaminated systems and enclosures, (4) facility maintenance, (5) removal of radioactive materials from the facility, (6) characterization of the waste generated by these activities, (7) surveillance activities and (8) security. An important part of the facility's storage function is provided by underground storage vaults. These are embedded in a massive reinforced concrete block whose top is at the building interior's floor level. The inventory in these vaults is limited to solid forms of transuranic isotopes and other radioactive isotopes stored with double or triple containment. The vaults may be accessed infrequently for surveillance or on occasion for removal of inventory to other facilities. As part of maintaining this storage function until final disposition, the safety of the underground storage system was reevaluated using guidance in DOE standard DOE-STD-1027-92. An overview is presented here to highlight important considerations in the evaluation of an older safety system. Special effort is directed to

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Universal law for waiting internal time in seismicity and its implication to earthquake network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2012-02-01

    In their paper (Europhys. Lett., 71 (2005) 1036), Carbone, Sorriso-Valvo, Harabaglia and Guerra showed that the "unified scaling law" for conventional waiting times of earthquakes claimed by Bak et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 88 (2002) 178501) is actually not universal. Here, instead of the conventional time, the concept of the internal time termed the event time is considered for seismicity. It is shown that, in contrast to the conventional waiting time, the waiting event time obeys a power law. This implies the existence of temporal long-range correlations in terms of the event time with no sharp decay of the crossover type. The discovered power-law waiting event-time distribution turns out to be universal in the sense that it takes the same form for seismicities in California, Japan and Iran. In particular, the parameters contained in the distribution take the common values in all these geographical regions. An implication of this result to the procedure of constructing earthquake networks is discussed.

  17. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  18. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2000-12-01

    We have used wide-angle seismic data to constrain the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The experiment was designed as a seismic fan profile to detect azimuthal variations in the seismic structure of the volcanic edifice and its flanks. Seismic energy was generated using a 75-l airgun-array on board the RRS Charles Darwin fired every 40 s along a quasi-circular profile around the island of Tenerife, centered on Teide volcano. We present the results obtained from the data recorded by five portable land stations distributed on the island. The travel-times indicate that the averaged P-wave velocity within the volcanic edifice is greater than 6 km/s. The observed travel-times were reduced to residual travel-times by removing the effects of variations in the bathymetry along the profile, variations in the shot-receiver distance, and from local heterogeneities. Negative residual travel-times up to 0.8 s in amplitude indicate that the southwestern part of Tenerife is characterized by a high P-wave velocity zone, coincident with a gravity maximum that was previously modeled as a high-density body forming the core of an old, large mafic volcano. We estimate velocities greater than 7.3 km/s within the anomalous body, suggesting that it represents an intrusive plutonic complex. This high-velocity, high-density body may have played an important role in the evolution of Tenerife, buttressing Las Cañadas edifice and preventing the occurrence of landslides in the southern and western areas of Tenerife. The bathymetric high between Tenerife and La Gomera is associated with travel-time delays up to 0.4 s, suggesting that it may be composed of large deposits of lava flows and volcaniclastic materials, probably erupted from the shield massifs of Teno, Roque del Conde, and La Gomera. The post-shield volcanic zones of Santiago and Dorsal rifts also seem to be characterized by moderate high P-wave velocities.

  19. 77 FR 32146 - Safety Evaluation Report, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc., Fluorine Extraction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Safety Evaluation Report, International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc., Fluorine Extraction...) is considering the issuance of a license to International Isotopes Fluorine Products, Inc., (IIFP...

  20. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Final report: plant/site selection and data collection (Project I)

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T. Y.

    1981-05-01

    Project I of Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) comprised two parts: the selection of a representative nuclear power plant/site for study in Phase I and the collection of data needed by the other SSMRP projects. Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in Zion, Illinois, was selected for the SSMRP Phase I studies. The Zion plant and its site were found to be reasonably representative of operating and future plants with regard to its nuclear steam supply system; the type of containment structure (prestressed concrete); its electrical capacity (1100 MWe); its location (the Midwest); the peak seismic accelaration used for design (0.17g); and the properties of the underlying soil (the low-strain shear-wave velocity is 1650 ft/s in a 50- to 100-ft-thick layer of soil overlying sedimentary bedrock).

  1. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  2. Long-term accumulation and improvements in seismic event data for the polar regions by the International Seismological Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry A.; Kanao, Masaki; Delahaye, Emily; Harris, James

    2015-03-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a non-governmental non-profit making organization funded by 62 research and operational institutions around the world and charged with the production of the ISC Bulletin - the definitive summary of the global seismicity based on reports from over 130 agencies worldwide, including those active in Polar regions. Jointly with the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the ISC runs the International Seismic Station Registry. The ISC is also charged with maintaining the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth Interior (IASPEI) Reference event List. The new ISC product, the ISC Event Bibliography allows users to obtain references to scientific articles describing specific seismic events, natural and anthropogenic. In this paper we demonstrate how these products and services are applicable to seismic events both in Arctic and Antarctic regions. We also give a summary of the ISC data in polar regions and provide credit to Institutions that report these data to the ISC.

  3. Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

  4. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium..., 2011 in the Atomic and Safety Licensing Board Panel's Hearing Room, located on the third floor of Two... ordered. For the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board. Dated: September 13, 2011 in Rockville, Maryland....

  5. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 2.01-25, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974... Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. (a) Certificates required. (1) The International Convention...

  6. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 2.01-25, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974... Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. (a) Certificates required. (1) The International Convention...

  7. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 2.01-25 Section 2.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974....

  8. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 2.01-25 Section 2.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974....

  9. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 2.01-25, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974... Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. (a) Certificates required. (1) The International Convention...

  10. Perspectives of Cross-Correlation in Seismic Monitoring at the International Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Zerbo, Lassina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on waveform cross-correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. A master event and the events it can find using waveform cross-correlation at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have to be close. For the purposes of the International Data Centre (IDC), one can use the spatial closeness of the master and slave events in order to construct a new automatic processing pipeline: all qualified arrivals detected using cross-correlation are associated with events matching the current IDC event definition criteria (EDC) in a local association procedure. Considering the repeating character of global seismicity, more than 90 % of events in the reviewed event bulletin (REB) can be built in this automatic processing. Due to the reduced detection threshold, waveform cross-correlation may increase the number of valid REB events by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Therefore, the new pipeline may produce a more comprehensive bulletin than the current pipeline—the goal of seismic monitoring. The analysts' experience with the cross correlation event list (XSEL) shows that the workload of interactive processing might be reduced by a factor of two or even more. Since cross-correlation produces a comprehensive list of detections for a given master event, no additional arrivals from primary stations are expected to be associated with the XSEL events. The number of false alarms, relative to the number of events rejected from the standard event list 3 (SEL3) in the current interactive processing—can also be reduced by the use of several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference between the arrival times of the master and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. In this study, one event at a

  11. Seismically induced loads on internal components submerged in waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Rezvani, M.A.; Julyk, J.L.; Weiner, E.O.

    1993-10-01

    As new equipment is designed and analyzed to be installed in the double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, the equipment and the tank integrity must be evaluated. These evaluations must consider the seismically induced loads, combined with other loadings. This paper addresses the hydrodynamic behavior and response of structural components submerged in the fluid waste. The hydrodynamic effects induced by the horizontal component of ground shaking is expressed as the sum of the impulsive and convective (sloshing) components. The impulsive component represents the effects of the fluid that may be considered to move in synchronism with the tank wall as a rigidly attached mass. The convective component represents the action of the fluid near the surface that experiences sloshing or rocking motion. The added-mass concept deals with the vibration of the structural component in a viscous fluid. The presence of the fluid gives rise to a fluid reaction force that can be interpreted as an added-mass effect and a damping contribution to the dynamic response of the submerged components. The distribution of the hydrodynamic forces on the internal components is not linear. To obtain the reactions and the stresses at the critical points, the force distribution is integrated along the length of the equipment submerged in the fluid.

  12. 3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2012-10-01

    Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

  13. Experimental Seismic Event-screening Criteria at the Prototype International Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. D.; Jepsen, D.; Murphy, J. R.

    - Experimental seismic event-screening capabilities are described, based on the difference of body-and surface-wave magnitudes (denoted as Ms:mb) and event depth. These capabilities have been implemented and tested at the prototype International Data Center (PIDC), based on recommendations by the IDC Technical Experts on Event Screening in June 1998. Screening scores are presented that indicate numerically the degree to which an event meets, or does not meet, the Ms:mb and depth screening criteria. Seismic events are also categorized as onshore, offshore, or mixed, based on their 90% location error ellipses and an onshore/offshore grid with five-minute resolution, although this analysis is not used at this time to screen out events.Results are presented of applications to almost 42,000 events with mb>=3.5 in the PIDC Standard Event Bulletin (SEB) and to 121 underground nuclear explosions (UNE's) at the U.S. Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites in the Former Soviet Union, the Lop Nor test site in China, and the Indian, Pakistan, and French Polynesian test sites. The screening criteria appear to be quite conservative. None of the known UNE's are screened out, while about 41 percent of the presumed earthquakes in the SEB with mb>=3.5 are screened out. UNE's at the Lop Nor, Indian, and Pakistan test sites on 8 June 1996, 11 May 1998, and 28 May 1998, respectively, have among the lowest Ms:mb scores of all events in the SEB.To assess the validity of the depth screening results, comparisons are presented of SEB depth solutions to those in other bulletins that are presumed to be reliable and independent. Using over 1600 events, the comparisons indicate that the SEB depth confidence intervals are consistent with or shallower than over 99.8 percent of the corresponding depth estimates in the other bulletins. Concluding remarks are provided regarding the performance of the experimental event-screening criteria, and plans for future

  14. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of temperature and salinity structure of an internal solitary wave packet from marine seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Zheng, Chan; Biescas, Berta; Caiado, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Marine seismic reflection technique is used to observe the strong ocean dynamic process of nonlinear internal solitary waves (ISWs or solitons) in the near-surface water. Analysis of ISWs is problematical because of their transient nature and limitations of classical physical oceanography methods. This work explores a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to recover the temperature and salinity of ISW field using the seismic reflectivity data and in situ hydrographic data. The MCMC approach is designed to directly sample the posterior probability distributions of temperature and salinity which are the solutions of the system under investigation. The principle improvement is the capability of incorporating uncertainties in observations and prior models which then provide quantified uncertainties in the output model parameters. We tested the MCMC approach on two acoustic reflectivity data sets one synthesized from a CTD cast and the other derived from multichannel seismic reflections. This method finds the solutions faithfully within the significantly narrowed confidence intervals from the provided priors. Combined with a low frequency initial model interpreted from seismic horizons of ISWs, the MCMC method is used to compute the finescale temperature, salinity, acoustic velocity, and density of ISW field. The statistically derived results are equivalent to the conventional linearized inversion method. However, the former provides us the quantified uncertainties of the temperature and salinity along the whole section whilst the latter does not. These results are the first time ISWs have been mapped with sufficient detail for further analysis of their dynamic properties.

  15. Internal structure of the Moon inferred from Apollo seismic data and selenodetic data from GRAIL and LLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Yamada, Ryuhei; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Iwata, Takahiro; Hanada, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho

    2015-09-01

    The internal structure of the Moon is important for discussions on its origin and evolution. However, the deep structure of the Moon is still debated due to the absence of comprehensive seismic data. This study explores lunar interior models by complementing Apollo seismic travel time data with selenodetic data which have recently been improved by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The observed data can be explained by models including a deep-seated zone with a low velocity (S wave velocity = 2.9 ± 0.5 km/s) and a low viscosity (˜3 × 1016 Pa s). The thickness of this zone above the core-mantle boundary is larger than 170 km, showing a negative correlation with the radius of the fluid outer core. The inferred density of the lowermost mantle suggests a high TiO2 content (>11 wt.%) which prefers a mantle overturn scenario.

  16. Seismic fragility testing of naturally-aged, safety-related, class 1E battery cells. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The concern over seismic susceptibility of naturally-aged lead-acid batteries used for safety-related emergency power in nuclear power stations was brought about by battery problems that periodically had been reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The Turkey Point Station had reported cracked and buckled plates in several cells in October 1974 (LER 75-5). The Fitzpatrick Station had reported cracked battery cell cases in October 1977 (LER 77-55) and again in September 1979 (LER 79-59). The Browns Ferry Station had reported a cracked cell leaking a small quantity of electrolyte in July 1981 (LER 81-42). The Indian Point Station had reported cracked and leaking cells in both February (LER 82-7) and April 1982 (LER 82-16); both of these LERs indicated the cracked cells were due to expansion (i.e., growth) of the positive plates.

  17. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  18. Regional seismic networks upgrade encouraged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A partnership between the U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN)—planned by the U.S. Geological Survey for implementation in the early 1990s—and a group of modernized, independently run regional seismic networks is recommended by the National Research Council in their recent report, “Assessing the Nation's Earthquakes: The Health and Future of Regional Seismograph Networks.” The panel that prepared the report said that together, the facilities would constitute a National Seismic System, a satellite-based network capable of systematically monitoring and analyzing earthquakes throughout the nation within minutes of their occurrence.Regional seismic networks are arrays of tens to hundreds of seismic stations targeted chiefly on seismically active regions. They provide a broad range of data and information, which can be applied to public safety and emergency management, quantification of hazard and risk assessment associated with natural and human-induced earthquakes, surveillance of underground nuclear explosions, basic research on earthquake mechanics and dynamics, seismic wave propagation, seismotectonic processes, earthquake forecasting and prediction, and properties and composition of the crust and the internal structure of the Earth.

  19. Using the international monitoring system of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors for global airburst detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of meter-sized objects with the Earth occurs every few weeks [1,2]. Most of these collisions result in airbursts, here defined as impacts where the meteoroid's initial kinetic energy is of order a small nuclear weapon (> 0.1 kilotons of TNT equivalent = 4.185×10^{11} J) and where this energy is fully deposited at high altitude in the atmosphere. Historically, the majority of these airbursts go undetected over oceans or remote land areas as dedicated fireball camera networks (eg.[ 3]) cover less than 1 % of the globe. Airbursts often produce meteorite falls and hence airburst data may yield pre-atmospheric orbits and physical properties for the impacting NEO providing context for recovered meteorite samples [4]. With the advent of more capable telescopic survey systems, pre-atmospheric detection of NEO-producing airbursts has become possible as evidenced by the impacts of 2014 AA and 2008 TC_3 [5]. Detection of ''terminal plungers'' is expected to become more common as projects such as ATLAS [6] become operational. This increases the need for instrumental data of the corresponding airburst, particularly its location and energy. Beginning in the late 1990s, a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors has been deployed globally to provide treaty verification for a nuclear test ban. This network is the International Monitoring System (IMS) overseen by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) [7]. The IMS is a unique global resource for detection of explosions worldwide and in recent years shock waves from many airbursts [8] have been detected by the system. Data from the IMS permits airburst location, origin time and energy to be measured. In rare cases, source heights, trajectories, and details of fragmentation may be obtained. Here the current capabilities of the IMS will be presented in the context of airburst detection and characterization. Empirical characteristics of the long-range sound produced by airbursts

  20. Managing Health and Safety on International School Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Jones, John; Hunter-Jones, Philippa

    2007-01-01

    Organizing international school trips can be a demanding experience because of the age of the participants, the unfamiliar surroundings and the excitement associated with the foreign trip. As many organizers are full-time teachers, without a background in the travel sector, the pressures can be even greater. The need to anticipate potential risks…

  1. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  2. [Traumatic dissection of the internal carotid artery by a safety belt: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, M; Ballesteros-Sanz, M A; Pérez-Ceballos, A; González-Fernández, C; López-Espadas, F

    2009-10-01

    Traumatic internal carotid artery dissection secondary to blunt trauma is a rare event accounting for 0.08 to 0.4% of all traumatic lesions. The spectrum of traumatic lesions that can affect the internal carotid artery includes minor lesions like spasm, intimal tears, or mural contusions and serious lesions like pseudoaneurysms and complete occlusion. Delayed clinical presentation is typical and can include headache, hemiparesis, partial Horner's syndrome, and cranial nerve palsy. Embolization secondary to the dissection can have devastating effects because it may cause ischemic stroke. Traumatic internal carotid artery dissection after safety belt trauma is very rare; it is usually due to direct cervical trauma on the side of the shoulder fixation point, which causes external bruising along the pathway of the safety belt. We present two cases of traumatic internal carotid artery dissection with concomitant cerebral infarcts caused by safety belts; we discuss the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this lesion. PMID:19828398

  3. Status report of the US Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) implements the US Government`s International Nuclear Safety Program to improve the level of safety at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Unkraine. The program is conducted consistent with guidance and policies established by the US Department of State (DOS) and the Agency for International Development and in close collaboration with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some of the program elements were initiated in 1990 under a bilateral agreement with the former Soviet Union; however, most activities began after the Lisbon Nuclear Safety Initiative was announced by the DOS in 1992. Within DOE, the program is managed by the International Division of the Office of Nuclear Energy. The overall objective of the International Nuclear Safety Program is to make comprehensive improvements in the physical conditions of the power plants, plant operations, infrastructures, and safety cultures of countries operating Soviet-designed reactors. This status report summarizes the Internatioal Nuclear Safety Program`s activities that have been completed as of September 1994 and discusses those activities currently in progress.

  4. [New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety].

    PubMed

    Efimochkinal, N R; Bagryantseva, E C; Dupouy, E C; Khotimchenko, S A; Permyakov, E V; Sheveleva, S A; Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin - emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures forfood safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection. PMID:27455605

  5. The Activities of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Joseph Blair

    2001-10-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Spain, and Israel are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments”. The 2001 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 2642 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data.

  6. Seismic Initiating Event Analysis For a PBMR Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Van Graan, Henriette; Serbanescu, Dan; Combrink, Yolanda; Coman, Ovidiu

    2004-07-01

    Seismic Initiating Event (IE) analysis is one of the most important tasks that control the level of effort and quality of the whole Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (SPRA). The typical problems are related to the following aspects: how the internal PRA model and its complexity can be used and how to control the number of PRA components for which fragility evaluation should be performed and finally to obtain a manageable number of significant cut-sets for seismic risk quantification. The answers to these questions are highly dependent on the possibility to improve the interface between the internal events analysis and the external events analysis at the design stage. (authors)

  7. Internally Consistent Receiver Function Images, Tomography, and Seismicity of Taiwan from TAIGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Kuochen, H.; Wu, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Taiwan is the site of a young, active arc-continent collision with ongoing mountain building and a complex 3-D geometry, with the Eurasian plate subducting eastwards in the south and the Philippine plate subducting northward under the northeastern part of the island. We combine teleseismic tomography, relocated seismicity, and receiver functions derived from the TAIGER and permanent stations to image Moho and Eurasian slab geometries and determine the mode of lithospheric deformation. The Moho under the Central Range shows preogressive thickening from southern to central Taiwan. An apparent discontinuous Moho structure is due to significant azimuthal variability in the receiver functions, and we investigate dipping structures and crustal anisotropy using radial and tangential receiver functions in polarized Common Point Conversion stacks. Shallow subduction of the Eurasian plate under the Central Ranges, as proposed in the thin-skinned model, would place young sediments under the higher velocity core of the Central Range. An interface with such a velocity inversion is not seen in the receiver function images. We map S-P delay times from receiver functions (mode converted teleseismic phases) relative to S-P arrival times from local seismicity. Such mapping in delay time space removes the distortion introduced by unresolved velocity structure that can bias event depths and time-to depth mapping of receiver functions, and thus allows for accuracy when conducting hypothesis tests for proposed thin- versus thick-skinned deformation models and locating seismogenic structures by placing seismicity in spatial context with crustal structure with high resolution. No clustering of seismicity on a shallow decollement is apparent. Overall, our results favor a thick-skinned rather than thin-skinned deformation mode.

  8. Too generous to a fault? Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art? Errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, James

    2014-11-01

    "One is well advised, when traveling to a new territory, to take a good map and then to check the map with the actual territory during the journey." In just such a reality check, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) maps (prepared using PSHA) portrayed a "low seismic hazard," which was then also assumed to be the "risk to which the populations were exposed." But time-after-time-after-time the actual earthquakes that occurred were not only "surprises" (many times larger than those implied on the maps), but they were often near the maximum potential size (Maximum Credible Earthquake or MCE) that geologically could occur. Given these "errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates" revealed globally in these past performances of the GSHAP maps (> 700,000 deaths 2001-2011), we need to ask not only: "Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art?" but also: "Who and what were the `Raiders of the Lost Art?' "

  9. A Combined Geophysical/Engineering Approach for the Seismic Safety of Long-Span Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäcke, Andreas; Stempniewski, Lothar; Richwalski, Sandra M.; Parolai, Stefano; Milkereit, Claus; Wang, Rongjiang; Bormann, Peter; Roth, Frank

    The spatial distribution of the resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover in the Cologne area was estimated by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method using ambient noise measurements. A comparison with the eigenfrequencies of selected long-span bridges crossing the Rhine river indicated an overlap in frequency and therefore potential damage in the case of an earthquake. Consequently, we conducted a dynamic vulnerability analysis using the finite-element method. In addition to accelerograms from design spectra, ground motion scenarios with sources located on the most proximate fault (Erft fault) were simulated using a numerical hybrid method that takes into account source, path, and site effects. The results indicated that due to the low frequency content of these scenarios, consistently higher responses - compared to the recommended loads in the German seismic code - were obtained at all selected bridges. Usage of both scenarios revealed specific failure mechanisms. While cable supported bridges seem to be secure, grave failure was detected for a box girder bridge.

  10. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit. PMID:25816264

  11. Towards an International Classification for Patient Safety: key concepts and terms

    PubMed Central

    Runciman, William; Hibbert, Peter; Thomson, Richard; Van Der Schaaf, Tjerk; Sherman, Heather; Lewalle, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the patient safety literature has been compromised by the inconsistent use of language. Objectives To identify key concepts of relevance to the International Patient Safety Classification (ICPS) proposed by the World Alliance For Patient Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO), and agree on definitions and preferred terms. Methods Six principles were agreed upon—that the concepts and terms should: be applicable across the full spectrum of healthcare; be consistent with concepts from other WHO Classifications; have meanings as close as possible to those in colloquial use; convey the appropriate meanings with respect to patient safety; be brief and clear, without unnecessary or redundant qualifiers; be fit-for-purpose for the ICPS. Results Definitions and preferred terms were agreed for 48 concepts of relevance to the ICPS; these were described and the relationships between them and the ICPS were outlined. Conclusions The consistent use of key concepts, definitions and preferred terms should pave the way for better understanding, for comparisons between facilities and jurisdictions, and for trends to be tracked over time. Changes and improvements, translation into other languages and alignment with other sets of patient safety definitions will be necessary. This work represents the start of an ongoing process of progressively improving a common international understanding of terms and concepts relevant to patient safety. PMID:19147597

  12. 76 FR 4575 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of high voltage transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for...

  13. 77 FR 30017 - International Capacity Building With Respect to Food Safety; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Capacity Building With Respect to Food Safety; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing a...

  14. 78 FR 20926 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Providing Postmarket Periodic Safety Reports in the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Providing Postmarket Periodic Safety Reports in the ICH E2C(R2) Format (Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report).'' This guidance is intended to inform applicants of the conditions under which FDA will exercise its waiver authority to permit applicants to submit an International......

  15. 76 FR 41312 - Honeywell International Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Honeywell International Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at Rockville, Maryland, this...

  16. 76 FR 8656 - Safety Zone; Miami International Triathlon, Bayfront Park, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Park, Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the waters east of Bayfront Park for the Miami International Triathlon... 0.9 mile swim, which will take place in the waters east of Bayfront Park in Miami,...

  17. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

  18. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  19. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  20. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  1. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    SciTech Connect

    Firmansyah, Rizky; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kristianto

    2015-04-24

    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  2. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, Rizky; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kristianto

    2015-04-01

    Historical records that before the 17th century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon's central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 - 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 - 64 years. Then, on June 26th, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4th, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28th, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  3. The internal geometry of salt structures - A first look using 3D seismic data from the Zechstein of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gent, Heijn; Urai, Janos L.; de Keijzer, Martin

    2011-03-01

    We present a first look at the large-scale, complexly folded and faulted internal structure of Zechstein salt bodies in NW Europe using 3D reflection seismic reflection data from two surveys on the Groningen High and the Cleaver Bank High. We focus on a relatively brittle, folded and boudinaged, claystone-carbonate-anhydrite layer (the Z3 stringer) enclosed in ductile salt. A first classification of the structures is presented and compared with observations from salt mines and analogue and numerical models. Z3 stringers not only are reservoirs for hydrocarbons but can also present a serious drilling problem in some areas. Results of this study could provide the basis for better prediction of zones of drilling problems. More generally, the techniques presented here can be used to predict the internal structure of salt bodies, to estimate the geometry of economic deposits of all kinds and locate zones suitable for storage caverns. Structures observed include an extensive network of zones with increased thickness of the stringer. These we infer to have formed by early diagenesis, karstification, gravitational sliding and associated local sedimentation. Later, this template was deformed into large-scale folds and boudins during salt tectonics. Salt flow was rarely plane strain, producing complex fold and boudin geometries. Deformation was further complicated by the stronger zones of increased thickness, which led to strongly non-cylindrical structures. We present some indications that the thicker zones also influence the locations of later suprasalt structures, suggesting a feedback between the early internal evolution of this salt giant and later salt tectonics. This study opens the possibility to study the internal structure of the Zechstein and other salt giants in 3D using this technique, exposing a previously poorly known structure which is comparable in size and complexity to the internal parts of some orogens.

  4. 77 FR 21893 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting, but you may.... 165.T09-0200 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0200 Safety Zone International Bridge 50th...

  5. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements of the International Convention for Safety... Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. No self-propelled unit of more than 500 gross tons may embark on an international voyage unless it is issued the appropriate Convention certificate as described...

  6. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  7. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPh

  8. Safety assessment guidance in the International Atomic Energy Agency RADWASS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, I.F.; Seitz, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA RADWASS programme is aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. A large portion of this programme has been devoted to safety assessments for various waste management activities. Five Safety Guides are planned to be developed to provide general guidance to enable operators and regulators to develop necessary framework for safety assessment process in accordance with international recommendations. They cover predisposal, near surface disposal, geological disposal, uranium/thorium mining and milling waste, and decommissioning and environmental restoration. The Guide on safety assessment for near surface disposal is at the most advanced stage of preparation. This draft Safety Guide contains guidance on description of the disposal system, development of a conceptual model, identification and description of relevant scenarios and pathways, consequence analysis, presentation of results and confidence building. The set of RADWASS publications is currently undergoing in-depth review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Series.

  9. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  10. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications. PMID:27223463

  11. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  12. DICE: Database for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, Ali; Nagel, Pierre; Briggs, J. Blair; Ivanova, Tatiana

    2003-09-15

    The 2002 edition of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) spans more than 26 000 pages and contains 330 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 2881 critical or near-critical configurations. With such a large content, it became evident that the users needed more than a broad and qualitative classification of experiments to make efficient use of the ICSBEP Handbook. This paper describes the features of Database for the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (DICE), which is a database for the ICSBEP Handbook. The DICE program contains a relational database loaded with selected information from each configuration and a users' interface that enables one to query the database and to extract specific parameters. Summary descriptions of each experimental configuration can also be obtained. In addition, plotting capabilities provide the means of comparing neutron spectra and sensitivity coefficients for a set of configurations.

  13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Programs. Assessment of potential increases in risk due to degradation of steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M. P.; Wells, J. E.; Shieh, L. C.; Cover, L. E.; Streit, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    During the NRC licensing review for the North Anna Units 1 and 2 pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), questions were raised regarding the potential for low-fracture toughness of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump supports. Because other PWRs may face similar problems, this issue was incorporated into the NRC Program for Resolution of Generic Issues. The work described in this report was performed to provide the NRC with a quantitative evaluation of the value/impact implications of the various options of resolving the fracture-toughness question. This report presents an assessment of the probabilistic risk associated with nil-ductility failures of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump structural-support systems during seismic events, performed using the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program codes and data bases.

  14. Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Yaseen M.; Taher, Saadi; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Alamry, Ahmed; Hijazi, Ra’ed; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Marini, Abdellatif M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1) review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2) examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3) review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4) discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5) review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:24250730

  15. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  17. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station Payload Safety: Overcoming Differences and Working for Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Masayuki; Takeyasu, Yoshioka; Griffith, Gerald; Goto, Katsuhito; Mitsui, Masami

    2010-09-01

    The importance of international cooperation among the International Space Station(ISS) Program participants is ever increasing as the ISS nears assembly complete. In the field of payload safety assurance, NASA and JAXA have enhanced their cooperation level. The authors describe the evolution of cooperation between the two agencies and the challenges encountered and overcame. NASA and JAXA have been working toward development of a NASA Payload Safety Review Panel(PSRP) franchise panel at JAXA for several years. When the JAXA Safety Review Panel(SRP) becomes a fully franchised panel of the NASA PSRP, the JAXA SRP will have the authority review and approve all JAXA ISS payloads operated on USOS and JEM, although NASA and JAXA joint reviews may be conducted as necessary. A NASA PSRP franchised panel at JAXA will streamline the conventional review process. Japanese payload organizations will not have to go through both JAXA and NASA payload safety reviews, while NASA will be relieved of a certain amount of review activities. The persistent efforts have recently born fruit. For the past two years, NASA and JAXA have increased emphasis on efforts to develop a NASA PSRP Franchised Panel at JAXA with concrete results. In 2009, NASA and JAXA signed Charter and Joint Development Plan. At the end of 2009, NASA PSRP transferred some review responsibility to the JAXA SRP under the franchising charter. Although JAXA had long history of reviewing payloads by their own panel prior to NASA PSRP reviews, it took several years for JAXA to receive NASA PSRP approval for delegation of franchised review authority to JAXA. This paper discusses challenges JAXA and NAXA faced. Considerations were required in developing a franchise at JAXA for history and experiences of the JAXA SRP as well as language and cultural differences. The JAXA panel, not only had its own well-established processes and supporting organizational structures which had some differences from its NASA PSRP counterparts

  18. Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Dovey, Susan; Hall, Katherine; Makeham, Meredith; Rosser, Walter; Kuzel, Anton; Van Weel, Chris; Esmail, Aneez; Phillips, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a further layer of complexity. This paper draws on the experiences of the LINNAEUS Collaboration, an international group of primary care researchers, in obtaining ethics approval to conduct an international study investigating medical error in general practice in six countries. It describes the ethics review processes applied to exactly the same research protocol for a study run in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the US. Wide variation in ethics review responses to the research proposal occurred, from no approval being deemed necessary to the study plan narrowly avoiding rejection. The authors' experiences demonstrated that ethics committees operate in their own historical and cultural context, which can lead to radically different subjective interpretations of commonly-held ethical principles, and raised further issues such as ‘what is research?’. This first LINNAEUS study started when patient safety was a particularly sensitive subject. Although it is now a respectable area of inquiry, patient safety is still a topic that can excite emotions and prejudices. The LINNAEUS Collaboration now extends to more countries and continues to pursue an international research agenda, so reflection on the influences of history, social context, and structure of each country's ethical review processes is timely. PMID:21439178

  19. Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Susan; Hall, Katherine; Makeham, Meredith; Rosser, Walter; Kuzel, Anton; Van Weel, Chris; Esmail, Aneez; Phillips, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a further layer of complexity. This paper draws on the experiences of the LINNAEUS Collaboration, an international group of primary care researchers, in obtaining ethics approval to conduct an international study investigating medical error in general practice in six countries. It describes the ethics review processes applied to exactly the same research protocol for a study run in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the US. Wide variation in ethics review responses to the research proposal occurred, from no approval being deemed necessary to the study plan narrowly avoiding rejection. The authors' experiences demonstrated that ethics committees operate in their own historical and cultural context, which can lead to radically different subjective interpretations of commonly-held ethical principles, and raised further issues such as 'what is research?'. This first LINNAEUS study started when patient safety was a particularly sensitive subject. Although it is now a respectable area of inquiry, patient safety is still a topic that can excite emotions and prejudices. The LINNAEUS Collaboration now extends to more countries and continues to pursue an international research agenda, so reflection on the influences of history, social context, and structure of each country's ethical review processes is timely. PMID:21439178

  20. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  1. Temperature dependence of internal friction of partially molten gabbronorite at seismic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F.; Ildefonse, B.; Bagdassarov, N.

    2003-04-01

    Torsion deformation experiments have been realized at temperatures 600-1170C and over a range of frequencies 20-2\\cdot10-3 Hz on small-grained gabbronorite samples with uniform grain size ˜ 200-250μ from the Oman ophiolite. Measurements of internal friction Q-1 were performed using oscillatory force torsion apparatus at small strains (˜ 10-7), small torque ˜10-4 N\\cdot m and with increasing small temperature steps to prevent crystallization of the melt and thermal microcracking. During the experiments the furnace was purged with argon gas to reduce the oxidation of samples. The general dependence of internal friction with frequency is Q-1∝ω-α, where ω is the angular velocity of forced oscillations and α is an empirical exponent. Below the melting temperature (˜1050C), α˜-0.15 at low frequency (<= 0.5 Hz) and α˜-0.06 at higher frequency. Above the melting temperature, α˜-0.22 at low frequency and α˜0 at higher frequency. This frequency dependence is attributed to the viscoelastic behaviour due to the intrinsic diffusional mechanism and to the presence of melt phase on grain boundaries. The first order effect of melt on internal friction above the melting temperature is supported by i) the observation in thin sections, after experiments, of phases resulting from partial melting of the rock, ii) the onset of melting is associated with markedly stronger Q-1. The melt-related dissipation could be melt squirt flow because the characteristic frequency for the fluid flow is ωm˜0.2-200 Hz when the melt pocket aspect ratio is ˜10-3-10-2. Temperature and grain size (d) dependences of internal friction can be approximated by the power law Q-1=A\\cdot[omega;-1\\cdot d-1\\cdot exp{-E/RT}]α with α˜-0.09, E˜860 kJ/mol.

  2. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  3. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations. PMID:17208827

  4. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  5. 75 FR 6070 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) is hosting an open forum with the public and other stakeholders on a revision to the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). The forum is expected to yield information useful to inform the development of U.S. Government comments on this......

  6. Advising patients about international travel. What they can do to protect their health and safety.

    PubMed

    Bratton, R L

    1999-07-01

    As international travel becomes increasingly common, primary care physicians are often asked for advice about travel-related health issues. Having a basic knowledge of both health and safety issues is essential. Pregnant women and patients with chronic medical conditions need to be aware of factors that can compromise their health during airline flights. All travelers need to know about required and recommended immunizations; prevention and treatment of jet lag, motion sickness, altitude sickness, food-borne illness, traveler's diarrhea, and sunburn; protection from insects and swimming hazards; how to obtain medical care in foreign countries; and how to protect themselves in the event of a crime or medical emergency. PMID:10418574

  7. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. PMID:26146050

  8. Temporal Considerations in Mission Safety Decision Making- An International Space Station Case Study Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Operations on the International Space Station(ISS) shall ensure mission success whilst maintaining safety for the ISS crew, ISS and visiting vehicles(also known as Safety of Flight(SoF)). Prior to mission, within the mission development and preparation process operations products are defined to form a boundary around and assure mission success. Over the phases of the safety review process, undertaken within spaceflight hardware design, approaches such as failure tolerance are employed to appropriately control the inherent or induced hazards presented by the spaceflight hardware or its use. Prior to mission execution all nominal operations are certified as being safe -it follows then that only after the instance of “issues”, such as hardware anomalies, that operational deltas arise and need further safety(or risk) assessment to be brought to the appropriate approval authority. In some rare cases the need for a new safety assessment response arises due to a change in safety requirements. During a mission, the tools by which a new safety case is assessed by mission management includes concepts as “time to effect” and “time of exposure” and form part of the normal risk understanding and acceptance process. The ISS Mission Management Team(IMMT) shall assure that the presentable risks are acceptable, in terms the specific risk and the accumulated risk. “Equivalent safety” may be granted for noncompliant conditions that do not meet specific requirements in the exact manner specified; however, the hardware/system design, procedure, or configuration satisfies the intent of the requirement by achieving a comparable or higher degree of safety. Criteria for establishing an “equivalent safety” is based on: a. Use of alternative methods/controls; b. Utilization of procedures, protective devices, preflight verification activities, and crew experience base; c. Reduced time of exposure; d. Likelihood/probability of additional failures after loss of first control

  9. A Common Approach for the Certifying of International Space Station (ISS) Basic Hardware for Ground Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul D.; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In order to support the International Space Station, as well as any future long term human missions, vast amounts of logistical-type hardware is required to be processed through the various launch sites. This category consists of such hardware as spare parts, replacement items, and upgraded hardware. The category also includes samples for experiments and consumables. One attribute that all these items have is they are generally non-hazardous, at least to ground personnel. Even though the items are non-hazardous, launch site ground safety has a responsibility for the protection of personnel, the flight hardware, and launch site resources. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the safety organization must have knowledge of the hardware and its operations. Conversely, the hardware providers are entitled to a process that is commensurate with the hazard. Additionally, a common system should be in place that is flexible enough to account for the requirements at all launch sites, so that, the hardware provider need only complete one process for ground safety regardless of the launch site.

  10. Roadmap for the international collaborative epidemiologic monitoring of safety and effectiveness of new high priority vaccines.

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Hector S; Zuber, Patrick; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Chen, Robert T; Sankohg, Osman; Laserson, Kayla F; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Loucq, Christian; Weibel, Daniel; Dodd, Caitlin; Black, Steve

    2013-08-01

    With the advent of new vaccines targeted to highly endemic diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and with the expansion of vaccine manufacturing globally, there is an urgent need to establish an infrastructure to evaluate the benefit-risk profiles of vaccines in LMIC. Fortunately the usual decade(s)-long time gap between introduction of new vaccines in high and low income countries is being significantly reduced or eliminated due to initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) and the Decade of Vaccines for the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. While hoping for more rapid disease control, this time shift may potentially add risk, unless appropriate capacity for reliable and timely evaluation of vaccine benefit-risk profiles in some LMIC's are developed with external assistance from regional or global level. An ideal vaccine safety and effectiveness monitoring system should be flexible and sustainable, able to quickly detect possible vaccine-associated events, distinguish them from programmatic errors, reliably and quickly evaluate the suspected event and its association with vaccination and, if associated, determine the benefit-risk of vaccines to inform appropriate action. Based upon the demonstrated feasibility of active surveillance in LMIC as shown by the Burkina Faso assessment of meningococcal A conjugate vaccine or that of rotavirus vaccine in Mexico and Brazil, and upon the proof of concept international GBS study, we suggest a sustainable, flexible, affordable and timely international collaborative vaccine safety monitoring approach for vaccines being newly introduced. While this paper discusses only the vaccine component, the same system could also be eventually used for monitoring drug effectiveness (including the use of substandard drugs) and drug safety. PMID:23707171

  11. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  12. International R&M/Safety Cooperation Lessons Learned Between NASA and JAXA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Rene; Havenhill, Maria T.; Zampino, Edward J.; Kiefer, Dwayne E.

    2013-01-01

    Presented are a number of important experiences gained and lessons learned from the collaboration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on the CoNNeCT (Communications, Navigation, and Networking re-Configurable Testbed) project. Both space agencies worked on the CoNNeCT Project to design, assemble, test, integrate, and launch a communications testbed facility mounted onto the International Space Station (ISS) truss. At the 2012 RAMS, two papers about CoNNeCT were presented: one on Ground Support Equipment Reliability & System Safety, and the other one on combined application of System Safety & Reliability for the flight system. In addition to the logistics challenges present when two organizations are on the opposite side of the world, there is also a language barrier. The language barrier encompasses not only the different alphabet, it encompasses the social interactions; these were addressed by techniques presented in the paper. The differences in interpretation and application of Spaceflight Requirements will be discussed in this paper. Although many, but definitely not all, of JAXA's Spaceflight Requirements were inspired by NASA, there were significant and critically important differences in how they were interpreted and applied. This paper intends to summarize which practices worked and which did not for an international collaborative effort so that future missions may benefit from our experiences. The CoNNeCT flight system has been successfully assembled, integrated, tested, shipped, launched and installed on the ISS without incident. This demonstrates that the steps taken to facilitate international understanding, communication, and coordination were successful and warrant discussion as lessons learned.

  13. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-06-27

    This report describes the modifications to the ventilation system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Topics discussed in this report include; system functional requirements, evaluations of equipment, a list of drawings showing the safety envelope boundaries; list of safety envelope equipment, functional requirements for individual safety envelope equipment, and a list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment.

  14. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  15. Observations on seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.

    1984-06-01

    In this paper we present observations on a number of issues related to seismic PRAs including: strengths and weaknesses of seismic PRAs; uncertainty, sensitivity and variability; common misconceptions; possible improvements in seismic safety acceptance criteria; recommended modifications to the NRC approach to safety goals; and major problems. Some specific examples are provided.

  16. Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks: implications for mine safety and tectonic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Ogaswara, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Milev, Alexander; Cichowicz, Artur; Kawakata, Hironori; Moriya, Hirokazu; Naoi, Makoto; Kgarume, Thabang; Murakami, Osamu; Mngadi, Siyanda

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity poses a significant risk to workers in deep and overstressed mines, such as the gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa, as well as inhabitants of earthquake-prone regions such as Japan. A 5-year collaborative project entitled "Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks" was launched in 2010 to address these risks, drawing on over a century of South African and Japanese research experience with respect to mining-related and tectonic earthquakes, respectively. The project has three main aims: (1) to learn more about earthquake preparation and triggering mechanisms by deploying arrays of sensitive sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce seismic activity; (2) to learn more about earthquake rupture and rockburst damage phenomena by deploying robust strong ground motion sensors close to potential fault zones and on stope hangingwalls; and (3) to upgrade the South African surface national seismic network in the mining districts. Research sites have been established at mines operated by Sibanye Gold (Hlanganani Shaft and Cooke #4 Shaft) and Anglogold Ashanti (Moab-Khotsong). More than 70 boreholes (totalling more than 2.8 km in length) have been drilled to locate "capable" faults i.e. faults that are considered likely to become seismically active as a result of mining activity and to deploy sensors. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tilt meters, and controlled seismic sources were installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the earthquake preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress produced by the propagation of the rupture front. These data are being integrated with measurements of rock properties, stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. The mid-point of the 5-year project has passed. New observations of stress and the response of the rock mass to mining have already been made

  17. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  18. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. PMID:24076304

  19. Using Comprehensive Science-based Disaster Scenarios to Support Seismic Safety Policy: A Case Study in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the USGS entered a technical assistance agreement with the City of Los Angeles to apply the results of the 2008 ShakeOut Scenario of a M7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the seismic resilience of the City. The results of this project are to be submitted to the Mayor of Los Angeles at the Great ShakeOut on October 16, 2014. The ShakeOut scenario detailed how the expected cascade of failures in a big earthquake could lead to significant delays in disaster recovery that could create financial losses that greatly exceed the direct losses in the event. The goal of the seismic resilience plan is to: protect the lives of residents during earthquakes improve the capacity of the City to respond to the earthquake prepare the City to recover quickly after the earthquake so as to protect the economy of the City and all of southern California To accomplish these goals, the project addresses three areas of seismic vulnerability that were identified in the original ShakeOut Scenario: Pre-1980 buildings that present an unacceptable risk to the lives of residents, including "non-ductile reinforced concrete," and "soft-first-story" buildings Water system infrastructure (including impact on firefighting capability) Communications infrastructure The critical science needed to support policy decisions is to understand the probable consequences to the regional long-term economy caused by decisions to undertake (or not) different levels of mitigation. The arguments against mitigation are the immediate financial costs, so a better understanding of the eventual benefit is required. However, the direct savings rarely justify the mitigation costs, so the arguments in favor of mitigation are driven by the potential for cascading failures and the potential to trigger the type of long term reduction in population and economic activity that has occurred in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

  20. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Omesh K.; Diercks, Dwight R.; Ma, David Chia-Chiun; Garud, Yogendra S.

    2013-12-17

    At the request of the United States (U.S.) government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 20 senior safety experts to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States. This review focused on the effectiveness of the regulatory functions implemented by the NRC and on its commitment to nuclear safety and continuous improvement. One suggestion resulting from that review was that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) incorporate lessons learned from periodic safety reviews (PSRs) performed in other countries as an input to the NRC’s assessment processes. In the U.S., commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) are granted an initial 40-year operating license, which may be renewed for additional 20-year periods, subject to complying with regulatory requirements. The NRC has established a framework through its inspection, and operational experience processes to ensure the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities on an ongoing basis. In contrast, most other countries do not impose a specific time limit on the operating licenses for NPPs, they instead require that the utility operating the plant perform PSRs, typically at approximately 10-year intervals, to assure continued safe operation until the next assessment. The staff contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to perform a pilot review of selected translated PSR assessment reports and related documentation from foreign nuclear regulatory authorities to identify any potential new regulatory insights regarding license renewal-related topics and NPP operating experience (OpE). A total of 14 PSR assessment documents from 9 countries were reviewed. For all of the countries except France, individual reports were provided for each of the plants reviewed. In the case of France, three reports were provided that reviewed the performance assessment of thirty-four 900-MWe reactors of similar design commissioned between 1978

  1. Seismic imaging of the western Iberian crust using ambient noise: Boundaries and internal structure of the Iberian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Dias, Nuno; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Iberian Massif one of the major structural units of the Iberian Peninsula is composed by rocks with ages ranging from the Upper Precambrian to Upper Carboniferous. The massif outcrops in Central and Western Iberia and the location of its limits, as well as the relationship between its shallow and deeper structures are still a matter of debate. Several problems like source-receiver geometry, irregular seismicity distribution or, for some methods, low seismicity occurrence did not allow obtaining high-resolution models of Iberian structure using traditional imaging methods. Seismic interferometry/ambient noise surface-waves tomography allows imaging regions with a resolution that mainly depends on the seismic network coverage. This study aims to map the boundaries of the Iberian Massif particularly those that are covered or in contact with recent (Cenozoic) and older (Mesozoic) basins. Whenever possible, we intend to characterize second-order structures inside the Massif. We present new Rayleigh-wave dispersion maps of the western Iberian Peninsula for periods between 8 and 30 seconds, obtained from correlations of seismic ambient noise, following the recent increase in seismic broadband network density in Portugal and Spain. Group velocities have been computed for each station pair using the empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. The resulting high-path density allows us to obtain lateral variations of the group velocities as a function of period in cells of 0.5° x 0.5° with an unprecedented resolution. As a result we were able to address some of the unknowns regarding the lithospheric structure beneath SW Iberia. The dispersion maps allow the imaging of the major structural units, namely the Iberian Massif, and the Lusitanian and Algarve Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Cadiz Gulf/Gibraltar Strait area corresponds to a strong low-velocity anomaly, which can be followed to the largest period inverted

  2. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  3. Comment on "How can seismic hazard around the New Madrid seismic zone be similar to that in California?" by Arthur Frankel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Shi, B.; Kiefer, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    PSHA is the method used most to assess seismic hazards for input into various aspects of public and financial policy. For example, PSHA was used by the U.S. Geological Survey to develop the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 1996, 2002). These maps are the basis for many national, state, and local seismic safety regulations and design standards, such as the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, the International Building Code, and the International Residential Code. Adoption and implementation of these regulations and design standards would have significant impacts on many communities in the New Madrid area, including Memphis, Tennessee and Paducah, Kentucky. Although "mitigating risks to society from earthquakes involves economic and policy issues" (Stein, 2004), seismic hazard assessment is the basis. Seismologists should provide the best information on seismic hazards and communicate them to users and policy makers. There is a lack of effort in communicating the uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the central U.S., however. Use of 10%, 5%, and 2% PE in 50 years causes confusion in communicating seismic hazard assessment. It would be easy to discuss and understand the design ground motions if the true meaning of the ground motion derived from PSHA were presented, i.e., the ground motion with the estimated uncertainty or the associated confidence level.

  4. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Krško Basin with relation to seismic safety of existing and planned nuclear infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavec, Miloš; Atanackov, Jure; Jamšek Rupnik, Petra

    2015-04-01

    The Kr\\vsko Basin hosts complex infrastructure and is being investigated as a potential site for several future projects including a new NPP and a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. A large database of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data has been accumulated, producing increasingly detailed tectonic and seismotectonic models of the Kr\\vsko Basin. The first tectonic and seismotectonic investigation campaign was undertaken in the 1970s for the first Kr\\vsko NPP (Arsovski et al., 1973). The next study (Fajfar et al., 1994) was followed by an extensive geophysical survey in in which basin axis-trending syncline was reevaluated (Persoglia, ed., 2000). In 2004 the geological, tectonic and seismotectonic characteristics of the Kr\\vsko Basin were readdressed by performing a periodic seismic hazard assessment for the NPP (Swan et al., 2004). After which, a series of field investigations were conducted for the potential radwaste repository site evaluation (Brenčič, ed., 2006; Petkovšek, ed., 2009). In 2008-2013 a set of geological, geotechnical and seismological investigations were performed for the proposed new NPP unit (Bazargan-Sabet et al., 2010). As part of this project the seismotectonic model and the seismic source model were updated (Bavec et al., 2010a,b). Particular attention was given to the Libna fault (Bavec et al., 2013), which was also the subject of a follow up study to further evaluate the age of deformed sediments in the basin (Cline et al., 2013). A new phase of geological, geophysical and geomorphic investigations is being undertaken in the Kr\\vsko basin by the team of Rizzo Associates and Geological Survey of Slovenia to refine on the geological and seismological inputs to the planned PSHA. The Basin has experienced moderate and dispersed seismic activity. The catalogue of known earthquakes in the region (ARSO, 2011) extends back to the early 17th century. The strongest earthquake in the Kr\\vsko basin was the

  5. 77 FR 33094 - Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary Celebration Fireworks, St. Mary's River, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; International Bridge 50th Anniversary..., Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (77 FR 21893). We received 1 public submission... Locks, Sault Sainte Marie, MI; in the Federal Register (76 FR 22064). We received 1 public...

  6. 78 FR 48044 - Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West Grand Opening Fireworks; San Diego...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal... support of a fireworks display for the Grand Opening of Lindbergh Airport Terminal Two West on August...

  7. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  8. Seismic imaging of the western Iberian crust using ambient noise: Boundaries and internal structure of the Iberian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Afonso Dias, Nuno; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    We present new Rayleigh-wave dispersion maps of the western Iberian Peninsula for periods between 8 and 30 s, obtained from correlations of seismic ambient noise, following the recent increase in seismic broadband network density in Portugal and Spain. Group velocities have been computed for each station pair using the empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. The resulting high-path density allows us to obtain lateral variations of the group velocities as a function of period in cells of 0.5° × 0.5° with an unprecedented resolution. As a result we were able to address some of the unknowns regarding the lithospheric structure beneath SW Iberia. The dispersion maps allow the imaging of the major structural units, namely the Iberian Massif, and the Lusitanian and Algarve Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Cadiz Gulf/Gibraltar Strait area corresponds to a strong low-velocity anomaly, which can be followed to the largest period inverted, although slightly shifted to the east at longer periods. Within the Iberian Massif, second-order perturbations in the group velocities are consistent with the transitions between tectonic units composing the massif.

  9. De-Orbiting the International Space Station ISS: Safety Considerations and Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, F.; Huertas, I.; Ortega, G.; Sgobba, T.; Laurel, C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has proposed to its partners the de-orbiting of the International Space Station (ISS) around the year 2020. Technical plans on how to do it have been presented as long as the year 1999. The current situation of ISS claims for a possible extension of the date of 2020 but to all International Partners is clear that the de-orbiting operations need to be performed with safety as the main and central paradigm. The proposed paper evaluates several scenarios and options for the de- orbiting of ISS. The paper proposes trajectory design considerations, de- orbit strategies and the calculation of casualties and fatalities for some of those. The paper proposes as well some fragment disposal regions using the classic approach of disposing ISS on ground and compares it with the feasibility and cost with the approach of end of life vehicle recycling culture of the European Union. The paper computes and calculates the reliability of all options and establishes a trade-off between all of them. The paper provides a detailed mathematical model that is able to calculate casualty and fatality rates. The mathematical model has been programmed in the ASTOS software tool and the corresponding casualty and fatality curves have been computed for some considered options. The following options are studied, discussed, and traded- off: simple one-go complete disposal of ISS with controlled de-orbiting using a service module, complex partial disposal of ISS elements with controlled de-orbiting using a modified version of service module, same variation using a set of auxiliary vehicles, design of a new vehicle to dispose the ISS and finally the uncontrolled re-entry of the entire ISS. Further, the paper proposes some de-orbiting requirements, and mission design considerations for a successful end-of-mission closure.

  10. New seismic hazard maps for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, C.; Frankel, A.; Petersen, M.; Leyendecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    The probabilistic methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is applied to a new seismic hazard assessment for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Modeled seismic sources include gridded historical seismicity, subduction-interface and strike-slip faults with known slip rates, and two broad zones of crustal extension with seismicity rates constrained by GPS geodesy. We use attenuation relations from western North American and worldwide data, as well as a Caribbean-specific relation. Results are presented as maps of peak ground acceleration and 0.2- and 1.0-second spectral response acceleration for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years (return periods of about 2,500 and 500 years, respectively). This paper describes the hazard model and maps that were balloted by the Building Seismic Safety Council and recommended for the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the 2006 International Building Code. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  12. New "Risk-Targeted" Seismic Maps Introduced into Building Codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicholas; Garrett, B.; Hayes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout most municipalities of the United States, structural engineers design new buildings using the U.S.-focused International Building Code (IBC). Updated editions of the IBC are published every 3 years. The latest edition (2012) contains new "risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake" (MCER) ground motion maps, which are enabling engineers to incorporate a more consistent and better defined level of seismic safety into their building designs.

  13. Internal geometry, seismic facies, and petroleum potential of canyons and inner fan channels of the Indus submarine fan

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.

  14. Patient Safety in Medication Nomenclature: Orthographic and Semantic Properties of International Nonproprietary Names

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Rachel; Aronson, Jeffrey K.; ten Hacken, Pius; Williams, Alison; Jordan, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background Confusion between look-alike and sound-alike (LASA) medication names (such as mercaptamine and mercaptopurine) accounts for up to one in four medication errors, threatening patient safety. Error reduction strategies include computerized physician order entry interventions, and ‘Tall Man’ lettering. The purpose of this study is to explore the medication name designation process, to elucidate properties that may prime the risk of confusion. Methods and Findings We analysed the formal and semantic properties of 7,987 International Non-proprietary Names (INNs), in relation to naming guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) INN programme, and have identified potential for errors. We explored: their linguistic properties, the underlying taxonomy of stems to indicate pharmacological interrelationships, and similarities between INNs. We used Microsoft Excel for analysis, including calculation of Levenshtein edit distance (LED). Compliance with WHO naming guidelines was inconsistent. Since the 1970s there has been a trend towards compliance in formal properties, such as word length, but longer names published in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use. The stems used to show pharmacological interrelationships are not spelled consistently and the guidelines do not impose an unequivocal order on them, making the meanings of INNs difficult to understand. Pairs of INNs sharing a stem (appropriately or not) often have high levels of similarity (<5 LED), and thus have greater potential for confusion. Conclusions We have revealed a tension between WHO guidelines stipulating use of stems to denote meaning, and the aim of reducing similarities in nomenclature. To mitigate this tension and reduce the risk of confusion, the stem system should be made clear and well ordered, so as to avoid compounding the risk of confusion at the clinical level. The interplay between the different WHO INN naming principles should be further examined, to better understand their

  15. Proceedings of the international meeting on thermal nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current issues in nuclear power plant safety; national programs in nuclear power plant safety; radiological source terms; probabilistic risk assessment methods and techniques; non LOCA and small-break-LOCA transients; safety goals; pressurized thermal shocks; applications of reliability and risk methods to probabilistic risk assessment; human factors and man-machine interface; and data bases and special applications.

  16. Passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

    1972-01-01

    The establishment of a network of seismic stations on the lunar surface as a result of equipment installed by Apollo 12, 14, and 15 flights is described. Four major discoveries obtained by analyzing seismic data from the network are discussed. The use of the system to detect vibrations of the lunar surface and the use of the data to determine the internal structure, physical state, and tectonic activity of the moon are examined.

  17. Safety Analysis Using Lebesgue Strain Measure of Thick-Walled Cylinder for Functionally Graded Material under Internal and External Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, A. K.; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Safety analysis has been done for thick-walled circular cylinder under internal and external pressure using transition theory which is based on the concept of generalized principal Lebesgue strain measure. Results have been analyzed theoretically and discussed numerically. From the analysis, it can be concluded that circular cylinder made of functionally graded material is on the safer side of the design as compared to homogeneous cylinder with internal and external pressure, which leads to the idea of “stress saving” that minimizes the possibility of fracture of cylinder. PMID:24089605

  18. Communicating Environment, Health, and Safety Information to Internal and External Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that today's corporation must keep informed a wide range of individuals who have a stake in environment, health, and safety issues. Describes four elements of an effective communications program for doing so: electronic media to communicate technical information, environmental and safety audits, public communications with company…

  19. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... zone will be implemented for the 15 minutes before each race or race heat. The same methods of... safety zone approximately 15 minutes following the conclusion of each race or race heat when the power... race heat. Vessels may transit through the safety zone with permission from the Captain of the...

  20. Promoting Safety in Schools: International Experience and Action. Crime Prevention Series #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Margaret

    This monograph brings together information on school safety trends, policies, and projects from various countries around the world. It has been written for school principals, superintendents, administrators, boards of governors, school-parent bodies, and others in leadership positions who are concerned about school safety issues. It discusses the…

  1. From Seismic Characterization to Coupled Process Testing Along Drifts at LSBB as an Example of Establishing an International Facility for a Worldwide Network of Underground Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, S.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit (LSBB) at Rustrel France is a French National Instrumented Infrastructure, CNRS, dedicated to inter-Disciplinary Underground Science and Technology. The underground galleries and the surrounding carbonate rock formations are well characterized by seismic imaging studies obtained with sensors both along the ridges and underground along the drifts. The facility is horizontally accessible with the main tunnel following an L-shape. The deepest is 518m below the surface. The main tunnel continues with a long gallery below the ridge, and ends with an escape shaft to the surface. Electrical and fiber optic communication cables connect the galleries and the underground to the huts on the surface. All data from LSBB are distributed on line (http://lsbb.oca.eu) and data from the 3D broadband seismic array are fed in real time (delay of ~4s) to the European Union seismic network (see streams RUSF_01, 03, 04, 05, 06, and 07 at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/Data-info/orbstats.html). Concurrently with establishing the seismic network, the LSBB characterizes its low noise environment, including its low ambient magnetic noise with a (SQUID)2 magnetometer, located 518m below the surface in a shielded cage. The magnetic noise floor in the cage is lower than 2fT/SQRT(Hz). Together with the seismic network and the magnetic sensor, tiltmeters, radiation sensors, groundwater pressure and chemistry monitoring devices are installed to characterize the unsaturated environment along the tunnel. Seasonal seepage observations are also collected. 3 national research projects are currently carried out along dedicated tunnels: (1) the project on High-Pulse Poroelasticity Protocol (HPPP) for geophysical monitoring of CO2 injection in reservoirs (http://hppp.unice.fr/), focusing currently on hydromechanical testing in carbonate rock; (2) the MAXWELL electromagnetic project on broadband imaging which employs joint resistivity and permittivity inversion (http

  2. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  3. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  4. Integral Reactor Physics Benchmarks - the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (icsbep) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (irphep)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.; Sartori, Enrico

    2006-04-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear industry, thousands of integral experiments related to reactor physics and criticality safety have been performed. Many of these experiments can be used as benchmarks for validation of calculational techniques and improvements to nuclear data. However, many were performed in direct support of operations and thus were not performed with a high degree of quality assurance and were not well documented. For years, common validation practice included the tedious process of researching integral experiment data scattered throughout journals, transactions, reports, and logbooks. Two projects have been established to help streamline the validation process and preserve valuable integral data: the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP). The two projects are closely coordinated to avoid duplication of effort and to leverage limited resources to achieve a common goal. A short history of these two projects and their common purpose are discussed in this paper. Accomplishments of the ICSBEP are highlighted and the future of the two projects outlined.

  5. Internal structure of Erebus volcano, Antarctica imaged by high-resolution active-source seismic tomography and coda interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Aster, R.; Kyle, P.; Barclay, A.; Chaput, J.; Knox, H.

    2013-03-01

    Erebus volcano, Antarctica has hosted a persistent convecting phonolite lava lake for over 40 years. The lake produces small (VEI 0-1) Strombolian eruptions resulting from gas slugs rising through the upper conduit system. High-resolution (to scale lengths of several hundreds of meters) three-dimensional P-wave tomographic velocity images were obtained to a depth of approximately 600 m below the volcano surface. Data were collected using 91 seismographs deployed over an approximately 4 by 4 km area of the summit region. Seismic illumination was provided by 12 chemical shots emplaced in shallow snow and ice boreholes. P-wave direct arrival travel-time measurements were used to invert for strong velocity anomalies (with spatial variations in Vp exceeding ±1 km/s) associated with the uppermost few km. Shallow anomalies correlate with fumarolic ice caves, a prominent radial chilled dike, and ring structures associated with the caldera rim. Conduit structures feeding the lava lake and other vents within the Inner Crater are evidently too small (e.g., less than many 10 s of meters) to be imaged under the resolution limits of this experiment. However, combined velocity and coda interferometry scattering intensity images identify near-summit regions with both low velocity and high scattering that are candidates for magma accommodation. Results indicate a nonaxisymmetric near-summit magmatic system that is likely constrained by heterogeneous structures in the uppermost volcano. The most extensive volume of near-summit magma likely resides approximately 500 m NW of the active Inner Crater vents at depths of 500 m and more below the surface.

  6. 78 FR 28987 - Revisions to Transportation Safety Requirements and Harmonization With International Atomic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), is proposing to amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These amendments would make NRC regulations conform to revisions to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for the international transportation of radioactive......

  7. 76 FR 19698 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR 4575... repairs. National Grid, the transmission line repair company has not specified the exact date repairs will... Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  8. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  9. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant. PMID:26139958

  10. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... FR 4575-4577). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and none was held. On April 8, 2011, we published a final rule (FR) of the same in the Federal Register (76 FR 19698-19701). In the final rule, the safety zone has an effective date beginning on May 9,...

  11. Integrating seismic reflection and geological data and interpretations across an internal basement massif: The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Hatcher, R.D., Jr.; Stephenson, W.J.; Hooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window exposes 1.1 Ga Grenvillian basement and its metasedimentary Paleozoic(?) cover through the allochthonous Inner Piedmont. The issue of whether the crustal block inside the window was either transported above the master Appalachian (late Alleghanian) de??collement or is an autochthonous block that was overridden by the de??collement has been debated for some time. New detrital zircon geochronologic data from the cover rocks inside the window suggest this crustal block was derived from Gondwana but docked with Laurentia before the Alleghanian event. Reprocessed deep seismic reflection data from west-central Georgia (pre- and poststack noise reduction, amplitude variation analysis, and prestack depth migration) indicate that a significant band of subhorizontal reflections occurs almost continuously beneath the window collinear with the originally recognized de??collement reflections north of the window. A marked variation in the de??collement image, from strong and coherent north of the window to more diffuse directly beneath the window, is likely a partial consequence of the different geology between the Inner Piedmont and the window. The more diffuse image beneath the window may also result from imaging problems related to changes in topography and fold of cover (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). Two alternative tectonic models for the Pine Mountain window can partially account for the observed variation in the de??collement reflectivity. (1) The Pine Mountain block could be truncated below by a relatively smooth continuation of the de??collement. The window would thus expose an allochthonous basement duplex or horse-block thrust upward from the south along the Late Proterozoic rifted continental margin. (2) The window represents localized exhumation of autochthonous basement and cover along a zone of distributed intrabasement shearing directly beneath the window. Either model is viable if only reflector geometry is

  12. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  13. The Space Station Freedom - International cooperation and innovation in space safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) being developed by the United States, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and Canada poses novel safety challenges in design, operations, logistics, and program management. A brief overview discloses many features that make SSF a radical departure from earlier low earth orbit (LEO) space stations relative to safety management: size and power levels; multiphase manned assembly; 30-year planned lifetime, with embedded 'hooks and scars' forevolution; crew size and skill-mix variability; sustained logistical dependence; use of man, robotics and telepresence for on-orbit maintenance of station and free-flyer systems; closed-environment recycling; use of automation and expert systems; long-term operation of collocated life-sciences and materials-science experiments, requiring control and segregation of hazardous and chemically incompatible materials; and materials aging in space.

  14. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Downar, Thomas; Zazimi, Mujid; Hill, Bob

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  15. Seismic Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  16. Examining the Prevalence of Self-Reported Foodborne Illnesses and Food Safety Risks among International College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyonga, Agnes Ngale; Eighmy, Myron A.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne illness and food safety risks pose health threats to everyone, including international college students who live in the United States and encounter new or unfamiliar foods. This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported foodborne illness among international college students by cultural regions and length of time in the United…

  17. Seismic assessment of Technical Area V (TA-V).

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Carlos S.

    2014-03-01

    The Technical Area V (TA-V) Seismic Assessment Report was commissioned as part of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Self Assessment Requirement per DOE O 414.1, Quality Assurance, for seismic impact on existing facilities at Technical Area-V (TA-V). SNL TA-V facilities are located on an existing Uniform Building Code (UBC) Seismic Zone IIB Site within the physical boundary of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The document delineates a summary of the existing facilities with their safetysignificant structure, system and components, identifies DOE Guidance, conceptual framework, past assessments and the present Geological and Seismic conditions. Building upon the past information and the evolution of the new seismic design criteria, the document discusses the potential impact of the new standards and provides recommendations based upon the current International Building Code (IBC) per DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety and DOE G 420.1-2, Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and Non-Nuclear Facilities.

  18. Ergonomics support for local initiative in improving safety and health at work: International Labour Organization experiences in industrially developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2005-04-15

    Ergonomics has played essential roles in the technical cooperation activities of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in occupational safety and health in industrially developing countries. Ergonomics support focusing on practical day-to-day needs at the grass-root workplace has strengthened the local initiative in improving safety and health. Practical action-tools such as ergonomics checklists, local good example photos and group discussions have assisted workers and employers in identifying feasible solutions using locally available resources. Direct participation of workers and employers has been promoted in ergonomics training aimed at immediate solutions. ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems have played increasingly important roles in the systematic planning of local improvement actions. Policy-level programmes to develop network support mechanisms to the grass-root workplace were essential for following up and sustaining local achievements. Practical ergonomics support tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, should be developed and widely applied so as to reach grass-root levels and help local people create safer and healthier workplaces. PMID:16040528

  19. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ON CHEMICAL SAFETY'S COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PLANT TEST SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents the status report on the International Program's Collaborative Study on Plant Test Systems. n the first phase of this program, 16 laboratories submitted data on the genetic effects of EMS evaluated in three bioassays; i.e., Vicia faba root hair, Tradescantia...

  20. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    DOEpatents

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  1. Safety of Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture in 80,523 Musculoskeletal Disorder Patients: A Retrospective Review of Internal Safety Inspection and Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Kim, Me-Riong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Ahn, Yong-Jun; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung Geun; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the range and frequency of significant adverse events (AEs) in use of pharmacopuncture and acupuncture using large-scale, single-center safety data as evidence supporting safety of acupuncture with pharmacopuncture, used extensively in Asia, is scarce. Status reports (nurse records in ambulatory and inpatient care units, and administrative event records) as a part of an internal audit at a Korean Medicine hospital specializing in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, patient complaints filed through the hospital website, and medical records of patients visiting from December, 2010 (inception of internal audit) to October, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total 80,523 patients (5966 inpatients and 74,557 outpatients) visited during this period. Inpatients received an average 31.9 ± 20.7 acupuncture, 23.0 ± 15.6 pharmacopuncture, and 15.4 ± 11.3 bee venom pharmacopuncture sessions, and outpatients were administered 8.2 ± 12.2 acupuncture, 7.8 ± 11.5 pharmacopuncture, and 10.0 ± 12.3 bee venom sessions, respectively. AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture were forgotten needle (n = 47), hypersensitivity to bee venom (n = 37), presyncopic episode (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 4), and infection (n = 2). Most cases were mild requiring little or no additional intervention and leaving no sequelae. Although serious AEs including infection (n = 2) and anaphylaxis associated with bee venom treatment (n = 3) were also reported, incidence was rare at 0.002% in infection and 0.019% in anaphylaxis. Incidence of AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture treatment was low, and most cases were not serious. Still, however rare, avoidable AEs can and should be prevented through education and corrective action. Further prospective studies on the effect of error reduction strategies on incidence of adverse effects are warranted. PMID:27149503

  2. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  3. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara; Desoye, Gernot; Hansson, Stefan; Kenna, Gerry; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Markert, Udo R; Powles-Glover, Nicola; Schneider, Henning; Leach, Lopa

    2016-09-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures in pregnancy and how ex vivo and in vitro human placental models might be advanced to reproducible human placental test systems (HPTSs), refining a weight of evidence to the guidance given around compound risk assessment during pregnancy. The placental pharmacokinetics of xenobiotic transfer, dysregulated placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, "PlaNet", will bridge academia, industry and regulators to consider screen ability and standardisation issues surrounding these models, with proven reproducibility for introduction into industrial and clinical practice. PMID:27327413

  4. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

  5. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  6. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinomas Adjacent to the Gallbladder with Internally Cooled Electrodes: Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Won; Park, Mihyun; Kim, Heejung; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) adjacent to the gallbladder with the use of internally cooled electrodes. Materials and Methods We retrospectively assessed 45 patients with 46 HCCs (mean size, 2.2 cm) adjacent to the gallbladder (≤1.0 cm) treated with RF ablation using an internally cooled electrode system. An electrode was inserted into the tumor either parallel (n = 38) or perpendicular (n = 8) to the gallbladder wall. The safety and therapeutic efficacy of the procedures were assessed with clinical and imaging follow-up examinations. Follow-up with the use of CT ranged from four to 45 months (mean, 19 months). The association between variables (electrode direction, electrode type, tumor size, tumor location, lobar location) and the presence of a residual tumor or local tumor progression was also analyzed. Results There were no major complications and minor complications were noted in three patients (7%) including one case of vasovagal syncope and two cases of bilomas. Wall thickening of the gallbladder adjacent to the RF ablation zone was noted in 14 patients (41%) as determined on immediate follow-up CT imaging. Wall thickening showed complete disappearance on subsequent follow-up CT imaging. The primary technique effectiveness rate was 96% (44/46) based on one-month follow-up CT imaging. Local tumor progression was noted in six (14%) of 44 completely ablated tumors during the follow-up period. The direction of electrode insertion (perpendicular), tumor size (≥3 cm) and tumor location (a tumor that abutted the gallbladder) were associated with an increased risk of early incomplete treatment. No variable was significantly associated with local tumor progression. Conclusion Percutaneous RF ablation of HCCs adjacent to the gallbladder using an internally cooled electrode is a safe and effective treatment

  7. Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn

    Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for…

  8. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume I contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Base Isolation for Department of Energy Facilities held in Marina Del Rey, California, May 13-15, 1992.

  9. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  10. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  11. Functional performance requirements for seismic network upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1991-08-18

    The SRL seismic network, established in 1976, was developed to monitor site and regional seismic activity that may have any potential to impact the safety or reduce containment capability of existing and planned structures and systems at the SRS, report seismic activity that may be relevant to emergency preparedness, including rapid assessments of earthquake location and magnitude, and estimates of potential on-site and off-site damage to facilities and lifelines for mitigation measures. All of these tasks require SRL seismologists to provide rapid analysis of large amounts of seismic data. The current seismic network upgrade, the subject of this Functional Performance Requirements Document, is necessary to improve system reliability and resolution. The upgrade provides equipment for the analysis of the network seismic data and replacement of old out-dated equipment. The digital network upgrade is configured for field station and laboratory digital processing systems. The upgrade consists of the purchase and installation of seismic sensors,, data telemetry digital upgrades, a dedicated Seismic Data Processing (SDP) system (already in procurement stage), and a Seismic Signal Analysis (SSA) system. The field stations and telephone telemetry upgrades include equipment necessary for three remote station upgrades including seismic amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, pulse calibrators, weather protection (including lightning protection) systems, seismometers, seismic amplifiers, and miscellaneous other parts. The central receiving and recording station upgrades will include discriminators, helicopter amplifier, omega timing system, strong motion instruments, wide-band velocity sensors, and other miscellaneous equipment.

  12. New Seismic Hazard Maps of the Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Jorjiashvili, N.; Sokhadze, G.

    2014-12-01

    The methodologies for long term probabilistic prognoses in terms of seismic hazard assessment are well developed. Modern seismic hazard assessment is one of the major concepts for sustainable development of the Caucasus region in general. Safety of the civilian population in the region as well as safe implementation of large economic projects must be protected. Prosperity in the Caucasus region, and its successful development, unconditionally depends on international projects aiming to integrate the region into leading economical structure. Earthquake hazard analysis is especially important for economically undeveloped countries, since the recovery period after strong earthquakes is very long. The main objective of our study was to improve the database for hazard calculations and develop modern and new common hazard maps for the region. The primary tasks to obtain our objective were defined as follows: 1. Improvement of the shared regional database, with quality control, to include seismological, geological, geophysical, geodetic, geotechnical and other information, as well as data on critical infrastructure. 2. Seismic hazard assessment based upon the newly improved database and using new methodologies and CRISIS software. 3. Tectonic studies of the region. The improved database facilitated tectonic studies, including the development of physical/mathematical models for regional seismotectonic processes. These models were incorporated active tectonic structures throughout the area, including transborder regions. The National Building codes of Georgia are based on the seismic hazard map developed in 1999. Presented study participants were the key researchers in compiling the 1999 hazard map. Map has been slightly updated in 2006 and adopted in 2009. Based on the world experience national seismic hazard map should be updated periodically (approximately once in every 5 years.). We believe that the results of this study, namely the new probabilistic seismic hazard maps

  13. Code System for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 SEISIM1 calculates the probabilities of seismically induced failures for components and systems and propagates these calculations to determine the probability of accident sequences and the resulting total risk, which is quantified as an expected value of radiation release and exposure from a given nuclear power plant. SEISIM1 was developed as a fundamental tool for the systems analysis portion of the NRC's Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The SSMRP provides a complete, self-containedmore » methodology to assess and quantify the risk to nuclear power plants from seismic events and seismically induced failures.« less

  14. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  15. Worth the Risk: Four Approaches to Safety in International Learning, Including Selected and Annotated Resource Guide. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Wayne; Mitchell, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    More and more Canadians are departing the country for international study, training and work experiences. Increasingly Canadian organizations and institutions are developing programs that further this mobility. However there is a dearth of resources and a lack of guidelines related to ensuring health and safety while abroad. "Worth the…

  16. Piping and equipment resistance to seismic-generated missiles

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalle, F.R.; Golbeg, P.R.; Chenault, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    For reactor and nuclear facilities, both Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A require assessments of the interaction of non-Safety Class 1 piping and equipment with Safety Class 1 piping and equipment during a seismic event to maintain the safety function. The safety class systems of nuclear reactors or nuclear facilities are designed to the applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers standards and Seismic Category 1 criteria that require rigorous analysis, construction, and quality assurance. Because non-safety class systems are generally designed to lesser standards and seismic criteria, they may become missiles during a safe shutdown earthquake. The resistance of piping, tubing, and equipment to seismically generated missiles is addressed in the paper. Gross plastic and local penetration failures are considered with applicable test verification. Missile types and seismic zones of influence are discussed. Field qualification data are also developed for missile evaluation.

  17. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  18. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  19. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops. PMID:18296343

  20. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  1. Seismic calm predictors of rockburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmushko, Tatjana; Turuntaev, Sergey; Kulikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The method of "seismic calm" is widely used for forecasting of strong natural earthquakes (Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V., 2003). The "seismic calm" means that during some time period before the main earthquake, the smaller events (with energies of several order smaller than that of the main earthquake) don't occur. In the presented paper the applicability of the method based on the idea of seismic calm for forecasting rockburst is considered. Three deposits (with seismicity induced by mining) are analyzed: Tashtagol iron deposit (Altai, Russia), Vorkuta (North Ural, Russia) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen, Norway) coalmines. Local seismic monitoring networks are installed on each of them. The catalogues of seismic events were processed and strong events (rockbursts) were studied (Vorkuta M=2,3; Barentsburg M=1,8; Tashtagol M=1,9÷2,2). All catalogues cover at least two years (Vorkuta - 2008-2011, Barentsburg - 2011-2012, Tashtagol - 2002-2012). It was found that the number of seismic events with magnitudes M=0,5÷1 decreased in a month before the main strong event at Vorkuta coalmines. This event was not directly related with coal mining, its epicenter was located aside of the area of coal mining. In Barentsburg mine the rockburst wasn't so strong as in Vorkuta. The number of events with energies M=0,5 decreased slightly before the rockburst, but not so obviously as in Vorkuta case. The seismic events with high energies occur often at Tashtagol iron deposit. Mining methods used there differ from the coal deposit mining. At coalmines the mining combine runs from edge to edge of the wall, cutting off the coal. The considered iron deposit is developed by a method of block blasting. Not all rockbursts occur immediately after the blasting, so, the problem of the rockburst prediction is important for mining safety. To find rockburst precursors it is necessary to separate the events occurred due to the block blasting from the seismic events due to relocation of stresses in

  2. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  3. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated and sufficient justification of hazard assessment protocols; (b) a more complete learning of the actual range of earthquake hazards to local communities and populations, and (c) a more ethically responsible control over how seismic hazard and seismic risk is implemented to protect public safety. It follows that the international project GEM is on the wrong track, if it continues to base seismic risk estimates on the standard method to assess seismic hazard. The situation is not hopeless and could be improved dramatically due to available geological, geomorphologic, seismic, and tectonic evidences and data combined with deterministic pattern recognition methodologies, specifically, when intending to PREDICT PREDICTABLE, but not the exact size, site, date, and probability of a target event. Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems of blocks-and-faults has led already to methodologies of neo-deterministic seismic hazard analysis and intermediate-term middle- to narrow-range earthquake prediction algorithms tested in real-time applications over the last decades. It proves that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such info in advance extreme catastrophes, which are LOW PROBABILITY EVENTS THAT HAPPEN WITH CERTAINTY. Geoscientists must initiate shifting the minds of community from pessimistic disbelieve to optimistic challenging issues of neo-deterministic Hazard Predictability.

  5. Hanford quarterly seismic monitoring report 96C

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1996-09-24

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975 the University of Washington assumed responsibility for and expanded the network. In 1979 the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the site as part of site characterization. Rockwell International Operations followed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Geosciences Group, operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network operated by the University of Washington. Funding ended for BWIP in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and the University of Washington contract was then transferred WHC`s Environmental Division. Seismic Monitoring is currently assigned to WHC`s Hanford Technical Services (HTS), part of the Environmental Division. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site.

  6. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  8. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  9. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the “three criteria of a safe injection” and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention.

  10. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  11. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  12. Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Nakanishi, K

    2005-04-11

    There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.

  13. Space safety and rescue 1991; Proceedings of the 24th International IAA Symposium, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 5-11, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Gloria W.

    Various papers on space safety and rescue are presented. The topics addressed include: the human factor in spacecraft operation, space rescue system analysis and design, safety operation experiment M-V launch vehicle, laser systems for spacecraft hull protection, EVA self-rescue simulation in the virtual interactive environment workstation, crew escape subsystems for space transportation subsystems, enhancing safety for future space transportation systems, manned spaceflight certification, activities on space debris in Europe, management of the orbital environment, orbital space debris problem, analysis of the necessity and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent a chain reaction of collisions, examination of possible collisions in space, quantifying the orbital debris environment, breakup in geostationary orbit and possible creation of a debris ring, effects of chemical propulsion on the environment.

  14. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.; Maggio, F.

    2008-07-08

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  15. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  16. 33 CFR 165.T01-0992 - Safety Zone; repair of high voltage transmission lines to Logan International Airport; Saugus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COTP Boston, or his designated on-scene representative. (2) This safety zone is closed to all vessel traffic, except as may be permitted by the COTP Boston or the designated on-scene representative. (3) The “on-scene representative” of the Captain of the Port Boston is any Coast Guard commissioned,...

  17. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  18. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  19. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  20. Seismic refraction exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1980-12-30

    In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

  1. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method. PMID:20541389

  2. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  3. The Contribution of Paleoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Guerrieri, Luca; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of site evaluation/re-evaluation procedures for nuclear power plants (NPP), paleoseismology plays an essential role not only for Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment (FDHA) but also for Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA). The relevance of paleoseismology is recommended in the reference IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA SSG-9) and has been dramatically confirmed in recent time especially after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP caused by the disastrous great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11 March 2011. After this event, the IAEA International Seismic Safety Center promoted a technical document aimed at encouraging and supporting Member States, especially from newcomer countries, to include paleoseismic investigations into the geologic database, highlighting the value of earthquake geology studies and paleoseismology for nuclear safety and providing standard methodologies to perform such investigations. In detail, paleoseismic investigations in the context of site evaluation of nuclear installations have the following main objectives: i) identification of seismogenic structures based on the recognition of effects of past earthquakes in the regional area; ii) improvement of the completeness of earthquake catalogs, through the identification and dating of ancient moderate to large earthquakes, whose trace has been preserved in the geologic records; iii) estimation of the maximum seismic potential associated with an identified seismogenic structure/source, typically on the basis of the amount of displacement per event (evaluable in paleoseismic trenches), as well as of the geomorphic and stratigraphic features interpretable as the cumulative effect of repeated large seismic events (concept of "seismic landscape"); iv) rough calibration of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), by using the recurrence interval of large earthquakes detectable by paleoseismic investigations, and providing a "reality check" based on direct observations of

  4. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  5. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  6. Seismic margins and calibration of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its objective is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant and to determine major contributors to the state-of-the-art seismic and systems analysis process and explicitly includes the uncertainties in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. In Phase I of SSMRP, the overall seismic risk assessment methodology was developed and assembled. The application of this methodology to the seismic PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant has been documented. This report documents the method deriving response factors. The response factors, which relate design calculated responses to best estimate values, were used in the seismic response determination of piping systems for a simplified seismic probablistic risk assessment. 13 references, 31 figures, 25 tables.

  7. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  8. 75 FR 3471 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2... Pharmaceuticals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``M3(R2)...

  9. Analysis of the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Nikolova, Svetlana

    2010-05-01

    Modernization of Bulgarian National Seismological Network has been performed during a month in 2005. Broadband seismometers and 24-bits digital acquisition systems with dynamic range more than 132dB type DAS130-01 produced by RefTek Inc. were installed at the seismic stations from the existing analog network. In the present study the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) stations is evaluated. In order to compare the performance of the network against international standards the detail analysis of the seismic noise was performed using software and models that are applied in the international practice. The method of McNamara and Bulland was applied and the software code PDFSA was used to determine power spectral density function (PSD) of the background noise and to evaluate the probability density function (PDF). The levels of the ambient seismic noise were determined and the full range of the factors influencing the quality of the data and the performance of a seismic station was analyzed. The estimated PSD functions were compared against two models for high (NHNM) and low (NLNM) noise that are widely used in seismological practice for seismic station monitoring qualities assessment. The mode PDF are used to prepare annual, seasonal, diurnal and frequency analyses of the noise levels at BNDSN stations. The annual analysis shows that the noise levels at the Northern Bulgarian stations are higher than the ones at Central and Southern stations for the microseisms' periods (1sec -7sec). It is well observable at SS PRV and PSN located near Black sea. This is due to the different geological conditions of the seismic stations as well. For the periods of "cultural" noise the power distribution depends on the type of noise sources and as a rule is related to human activities at or near the Earth surface. Seismic stations MPE, VTS and MMB have least mode noise levels and the noisiest stations are PGB, PVL и JMB. The seasonal

  10. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Cariprazine in Acute Exacerbation of Schizophrenia: Results From an International, Phase III Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Zukin, Stephen; Wang, Yao; Lu, Kaifeng; Ruth, Adam; Nagy, Krisztián; Laszlovszky, István; Durgam, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of cariprazine, a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors, in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Patients were randomized to 6-week double-blind treatment with placebo, cariprazine 3 to 6 mg/d, or cariprazine 6 to 9 mg/d. Primary and secondary efficacy: change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scores, respectively, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures adjusting for multiple comparisons. Safety included treatment-emergent adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, electrocardiograms, ophthalmologic examination, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and extrapyramidal symptom scales. In the Safety Population (placebo, n = 147; cariprazine 3-6 mg/d, n = 151; cariprazine 6-9 mg/d, n = 148), 60.5% of patients completed the study. At week 6, statistically significant least squares mean differences in favor of cariprazine versus placebo were observed for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (3-6 mg/d: -6.8, P = 0.003; 6-9 mg/d: -9.9, P < 0.001) and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (3-6 mg/d: -0.3, P = 0.012; 6-9 mg/d: -0.5, P < 0.001). Common treatment-emergent adverse events (≥5% and twice the rate of placebo) in both cariprazine groups were akathisia, extrapyramidal disorder, and tremor; most were mild to moderate in severity. Mean changes in metabolic parameters were generally small and similar between groups. Prolactin levels decreased in all groups. In conclusion, cariprazine 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 mg/d versus placebo demonstrated significant improvement on primary and secondary efficacy parameters. Cariprazine was generally well tolerated. These results suggest that cariprazine may be a new and effective treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:26075487

  12. Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.

  13. Seismic Considerations--Elementary and Secondary Schools, Revised Edition. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC.

    Elementary and secondary schools deserve special attention with respect to seismic safety because of their special occupancy characteristics and their importance to immediate and long-term earthquake disaster relief and recovery efforts. Seismic safety provisions, when incorporated in a sound design from the very beginning, usually amount to only…

  14. Seismicity dynamics and earthquake predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.

    2011-02-01

    Many factors complicate earthquake sequences, including the heterogeneity and self-similarity of the geological medium, the hierarchical structure of faults and stresses, and small-scale variations in the stresses from different sources. A seismic process is a type of nonlinear dissipative system demonstrating opposing trends towards order and chaos. Transitions from equilibrium to unstable equilibrium and local dynamic instability appear when there is an inflow of energy; reverse transitions appear when energy is dissipating. Several metastable areas of a different scale exist in the seismically active region before an earthquake. Some earthquakes are preceded by precursory phenomena of a different scale in space and time. These include long-term activation, seismic quiescence, foreshocks in the broad and narrow sense, hidden periodical vibrations, effects of the synchronization of seismic activity, and others. Such phenomena indicate that the dynamic system of lithosphere is moving to a new state - catastrophe. A number of examples of medium-term and short-term precursors is shown in this paper. However, no precursors identified to date are clear and unambiguous: the percentage of missed targets and false alarms is high. The weak fluctuations from outer and internal sources play a great role on the eve of an earthquake and the occurrence time of the future event depends on the collective behavior of triggers. The main task is to improve the methods of metastable zone detection and probabilistic forecasting.

  15. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  16. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  17. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  18. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  19. Geological mounds and their seismic expression

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Mound geometry (convex upward structure developed above a subhorizontal surface) is common in many geological environments and frequently observed in 2-dimensions on seismic sections. Seismic mounds are typically associated with deep-water clastic sediments, e.g. submarine fans and slumps, and with a variety of carbonate depositional settings, e.g., reefs and banks, but also exist in other depositional settings. Recognition will be dependent on mound dimension, velocity contrast, amplitude strength, and the resolution of the seismic data. Since mounds can represent an important exploration target and recognition of porous, hydrocarbon-bearing section is all-important, careful restitution of the original depositional morphology from the seismic data is required. Details of present velocity distribution are critical, along with a realistic concept of any post-depositional modification, such as compaction, which may have taken place during burial. Where differential compaction is taking place, for example between sand and shale, seismic expression of morphology will be continually modified during progressive burial. Analysis of structure at the top and base of the mound can provide support for lithological interpretation based on other criteria, such as seismic facies analysis based on internal and external reflections. Modeling, using parameters from mounds in a variety of known depositional settings, illustrates many of the interpretational problems associated with seismic mounds and provides some objective criteria for analysis of mound morphology. Comparison is made with real data, principally from northwest Europe and North America.

  20. [Results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Nurgozhin, T S; Guliaev, A E; Ermekbaeva, B A; Zhaugasheva, S K; Abuova, G T; An, É A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The study included 16312 patients examined in different cities during 2011-2012. It showed that ascoril expectorant (Glenmark) at a standard dose is an effective agent for the treatment of cough in children above 3 years and adults aged up to 78 years with ARVI and acute bronchitis, exacerbation of these conditions or grade I-II chronic obstructire pulmonary disease. Most patients reported good therapeutic effect within 1 day after intake. Ascoril expectorant caused no adverse reactions and was well tolerated by the patients. 91% of the attending physicians describe the drug as highly effective. PMID:24417069

  1. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  2. Laboratory glassware rack for seismic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rack for laboratory bottles and jars for chemicals and medicines has been designed to provide the maximum strength and security to the glassware in the event of a significant earthquake. The rack preferably is rectangular and may be made of a variety of chemically resistant materials including polypropylene, polycarbonate, and stainless steel. It comprises a first plurality of parallel vertical walls, and a second plurality of parallel vertical walls, perpendicular to the first. These intersecting vertical walls comprise a self-supporting structure without a bottom which sits on four legs. The top surface of the rack is formed by the top edges of all the vertical walls, which are not parallel but are skewed in three dimensions. These top edges form a grid matrix having a number of intersections of the vertical walls which define a number of rectangular compartments having varying widths and lengths and varying heights.

  3. Evaluation of the Seismic Hazard in Venezuela with a revised seismic catalog that seeks for harmonization along the country borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, H.; Alvarado, L.; Paolini, M.; Olbrich, F.; González, J.; Ascanio, W.

    2013-05-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment is a complex endeavor that relies on the quality of the information that comes from different sources: the seismic catalog, active faults parameters, strain rates, etc. Having this in mind, during the last several months, the FUNVISIS seismic hazard group has been working on a review and update of the local data base that form the basis for a reliable PSHA calculation. In particular, the seismic catalog, which provides the necessary information that allows the evaluation of the critical b-value, which controls how seismic occurrence distributes with magnitude, has received particular attention. The seismic catalog is the result of the effort of several generations of researchers along the years; therefore, the catalog necessarily suffers from the lack of consistency, homogeneity and completeness for all ranges of magnitude over any seismic study area. Merging the FUNVISIS instrumental catalog with the ones obtained from international agencies, we present the work that we have been doing to produce a consistent seismic catalog that covers Venezuela entirely, with seismic events starting from 1910 until 2012, and report the magnitude of completeness for the different periods. Also, we present preliminary results on the Seismic Hazard evaluation that takes into account such instrumental catalog, the historical catalog, updated known fault geometries and its correspondent parameters, and the new seismic sources that have been defined accordingly. Within the spirit of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), all these efforts look for possible bridges with neighboring countries to establish consistent hazard maps across the borders.

  4. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  5. Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

  6. Setting the Stage for Harmonized Risk Assessment by Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Jochen; Giardini, Domenico; SHARE Consortium

    2010-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is arguably one of the most useful products that seismology can offer to society. PSHA characterizes the best available knowledge on the seismic hazard of a study area, ideally taking into account all sources of uncertainty. Results form the baseline for informed decision making, such as building codes or insurance rates and provide essential input to each risk assessment application. Several large scale national and international projects have recently been launched aimed at improving and harmonizing PSHA standards around the globe. SHARE (www.share-eu.org) is the European Commission funded project in the Framework Programme 7 (FP-7) that will create an updated, living seismic hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. SHARE is a regional component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM, www.globalquakemodel.org), a public/private partnership initiated and approved by the Global Science Forum of the OECD-GSF. GEM aims to be the uniform, independent and open access standard to calculate and communicate earthquake hazard and risk worldwide. SHARE itself will deliver measurable progress in all steps leading to a harmonized assessment of seismic hazard - in the definition of engineering requirements, in the collection of input data, in procedures for hazard assessment, and in engineering applications. SHARE scientists will create a unified framework and computational infrastructure for seismic hazard assessment and produce an integrated European probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) model and specific scenario based modeling tools. The results will deliver long-lasting structural impact in areas of societal and economic relevance, they will serve as reference for the Eurocode 8 (EC8) application, and will provide homogeneous input for the correct seismic safety assessment for critical industry, such as the energy infrastructures and the re-insurance sector. SHARE will cover the whole European territory, the

  7. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  8. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  9. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  10. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Event requests to the lander in order to get the associated high frequencies of these events. These school will therefore be fully associated to the InSight/SEIS discoveries. The SEIS@Mars project will therefore allow the students to perform scientific analysis almost at the same time as the International "professional" seismologists.

  11. Risk-Targeted versus Current Seismic Design Maps for the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

  12. Seismic stability of gentle infinite slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hadj-Hamou, T.; Kavazanjian, E.

    1985-06-01

    Deterministic and probabilistic analyses of the stability of gentle infinite slopes subject to seismically induced excess pore pressures and inertia forces are developed. In the deterministic analysis, classical equations for infinite slope stability are rewritten to explicitly include excess pore pressure and seismic acceleration. Equations for the factor of safety are developed that include these factors. In the probabilistic analysis, the seismic acceleration, excess pore pressure, and effective friction angle are considered random variables. Acceleration peaks are considered Rayleigh distributed. Excess pore pressure is predicted using a model that considers Rayleigh distributed shear stress peaks. The friction angle is modeled with a Beta distribution. Acceleration and pore pressure development within the gentle infinite slope are assumed the same as those in a horizontal deposit of the same average thicknesss. Finite element analyses are performed to investigate the limits of this assumption. Results from both analyses are compared to documented case histories of lateral spreading.

  13. Safety and efficacy of Intraurethral Mitomycin C Hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Karimian, Babak; Fasihi, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of intraurethral Mitomycin C (MMC) hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. Methods: A thermoresponsive hydrogel base consisting of 0.8 mg MMC with 1cc water and propylene glycol to PF-127 poloxamer was used in theater. 40 male patients with short, non-obliterated, urethral stricture were randomized into 2 groups: control and MMC. After internal urethrotomy, the MMC group patients received the MMC-Hydrogel while the others were just catheterized. Both groups had their catheters for at least 1 week. After surgery, they were followed up by means of medical history and physical examination, monitoring voiding patterns and retrograde urethrogram at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Results: 40 male patients between 14 to 89 years old (Mean = 54.15) underwent internal urethrotomy. The average age for the control and MMC group was 54.55±21.25 and 53.75±24.75 respectively. In a comparison of age between the two groups, they were matched (P=0.574). Stricture length was 10.7±5.9 and 9.55±4.15 mm for the control and MMC group respectively. There were no statistically meaningful differences between the two groups (P=0.485). Fifteen patients had a history of one previous internal urethrotomy which in a comparison between the two groups meant there was no meaningful difference (P = 0.327). During postoperative follow up, total urethral stricture recurrence happened in 12 patients: 10 patients (50%) in control group and 2 patients (10%) in MMC group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). There were no significant complications associated with the MMC injection in our patients. Conclusions: Based on our results, MMC Hydrogel may have an anti-fibrotic action preventing post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence with no side effects on pre-urethral tissue. Due to our study limitations, our follow up time and the

  14. Martian seismicity through time from surface faulting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.; Tralli, D.

    1991-01-01

    An objective of future Mars missions involves emplacing a seismic network on Mars to determine the internal structure of the planet. An argument based on the relative geologic histories of the terrestrial planets suggests that Mars should be seismically more active than the Moon, but less active than the Earth. The seismicity is estimated which is expected on Mars through time from slip on faults visible on the planets surface. These estimates of martian seismicity must be considered a lower limit as only structures produced by shear faulting visible at the surface today are included (i.e., no provision is made for buried structures or non-shear structures); in addition, the estimate does not include seismic events that do not produce surface displacement (e.g., activity associated with hidden faults, deep lithospheric processes or volcanism) or events produced by tidal triggering or meteorite impacts. Calibration of these estimates suggests that Mars may be many times more seismically active than the Moon.

  15. Seismic signal of avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Ravanat, Xavier; Thibert, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of avalanches with seismic signals is an important task. For risk mitigation, estimating remotely avalanche activity by means of seismic signals is a good alternative to direct observations that are often limited by visual conditions and observer's availability. In seismology, the main challenge is to discriminate avalanche signals within the natural earth seismic activity and background noise. Some anthropogenic low frequency (infra-sound) sources like helicopters also generate seismic signals. In order to characterize an avalanche seismic signal, a 3-axis broad band seismometer (Guralp 3T) has been set-up on a real scale avalanche test site in Lautaret (France). The sensor is located in proximity of 2 avalanche paths where avalanches can be artificially released. Preliminary results of seismic records are presented, correlated with avalanche physical parameters (volume released, velocity, energy).

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Pafuramidine versus Pentamidine Maleate for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness in a Randomized, Comparator-Controlled, International Phase 3 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pohlig, Gabriele; Bernhard, Sonja C.; Blum, Johannes; Burri, Christian; Mpanya, Alain; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Mpoto, Alfred Mpoo; Munungu, Blaise Fungula; N’tombe, Patrick Mangoni; Deo, Gratias Kambau Manesa; Mutantu, Pierre Nsele; Kuikumbi, Florent Mbo; Mintwo, Alain Fukinsia; Munungi, Augustin Kayeye; Dala, Amadeu; Macharia, Stephen; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Franco, Jose Ramon; Dituvanga, Ndinga Dieyi; Tidwell, Richard R.; Olson, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is a neglected tropical disease with limited treatment options that currently require parenteral administration. In previous studies, orally administered pafuramidine was well tolerated in healthy patients (for up to 21 days) and stage 1 HAT patients (for up to 10 days), and demonstrated efficacy comparable to pentamidine. Methods This was a Phase 3, multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active control study where 273 male and female patients with first stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT were treated at six sites: one trypanosomiasis reference center in Angola, one hospital in South Sudan, and four hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between August 2005 and September 2009 to support the registration of pafuramidine for treatment of first stage HAT in collaboration with the United States Food and Drug Administration. Patients were treated with either 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day for 10 days or 4 mg/kg pentamidine intramuscularly once daily for 7 days to assess the efficacy and safety of pafuramidine versus pentamidine. Pregnant and lactating women as well as adolescents were included. The primary efficacy endpoint was the combined rate of clinical and parasitological cure at 12 months. The primary safety outcome was the frequency and severity of adverse events. The study was registered on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number ISRCTN85534673. Findings/Conclusions The overall cure rate at 12 months was 89% in the pafuramidine group and 95% in the pentamidine group; pafuramidine was non-inferior to pentamidine as the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval did not exceed 15%. The safety profile of pafuramidine was superior to pentamidine; however, 3 patients in the pafuramidine group had glomerulonephritis or nephropathy approximately 8 weeks post-treatment. Two of these events were judged as

  17. Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

    2014-07-01

    From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

  18. Seismic Imaging Of The South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, K.; White, N.; Hobbs, R.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic oceanography is a powerful, new technique which utilises seismic reflection profiling to yield detailed acoustic images of ocean finestructure. The method uses seismic reflections generated by acoustic impedance changes which occur across water mass boundaries as a result of variations in temperature and salinity. Here we present a series of seismic images of the water column from a region in the southwest Atlantic using legacy seismic reflection datasets shot in the 1990s. The seismic surveys follow the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as it veers northward after exiting Drake Passage, looping around the Falkland Trough and finally entering the Argentinian Basin, largely following the Sub Antarctic Front route. Finestructure imaged in the data occurs dominantly in the boundary layer between Antarctic Intermediate Water and underlying Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, and correlates well with hydrographic interpretations. Structures such as dipping bands of heterogeneous water and eddies characterized by homogeneous cores and strong reflective inter-leaving edges are seen in the vicinity of ocean fronts. Further to the north, interesting thermohaline structures associated with the intrusion of North Atlantic Deep Water into the region have been captured. Seasonal variations in the time of data acquisition and the subsequent differences in the acoustic images provide interesting insights into the temporal variability of the water masses. Turbulent mixing in this part of the Southern Ocean is known to be remarkably intense and widespread and thought to contribute significantly to driving the upward transport of water closing the ocean's meridional overturning circulation. The deformation of thermohaline finestructure by such mixing and the ambient internal wavefield results in small undulations along seismic reflection horizons. Spectral analysis of these sinusoidal displacements has been used to extract quantitative information on internal wave energy and deduce

  19. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  20. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  1. The Kyrgyz Seismic Network (KNET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, V. D.; Willemann, R. J.; Matix, A. I.; Dudinskih, R. R.; Vernon, F.; Offield, G.

    2007-05-01

    The Kyrgyz Digital Seismic Network (KNET) is a regional continuous telemetric network of very broadband seismic data. KNET was installed in 1991. The telemetry system was upgraded in 1998. The seismograms are transmitted in near real time. KNET is located along part of the boundary between the northern Tien Shan Mountains and the Kazakh platform. Several major tectonic features are spanned by the network including a series of thrust faults in the Tien Shan, the Chu Valley, and the NW-SE trending ridges north of Bishkek. This network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity at the magnitude 3.5+ level as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The Kyrgyz seismic network array consists of 10 stations - 3 of them with more than 3600 m altitude, 2 mountain repeaters, 1 intermediate data base and 2 data centers. One of data centers is a remote source for IRIS data base. KNET is operated by International Research Center - Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (IGRC) with the participation of Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RS RAS) and Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology (KIS). The network consists of Streckeisen STS-2 sensors with 24-bit PASSCAL data loggers. All continuous real-time data are accessible through the IRIS DMC in Seattle with over 95% data availability, which compares favorably to the best networks currently operating worldwide. National institutes of seismology in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, National Nuclear Centre of Kazakhstan, RS RAS, divisions of the ministries on extreme situations and the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences use KNET data for estimating seismic hazards and to study deep-seated structure of researched territory. KNET data is used by National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, which together with LAMONT laboratory (USA) carries out verification researches and monitoring of nuclear detonations in China, India and Pakistan. The uniform

  2. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  3. 75 FR 9196 - Letter From Secretary of Energy Accepting Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... regarding seismic safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. ADDRESSES: U.S... Laboratory Plutonium Facility Seismic Safety, issued on October 26, 2009, and I accept the recommendation. In... new Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National...

  4. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  5. Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.J.; Stoddart, W.C.; Burnett, W.A.; Beavers, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future plans to ensure changes in requirements and knowledge are addressed.

  6. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  7. Identification of Integral Benchmarks for Nuclear Data Testing Using DICE (Database for the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; A. Nichole Ellis; Yolanda Rugama; Nicolas Soppera; Manuel Bossant

    2011-08-01

    Typical users of the International Criticality Safety Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook have specific criteria to which they desire to find matching experiments. Depending on the application, those criteria may consist of any combination of physical or chemical characteristics and/or various neutronic parameters. The ICSBEP Handbook contains a structured format helping the user narrow the search for experiments of interest. However, with nearly 4300 different experimental configurations and the ever increasing addition of experimental data, the necessity to perform multiple criteria searches have rendered these features insufficient. As a result, a relational database was created with information extracted from the ICSBEP Handbook. A users’ interface was designed by OECD and DOE to allow the interrogation of this database. The database and the corresponding users’ interface are referred to as DICE. DICE currently offers the capability to perform multiple criteria searches that go beyond simple fuel, physical form and spectra and includes expanded general information, fuel form, moderator/coolant, neutron-absorbing material, cladding, reflector, separator, geometry, benchmark results, spectra, and neutron balance parameters. DICE also includes the capability to display graphical representations of neutron spectra, detailed neutron balance, sensitivity coefficients for capture, fission, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, nu-bar and mu-bar, as well as several other features.

  8. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  9. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

  10. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  11. Seismic isolation of an electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

  12. 50 years of Global Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Butler, R.; Berger, J.; Davis, P.; Derr, J.; Gee, L.; Hutt, C. R.; Leith, W. S.; Park, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Seismological recordings have been made on Earth for hundreds of years in some form or another, however, global monitoring of earthquakes only began in the 1890's when John Milne created 40 seismic observatories to measure the waves from these events. Shortly after the International Geophysical Year (IGY), a concerted effort was made to establish and maintain a more modern standardized seismic network on the global scale. In the early 1960's, the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) was established through funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was installed and maintained by the USGS's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (then a part of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey). This network of identical seismic instruments consisted of 120 stations in 60 countries. Although the network was motivated by nuclear test monitoring, the WWSSN facilitated numerous advances in observational seismology. From the IGY to the present, the network has been upgraded (High-Gain Long-Period Seismograph Network, Seismic Research Observatories, Digital WWSSN, Global Telemetered Seismograph Network, etc.) and expanded (International Deployment of Accelerometers, US National Seismic Network, China Digital Seismograph Network, Joint Seismic Project, etc.), bringing the modern day Global Seismographic Network (GSN) to a current state of approximately 150 stations. The GSN consists of state-of-the-art very broadband seismic transducers, continuous power and communications, and ancillary sensors including geodetic, geomagnetic, microbarographic, meteorological and other related instrumentation. Beyond the GSN, the system of global network observatories includes contributions from other international partners (e.g., GEOSCOPE, GEOFON, MEDNET, F-Net, CTBTO), forming an even larger backbone of permanent seismological observatories as a part of the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks. 50 years of seismic network operations have provided

  13. Theoretical and computational aspects of seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. S.; Lavrentiev, M. M.; Romanov, V. G.; Romanov, M. E.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reviews aspects related to applications of seismic wave kinematics for the reconstruction of internal characteristics of an elastic medium. It presents the results of studying the inverse kinematic seismic problem and its linear analogue — problems of integral geometry, obtained in recent decades with an emphasis on the work done by Soviet scientists. Computational techniques of solving these problems are discussed. This review should be of interest to geophysicists studying the oceans, atmosphere and ionosphere as well as those studying the solid part of the Earth.

  14. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  15. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  16. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  17. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  18. Continuous recording of seismic signals in Alpine permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, H.; Krainer, K.; Staudinger, M.; Brückl, E.

    2009-04-01

    Over the past years various geophysical methods were applied to study the internal structure and the temporal variation of permafrost whereof seismic is of importance. For most seismic investigations in Alpine permafrost 24-channel equipment in combination with long data and trigger cables is used. Due to the harsh environment source and geophone layouts are often limited to 2D profiles. With prospect for future 3D-layouts we introduce an alternative of seismic equipment that can be used for several applications in Alpine permafrost. This study is focussed on controlled and natural source seismic experiments in Alpine permafrost using continuous data recording. With recent data from an ongoing project ("Permafrost in Austria") we will highlight the potential of the used seismic equipment for three applications: (a) seismic permafrost mapping of unconsolidated sediments, (b) seismic tomography in rock mass, and (c) passive seismic monitoring of rock falls. Single recording units (REFTEK 130, 6 channels) are used to continuously record the waveforms of both the seismic signals and a trigger signal. The combination of a small number of recording units with different types of geophones or a trigger allow numerous applications in Alpine permafrost with regard to a high efficiency and flexible seismic layouts (2D, 3D, 4D). The efficiency of the light and robust seismic equipment is achieved by the simple acquisition and the flexible and fast deployment of the (omni-directional) geophones. Further advantages are short (data and trigger) cables and the prevention of trigger errors. The processing of the data is aided by 'Seismon' which is an open source software project based on Matlab® and MySQL (see SM1.0). For active-source experiments automatic stacking of the seismic signals is implemented. For passive data a program for automatic detection of events (e.g. rock falls) is available which allows event localization. In summer 2008 the seismic equipment was used for the

  19. Induced and Natural Seismicity: Earthquake Hazards and Risks in Ohio:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Worstall, R.; Tomastik, T.; Simmers, R.

    2013-12-01

    To adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, ODNR had recently strengthen its regulatory capability through implementation of stricter permit requirements, additional human resources and improved infrastructure. These ODNR's efforts on seismic risk reduction related to induced seismicity led to stricter regulations and many infrastructure changes related particularly to Class II wells. Permit requirement changes and more seismic monitoring stations were implemented together with additional injection data reporting from selected Class II well operators. Considering the possible risks related to seismic events in a region with relatively low seismicity, correlation between limited seismic data and injection volume information were undertaken. Interestingly, initial results showed some indications of both plugging and fracturing episodes. The real-time data transmission from seismic stations and availability of injection volume data enabled ODNR to interact with operators and manage wells dynamically. Furthermore, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern and western portion of the state oriented NE-SW. The newly-mapped structures imply possible relatively bigger earthquakes in the region and consequently higher seismic risks. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR have made critical improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also an important contribution to the state's seismic risk reduction endeavors. Close collaboration with other government agencies and the public, and working together with the well operators enhanced ODNR's capability to build a safety culture and achieve further public and industry participation towards a safer environment. Keywords: Induced seismicity, injection wells, seismic risks

  20. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present ]day internal structure of the Moon provides insight not only into its own formation and evolution, but also that of all rocky planetary bodies. The most direct way to probe a planet fs interior structure is through seismology. As part of the Apollo lunar missions, four seismometers were deployed on the nearside surface of the Moon between the years 1969 and 1972. These instruments operated continuously until 1977, forming the only substantial extraterrestrial seismic data set in existence. These data have been used to constrain various aspects of the seismic velocity and density structure of the Moon. Typical 1-D models recognize a 30-60 km thick crust overlying a nearly constant ]velocity mantle, and extend to a depth of approximately 1000 km, below which the lack of penetrating moonquake ray ]paths precludes the seismic determination of deeper structure. Previously, the lack of observed moonquakes from the far side of the Moon has been used to infer the presence of a highly attenuating (possibly molten) core. Indirect geophysical measurements such as moment of inertia, magnetic induction, lunar laser ranging, and elemental abundances of mare basalts also place varying constraints on core size and state. In combination with seismic studies, these indirect measurements have been used to arrive at a commonly accepted model of the Moon's deepest interior that includes a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partial melt boundary layer. We recently applied modern array seismology techniques to the Apollo data and revealed detailed core structure, including the first direct confirmation of the presence of a solid inner core. Our study focused on the identification of core ]reflected phases in deep moonquake seismograms. The resulting model of the Moon fs innermost structure was found to be consistent with the commonly accepted model. However, the modeled layer radii may vary by tens of kilometers, as is expected when accounting for uncertainties

  1. The Current Trajectory of Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Ruddick, Barry R.; Biescas-Gorriz, Berta

    2013-09-01

    Seismic oceanography (SO) uses multichannel seismic techniques to visualize the ocean's fine structure, yielding a tool for investigating ocean mixing processes and their links with mesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, and currents. Ten years after the seminal paper initiating the SO field (W. S. Holbrook, P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling, Science, 301, 821-824, 2003), a special session and mini-workshop were convened at the International Congress on Acoustics in Montreal on 2-7 June 2013. At the workshop, participants discussed the successes of SO, the challenges it faces as an observational tool, and ways to move the field forward.

  2. Seismic Research and High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2004-12-01

    Through a series of summer workshops, seismologists at Indiana University have trained secondary physics and earth science teachers in fundamentals of seismology and basic concepts in seismic research. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the local schools. Physics and earth science students have operated the Northview High School Seismic Station since 1998. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discuss how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on collaborative scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes, such as increased student and community interest, resulting from our work with the seismic station. I comment on some of the barriers, such as time constraints and unintended interference from school personnel, to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project, an examination of blasts from local surface coal mines, that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

  3. Effects of Large and Small-Source Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, M.; Richardson, W. J.; Koski, W. R.; Smultea, M. A.; Haley, B.; Fitzgerald, M. W.; Rawson, M.

    2006-05-01

    L-DEO implements a marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring and mitigation program during its seismic surveys. The program consists of visual observations, mitigation, and/or passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). Mitigation includes ramp ups, powerdowns, and shutdowns of the seismic source if marine mammals or turtles are detected in or about to enter designated safety radii. Visual observations for marine mammals and turtles have taken place during all 11 L-DEO surveys since 2003, and PAM was done during five of those. Large sources were used during six cruises (10 to 20 airguns; 3050 to 8760 in3; PAM during four cruises). For two interpretable large-source surveys, densities of marine mammals were lower during seismic than non- seismic periods. During a shallow-water survey off Yucatán, delphinid densities during non-seismic periods were 19x higher than during seismic; however, this number is based on only 3 sightings during seismic and 11 sightings during non-seismic. During a Caribbean survey, densities were 1.4x higher during non-seismic. The mean closest point of approach (CPA) for delphinids for both cruises was significantly farther during seismic (1043 m) than during non-seismic (151 m) periods (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Large whales were only seen during the Caribbean survey; mean CPA during seismic was 1722 m compared to 1539 m during non-seismic, but sample sizes were small. Acoustic detection rates with and without seismic were variable for three large-source surveys with PAM, with rates during seismic ranging from 1/3 to 6x those without seismic (n = 0 for fourth survey). The mean CPA for turtles was closer during non-seismic (139 m) than seismic (228 m) periods (P < 0.01). Small-source surveys used up to 6 airguns or 3 GI guns (75 to 1350 in3). During a Northwest Atlantic survey, delphinid densities during seismic and non-seismic were similar. However, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, delphinid densities during non-seismic were 2x those during

  4. Proceedings of seismic engineering 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Seismic Engineering Technical Subcommittee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Topics covered include: seismic damping and energy absorption, advanced seismic analysis methods, new analysis techniques and applications of advanced methods, seismic supports and test results, margins inherent in the current design methods, and risk assessment, and component and equipment qualification.

  5. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

  6. Seismic margin assessment of evolutionary light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff`s review of the evolutionary light water reactors (ELWR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are drawn from 10 CFR Part 52, the Commission`s Severe Reactor Accident Policy Statement regarding future designs and existing plants, the Commission`s Safety Goal Policy Statement, The Commission approved positions concerning the analyses of external and events contained in SECY-93-087, and NRC interest in the use of PRA to help improve future reactor designs. In general, these objectives have been achieved by the ELWR PRAs and the NRC staff`s review. The staff`s applicable regulation for the analysis of external events for the ELWR PRAs is as follows. The probabilistic risk assessment required by 10 CFR 52.47(a)(1)(v) must include an assessment of internal and external events. For external events, simplified probabilistic methods and margins methods may be used to assess the capacity of the standard design to withstand the effects of events such as fires and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic techniques should be used to evaluate internal floods. For earthquakes, a seismic margin analysis must consider the effects of earthquakes with accelerations approximately one and two-thirds the acceleration of the safe-shutdown earthquake (SSE).

  7. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seismic safety level in the 2000 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of... Officials, 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hill, IL 60478. Telephone: (800) 786-4452. Fax: (800) 214-7167. (c) The NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New...

  8. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  9. Seismic sounding of convection in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal convection is the dominant mechanism of energy transport in the outer envelope of the Sun (one-third by radius). It drives global fluid circulations and magnetic fields observed on the solar surface. Convection excites a broadband spectrum of acoustic waves that propagate within the interior and set up modal resonances. These acoustic waves, also called seismic waves, are observed at the surface of the Sun by space- and ground-based telescopes. Seismic sounding, the study of these seismic waves to infer the internal properties of the Sun, constitutes helioseismology. Here we review our knowledge of solar convection, especially that obtained through seismic inference. Several characteristics of solar convection, such as differential rotation, anisotropic Reynolds stresses, the influence of rotation on convection and supergranulation, are considered. On larger scales, several inferences suggest that convective velocities are substantially smaller than those predicted by theory and simulations. This discrepancy challenges the models of internal differential rotation that rely on convective stresses as a driving mechanism and provide an important benchmark for numerical simulations. In collaboration with Shravan Hanasoge, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai and Laurent Gizon, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Goettingen.

  10. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Gizon, Laurent; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal convection is the dominant mechanism of energy transport in the outer envelope of the Sun (one-third by radius). It drives global fluid circulations and magnetic fields observed on the solar surface. Vigorous surface convection excites a broadband spectrum of acoustic waves that propagate within the interior and set up modal resonances. These acoustic waves, also called seismic waves in this context, are observed at the surface of the Sun by space- and ground-based telescopes. Seismic sounding, the study of these seismic waves to infer the internal properties of the Sun, constitutes helioseismology. Here we review our knowledge of solar convection, especially that obtained through seismic inference. Several characteristics of solar convection, such as differential rotation, anisotropic Reynolds stresses, the influence of rotation on convection, and supergranulation, are considered. On larger scales, several inferences suggest that convective velocities are substantially smaller than those predicted by theory and simulations. This discrepancy challenges the models of internal differential rotation that rely on convective stresses as a driving mechanism and provide an important benchmark for numerical simulations.

  11. The Geoscope Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.; Vallee, M.; Pardo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory provides 32 years of continuous broadband data to the scientific community. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. In 2014, we upgraded 4 stations: SSB in France, CAN in Australia, ROCAM in Rodrigues and ECH in France. 27 stations send data in real or near real time to the GEOSCOPE Data Center and to tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the IPGP Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces including web services (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). In 2015, GEOSCOPE data will also be available through the French national data center RESIF. Seismic noise level of the continuous data are computed every 24 hours and accessible via the geoscope web site. GEOSCOPE data are also validated by comparing real and synthetic body wave waveforms using the SCARDEC method (Vallee et al., 2011). The information on earthquake characteristics, on GEOSCOPE data available for each event and on the waveform fit for each channel are available through the geoscope web portal.

  12. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  13. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  14. Seismicity, 1980-86

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.P.; Eaton, J.P.; Jones, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Tens of thousands of small earthquakes occur in California each year, reflecting brittle deformation of the margins of the Pacific and North American plates as they grind inexorably past one another along the San Andreas fault system. The deformational patterns revealed by this ongoing earthquake activity provide a wealth of information on the tectonic processes along this major transform boundary that, every few hundred years, culminate in rupture of the San Andreas fault in a great (M {approx} 8) earthquake. This chapter describes the regional seismicity and the San Andreas transform boundary; seismicity along the San Andreas Fault system; and focal mechanisms and transform-boundary kinematics. Seismicity patterns and the earthquake cycle and distributed seismicity and deformation of the plate margins are discussed.

  15. Seismic attenuation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

  16. Seismic Ray Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, V.

    2001-07-01

    The seismic ray method plays an important role in seismology, seismic exploration, and in the interpretation of seismic measurements. Seismic Ray Theory presents the most comprehensive treatment of the method available. Many new concepts that extend the possibilities and increase the method's efficiency are included. The book has a tutorial character: derivations start with a relatively simple problem, in which the main ideas are easier to explain, and then advance to more complex problems. Most of the derived equations are expressed in algorithmic form and may be used directly for computer programming. This book will prove to be an invaluable advanced text and reference in all academic institutions in which seismology is taught or researched.

  17. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  18. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  19. AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2003-09-14

    The current project is a continuation of an effort to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method potentially applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to develop and demonstrate the use of a cost-effective, automated method of conducting shallow seismic surveys, an approach that represents a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures. Initial testing of a mechanical geophone-planting device suggests that large numbers of geophones can be placed both quickly and automatically. The development of such a device could make the application of SSR considerably more efficient and less expensive. The imaging results obtained using automated seismic methods will be compared with results obtained using classical seismic techniques. Although this research falls primarily into the field of seismology, for comparison and quality-control purposes, some GPR data will be collected as well. In the final year of th e research, demonstration surveys at one or more DOE facilities will be performed. An automated geophone-planting device of the type under development would not necessarily be limited to the use of shallow seismic reflection methods; it also would be capable of collecting data for seismic-refraction and possibly for surface-wave studies. Another element of our research plan involves monitoring the cone of depression of a pumping well that is being used as a proxy site for fluid-flow at a contaminated site. Our next data set will be collected at a well site where drawdown equilibrium has been reached. Noninvasive, in-situ methods such as placing geophones automatically and using near-surface seismic methods to identify and characterize the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies for DOE and others.

  20. Seismic Search Engine: A distributed database for mining large scale seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Vaidya, S.; Kuzma, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO collects terabytes worth of seismic measurements from many receiver stations situated around the earth with the goal of detecting underground nuclear testing events and distinguishing them from other benign, but more common events such as earthquakes and mine blasts. The International Data Center (IDC) processes and analyzes these measurements, as they are collected by the IMS, to summarize event detections in daily bulletins. Thereafter, the data measurements are archived into a large format database. Our proposed Seismic Search Engine (SSE) will facilitate a framework for data exploration of the seismic database as well as the development of seismic data mining algorithms. Analogous to GenBank, the annotated genetic sequence database maintained by NIH, through SSE, we intend to provide public access to seismic data and a set of processing and analysis tools, along with community-generated annotations and statistical models to help interpret the data. SSE will implement queries as user-defined functions composed from standard tools and models. Each query is compiled and executed over the database internally before reporting results back to the user. Since queries are expressed with standard tools and models, users can easily reproduce published results within this framework for peer-review and making metric comparisons. As an illustration, an example query is “what are the best receiver stations in East Asia for detecting events in the Middle East?” Evaluating this query involves listing all receiver stations in East Asia, characterizing known seismic events in that region, and constructing a profile for each receiver station to determine how effective its measurements are at predicting each event. The results of this query can be used to help prioritize how data is collected, identify defective instruments, and guide future sensor placements.

  1. Application of seismic tomography in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.F.; Williams, T.J.; Friedel, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic tomography, as used in mining, is based on the principle that highly stressed rock will demonstrate relatively higher P-wave velocities than rock under less stress. A decrease or increase in stress over time can be verified by comparing successive tomograms. Personnel at the Spokane Research Center have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to identify stress in remnant ore pillars in deep (greater than 1220 in) underground mines. In this process, three-dimensional seismic surveys are conducted in a pillar between mine levels. A sledgehammer is used to generate P-waves, which are recorded by geophones connected to a stacking signal seismograph capable of collecting and storing the P-wave data. Travel times are input into a spreadsheet, and apparent velocities are then generated and merged into imaging software. Mine workings are superimposed over apparent P-wave velocity contours to generate a final tomographic image. Results of a seismic tomographic survey at the Sunshine Mine, Kellogg, ED, indicate that low-velocity areas (low stress) are associated with mine workings and high-velocity areas (higher stress) are associated with areas where no mining has taken place. A high stress gradient was identified in an area where ground failed. From this tomographic survey, as well, as four earlier surveys at other deep underground mines, a method was developed to identify relative stress in remnant ore pillars. This information is useful in making decisions about miner safety when mining such ore pillars.

  2. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  3. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  4. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

  5. Clinical performance of the Nevisense system in cutaneous melanoma detection: an international, multicentre, prospective and blinded clinical trial on efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Malvehy, J; Hauschild, A; Curiel-Lewandrowski, C; Mohr, P; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R; Motley, R; Berking, C; Grossman, D; Paoli, J; Loquai, C; Olah, J; Reinhold, U; Wenger, H; Dirschka, T; Davis, S; Henderson, C; Rabinovitz, H; Welzel, J; Schadendorf, D; Birgersson, U

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Even though progress has been made, the detection of melanoma still poses a challenge. In light of this situation, the Nevisense electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) system (SciBase AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was designed and shown to have the potential to be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for melanoma detection. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of the Nevisense system in the distinction of benign lesions of the skin from melanoma with electrical impedance spectroscopy. Methods This multicentre, prospective, and blinded clinical study was conducted at five American and 17 European investigational sites. All eligible skin lesions in the study were examined with the EIS-based Nevisense system, photographed, removed by excisional biopsy and subjected to histopathological evaluation. A postprocedure clinical follow-up was conducted at 7 ± 3 days from the initial measurement. A total of 1951 patients with 2416 lesions were enrolled into the study; 1943 lesions were eligible and evaluable for the primary efficacy end point, including 265 melanomas – 112 in situ and 153 invasive melanomas with a median Breslow thickness of 0·57 mm [48 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and seven squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs)]. Results The observed sensitivity of Nevisense was 96·6% (256 of 265 melanomas) with an exact one-sided 95% lower confidence bound estimated at 94·2% and an observed specificity of 34·4%, and an exact two-sided 95% confidence bound estimated at 32·0–36·9%. The positive and negative predictive values of Nevisense were 21·1% and 98·2%, respectively. The observed sensitivity for nonmelanoma skin cancer was 100% (55 of 48 BCCs and seven SCCs) with an exact two-sided 95% confidence bound estimated at 93·5–100·0%. Conclusions Nevisense is an accurate and safe device to support clinicians in the detection of cutaneous melanoma. What's already known about this topic? Although progress has been made in the detection of

  6. Harmonization of animal clinical pathology testing in toxicity and safety studies. The Joint Scientific Committee for International Harmonization of Clinical Pathology Testing.

    PubMed

    Weingand, K; Brown, G; Hall, R; Davies, D; Gossett, K; Neptun, D; Waner, T; Matsuzawa, T; Salemink, P; Froelke, W; Provost, J P; Dal Negro, G; Batchelor, J; Nomura, M; Groetsch, H; Boink, A; Kimball, J; Woodman, D; York, M; Fabianson-Johnson, E; Lupart, M; Melloni, E

    1996-02-01

    Ten scientific organizations formed a joint international committee to provide expert recommendations for clinical pathology testing of laboratory animal species used in regulated toxicity and safety studies. For repeated-dose studies in rodent species, clinical pathology testing is necessary at study termination. Interim study testing may not be necessary in long-duration studies provided that it has been done in short-duration studies using dose levels not substantially lower than those used in the long-duration studies. For repeated-dose studies in nonrodent species, clinical pathology testing is recommended at study termination and at least once at an earlier interval. For studies of 2 to 6 weeks in duration in nonrodent species, testing is also recommended within 7 days of initiation of dosing, unless it compromises the health of the animals. If a study contains recovery groups, clinical pathology testing at study termination is recommended. The core hematology tests recommended are total leukocyte (white blood cell) count, absolute differential leukocyte count, erythrocyte (red blood cell) count, evaluation of red blood cell morphology, platelet (thrombocyte) count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit (or packed cell volume), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. In the absence of automated reticulocyte counting capabilities, blood smears from each animal should be prepared for reticulocyte counts. Bone marrow cytology slides should be prepared from each animal at termination. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (or appropriate alternatives) and platelet count are the minimum recommended laboratory tests of hemostasis. The core clinical chemistry tests recommended are glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, calculated globulin, calcium, sodium, potassium, total cholesterol, and appropriate hepatocellular and hepatobiliary tests. For hepatocellular

  7. Seismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena; Narkilahti, Janne; Nevalainen, Jouni; Hurskainen, Riitta; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental seismic observations in northern Finland started in the 1950s. They were originally initiated by the Institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki (ISUH), but the staff of Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) and later geophysicists of the University of Oulu (UO) were involved in the development of seismological observations and research in northern Finland from the very beginning. This close cooperation between seismologists and the technical staff of ISUH, UO, and SGO continued in many significant international projects and enabled a high level of seismological research in Finland. In our paper, we present history and current status of seismic observations and seismological research in northern Finland at the UO and SGO. These include both seismic observations at permanent seismic stations and temporary seismic experiments with portable seismic equipment. We describe the present seismic instrumentation and major research topics of the seismic group at SGO and discuss plans for future development of permanent seismological observations and portable seismic instrumentation at SGO as part of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) research infrastructure. We also present the research topics of the recently organized Laboratory of Applied Seismology, and show examples of seismic observations performed by new seismic equipment located at this laboratory and selected results of time-lapse seismic body wave travel-time tomography using the data of microseismic monitoring in the Pyhäsalmi Mine (northern Finland).

  8. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    response and the reflection response for a 1D multilayer structure, and next 3D approach (Wapenaar 2004). As a result of this seismic interferometry experiment the 3D reflectivity model (frequencies and resolution ranges) was obtained. We proved also that the seismic interferometry approach can be applied in asynchronous seismic auscultation. The reflections detected in the virtual seismic sections are in agreement with the geological features encountered during the excavation of the tunnel and also with the petrophysical properties and parameters measured in previous geophysical borehole logging. References Claerbout J.F., 1968. Synthesis of a layered medium from its acoustic transmision response. Geophysics, 33, 264-269 Flavio Poletto, Piero Corubolo and Paolo Comeli.2010. Drill-bit seismic interferometry whith and whitout pilot signals. Geophysical Prospecting, 2010, 58, 257-265. Wapenaar, K., J. Thorbecke, and D. Draganov, 2004, Relations between reflection and transmission responses of three-dimensional inhomogeneous media: Geophysical Journal International, 156, 179-194.

  9. Grail Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    To probe a planet's interior, seismology provides the most direct constraints on the variables that govern the dynamic properties of the body. However, the GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission's high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field provide constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten). These data complement seismic investigations, and joint interpretation permits improved constraints on the Moon's internal structure. Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increase with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefor well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocity and density as a function of latitude, longitude and depth within the Moon. We will relate density (rho) to seismic velocity (v) using a linear relationship that is allowed to be depth-dependent. The corresponding coefficient (B) can reflect a variety of material properties that vary with depth, including temperature and composition. The inversion seeks to recover the set of rho, v, and B perturbations that minimize (in a least-squares sense) the difference between the observed and calculated data.

  10. 3D reflection seismic imaging in the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposits, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, A.; Juhlin, C.; Wijns, C.

    2012-04-01

    Better mining technology, coupled with the realization that outcropping or shallow deposits are becoming rarer has led the exploration industry to look ever deeper in the search for economic mineralization. Conventional geochemical and geophysical methods are less effective in these cases. The majority of geophysical methods that can penetrate to sufficient depth lack the necessary resolution to effectively complement drilling. Seismic surveys are one of the few methods that do have sufficient resolution at depth to constrain geological models of an ore deposit at the drilling scale. Although eventually drilling is required, reflection seismic methods can be used to partly reduce the drilling cost by focusing the drilling in key or strategically important areas. In this work, we present 3D reflection seismic data acquired in the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group elements) deposits, northern Finland. The 3D reflection seismic survey was conducted over an area of about 9 km2, where open-pit mining will start in mid-2012. The principal objective of the survey was to image major fault and fracture zones at depth that may have an impact on the mine stability and safety. Mine planning would then take into account the geometry of these zones at Kevitsa. Processing results show both gently dipping and steeply dipping reflections from depths of about 2 km to as shallow as 150-200 m. Many of the reflections are interpreted to originate from either fault systems or internal magmatic layering within the Kevitsa main intrusion. Further correlation between the surface seismic data and VSP data suggests that numerous faults are present in the imaged volume based upon time shifts or phase changes along horizontal to gently dipping reflections. Some of these faults cross the planned open-pit mine at depths of about 300-500 m, and are therefore critical for geotechnical planning. In terms of in-pit and near-mine exploration, the magmatic layering internal to the intrusion controls

  11. An assessment of seismic margins in nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Jaquay, K.R.; Chokshi, N.C.; Terao, D.

    1996-03-01

    Interim results of an ongoing program to assist the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analyses of piping and overall safety margins of piping systems are reported. Results of: (1) reviews of seismic testing of piping components performed as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping and Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) Program, and (2) assessments of safety margins inherent in the ASME Code, Section III, piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda are reported. The reviews indicate that the margins inherent in the revised criteria may be less than acceptable and that modifications to these criteria may be required.

  12. Deep Seismic Researches Of Seismic-Active Zones With Use Of High-Power Vibrators - Technique, Outcomes, Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Sal`Nikov, A.; Kashun, V.; Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Zhemchugova, I.; Danilov, I.; Liseikin, A.

    2004-12-01

    There are presented the materials of deep vibroseism researches, carried out in seismic active regions of Siberia with use of stationary (100-tos power) and moveable vibration sources (40-60tons power) and mobile digital recording equipment. There are given some examples of unique, have no world analogues, correlograms from high-power vibrators on distances to 400km and more. Using new vibroseismic technology of deep seismic researches, there were got detail deep sections of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, including time-sections of CDP-DSS up to depth of 80km. Materials of vibroseismic investigations on 2500km of seismic profiles in hard-to-reach regions of the Altay-Sayan region, the Baikal rift zone and Okhotsko-Chukotski regions are evidence of high cost efficiency, ecological safety, possibility to be realized in hard-to-reach region and finally of availability of deep seismic investigations with use of high-power vibration sources.

  13. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  14. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.99 Safety hangers. Drive shafts shall have safety hangers....

  15. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.99 Safety hangers. Drive shafts shall have safety hangers....

  16. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.99 Safety hangers. Drive shafts shall have safety hangers....

  17. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.99 Safety hangers. Drive shafts shall have safety hangers....

  18. 49 CFR 229.99 - Safety hangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety hangers. 229.99 Section 229.99..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.99 Safety hangers. Drive shafts shall have safety hangers....

  19. Importing a change in diet: the proposed food safety law of 2010 and the possible impact on importers and international trade.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon G

    2010-01-01

    The current combination of widespread consumer alarm about foodborne illness outbreaks and industry concern about profitability has encouraged Congress, for the first time in many years, to consider major food safety reform. The House of Representatives has already passed its version of reform, the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009. The Senate appears ready to pass its bill, the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Both bills will subject firms in the food industry to a number of new requirements and will considerably increase Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) enforcement authority. This article addresses how the passage of major food safety reform in 2010 will potentially affect food importation into the United States, by using the Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009, the bill passed in the House, as a model for what food safety reform will entail. Under the bill, food facilities and importers will have to register yearly with FDA and pay a fee. Customs brokers will also have to register with FDA. FDA will have the authority to subject certain foods to a certification requirement for obtaining entry into the United States. Food facilities will be required to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls and food safety plans. FDA will establish mandatory performance standards and produce standards. Specific foods identified by FDA will be subject to traceability requirements. FDA will follow a mandatory risk-based inspection schedule, will have far greater access to records, and will have the authority to enforce mandatory recalls. U.S. trading partners may take issue with the substantial burdens placed on those importing food into the United States and may consider bringing a challenge against the United States claiming that the new food safety legislation violates World Trade Organization obligations. PMID:24475533

  20. Space safety and rescue 1992; Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, World Space Congress, Washington, DC, Aug. 28 - Sep. 5, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Gloria W.

    A conference on Space safety and rescue included papers in the areas of space system safety, crew escape and rescue, space and disaster management, and reducing the human and national developmental costs of disaster - prone nations. One principal focus was on space applications for response to disasters on earth. A position paper on the topic of space debris was also included in the conference. For individual titles, see A95-88013 through A95-88035.

  1. Seismic source parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.

    1994-06-01

    The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

  2. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  3. Extracting physical parameters from marine seismic data: New methods in seismic oceanography and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.

    internal wave pulses in the South China Sea. Coupling observations from the seismic images with turbulent patterns, we find no evidence for hydraulic jumps in the Luzon passage. Our data suggests geometric resonance may be the underlying physics behind large amplitude nonlinear internal wave pulses seen in the region. We find increased levels of turbulent diffusivity in deep water below 1000 m, associated with internal tide pulses, and near the steep slopes of both the Heng-Chun and Lan-Yu ridges.

  4. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    , E. and Papathanassiou, G.: 'Aftershock relocation and frequency-size distribution, stress inversion and seismotectonic setting of the 7 August 2013 M=5.4 earthquake in Kallidromon Mountain, central Greece', Tectonophysics, vol. 617, pp. 101-113, 2014 [4] Maravelakis, E., Bilalis, N., Mantzorou, I., Konstantaras, A. and Antoniadis, A.: '3D modelling of the oldest olive tree of the world', International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research, vol. 2 (2), pp. 340-347, 2012 [5] Konstantaras, A., Katsifarakis, E, Maravelakis, E, Skounakis, E, Kokkinos, E. and Karapidakis, E.: 'Intelligent spatial-clustering of seismicity in the vicinity of the Hellenic seismic arc', Earth Science Research, vol. 1 (2), pp. 1- 10, 2012 [6] Georgoulas, G., Konstantaras, A., Katsifarakis, E., Stylios, C., Maravelakis, E and Vachtsevanos, G.: 'Seismic-mass" density-based algorithm for spatio-temporal clustering', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 40 (10), pp. 4183-4189, 2013 [7] Konstantaras, A.: 'Classification of Distinct Seismic Regions and Regional Temporal Modelling of Seismicity in the Vicinity of the Hellenic Seismic Arc', Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of', vol. 99, pp. 1-7, 2013

  5. Seismicity, shear failure and modes of deformation in deep subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul R.; Giardini, Domenico

    1992-01-01

    The joint hypocentral determination method is used to relocate deep seismicity reported in the International Seismological Center catalog for earthquakes deeper than 400 km in the Honshu, Bonin, Mariannas, Java, Banda, and South America subduction zones. Each deep seismic zone is found to display planar features of seismicity parallel to the Harvard centroid-moment tensor nodal planes, which are identified as planes of shear failure. The sense of displacement on these planes is one of resistance to deeper penetration.

  6. Observation of seismicity based on DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result from DOMERAPI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Kristyawan, Said; Sembiring, Andry Syaly; Mtaxian, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    DOMERAPI project has involved earth scientists from Indonesia and France to conduct comprehensively a study of the internal structure of Mt. Merapi and its vicinity based on seismic tomographic imaging. The DOMERAPI seismic network was running from October 2013 to April 2015 consisting of 53 broad-band seismometers, covering Mt. Merapi and Mt. Merbabu, and some geological features such as Opak and Dengkeng faults. Earthquake hypocenter determination conducted in this study is an important step before seismic tomographic imaging. The earthquake events were identified and picked manually and carefully. The majority of earthquakes occured outside the DOMERAPI network. The ray paths of seismic waves from these earthquakes passed through the deep part of the study area around Merapi. The joint data of BMKG and DOMERAPI networks can minimize the azimuthal gap, which is often used to obtain an indication of the reliability of the epicentral solution. Our preliminary results show 279 events from October 2013 to mid August 2014. For future work, we will incorporate the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Technology Development of Geological Disaster) data catalogue in order to enrich seismic ray paths. The combined data catalogues will provide information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  7. Magnitude correlations in global seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlis, N. V.

    2011-08-15

    By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

  8. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Downhole seismic array system

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, S.G.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an apparatus of receiving seismic signals from an earth formation at least at one or more points in a wellbore penetrating the formation. It comprises a sonde including extensible and retractable support means thereon for supporting seismic signal receiver means, hydraulic actuator means for extending and reacting the support means, body means for supporting the actuator means and the support means and signal transmitting means for transmitting electrical signals related to seismic signals received by the receiver means; tubing means connected to the sonde for deploying the sonde in the wellbore, the tubing means including electrical conductor means disposed therein for conducting electrical signals between means on the surface of the formation and the sonde and the tubing means comprising means for conducting hydraulic fluid to the sonde for operation of the actuator means; and means for supplying hydraulic fluid from the surface of the formation through the tubing means to the sonde for operating the actuator means.

  10. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  11. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  12. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  13. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  14. Digging Our Own Holes: Institutional Perspectives on Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Tomasello, J.

    2005-12-01

    It has been observed that there are no true students of the earth; instead, we each dig our own holes and sit in them. A similar situation arises in attempts to assess the hazards of earthquakes and other natural disasters and to develop strategies to mitigate them. Ideally, we would like to look at the interests of society as a whole and develop strategies that best balance hazard mitigation with alternative uses of resources. Doing so, however, is difficult for several reasons. First, estimating seismic hazards requires assumptions about the size, recurrence, and shaking from future earthquakes, none of which are well known. Second, we have to chose a definition of seismic hazard, which is even more arbitrary and at least as significant about future earthquakes. Third, mitigating the risks involves economic and policy issues as well as the scientific one of estimating the hazard itself and the engineering one of designing safe structures. As a result, different public and private organizations with different institutional perspectives naturally adopt different approaches. Most organizations have a single focus. For example, those focusing on economic development tend to discount hazards, whereas emergency management groups tend to accentuate them. Organizations with quasi-regulatory duties (BSSC, FEMA, USGS) focus on reducing losses in future earthquakes without considering the cost of mitigation measures or how this use of resources should be balanced with alternative uses of resources that could mitigate other losses. Some organizations, however, must confront these tradeoffs directly because they allocate resources internally. Hence hospitals implicitly trade off more earthquake resistant construction with treating uninsured patients, highway departments balance stronger bridges with other safety improvements, and schools balance safer buildings with after school programs. These choices are complicated by the fact that such infrastructure typically has longer

  15. School Safety Study: Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Alka

    This report summarizes findings from a study concerned with Arizona school safety. The survey component highlights safety-related policy information across 300 schools; the interview component highlights school-safety perceptions of 64 staff across 16 schools. Various policies and programs that respond to internal and external threats to school…

  16. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  17. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  18. Theoretical models for Mars and their seismic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okal, E. A.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical seismic properties of the planet Mars are investigated on the basis of the various models which have been proposed for the internal composition of the planet. The latest interpretation of gravity-field data, assuming a lower value of the moment of inertia, would require a less dense mantle and a larger core than previous models. If Mars is chondritic in composition, the most reasonable models are an incompletely differentiated H-chondrite or a mixture of H-chondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. Seismic profiles, travel times, and free oscillation periods are computed for various models, with the aim of establishing which seismic data is crucial for deciding among the alternatives. A detailed discussion is given of the seismic properties which could - in principle - help answer the questions of whether Mars' core is liquid or solid and whether Mars has a partially molten asthenosphere in its upper mantle.

  19. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  20. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2014-01-01

    Gravity field measurements are perhaps the most numerous of the indirect observations relevant to the Moon's internal structure. Multiple recent missions have mapped the global lunar gravity field, each one improving upon the resolution of the last. The details of the Moon's deepest structure, including the parameters that define the lunar core, however, were still largely unaddressed by pre-GRAIL gravity measurements, which were not high enough resolution to resolve the tidal coefficients at a sufficient degree of accuracy. Current constraints on core size and state arise from other indirect measurements, including lunar laser ranging, magnetic induction studies, and analyses of elemental abundances in depth-derived mare basalts. These inferences vary widely, but when considered together with structure models derived from the seismic data gathered during the Apollo missions, a schematic of the lunar interior containing a partially molten deepest mantle layer overlying molten outer and solid inner core layers was obtained. Seismology provides the most direct constraints on the variables that govern the dynamic properties of the body. However, the GRAIL mission's high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field are being used to constrain the interior structure of the Moon using a "crust to core" approach. GRAIL's constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten) therefore complement seismic investigations. This work focuses on expanding our knowledge of the Moon's internal structure using joint gravity and seismic analyses, which will improve constraints on the deep lunar mantle and core.

  1. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite as a multiple source of acoustic and seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, I. O.; Bobrov, D. I.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Rozhkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Shock waves and impact of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite fragments on the ground initiated various waves in the atmosphere and the earth. Three different sources of seismic and infrasound waves were found by arrival time and azimuth of seismic and infrasound waves recorded by the International Monitoring System.

  2. Mobile seismic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Cao, X.; Polom, U.; Pätzold, F.; Zeller, T.; Hecker, P.; Seyfried, V.; Rembe, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  3. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  4. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  5. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  7. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  8. Seismicity of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

  9. The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

    2013-04-01

    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to

  10. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    contribution to the state's seismic risk reduction endeavors. ODNR's gradual improvement and proactive steps will hopefully continue to build a safety culture and achieve further public and industry participation towards a safer Ohio.

  11. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    in seismicity arising from magma movement in the crust are characteristic properties of almost all active volcanoes. Meanwhile the study of the seismicity and propagation of elastic waves through the earth have the potential to give us important information about the internal structure of volcanoes. As very little is known of the 3D structure of Katla volcano and in order to define the 3D velocity structure and the geometry of the possible magma chamber, both P and S-wave travel time data from the most active period of seismicity (July-November 2011) are inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D velocity structure by using Local Earthquake Tomography (LET).

  12. Seismic detectability of meteorite impacts on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Teanby, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    only appropriate for order of magnitude calculations because of considerable uncertainties in the small impactor source population, internal structure, and ambient noise level. However, our results suggest that probing the deep interior using impacts will be challenging and require an extended mission duration and low noise levels to give a reasonable chance of detection. Therefore, for future seismic exploration, faulting due to stresses in the rigid outer ice shell is likely to be much more viable mechanism for probing the interior.

  13. Seismicity of microearthquakes around Gyeongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula which is located in an intraplate area is known as seismically inactive region. However there were unusual several offshore earthquakes occurred around the southwestern Korean Peninsula in 2013. In addition, a small earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurred on 23 September 2014 around Gyeongju close to a nuclear power plant and many people felt a shock of the earthquake. Concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants were rising and therefore seismicity in this region was investigated. There were 61 earthquakes with local magnitude (Ml) greater than 1.7 occurred around Gyeongju since 1994 by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) catalog. These events were relocated and calculated focal mechanisms. Also, I analyzed using continuous waveform data within 7 days before and after the mainshock recorded at HDB station with the epicentral distance of about 9 km, to find smaller events of the 2014 Gyeongju earthquake. 84 foreshocks and 108 aftershocks were identified and I located events with a minimum of 5 phases (4 P and 1 S). According to the relocated results, I may classify seismicity roughly into two groups. One group is aligned along right-hand side of the Ulsan Fault and the other is located near by the Bomunho. 13 quakes occurred from 1999 to 2003 close by artificial lake called Bomunho created in the late 1970s may be triggered microearthquakes by artificial water reservoirs but further research is needed to find causes of the events.

  14. Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, V.

    2006-12-01

    Recent interest of the seismological community has arisen for possible rotation effects of the Earth on signals recorded by inertial seismometers. Wiechert and Schluter (1903) and more recently Pancha et al. (2000), Igel et al. (2005, 2006) show that, in the teleseismic range, rotations may be neglected and account for less than 0.1% of the translation waves generated by earthquakes. On the contrary, we may see effects of rotation on seismic traces recorded in the near field of an earthquake. As instruments will deliver unsaturated signals in this near field, rotation detection will be more and more frequent. We may observe rotation effects as well in the noise signal at long period. - In the near field, the three components integrated signal of the accelerograms (i.e; velocity signal) diverge and this drift is the effect of an nearly invisible little jump in acceleration signal. The second integrated step diverges and the co-seismic displacement could not be estimated. - By studying the long period noise, we have found that the two horizontal components of some of GEOSCOPE stations with STS-1 seismometer from Streckeisen, present the same noise both in amplitude and in phase with a coherency greater than 95%. This similarity could occur at some stations and not at others and during some time periods. Therefore, the noise has a quite stable horizontal polarisation at N045 during these periods. We may argue that these two separate effects comes from ground rotations and the way they are recorded by seismic instruments. For example, GEOSCOPE stations equipped by STS-2 which have a quite different mechanical structure do not exhibit the polarisation effect. Mechanical pendulums as vertical LaCoste sensor and horizontal 'garden-gate' sensor present effects of rotations on the different translation motions of the mass. Therefore, for the long period noise, a quite probable explanation is that a rotation around the vertical axis acts similarly on the two horizontal

  15. Intermediate depth seismicity - a reflection seismic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.

    2004-12-01

    During subduction the descending oceanic lithosphere is subject to metamorphic reactions, some of them associated with the release of fluids. It is now widely accepted, that these reactions and associated dehydration processes are directly related with the generation of intermediate depth earthquakes (dehydration embrittlement). However, the structure of the layered oceanic plate at depth and the location of the earthquakes relative to structural units of the subducting plate (sources within the oceanic crust and/or in the upper oceanic mantle lithosphere?) are still not resolved yet. This is in mainly due to the fact that the observational resolution needed to address these topics (in the range of only a few kilometers) is hardly achieved in field experiments and related studies. Here we study the wavefields of intermediate depth earthquakes typically observed by temporary networks in order to assess their high-resolution potential in resolving structure of the down going slab and locus of seismicity. In particular we study whether the subducted oceanic Moho can be detected by the analysis of secondary phases of local earthquakes (near vertical reflection). Due to the irregular geometry of sources and receivers we apply an imaging technique similar to diffraction stack migration. The method is tested using synthetic data both based on 2-D finite difference simulations and 3-D kinematic ray tracing. The accuracy of the hypocenter location and onset times crucial for the successful application of stacking techniques (coherency) was achieved by the use of relatively relocated intermediate depth seismicity. Additionally, we simulate the propagation of the wavefields at larger distance (wide angle) indicating the development of guided waves traveling in the low-velocity waveguide associated with the modeled oceanic crust. We also present application on local earthquake data from the South American subduction zone.

  16. Supervised Classification Methods for Seismic Phase Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jeff; Given, Jeff; Le Bras, Ronan; Fisseha, Misrak

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the CTBT. The organization is installing the International Monitoring System (IMS), a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide sensor stations. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives the data from seismic stations either in real time or on request. These data are first processed on a station per station basis. This initial step yields discrete detections which are then assembled on a network basis (with the addition of hydroacoustic and infrasound data) to produce automatic and analyst reviewed bulletins containing seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound detections. The initial station processing step includes the identification of seismic and acoustic phases which are given a label. Subsequent network processing relies on this preliminary labeling, and as a consequence, the accuracy and reliability of automatic and reviewed bulletins also depend on this initial step. A very large ground truth database containing massive amounts of detections with analyst-reviewed labels is available to improve on the current operational system using machine learning methods. An initial study using a limited amount of data was conducted during the ISS09 project of the CTBTO. Several classification methods were tested: decision tree with bagging; logistic regression; neural networks trained with back-propagation; Bayesian networks as generative class models; naive Bayse classification; support vector machines. The initial assessment was that the phase identification process could be improved by at least 13% over the current operational system and that the method obtaining the best results was the decision tree with bagging. We present the results of a study using a much larger learning dataset and preliminary implementation results.

  17. Evaluation of the seismic integrity of a plutonium-handling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, D.W.

    1981-02-04

    Many studies have been made by and for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to ensure the seismic safety of its Plutonium Facility (Building 332). These studies have included seismological and geologic field investigations to define the actual seismic hazard existing at the Laboratory site as well as structural studies of the Facility itself. Because the basic seismic design criteria has undergone changes over the years, numerous structural studies and upgrades have been completed. The seismic criteria in use at the LLNL site is reviewed on a continuing basis as new information on the seismicity and geology of the Livermore Valley is obtained. At present, the Laboratory's Earth Sciences Division is conducting a multi-million dollar program to identify and characterize the geologic hazards at the Livermore site, with the primary emphasis on earthquake hazards in the Livermore Valley. This effort is undergoing an independent review by Woodward-Clyde Associates. Additionally, because of increased concerns over the seismic safety of Building 332, the Laboratory has initiated an independent structural review. This review effort will be monitored by the California Seismic Safety Commission to ensure its independence. Both of these studiies are in their early stages and results are not yet available.

  18. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  19. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  20. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  1. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  2. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  3. Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One

  4. A future for drifting seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.; Babcock, J.

    2007-12-01

    One-dimensional, radial Earth models are sufficiently well constrained to accurately locate earthquakes and calculate the paths followed by seismic rays. The differences between observations and theoretical predictions of seismograms in such Earth models can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional wave speed distribution in the regions sampled by the seismic waves, by the technique of seismic tomography. Caused by thermal, compositional, and textural variations, wave speed anomalies remain the premier data source to fully understand the structure and evolution of our planet, from the scale of mantle convection and the mechanisms of heat transfer from core to surface to the international between the deep Earth and surface processes such as plate motion and crustal deformation. Unequal geographical data coverage continues to fundamentally limit the quality of tomographic reconstructions of seismic wave speeds in the interior of the Earth. Only at great cost can geophysicists overcome the difficulties of placing seismographs on the two thirds of the Earth's surface that is covered by oceans. The lack of spatial data coverage strongly hampers the determination of the structure of the Earth in the uncovered regions: all 3-D Earth models are marked by blank spots in areas, distributed throughout the Earth, where little or no information can be obtained. As a possible solution to gaining equal geographic data coverage, we have developed MERMAID, a prototype mobile receiver that could provide an easy, cost-effective way to collect seismic data in the ocean. It is a modification of the robotic floating instruments designed and used by oceanographers. Like them, MERMAID spends its life at depth but is capable of surfacing using a pump and bladder. We have equipped it with a hydrophone to record water pressure variations induced by compressional (P) waves. Untethered and passively drifting, such a floating seismometer will surface upon detection of a "useful" seismic

  5. Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region

    SciTech Connect

    Panza, G. F.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G.; Paskaleva, I.; Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P.; Herak, M.; Zaichenco, A.; Zivcic, M.

    2008-07-08

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

  6. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Aleksander; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona

    2015-10-01

    The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones) after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  7. International Perspectives on Fieldcourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Higgitt, David; Vanneste, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. Discusses whether fieldcourses are valuable experiences. Addresses specific issues affecting internationalisation of fieldcourses, such as financial considerations, sharing courses (staff and resources), overseas fieldtrips and expeditions, safety, and student…

  8. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-09-01

    . The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

  9. [Patient safety: Glossary].

    PubMed

    Sabio Paz, Verónica; Panattieri, Néstor D; Cristina Godio, Farmacéutica; Ratto, María E; Arpí, Lucrecia; Dackiewicz, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Patient safety and quality of care has become a challenge for health systems. Health care is an increasingly complex and risky activity, as it represents a combination of human, technological and organizational processes. It is necessary, therefore, to take effective actions to reduce the adverse events and mitigate its impact. This glossary is a local adaptation of key terms and concepts from the international bibliographic sources. The aim is providing a common language for assessing patient safety processes and compare them. PMID:26294153

  10. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  11. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  12. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    During the period of this report, the contract resources were spent on operation and maintenance of the Eastern Canada Telemetred Network (ECTN), development of special purpose local network systems, servicing and maintenance of the strong-motion seismograph network in eastern Canada, operation of the Ottawa data lab and earthquake monitoring and reporting. Of special note in this period was the final completion of the Sudbury (SLTN) and Charlevoix (CLTN) local networks and the integration of their data processing and analysis requirements in the regular analysis stream for ECTN data. These networks now acquire high quality digital data for detailed analysis of seismic activity and source properties from these two areas, thus effectively doubling the amount of seismic data being received by the Ottawa data lab. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Lunar seismic data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific data transmitted continuously from all ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations on the Moon and recorded on instrumentation tapes at receiving stations distributed around the Earth were processed. The processing produced sets of computer-compatible digital tapes, from which various other data sets convenient for analysis were generated. The seismograms were read, various types of seismic events were classified; the detected events were cataloged.

  14. Active Seismic Imaging Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Patricia A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Evans, John R.

    In September 1985 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct an active seismic experiment in the Medicine Lake area of northern California. The work is supported by the Geothermal Research Program of USGS and by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. We invite interested organizations or individuals to record our explosions from Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding areas not covered by the USGS-LLNL array.

  15. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  16. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  17. ELASTIC-WAVEFIELD SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY: A NEW SEISMIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bob A. Hardage

    2004-05-06

    The focus of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy research shifted from onshore prospects to marine environments during this report period. Four-component ocean-bottom-cable (4-C OBC) seismic data acquired in water depths of 2400 to 2500 feet across Green Canyon Block 237 in the Gulf of Mexico were processed and analyzed. The P-P and P-SV images of strata immediately below the seafloor exhibit amazing differences in P-P and P-SV seismic facies. These data may be one of the classic examples of the basic concepts of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy.

  18. Seismic Hazard Assessment for Western Kentucky, Northeastern Kentucky and Southeastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, James C; Wang, Zhenming; Woolery, Edward W; Kiefer, John D

    2002-07-01

    Earthquakes pose a seismic hazards and risk to the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Furthermore, the seismic hazards and risk vary throughout the Commonwealth. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the seismic hazard maps developed by the US Geological Survey for seismic safety regulation for nuclear facilities. Under current US Geological Survey's seismic hazard assessment it is economically unfeasible to build a new uranium plant near Paducah relative to the Portsmouth, Ohio site. This is not to say that the facility cannot be safely engineered to withstand the present seismic load, but enormously expensive to do so. More than 20 years observations and research at UK have shown that the US Geological Survey has overestimated seismic hazards in western Kentucky, particularly in the Jackson Purchase area that includes Paducah. Furthermore, our research indicates underestimated seismic hazards in northeastern Kentucky and southeastern Ohio. Such overestimation and underestimation could jeopardize possible site selection of PGDP for the new uranium plant. The existing database, research experience, and expertise in UK's Kentucky Geological Survey and Department of Geological Science put this institution in a unique position to conduct a comprehensive seismic hazard evaluation.

  19. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  20. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  1. Prediction of tectonically deformed coal based on lithologic seismic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Pan, Dongming; Cui, Ruofei; Ding, Enjie; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Mingshun

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the differences in physical properties between tectonically deformed coal (TDC) and primary coal, lithologic seismic inversion methods were adopted to identify the coal structure type, including probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion, elastic impedance (EI) inversion and simultaneous inversion methods. Based on poststack and prestack gathers, the inversion methods were applied to calculate lithologic seismic information, which included porosity, acoustic impedance, elastic impedance, λ × ρ and μ × ρ data. The inversion results were then analysed to evaluate the development potential of TDC. The research showed that the lithology inversion results, which indicated the potential zone of development areas of the coal, were all basically identical and a comprehensive prediction factor (the linear lithologic information combination) was proposed to effectively predict the development potential. Therefore, the prediction of TDC by lithologic seismic information could provide a scientific basis for both coal mining safety and the development potential of large-scale coalbed methane resources.

  2. Effects of core barrel on vessel seismic loadings. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliability of reactor systems under seismic events is a major concern for the safety of the nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the effects of the core barrel on the seismic response of reactor tanks. The main emphases are the effects of core barrel on the free-surface wave height and the fluid coupling effects between the core barrel and primary tank. This study represents an initial step to investigate the effects of in-tank components, structures on the seismically-induced hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor tanks. To simplify the analysis, the tank used in the study is simulated by a two-dimensional model. Two parametric studies were carried out in which the wall flexibility and location of core barrel were used as parameters respectively.

  3. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  4. AP1000{sup R} design robustness against extreme external events - Seismic, flooding, and aircraft crash

    SciTech Connect

    Pfister, A.; Goossen, C.; Coogler, K.; Gorgemans, J.

    2012-07-01

    Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require existing and new nuclear power plants to conduct plant assessments to demonstrate the unit's ability to withstand external hazards. The events that occurred at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear power station demonstrated the importance of designing a nuclear power plant with the ability to protect the plant against extreme external hazards. The innovative design of the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant provides unparalleled protection against catastrophic external events which can lead to extensive infrastructure damage and place the plant in an extended abnormal situation. The AP1000 plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. The plant's compact safety related footprint and protection provided by its robust nuclear island structures prevent significant damage to systems, structures, and components required to safely shutdown the plant and maintain core and spent fuel pool cooling and containment integrity following extreme external events. The AP1000 nuclear power plant has been extensively analyzed and reviewed to demonstrate that it's nuclear island design and plant layout provide protection against both design basis and extreme beyond design basis external hazards such as extreme seismic events, external flooding that exceeds the maximum probable flood limit, and malicious aircraft impact. The AP1000 nuclear power plant uses fail safe passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems (such as AC power, component cooling water, service water, compressed air or HVAC). The plant has been designed to protect systems, structures, and components critical to placing the reactor in a safe shutdown condition within the steel containment vessel

  5. Safety shutdown separators

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  6. Seismic databases of The Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunia, I.; Sokhadze, G.; Mikava, D.; Tvaradze, N.; Godoladze, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus is one of the active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The region needs continues seismic monitoring systems for better understanding of tectonic processes going in the region. Seismic Monitoring Center of Georgia (Ilia State University) is operating the digital seismic network of the country and is also collecting and exchanging data with neighboring countries. The main focus of our study was to create seismic database which is well organized, easily reachable and is convenient for scientists to use. The seismological database includes the information about more than 100 000 earthquakes from the whole Caucasus. We have to mention that it includes data from analog and digital seismic networks. The first analog seismic station in Georgia was installed in 1899 in the Caucasus in Tbilisi city. The number of analog seismic stations was increasing during next decades and in 1980s about 100 analog stations were operated all over the region. From 1992 due to political and economical situation the number of stations has been decreased and in 2002 just two analog equipments was operated. New digital seismic network was developed in Georgia since 2003. The number of digital seismic stations was increasing and in current days there are more than 25 digital stations operating in the country. The database includes the detailed information about all equipments installed on seismic stations. Database is available online. That will make convenient interface for seismic data exchange data between Caucasus neighboring countries. It also makes easier both the seismic data processing and transferring them to the database and decreases the operator's mistakes during the routine work. The database was created using the followings: php, MySql, Javascript, Ajax, GMT, Gmap, Hypoinverse.

  7. Specification goals for a Mars seismic network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    A seismic network on Mars should have enough stations (e.g., 24) to characterize the seismicity of the planet for comparison with a diversity of structural features; be comprised of low noise stations, preferably underground, 3 to 4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than those used on Viking; record over a sufficient band-width (DC-30 Hz) to detect micro-earthquakes to normal modes; and record for a sufficient duration (10 years) and data rate (10(exp 8) Mb/day/station) to obtain a data set comparable to that from the Apollo mission to the Moon so that locations of major internal boundaries can be inferred, such as those in the Earth, i.e., crust - lithosphere - asthenosphere - upper - lower phase transitions - outer - inner core. The proposed Mars Global Network Mission provides an opportunity to sense the dynamics and probe the interior of the planet. The seismic objectives, the availability of the instrumentation and trade-offs to meet them are discussed.

  8. Seismic activity of Erebus volcano, antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada

    1987-11-01

    Mount Erebus is presently the only Antarctic volcano with sustained eruptive activity in the past few years. It is located on Ross Island and a convecting anorthoclase phonolite lava lake has occupied the summit crater of Mount Erebus from January 1973 to September 1984. A program to monitor the seismic activity of Mount Erebus named IMESS was started in December 1980 as an international cooperative program among Japan, the United States and New Zealand. A new volcanic episode began on 13 September, 1984 and continued until December. Our main observations from the seismic activity from 1982 1985 are as follows: (1) The average numbers of earthquakes which occurred around Mount Erebus in 1982, 1983 and January August 1984 were 64, 134 and 146 events per day, respectively. Several earthquake swarms occurred each year. (2) The averag number of earthquakes in 1985 is 23 events per day, with only one earthquake swarm. (3) A remarkable decrease of the background seismicity is recognized before and after the September 1984 activity. (4) Only a few earthquakes were located in the area surrounding Erebus mountain after the September 1984 activity. A magma reservoir is estimated to be located in the southwest area beneath the Erebus summit, based on the hypocenter distributions of earthquakes.

  9. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

  10. Seismic evaluation of the U1a complex at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    McCamant, R R; Davito, A M; Hahn, K R; Murray, R C; Ng, D S; Sahni, V K; Schnechter, K M; Van Dyke, M

    1998-10-16

    As part of an overall safety evaluation of the Ula Complex, a seismic evaluation of structures, systems, and components (SSC) was conducted. A team of seismic, safety, and operation engineers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Bechtel Nevada (BN) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was chartered to perform the seismic evaluation. The UlA Complex is located in Area 1 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada. The complex is a test facility for physics experiments in support of the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The Ula Complex consists of surface and subsurface facilities. The subsurface facility is a tunnel complex located 963 feet below the surface. The seismic evaluation of U 1 a Complex is required to comply with the DOE Natural Phenomena Policy. This policy consists of an order, an implementing guide, and standards which provide guidance for design and evaluation of SSCs, categorization of SSCs, characterization of site, and hazard level definition.

  11. Computational 3-D inversion for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, E.M.; Forslund, D.W.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a four-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a great need for a new and effective technology with a wide scope of industrial applications to investigate media internal properties of which can be explored only from the backscattered data. The project was dedicated to the development of a three-dimensional computational inversion tool for seismic exploration. The new computational concept of the inversion algorithm was suggested. The goal of the project was to prove the concept and the practical validity of the algorithm for petroleum exploration.

  12. Seismic metamaterials based on isochronous mechanical oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Finocchio, G. Garescì, F.; Azzerboni, B.; Casablanca, O.; Chiappini, M.; Ricciardi, G.; Alibrandi, U.

    2014-05-12

    This Letter introduces a seismic metamaterial (SM) composed by a chain of mass-in-mass system able to filter the S-waves of an earthquake. We included the effect of the SM into the mono dimensional model for the soil response analysis. The SM modifies the soil behavior and in presence of an internal damping the amplitude of the soil amplification function is reduced also in a region near the resonance frequency. This SM can be realized by a continuous structure with inside a 3d-matrix of isochronous oscillators based on a sphere rolling over a cycloidal trajectory.

  13. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele

    2008-07-08

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

  14. Seismic elastic-plastic time history analysis and reliability study of quayside container crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yulong; Li, Zengguang

    2010-06-01

    Quayside container crane is a kind of huge dimension steel structure, which is the major equipment used for handling container at modern ports. With the aim to validate the safety and reliability of the crane under seismic loads, besides conventional analysis, elastic-plastic time history analysis under rare seismic intensity is carried out. An ideal finite element (FEM) elastic-plastic mechanical model of the quayside container crane is presented by using ANSYS codes. Furthermore, according to elastic-plastic time history analysis theory, deformation, stress and damage pattern of the structure under rare seismic intensity are investigated. Based on the above analysis, the established reliability model according to the reliability theory, together with seismic reliability analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to practical analysis. The results show that the overall structure of the quayside container crane is generally unstable under rare seismic intensity, and the structure needs to be reinforced.

  15. The research of high-resolution seismic data processing for coal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gou Jinwei; Liu Mei; Bai Zhixin; Ju Xinhua; Wu Xizun

    1994-12-31

    For the sake of safety and high efficiency of comprehensive mechanized mining, a detailed geological information of coal--field including small fault (several meters), fold and cave pillars is needed before mine planning, which demands that seismic prospecting of coalfield have higher resolution. Data processing is one of very important aspects in improving seismic resolution. The authors took two steps in date processing: (1) Modules beneficial to extend the frequency band and suppress the noise are selected in data processing. (2) Measures such as strengthening the prestack processing, series statics and frequency separation. etc. are applied to the seismic date so that the resolution has been obviously improved. The result shows that it is possible, by applying the above methods, to improve seismic vertical resolution (5m) in the area where the original efficient bandwidth of seismic data is not less than 200H{sub z}.

  16. Seismic Damage Analysis of Aged Concrete Gravity Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Parsuram; Maity, Damodar

    2013-08-01

    The design of a concrete gravity dam must provide the ability to withstand the seismic forces for which nonlinear behavior is expected. The nonlinear seismic response of the dam may be different due to aging, as the concrete gets degraded because of environmental factors and mechanical loadings. The present study investigates the evolution of tensile damages in aged concrete gravity dams, which is necessary to estimate the safety of existing dams towards future earthquake forces. The degraded material properties of the concrete with age, subjected to environmental factors and mechanical loadings, are determined introducing an isotropic degradation index. A concrete damaged plasticity model, which assumes both the compressive and tensile damage, is used to evaluate the nonlinear seismic response of the dam. Results show that the peak maximum principal stresses reduced at the neck due to aging effects in the concrete. It is observed that the neck region is the most vulnerable region to initiate damage for all cases of aged dams. The results show that there are severe damages to the structure at higher ages under seismic loadings. The proposed method can ensure the safety of dams during their entire design life considering the environmental factors and mechanical loadings affecting the materials as they age.

  17. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  18. A model of seismic coda arrivals to suppress spurious events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, N.; Russell, S.

    2012-04-01

    We describe a model of coda arrivals which has been added to NET-VISA (Network processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis) our probabilistic generative model of seismic events, their transmission, and detection on a global seismic network. The scattered energy that follows a seismic phase arrival tends to deceive typical STA/LTA based arrival picking software into believing that a real seismic phase has been detected. These coda arrivals which tend to follow all seismic phases cause most network processing software including NET-VISA to believe that multiple events have taken place. It is not a simple matter of ignoring closely spaced arrivals since arrivals from multiple events can indeed overlap. The current practice in NET-VISA of pruning events within a small space-time neighborhood of a larger event works reasonably well, but it may mask real events produced in an after-shock sequence. Our new model allows any seismic arrival, even coda arrivals, to trigger a subsequent coda arrival. The probability of such a triggered arrival depends on the amplitude of the triggering arrival. Although real seismic phases are more likely to generate such coda arrivals. Real seismic phases also tend to generate coda arrivals with more strongly correlated parameters, for example azimuth and slowness. However, the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of a coda arrival immediately following a phase arrival tends to be lower because of the nature of the SNR calculation. We have calibrated our model on historical statistics of such triggered arrivals and our inference accounts for them while searching for the best explanation of seismic events their association to the arrivals and the coda arrivals. We have tested our new model on one week of global seismic data spanning March 22, 2009 to March 29, 2009. Our model was trained on two and half months of data from April 5, 2009 to June 20, 2009. We use the LEB bulletin produced by the IDC (International Data Center) as the ground truth

  19. Laboratory Simulations of Martian Meteorite Impacts and Their Seismic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Richardson, J. E.; Harvey, N. E.; Perry, D. C.; Bowling, T. J.; Kanamori, H.; Webb, F.; Li, M.; Garnero, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent satellite images have revealed that meteorites regularly impact the Martian surface. Such impacts provide a constant background of planet-wide seismicity, and add a substantial number of seismic sources to an otherwise seismically quiet planet, with a natural quake rate estimated to be ~1000 times lower than on Earth. This is a potentially rich and relatively unexplored source of seismic activity that may be used to answer fundamental questions about the planet's internal structure, such as the size and nature of the core, the composition and layering of the mantle, and the planets crustal thickness and variability. Determining whether meteoritic impacts can be used as seismic sources for studying the Martian interior depends directly upon two fundamental parameters: (1) the rate of transfer of momentum to the elastic medium as defined by an impact's source-time function (or its power spectrum); and (2) the efficiency with which the kinetic energy of the impacting body is transferred to seismic energy. However, uncertainty of the impact source time function, combined with the wide range of impact seismic efficiency factors observed in various settings, makes it very difficult to determine the efficacy of natural impacts for seismic exploration. To overcome these challenges, we have begun a campaign combining impact laboratory experiments and numerical simulations with the goal of determining how well the observed meteoritic impact distribution on Mars can be used to resolve the Martian interior structure. To simulate the seismic signals expected from meteorite impacts on the Martian surface, we carried out a series of high velocity impact experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) facility. The experiments spanned a variety of projectile impact velocities and angles, and were carried out in near vacuum conditions to mimic Martian atmospheric conditions. Seismic sensors were embedded in target material analogous to the Martian surface and were

  20. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-12-29

    119 degrees and 120 degrees west longitude). The event was not reported as being felt on the Hanford Site or causing any damage and was communicated to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Operations Center per HSAP communi¬cations procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The maximum acceleration recorded at the SMA stations (0.17% at the 300 Area) was 12 times smaller than the reportable action level (2% g) for Hanford Site facilities.

  1. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  2. Seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Turowski, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    In seismology, the signal is usually analysed for earthquake data, but these represent less than 1% of continuous recording. The remaining data are considered as seismic noise and were for a long time ignored. Over the past decades, the analysis of seismic noise has constantly increased in popularity, and this has led to develop new approaches and applications in geophysics. The study of continuous seismic records is now open to other disciplines, like geomorphology. The motion of mass at the Earth's surface generates seismic waves that are recorded by nearby seismometers and can be used to monitor its transfer through the landscape. Surface processes vary in nature, mechanism, magnitude and space and time, and this variability can be observed in the seismic signals. This contribution aims to give an overview of the development and current opportunities for the seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes. We first describe the common principles of seismic signal monitoring and introduce time-frequency analysis for the purpose of identification and differentiation of surface processes. Second, we present techniques to detect, locate and quantify geomorphic events. Third, we review the diverse layout of seismic arrays and highlight their advantages and limitations for specific processes, like slope or channel activity. Finally, we illustrate all these characteristics with the analysis of seismic data acquired in a small debris-flow catchment where geomorphic events show interactions and feedbacks. Further developments must aim to fully understand the richness of the continuous seismic signals, to better quantify the geomorphic activity and improve the performance of warning systems. Seismic monitoring may ultimately allow the continuous survey of erosion and transfer of sediments in the landscape on the scales of external forcing.

  3. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  4. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment Waste Characterization Reduction and Repackaging Building, TA-50-69

    SciTech Connect

    M.W.Sullivan; J.Ruminer; I.Cuesta

    2003-02-02

    This report presents the results of the seismic structural analyses completed on the Waste Characterization Reduction and Repackaging (WCRR) Building in support of ongoing safety analyses. WCRR is designated as TA-50-69 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The facility has been evaluated against Department of Energy (DOE) seismic criteria for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Performance Category II (PC 2). The seismic capacities of two subsystems within the WCRR building, the material handling glove box and the lift rack immediately adjacent to the Glove Box are also documented, and the results are presented.

  5. Seismic evaluation of K basin bridge cranes (HOI-320 & HOI-418) and supporting structure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, B.V.; Kanjilad, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The Safety Class 1 100-K fuel storage basins are vulnerable to impact damage if a bridge crane were to fall during a seismic event. The pupose of this report is to address the adequacy of the K Basin bridge cranes to resist a seismic-induced fall. The approach used to demonstrate adequacy against falling, was to evaluate the crane structural components relative to requirements specified in ASME NOG-1, Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes. Additionally, wheel lift-off and the adequacy of the crane supporting structure, are addressed. Seismic adequacy of the mechanical hoist equipment is not addressed in this report.

  6. Borehole seismic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Tao

    In many borehole seismic experiments, the velocity of the tube wave is higher than that of the surrounding rock shear wave. This fast tube wave creates a strong conical shear wave in the surrounding rock, similar to the Mach wave in supersonic aviation and the Cherenkov radiation in electrodynamics. Many geophysicists have tried to utilize the conical signal in VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and cross borehole data interpretation, using quasi static approximations to model the borehole effect. Two popular quasi static approximations are: the effective source array method for source borehole modeling and the squeeze strain method for receiver borehole modeling. These quasi static approximations are sensible as they qualitatively conform to Hueygen's principle and the typical wavelength of a VSP or a cross borehole seismic experiment is much larger than the borehole radius. However, they have not been quantitatively benchmarked against other non approximation method such as the frequency wave number method. The frequency wave number method is a rigorous, non approximation method for modeling straight boreholes without lengthwise variation. The boreholes may consist of many coaxial, homogeneous and axially symmetric shells. In this thesis, the results of the quasi static approximations are compared to the results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The comparison demonstrates that both the effective source array method and squeeze strain method gives the correct arrival time. The effective source array method gives incorrect amplitude and waveform for direct arrivals and tube waves due to its arbitrary assumption of the elementary source radiation pattern. The squeeze strain method gives fairly accurate amplitude and waveform for P and S direct arrivals but it fails to match the tube wave results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The omission of tube wave dispersion and amplitude loss by the quasi static approximation methods also

  7. Multiband array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-06-01

    We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multiscale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multiscale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multiband higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g. earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3-D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time-series of 3-D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3-D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

  8. Multi-band array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-02-01

    We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multi-scale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multi-scale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multi-band higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g., earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time series of 3D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

  9. Attenuation of Seismic Waves by Grain Boundary Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David D.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental observations of the attenuation of elastic waves in polycrystalline ceramics and rocks reveal an attenuation mechanism, called grain boundary relaxation, which is likely to be predominant cause of seismic attenuation in the earth's mantle. For this mechanism, the internal friction (the reciprocal of the “intrinsic Q” of the material) depends strongly upon frequency and is in good agreement with Walsh's theory of attenuation (J. Geophys. Res., 74, 4333, 1969) in partially melted rock. When Walsh's theory is extended to provide a model of the anelasticity of the earth, using the experimental values of physical parameters reported here, the results are in excellent agreement with seismic observations. PMID:16591937

  10. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  11. Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

    2012-09-01

    Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

  12. Patient Safety in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Makary, Martin A.; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A.; Millman, E Anne; Pryor, David; Holzmueller, Christine; Pronovost, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Improving patient safety is an increasing priority for surgeons and hospitals since sentinel events can be catastrophic for patients, caregivers, and institutions. Patient safety initiatives aimed at creating a safe operating room (OR) culture are increasingly being adopted, but a reliable means of measuring their impact on front-line providers does not exist. Methods: We developed a surgery-specific safety questionnaire (SAQ) and administered it to 2769 eligible caregivers at 60 hospitals. Survey questions included the appropriateness of handling medical errors, knowledge of reporting systems, and perceptions of safety in the operating room. MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to compare safety results by hospital and by an individual's position in the OR using a composite score. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure of the scale at the operating room level of analysis. Results: The overall response rate was 77.1% (2135 of 2769), with a range of 57% to 100%. Factor analysis of the survey items demonstrated high face validity and internal consistency (α = 0.76). The safety climate scale was robust and internally consistent overall and across positions. Scores varied widely by hospital [MANOVA omnibus F (59, 1910) = 3.85, P < 0.001], but not position [ANOVA F (4, 1910) = 1.64, P = 0.16], surgeon (mean = 73.91), technician (mean = 70.26), anesthesiologist (mean = 71.57), CRNA (mean = 71.03), and nurse (mean = 70.40). The percent of respondents reporting good safety climate in each hospital ranged from 16.3% to 100%. Conclusions: Safety climate in surgical departments can be validly measured and varies widely among hospitals, providing the opportunity to benchmark performance. Scores on the SAQ can serve to evaluate interventions to improve patient safety. PMID:16632997

  13. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib: an international, multicentre, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (GRID)

    PubMed Central

    Demetri, George D; Reichardt, Peter; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Blay, Jean-Yves; Rutkowski, Piotr; Gelderblom, Hans; Hohenberger, Peter; Leahy, Michael; von Mehren, Margaret; Joensuu, Heikki; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Blackstein, Martin; Cesne, Axel Le; Schöffski, Patrick; Maki, Robert G; Bauer, Sebastian; Nguyen, Binh Bui; Xu, Jianming; Nishida, Toshirou; Chung, John; Kappeler, Christian; Kuss, Iris; Laurent, Dirk; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background To date, only two agents, imatinib and sunitinib, have shown clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), but almost all metastatic GISTs eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. This phase 3 trial assessed efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic and/or unresectable GIST progressing after failure of at least imatinib and sunitinib. Methods Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive either regorafenib 160 mg orally daily or placebo, plus best supportive care in both arms, for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Upon disease progression, patients on placebo could cross over to regorafenib. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate, disease control rate (DCR: rate of durable stable disease lasting for ≥12 weeks plus complete or partial responses), and safety. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01271712). Results From January to August 2011, 240 patients were screened at 57 centres in 17 countries, and 199 patients were randomised to receive regorafenib (n=133) or matching placebo (n=66). Median PFS per independent blinded central review was 4·8 months and 0·9 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0·27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·19–0·39; p<0·0001). Following progression, 56/66 patients (84·8%) on placebo crossed over to regorafenib, resulting in no significant difference in OS between study arms (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·42–1·41; p=0·199). A best response of partial response or stable disease was observed in 101/133 patients (75·9%) on regorafenib and 23/66 patients (34·8%) on placebo. DCR was 52·6% (70/133 patients) and 9·1% (6/66 patients), respectively. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 130 (98·5%) of 132 regorafenib patients and 45 (68·2%) of 66 placebo patients. The most common grade ≥3 regorafenib

  14. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  15. Seismic source models for probabilistic hazard analysis of Georgia (Southern Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Gamkrelidze, E.; Sokhadze, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic Source model is one of the main components of probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis. Active faults and tectonics of Georgia (Sothern Caucasus) have been investigated in numerous scientific studies. The Caucasus consists of different geological structures with complex interactions. The major structures trend WNW-ESE, and focal mechanisms indicate primarily thrust faults striking parallel to the mountains. It is a part of the Alpine - Himalayan collision belt and it is well known for its high seismicity. Although the geodynamic activity of the region, caused by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian plates at a rate of several cm/year, is well known, different tectonic models were proposed as an explanation for the seismic process in the region. The recent model on seismic sources for the Caucasus and derives from recent seismotectonic studies performed in Georgia in the framework of different international projects.We have analyzed previous studies and recent investigations on the bases of new seismic (spatial distribution, moment tensor solution etc), GPS and other data. As a result data base of seismic source models was compiled. Seismic sources are modeled as lines representing the surface projection of active faults or as wide areas (source zones), where the earthquakes can occur randomly. Each structure or zone was quantified on the basis of different parameters. Recent experience for harmonization of cross-border structures was used. As a result new seismic source model of Georgia (Southern Caucasus) for hazard analysis was created.

  16. Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C

    2001-03-01

    Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude 3.8 shock that occurred

  17. Global overview of subduction seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, F.; Presti, D.; Heuret, A.; Piromallo, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of the EURYI Project ';Convergent margins and seismogenesis: defining the risk of great earthquakes by using statistical data and modelling', we propose the first global overview of subduction seismicity. Previous studies have been focused on interplate seismicity, intraslab seismicity, upper plate deformation, or relation between interplate and intraslab seismicity, but the three components of subduction seismicity have been never approached in an systematic and exhaustive study. To allow such a study, nodal planes and seismic moments of worldwide subduction-related earthquakes heve been extracted by EHB hypocenter and CMT Harvard catalogues for the period 1976 - 2007. Data were collected for centroid depths between sea level and 700 km and for magnitude Mw 5.5. For each subduction zone, a set of trench-normal transects were constructed choosing a 120km width of the cross-section on each side of a vertical plane and a spacing of 1 degree along the trench. For each of the 505 resulting transects, the whole subduction seismogenic zone was mapped as focal mechanisms projected on to a vertical plane after their faulting type classification according to the Aki-Richards convention. Transect by transect, fist the seismicity that can be considered not related to the subduction process under investigation was removed, then was selected the upper plate seismicity (i.e. earthquakes generated within the upper plate as a result of the subduction process). After deletion from the so obtained event subset of the interplate seismicity as identified in the framework of this project by Heuret et al. (2011), we can be reasonably confident that the remaining seismicity can be related to the subducting plate. Among these earthquakes we then selected the shallow (0-70 km), intermediate (70-300 km) and deep (300-660 km) depth seismicity. Following Heuret et al. (2011), the 505 transects were merged into 62 larger segments that were ideally homogeneous in terms of their

  18. Key aspects governing induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buijze, Loes; Wassing, Brecht; Fokker, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the past decades numerous examples of earthquakes induced by human-induced changes in subsurface fluid pressures have been reported. This poses a major threat to the future development of some of these operations and calls for an understanding and quantification of the seismicity generated. From geomechanical considerations and insights from laboratory experiments the factors controlling induced seismicity may be grouped into 4 categories; the magnitude of the stress disturbance, the pre-existing stress conditions, the reservoir/fault rock properties and the local geometry. We investigated whether the (relative) contributions of these factors and their influence on magnitudes generated could be recognized by looking at the entire dataset of reported cases of induced seismicity as a whole, and what this might imply for future developments. An extensive database has been built out of over a 160 known cases of induced seismicity worldwide, incorporating the relevant geological, seismological and fluid-related parameters. The cases studied include hydrocarbon depletion and secondary recovery, waste water injection, (enhanced) geothermal systems and hydraulic fracturing with observed magnitudes ranging from less than -1.5 to 7. The parameters taken into account were based on the theoretical background of the mechanisms of induced seismicity and include the injection/depletion-related parameters, (spatial) characteristics of seismicity, lithological properties and the local stress situation. Correlations between the seismic response and the geological/geomechanical characteristics of the various sites were investigated. The injected/depleted volumes and the scale of the activities are major controlling factors on the maximum magnitudes generated. Spatial signatures of seismicity such as the depth and lateral spread of the seismicity were observed to be distinct for different activities, which is useful when considering future operations. Where available the local

  19. A study on the seismic fortification level of offshore platform in Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    seismic design code for buildings it is proposed that the probability level for the strength level earthquake and ductility level earthquake takes respectively a return period of 200 and 1000-2500 years. By comparing with the codes developed by relevant industry institutions the rationality and safety of the seismic fortification objectives of OPs is verified. Finally, the seismic parameters in the sub-regions of Bohai Sea are calculated based on seismic risk zoning and ground motion intensity maps.

  20. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-10-01

    RSI has access to two synthetic seismic programs: Osiris seismic modeling system provided by Odegaard (Osiris) and synthetic seismic program, developed by SRB, implementing the Kennett method for normal incidence. Achieving virtually identical synthetic seismic traces from these different programs serves as cross-validation for both. The subsequent experiments have been performed with the Kennett normal incidence code because: We have access to the source code, which allowed us to easily control computational parameters and integrate the synthetics computations with our graphical and I/O systems. This code allows to perform computations and displays on a PC in MatLab or Octave environment, which is faster and more convenient. The normal incidence model allows us to exclude from the synthetic traces some of the physical effects that take place in 3-D models (like inhomogeneous waves) but have no relevance to the topic of our investigation, which is attenuation effects on seismic reflection and transmission.

  1. Seismic hazard communication in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickert, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Conflicting societal conceptions of earthquake safety provide challenges but also opportunities for the communication of seismic hazards. This paradox is exemplified in the controversial social reactions to the ongoing 'urban renewal projects' in Istanbul. Seismologists estimate that there is a high probability that a major earthquake will strike Istanbul in the next decade or so. Detailed earthquake risk analysis, and direct experience of the losses suffered during the major earthquakes that struck Turkey in 1999 and 2011, have engendered a broad societal recognition of the need for extensive earthquake preparedness and response planning. However, there has been dissent concerning the democratic legitimation of some of Istanbul's mitigation measures, most notably the implementation of the 'Law for the Regeneration of Areas Under Disaster Risk' (Law 6306, known as the 'disaster law') in May 2012. The strong interconnections between geological 'matters of fact' and societal 'matters of concern' raise fundamental questions for geocommunication on how to deal with this societal complexity, particularly in terms of maintaining trust in the geoscientist. There is a growing recognition among geoscientists that achieving disaster resilience in Istanbul is not solely the domain of 'earthquake experts' but rather requires a shared societal responsibility. However, the question arises as to how geocommunication can be designed to respond to this increased demand for interdisciplinarity and civil participation. This research will confront this question, exploring ways to combine qualitative and quantitative analyses, values and preferred norms with facts and observations, and be organised around an interactive web-based documentary platform that integrates multiple knowledge bases and seeks to help connect different communication cultures.

  2. Wind and seismic analysis for liquid-level gauge support

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, A.H.

    1994-12-07

    A wind and seismic analysis was performed for the liquid-level gauge installation support stand. The analysis includes the stand and footing only. All of these supports are classified as safety class 3. The analysis was based on safety class 2 requirements for conservatism. Conventional hand calculations were performed to evaluate the stresses and overturning of the structure. The results and recommendations appear in Section 2.0. The configuration and loadings are discussed in Section 3.0; the analysis and evaluation appears in Section 4.0; and the detailed analysis is documented in Appendix A.

  3. Micromachined silicon seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Armour, D.L.; Fleming, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of CTBT monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily depolyable sensor arrays. Although our goal is to fabricate seismic sensors that provide the same performance level as the current state-of-the-art ``macro`` systems, if necessary one could deploy a larger number of these small sensors at closer proximity to the location being monitored in order to compensate for lower performance. We have chosen a modified pendulum design and are manufacturing prototypes in two different silicon micromachining fabrication technologies. The first set of prototypes, fabricated in our advanced surface- micromachining technology, are currently being packaged for testing in servo circuits -- we anticipate that these devices, which have masses in the 1--10 {mu}g range, will resolve sub-mG signals. Concurrently, we are developing a novel ``mold`` micromachining technology that promises to make proof masses in the 1--10 mg range possible -- our calculations indicate that devices made in this new technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach to 10{sup {minus}10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  4. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  5. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  6. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  7. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  8. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  9. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  10. Indian Ocean ridge seismicity observed with a permanent hydroacoustic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jeffrey A.; Bowman, J. Roger

    2005-03-01

    The distribution of earthquakes along the Indian Ocean ridge system between January 18 and October 20, 2003 is investigated using data from two hydrophone stations of the International Monitoring System's global network. Coherent array processing of earthquake-induced hydroacoustic T-waves is used to determine precise arrival times and back azimuths that allow automatic location of the earthquakes. We observed 4725 events throughout the Indian Ocean Basin. Here, we examine 1146 earthquakes from the Central and Southeast Indian Ridge. Source level estimates from the hydroacoustic signals indicate that the hydroacoustic network is at least one magnitude unit more sensitive than the seismic network for Indian Ocean ridge earthquakes. The seismicity primarily clusters at ridge transform offsets. Events are observed off the ridge axis near Boomerang and St. Pierre Seamounts, the active expression of the Amsterdam-St. Paul Hotspot. Seismic gaps are observed at several ridge segments with anomalous bathymetric highs.

  11. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  12. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetschny, S.; Bohlen, T.; Nil, D. D.; Giese, R.

    2007-12-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. Within the \\it OnSite project founded by the BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) within \\it GeoTechnologien a new forward looking seismic imaging technique is developed to e.g. determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of \\it tunnel surface waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the front face they generate body waves (mainly S-waves) propagating further ahead. Reflected S-waves are back- converted into tunnel surface waves. For a theoretical description of the conversion process and for finding optimal acquisition geometries it is of importance to study the propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves. 3D seismic finite difference modeling and analytic solutions of the wave equation in cylindric coordinates revealed that at higher frequencies, i.e. if the tunnel diameter is significantly larger than the wavelength of S-waves, these surface waves can be regarded as Rayleigh-waves circulating the tunnel. For smaller frequencies, i.e. when the S-wavelength approaches the tunnel diameter, the propagation characteristics of these surface waves are then similar to S- waves. Field measurements performed by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany at the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland) show both effects, i.e. the propagation of Rayleigh- and body-wave like waves along the tunnel. To enhance our understanding of the excitation and propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves the transition of Rayleigh to tube-waves waves is investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations.

  13. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

    2014-06-01

    Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

  14. Improving Seismic Constraints on Subduction Zone Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Abers, G. A.; Fischer, K. M.; van Keken, P. E.; Kneller, E. A.; Rychert, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate slab geometries are necessary for 3D flow modeling, and for understanding the variations in temperature and melting geometry between different subduction zones. Recent studies have shown that the depth to slab beneath arc volcanoes varies by as much as a factor of two between subduction zones, but these results are based on teleseismic earthquake catalogs with potentially large errors. When available, local seismic arrays provide better constraints. The TUCAN array (Tomography Under Costa Rica and Nicaragua) deployed 48 three component broadband PASSCAL instruments for 18 months with station spacing of 10-50 km across the Central America arc. This dataset provides some of the best control anywhere for ground-truth comparison of teleseismic catalogs in steeply dipping subduction zones. Joint inversion of TUCAN arrival times for velocity and hypocenters illuminate a 10-15 km thick Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ), with absolute hypocenter uncertainties of 1-5 km. Besides providing accurate hypocenters, the tomographic images provide independent constraints on melting and temperature, through the imaging of low Vp (7.5-7.8 km/s) and highly attenuating (40International Seismic Centre (ISC) and EHB (Engdahl et al., 1998) hypocenters show a teleseismic Wadati- Benioff zone (TWBZ) that lies 15 km below that of the TUCAN catalog on average at 80-200 km depth, with similar results for local catalogs based on a 1D velocity model. However, the width of the TWBZ is 30-80 km or 3-5 times that indicated by TUCAN hypocenters; this additional width suggests errors of +/- 10-33 km. Commonly, the top of the subducting slab is assumed to lie at the top of the WBZ seismicity, for example if double seismic zones are expected. Because of the large scatter, the TWBZ is biased too shallow compared to the TUCAN data, vertically by as much as 50 km for the steeply-dipping Nicaragua slab. Relative

  15. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  16. Results from the apollo-12 passive seismic experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latham, G.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the passive seismic experiment is to measure vibrations of the lunar surface produced by all natural and artificial sources of seismic energy and to use these data to deduce the internal structure and composition of the moon, the nature of forces which may cause deformation of the moon and moonquakes, and the numbers and masses of meteoroids striking the lunar surface. The ALSEP* seismometers can magnify lunar surface vibrations 10 million times. No instrument can operate on earth with this sensitivity, because weather and man produce too much seismic noise. To obtain answers to the above questions, seismic data must be combined with data from laboratory measurements of the physical and chemical properties of surface rocks, and many other geophyiscal and geochemical measurements. Thus far, we have had the opportunity to record data from two lunar seismic stations which were installed by the astronauts during Apollo misions  and 12. The combined recording time from the stations is presently over 12 months, but there was no overlap to permit recording of the same event at two stations. 

  17. International occupational health.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety

  18. 49 CFR 229.93 - Safety cut-off device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety cut-off device. 229.93 Section 229.93..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment § 229.93 Safety cut-off device. The fuel line shall have a safety cut-off device that— (a)...

  19. Seismic Analysis Capability in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic analysis is a technique which pertains to loading described in terms of boundary accelerations. Earthquake shocks to buildings is the type of excitation which usually comes to mind when one hears the word seismic, but this technique also applied to a broad class of acceleration excitations which are applied at the base of a structure such as vibration shaker testing or shocks to machinery foundations. Four different solution paths are available in NASTRAN for seismic analysis. They are: Direct Seismic Frequency Response, Direct Seismic Transient Response, Modal Seismic Frequency Response, and Modal Seismic Transient Response. This capability, at present, is invoked not as separate rigid formats, but as pre-packaged ALTER packets to existing RIGID Formats 8, 9, 11, and 12. These ALTER packets are included with the delivery of the NASTRAN program and are stored on the computer as a library of callable utilities. The user calls one of these utilities and merges it into the Executive Control Section of the data deck to perform any of the four options are invoked by setting parameter values in the bulk data.

  20. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

  1. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C., Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Methods for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Savit, C. H.

    1985-10-01

    Sweeps of seismic signals consisting of pulse trains having a predetermined number of pulses in which the periods or durations of the pulses are randomized and in which the wave shape and relative time displacements of the pulses in different trains provides substantially constant spectral level over a frequency range containing several octaves even though the durations of the pulses correspond to a frequency range not exceeding an octave during the sweep are transmitted through the medium being explored such as an earth formation to receptors such as geophones or hydrophones. Groups of signals contained in less than the entire length of the sweep which are transmitted and which are received can be cross correlated to vary the effective duration of the sweep. The cross correlation output of successively occurring sweeps may be stacked to reduce the side lobe amplitude of the cross correlation outputs from each sweep, from which outputs seismograms may be constructed.

  3. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  4. Structural reliability analysis and seismic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Shinozuka, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis method for safety evaluation of nuclear structures. By utilizing this method, it is possible to estimate the limit state probability in the lifetime of structures and to generate analytically the fragility curves for PRA studies. The earthquake ground acceleration, in this approach, is represented by a segment of stationary Gaussian process with a zero mean and a Kanai-Tajimi Spectrum. All possible seismic hazard at a site represented by a hazard curve is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, the limit state of a structure is analytically defined and the corresponding limit state surface is then established. Finally, the fragility curve is generated and the limit state probability is evaluated. In this paper, using a realistic reinforced concrete containment as an example, results of the reliability analysis of the containment subjected to dead load, live load and ground earthquake acceleration are presented and a fragility curve for PRA studies is also constructed.

  5. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  6. SEISMIC-REFLECTOR DATABASE SOFTWARE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Hosom, John-Paul

    1986-01-01

    The seismic data analysis (SDA) software system facilitates generation of marine seismic reflector databases composed of reflector depths, travel times, root-mean-square and interval velocities, geographic coordinates, and identifying information. System processes include digitizing of seismic profiles and velocity semblance curves, merging of velocity and navigation data with profile travel-time data, calculation of reflector depths in meters, profile and map graphic displays, data editing and smoothing, and entry of finalized data into a comprehensive database. An overview of concepts, file structures, and programs is presented.

  7. Transdimensional Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, T.; Sambridge, M.

    2009-12-01

    In seismic imaging the degree of model complexity is usually determined by manually tuning damping parameters within a fixed parameterization chosen in advance. Here we present an alternative methodology for seismic travel time tomography where the model complexity is controlled automatically by the data. In particular we use a variable parametrization consisting of Voronoi cells with mobile geometry, shape and number, all treated as unknowns in the inversion. The reversible jump algorithm is used to sample the transdimensional model space within a Bayesian framework which avoids global damping procedures and the need to tune regularisation parameters. The method is an ensemble inference approach, as many potential solutions are generated with variable numbers of cells. Information is extracted from the ensemble as a whole by performing Monte Carlo integration to produce the expected Earth model. The ensemble of models can also be used to produce velocity uncertainty estimates and experiments with synthetic data suggest they represent actual uncertainty surprisingly well. In a transdimensional approach, the level of data uncertainty directly determines the model complexity needed to satisfy the data. Intriguingly, the Bayesian formulation can be extended to the case where data uncertainty is also uncertain. Experiments show that it is possible to recover data noise estimate while at the same time controlling model complexity in an automated fashion. The method is tested on synthetic data in a 2-D application and compared with a more standard matrix based inversion scheme. The method has also been applied to real data obtained from cross correlation of ambient noise where little is known about the size of the errors associated with the travel times. As an example, a tomographic image of Rayleigh wave group velocity for the Australian continent is constructed for 5s data together with uncertainty estimates.

  8. The seismic traffic footprint: Tracking trains, aircraft, and cars seismically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Nima; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to probe the subsurface, the vibrations caused by traffic have not been explored much. Such data, however, are less sensitive to weather and low visibility compared to some common out-of-road traffic sensing systems. We study traffic-generated seismic noise measured by an array of 5200 geophones that covered a 7 × 10 km area in Long Beach (California, USA) with a receiver spacing of 100 m. This allows us to look into urban vibrations below the resolution of a typical city block. The spatiotemporal structure of the anthropogenic seismic noise intensity reveals the Blue Line Metro train activity, departing and landing aircraft in Long Beach Airport and their acceleration, and gives clues about traffic movement along the I-405 highway at night. As low-cost, stand-alone seismic sensors are becoming more common, these findings indicate that seismic data may be useful for traffic monitoring.

  9. Building an educational seismic network in Romanian schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Bican-Brisan, Nicoleta; Neagoe, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects is an important step toward the education of population and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this sense, The Romanian Educational Seismic Network project represents an efficient communication tool, allowing teaching and learning about the earthquakes and seismic wave impact through experimental practices and educational activities. The seismic network consist of nine SEP seismometers installed in high-schools from the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Banat, Făgăraş, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zalău) and is coordinated by the National Institute of Earth Physics from Bucharest. Once installed, the seismic network is the starting point of activities for students through an e-learning platform. Some objectives are aimed: - To train students and teachers how to make analysis and interpretation of seismological data; - To make science more interesting for students; - To improve the participation rates in physical sciences for students; - To raise awareness of geoscience as a scientific discipline for pre-university students; - To promote the installation and effective use of educational seismographs and seismic data; - To reinforce and develop relationships between participating schools and research institutes; - To create an earthquake database this will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. Different types of practical activities using educational seismometer, designed by researchers for students, are described in educational materials and in the web platform project. Also we encourage the teachers from the participating schools to share their experiences and produce new didactic tools for the classroom. This collaborative work could illustrate the conjugated efforts of researchers and teachers for a better education and awareness of the risk culture

  10. Advances through collaboration: sharing seismic reflection data via the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wardell, N.; Childs, J. R.; Cooper, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) has served for the past 16 years under the auspices of the Antarctic Treaty (ATCM Recommendation XVI-12) as a role model for collaboration and equitable sharing of Antarctic multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) data for geoscience studies. During this period, collaboration in MCS studies has advanced deciphering the seismic stratigraphy and structure of Antarctica’s continental margin more rapidly than previously. MCS data compilations provided the geologic framework for scientific drilling at several Antarctic locations and for high-resolution seismic and sampling studies to decipher Cenozoic depositional paleoenvironments. The SDLS successes come from cooperation of National Antarctic Programs and individual investigators in “on-time” submissions of their MCS data. Most do, but some do not. The SDLS community has an International Polar Year (IPY) goal of all overdue MCS data being sent to the SDLS by end of IPY. The community science objective is to compile all Antarctic MCS data to derive a unified seismic stratigraphy for the continental margin – a stratigraphy to be used with drilling data to derive Cenozoic circum-Antarctic paleobathymetry maps and local-to-regional scale paleoenvironmental histories.

  11. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  12. Tilt and seismicity changes in the Shumagin seismic gap

    SciTech Connect

    Beavan, J.; Hauksson, E.; McNutt, S.R.; Bilham, R.; Jacob, K.H.

    1983-10-21

    Changes in the ground surface tilt and in the rate of seismicity indicate that an aseismic deformation event may have occurred between 1978 and 1980 along the plate boundary in the eastern Aleutians, Alaska, within the Shumagin seismic gap. Pavlof Volcano was unusually quiescent during this period. The proposed event would cause an increase of stress on the shallow locked portion of the plate boundary, bringing it closer to rupture in a great earthquake.

  13. From Induced Seismicity to Direct Time-Dependent Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertito, V.; Maercklin, N.; Sharma, N.; Zollo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The growing installation of industrial facilities for subsurface exploration worldwide requires continuous refinements in understanding both the mechanisms by which seismicity is induced by field operations and the related seismic hazard. Particularly in proximity of densely populated areas, induced low-to-moderate magnitude seismicity characterized by high-frequency content can be clearly felt by the surrounding inhabitants and, in some cases, may produce damage. In this respect we propose a technique for time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to be used in geothermal fields as a monitoring tool for the effects of on-going field operations. The technique integrates the observed features of the seismicity induced by fluid injection and extraction with a local ground-motion prediction equation. The result of the analysis is the time-evolving probability of exceedance of peak ground acceleration (PGA), which can be compared with selected critical values to manage field operations. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed technique, we applied it to data collected in The Geysers geothermal field in northern California between 1 September 2007 and 15 November 2010. We show that the period considered the seismic hazard at The Geysers was variable in time and space, which is a consequence of the field operations and the variation of both seismicity rate and b-value. We conclude that, for the exposure period taken into account (i.e., two months), as a conservative limit, PGA values corresponding to the lowest probability of exceedance (e.g., 30%) must not be exceeded to ensure safe field operations. We suggest testing the proposed technique at other geothermal areas or in regions where seismicity is induced, for example, by hydrocarbon exploitation or carbon dioxide storage.

  14. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  15. Seismic background noise at the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array

    SciTech Connect

    Breding, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The System Control and Receiving Station (SCARS) has been collecting spectral history data on the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) since 1981 and on the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) since it was installed in 1984. This report details the spectral history data for the NRSA through 1986. The appendix contains spectral history data for all five RSTN stations from the time they were installed until their deactivation in September 1986.

  16. Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A.M.; Blejwas, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues.

  17. EGLACOM project: seismic and oceanographic data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronio, L.; Lipizer, M.; Rebesco, M.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.; Fragiacomo, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the summer of 2008, a multidisciplinary combined offshore reflection seismic and oceanographic cruise was carried out along the southern Svalbard continental margin during the EGLACOM (Evolution of a GLacial Arctic COntinental Margin) project. This cruise was funded by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) in the framework of the International Polar Year (IPY). The main objective of EGLACOM was the geophysical study of an ice-stream dominated marine depositional system of the Arctic margin. However, the high relevance of the area under the climatic and oceanographic point of view challenged the simultaneous acquisition of oceanographic data in order to study the overall thermohaline structures and ocean current circulation with a synergic seismic oceanographic approach. As documented by several recent papers (i.e., Holbrook et al., 2003, Nandi et al., 2004, Nakamura et al, 2006, Jones et al., 2008) and dedicated project ('Geophysical Oceanography (GO)' project, 2007-2009, http://www.dur.ac.uk/eu.go), this approach allows to image oceanic fine-structures with greater horizontal resolution than traditional oceanographic methods. The working area lies south of Fram Strait which is the only deep connection with the Arctic Ocean and the main entrance for the heat and salt flux associated to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Current. Ocean circulation has a fundamental role on the control of heat transport and on climate changes, which are particularly rapid and severe in the Arctic. In recent times, the Arctic ocean has undergone profound changes with dramatic reduction of ice cover and warming of its upper layers. The hydrographic properties (i.e. temperature and salinity) and the circulation pattern (in terms of mesoscale features, vertical mixing and transport intensity) of the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow strongly influence the overall ocean circulation in the Arctic, which ultimately influences the climate. Recent

  18. Seismic engineering -- 1996. PVP-volume 340

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, M.A.; Aggarwal, M.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 37 papers in this volume have been arranged under the following topical sections: advanced methods in seismic engineering (7 papers); high level dynamic response of piping systems (5); equipment seismic qualification (6); soil structure interaction (3); advanced seismic technology in Asian countries (8); developments in seismic codes and standards (8); and a panel discussion on the review of current issues by the Special Working Group on seismic rules. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  20. Investigating the point seismic array concept with seismic rotation measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert E.; Aldridge, David Franklin

    2009-02-01

    Spatially-distributed arrays of seismometers are often utilized to infer the speed and direction of incident seismic waves. Conventionally, individual seismometers of the array measure one or more orthogonal components of rectilinear particle motion (displacement, velocity, or acceleration). The present work demonstrates that measure of both the particle velocity vector and the particle rotation vector at a single point receiver yields sufficient information to discern the type (compressional or shear), speed, and direction of an incident plane seismic wave. Hence, the approach offers the intriguing possibility of dispensing with spatially-extended received arrays, with their many problematic deployment, maintenance, relocation, and post-acquisition data processing issues. This study outlines straightforward mathematical theory underlying the point seismic array concept, and implements a simple cross-correlation scanning algorithm for determining the azimuth of incident seismic waves from measured acceleration and rotation rate data. The algorithm is successfully applied to synthetic seismic data generated by an advanced finite-difference seismic wave propagation modeling algorithm. Application of the same azimuth scanning approach to data acquired at a site near Yucca Mountain, Nevada yields ambiguous, albeit encouraging, results. Practical issues associated with rotational seismometry are recognized as important, but are not addressed in this investigation.