Science.gov

Sample records for international skeleton tables

  1. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  2. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  3. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  4. Skeletonization of the internal thoracic artery: a randomized comparison of harvesting methods.

    PubMed

    Urso, Stefano; Alvarez, Luis; Sádaba, Rafael; Greco, Ernesto

    2008-02-01

    We performed a randomized study to compare internal thoracic artery (ITA) flow response to two harvesting methods used in the skeletonization procedure: ultrasonic scalpel and bipolar electrocautery. Sixty patients scheduled for CABG were randomized to receive either ultrasonically (n=30 patients) or electrocautery (n=30 patients) skeletonized ITAs. Intraoperative ITA graft mean flows were obtained with a transit-time flowmeter. ITA flows were evaluated at the beginning (Time 1) and at the end (Time 2) of the harvesting procedure. Post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) flow measurement (Time 3) was obtained in the ITA grafts anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery. Intraoperative mean flow decreased significantly within ultrasonic group (Group U) and electrocautery group (Group E) at the end of the harvesting procedure (P<0.0001 in both cases). Within both groups the final mean flow measured on anastomosed ITAs (Time 3) was significantly higher than the beginning ITA flow value (Time 1). No statistical difference was noted comparing ITA flows between the two groups at any time of evaluation. Skeletonization harvesting of the ITA produces a modification of the mean flow. The quantity and the reversibility of this phenomenon, probably related to vasospasm, are independent from the energy source used in the skeletonization procedure. PMID:17998305

  5. Petroleum Engineer International's 1994 casing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Petroleum Engineer International's 1994 Casing Tables contains premium casing connection and grad data from about 30 companies. The Connection section includes performance characteristics and specifications for premium casing connections along with line illustrations and brief descriptions of each joint. The Grades section describes premium casing grades manufactured at major mills around the world. Following the data sections is an index of connections and a listing of licensees. The Casing Tables have been revised a bit from the previous two editions. In the Connections section, a wall thickness (t) column has been added. It is given in inches, from lightest to heaviest. In the Grades section, the Applications Index now provides more specific definitions. Dee Wells are wells drilled deeper than 15,000 ft.; the Low Temperature application has been reworded to Arctic Service; and the Sour Gas and Severe Sour Gas applications may vary a bit from company to company.

  6. Axial Skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Axial Skeleton (80 bones) Skull (28) Cranial Bones Parietal (2) ... Sternum (1) Ribs (24) « Previous (Divisions of the Skeleton) Next (Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones)) » Contact Us | Privacy ...

  7. Appendicular Skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones) Pectoral girdles Clavicle (2) Scapula (2) ... Tarsals (14) Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28) « Previous (Axial Skeleton (80 bones)) Next (Articulations) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | ...

  8. Can We Believe the International League Tables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilby, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article, updated and expanded from one written for "The Times Educational Supplement", 10 December 2010, asks whether politicians are right to quote the country's performance in international tests in support of such policies as re-introducing O levels. It finds reasons to doubt that the tests give an adequate picture of children's learning,…

  9. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  10. Does a skeletonized internal thoracic artery give fewer postoperative complications than a pedicled artery for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Olivier; Tariel, François; Desulauze, Pierre; Mével, Gwenaël

    2015-05-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does a skeletonized internal thoracic artery (ITA) give fewer postoperative complications than a pedicled artery for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?' Altogether, 98 papers were found using the reported search, of which 11 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Papers about patency of skeletonized versus pedicled internal thoracic artery were excluded. The analysed complications were essentially mediastinitis, superficial sternal infection, wound infection, chest pain and pulmonary function. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Grafts used were either single ITA (LITA or RITA, left or right, respectively) or bilateral ITAs (BITAs). One prospective randomized controlled trial was identified, which found that benefits of skeletonized harvesting included increased graft length, increased graft flow and decreased incidence of mediastinitis. All of the six studies concerning wound infection demonstrate fewer complications when ITA is skeletonized. One of the three papers describing postoperative mortality demonstrated lower 30-day mortality, but there was no long-term analysis. Three studies describing postoperative chest pain reported a lower score on the visual analogue scale (VAS) within 30 days. One of them indicates that the pedicled group has a significantly greater VAS, pain disability index and short-form McGill Pain questionnaire score at 1 and 3 months. The hospital stay was shorter for three studies conducted on this subject. One study about pulmonary function reported a better ratio of pre- versus postoperative values of forced vital capacity. Despite longer operating times, skeletonization leads to fewer wound infections, reduced chest pain, allows a shorter hospital stay and better

  11. Flow capacity of skeletonized versus pedicled internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Santos, Henrique José de Andrade Costa; Soares, Artur Freire; Miranda, Rodrigo Gusmão Albuquerque; Araújo, Mayara Lopes; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Many surgeons are concerned about the flow capacity of a skeletonized internal thoracic artery (ITA) in comparison with a pedicled ITA used during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This work aims to summarize the evidence comparing the flow capacity of a skeletonized versus pedicled ITA during CABG. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA statement based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, ClinicalTrials.gov, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles. Studies included were original studies whose populations comprised patients undergoing CABG; compared outcomes between skeletonized versus pedicled ITA; the outcomes included data regarding intraoperative flow capacity of the grafts; the studies were prospective or retrospective or non-randomized or randomized controlled trials. In total, eight studies were identified and reviewed for eligibility and data were extracted. Forest plots and the summarized difference in means including 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and meta-regressions were performed. There was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skeletonized ITA compared with the pedicled ITA in terms of flow capacity (random-effect model: additional 20.8 ml/min, 95% CI 6.6-35.0, P = 0.004), being the summary measures under the influence of heterogeneity of the effects, but free from publication bias. We observed a difference with regard to the type of study, since non-randomized studies together demonstrated the superiority of a skeletonized ITA (random-effect model: additional 32.3 ml/min, 95% CI 21.0-43.6, P < 0.001), but the randomized studies together did not show it (random-effect model: additional 13.2 ml/min, 95% CI -1.1 to 27.6, P = 0.071). Meta-regression demonstrated some modulation influence by female gender, age and diabetes on the flow capacity of grafts. In summary, in terms of flow capacity, a skeletonized ITA appears to be superior in

  12. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  13. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  14. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  15. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  16. 40 CFR Table 26 to Subpart G of... - Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal Related Factors for Internal..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 26 Table 26 to Subpart G of Part 63—Seal Related Factors for Internal Floating Roof Vessels Seal type KS n Liquid mounted resilient seal: Primary seal only 3.0 0...

  17. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  18. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for table... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  19. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  20. Review of a Canadian forum on international surgery: the Bethune Round Table

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert H.; Hollaar, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    The Bethune Round Table is an annual conference on international surgery that is unique in North America. Hosted by the Office of International Surgery at the University of Toronto, the conference provides a forum for profiling the global realities of surgical need, particularly as they relate to vulnerable and disadvantaged people of low-income countries. The 2004 Bethune Round Table, drawing on input from 4 continents, highlighted “emerging directions.” Presentations and discussions focused on the themes of current surgical realities, the implications for surgical education, the role of specialized surgical services and the function of surgical partnerships. PMID:16417054

  1. The Skeletons' Halloween

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait of…

  2. Language and International Studies. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowsky, Kurt R., Ed.

    "Language and International Studies" is the theme of the 20 papers which appear in this volume and which were presented at the 24th annual Round Table meeting held in March 1973. In addition, the paper of one absent panelist, Wolfgang Kuhlwein, is included. The first panel, consisting of Kuhlwein, Leopold Engels, James Harris, Terence Langendoen,…

  3. Revised tables of airspeed, altitude, and Mach number presented in the International system of units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, M. S.; Sawyer, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Because inception of a national program to implement the International System of Units (SI) appears to be inevitable and imminent, the tables of airspeed, altitude, and Mach number prepared by Livingston and Gracey to serve for airspeed meter and altimeter calibrations and for the conversion of flight measurements of these quantities to related parameters - Mach number, true airspeed, equivalent airspeed, etc. - have been revised to the SI. Tables of airspeed in knots are also included because of the significance of this quantity in navigation. In addition, the data in the altitude tables have been revised to the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962. The latter data reflect increased knowledge of the higher atmosphere and more precise determination of basic quantities, including the redefinition of the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale by the Tenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1954. The U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1962, corresponds to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standard Atmosphere up to 20 kilometers (geopotential altitude). A table of conversion factors for various pressure units is presented in SI Units.

  4. Investigating the Human Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1982-01-01

    Instructions are provided for assembly of a pull-out, two-sided picture puzzle of the skeleton of a seven-year-old girl. Suggestions for activities using the assembled puzzle and comments on bones and bone morphology are also provided. (Author/JN)

  5. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  6. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  7. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  8. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  9. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  10. Making the Best of a World Dominated by League Tables? New Developments in the International Ranking of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Two interesting initiatives have started to develop more balanced international league tables of universities. The first initiative is being taken by UK magazine the Times Higher Education (THE), which recently entered into a collaboration with both the international academic community and research-metrics company Thomsons Reuters to create an…

  11. The skeleton in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, A. W.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium loss experience by astronauts under weightless conditions is discussed. I-125 photon absorption measurements on astronauts on the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 flights showed bone density decreases of 6.6 percent in one astronaut and 7.3 percent in another. The estimated total body calcium loss on Apollo 17 was 0.2 percent. The test results indicate that calcium losses occur mainly from the weight-bearing parts of the skeleton. Measures to counteract the losses include 'penguin' suits, maintenance of nutrient intakes at high levels, and extensive exercise on ergometer and treadmill.

  12. [WHAT SKELETONS TELL US].

    PubMed

    Catalano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database. PMID:27348986

  13. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  14. Connexins in the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Stains, Joseph P; Civitelli, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Shaping of the skeleton (modeling) and its maintenance throughout life (remodeling) require coordinated activity among bone forming (osteoblasts) and resorbing cells (osteoclasts) and osteocytes (bone embedded cells). The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) has emerged as a key modulator of skeletal growth and homeostasis. The skeletal developmental abnormalities present in oculodentodigital and craniometaphyseal dysplasias, both linked to Cx43 gene (GJA1) mutations, demonstrate that the skeleton is a major site of Cx43 action. Via direct action on osteolineage cells, including altering production of pro-osteoclastogenic factors, Cx43 contributes to peak bone mass acquisition, cortical modeling of long bones, and maintenance of bone quality. Cx43 also contributes in diverse ways to bone responsiveness to hormonal and mechanical signals. Skeletal biology research has revealed the complexity of Cx43 function; in addition to forming gap junctions and "hemichannels", Cx43 provides a scaffold for signaling molecules. Hence, Cx43 actively participates in generation and modulation of cellular signals driving skeletal development and homeostasis. Pharmacological interference with Cx43 may in the future help remedy deterioration of bone quality occurring with aging, disuse and hormonal imbalances. PMID:26740471

  15. Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

  16. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  17. Proceedings of the International Round Table on Vocational Training and Employment (Turin, Italy, June 17-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istituto per lo Sviluppo della Formazione Professionale dei Lavoratori, Rome (Italy).

    Eleven papers are presented from the International Round Table on Vocational Training and Employment. Introductory materials are the program and list of participants. The papers are as follows: "Evolution de la Formation Professionnelle en Afrique et Contribution du Ciadfor au Cours de la Derniere Decennie" (in French); "Educacion, Empleo y…

  18. International Dimensions of Bilingual Education. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E., Ed.

    These proceedings of the Georgetown Round Table cover the international dimensions of bilingual education. The proceedings are divided as follows: (1) "Aspects of Bilingual Education," which includes discussions of models, bilingual communities, and positive bilingualism; (2) "Parameters of Bilingual Education Policy," which includes discussion of…

  19. Follow-up after gastrectomy for cancer: results of an international web round table.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Marrelli, Daniele; Pacelli, Fabio; Morgagni, Paolo; Roviello, Franco; De Manzoni, Giovanni

    2014-09-14

    Oncological follow-up after radical gastrectomy for cancer still represents a discrepancy in the field, with many retrospective series demonstrating that early diagnosis of recurrence does not result in an improvement in patient survival; yet, many centers with high quality of care still provide routine patient follow-up after surgery by clinical and instrumental controls. This was the topic for a web round table entitled "Rationale and limits of oncological follow-up after gastrectomy for cancer" that was launched one year before the 10(th) International Gastric Cancer Congress. Authors having specific expertise were invited to comment on their previous publications to provide the subject for an open debate. During a three-month-long discussion, 32 authors from 12 countries participated, and 2299 people visited the dedicated web page. Substantial differences emerged between the participants: authors from Japan, South Korea, Italy, Brazil, Germany and France currently engage in instrumental follow-up, whereas authors from Eastern Europe, Peru and India do not, and British and American surgeons practice it in a rather limited manner or in the context of experimental studies. Although endoscopy is still considered useful by most authors, all the authors recognized that computed tomography scanning is the method of choice to detect recurrence; however, many limit follow-up to clinical and biochemical examinations, and acknowledge the lack of improved survival with early detection. PMID:25232232

  20. The Milky Way Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. About the International System of Units (SI) Part III. SI Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II; French, Anthony P.; Iona, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Before discussing more details of SI, we will summarize the essentials in a few tables that can serve as ready references. If a unit isn't listed in Tables I-IV, it is not part of SI or specifically allowed for use with SI. The units and symbols that are sufficient for most everyday applications are given in bold.

  2. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  3. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  4. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  5. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... games? 542.12 Section 542.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... table games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the table game drop and the count thereof shall...

  6. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  7. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With Column Supported Fixed Roofs a 24 Table 24 to... Table 24 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for...

  8. THE SKELETON IN THE CLOSET

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in human history are unknown but the condition has been well described since Freke’s account in 1740. Important contributions by physicians and scientists in the past two and a half centuries have converged on the remarkable skeleton of Harry Eastlack at The Mutter Museum of The College of Physicians in Philadelphia. PMID:23810943

  9. The skeleton in the closet.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Frederick S

    2013-10-01

    The origins of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in human history are unknown but the condition has been well described since Freke's account in 1740. Important contributions by physicians and scientists in the past two and a half centuries have converged on the remarkable skeleton of Harry Eastlack at The Mutter Museum of The College of Physicians in Philadelphia. PMID:23810943

  10. Making an Inexpensive Skeleton for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Pruitt, Nancy E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which a skeleton is built using papier mache' and various household items. The materials; procedures for building each part of the skeleton; and directions for painting, assembling, and varnishing are included. (KR)

  11. Wavelet-based approach to character skeleton.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2007-05-01

    Character skeleton plays a significant role in character recognition. The strokes of a character may consist of two regions, i.e., singular and regular regions. The intersections and junctions of the strokes belong to singular region, while the straight and smooth parts of the strokes are categorized to regular region. Therefore, a skeletonization method requires two different processes to treat the skeletons in theses two different regions. All traditional skeletonization algorithms are based on the symmetry analysis technique. The major problems of these methods are as follows. 1) The computation of the primary skeleton in the regular region is indirect, so that its implementation is sophisticated and costly. 2) The extracted skeleton cannot be exactly located on the central line of the stroke. 3) The captured skeleton in the singular region may be distorted by artifacts and branches. To overcome these problems, a novel scheme of extracting the skeleton of character based on wavelet transform is presented in this paper. This scheme consists of two main steps, namely: a) extraction of primary skeleton in the regular region and b) amendment processing of the primary skeletons and connection of them in the singular region. A direct technique is used in the first step, where a new wavelet-based symmetry analysis is developed for finding the central line of the stroke directly. A novel method called smooth interpolation is designed in the second step, where a smooth operation is applied to the primary skeleton, and, thereafter, the interpolation compensation technique is proposed to link the primary skeleton, so that the skeleton in the singular region can be produced. Experiments are conducted and positive results are achieved, which show that the proposed skeletonization scheme is applicable to not only binary image but also gray-level image, and the skeleton is robust against noise and affine transform. PMID:17491454

  12. Global League Tables, Big Data and the International Transfer of Educational Research Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The international transfer of educational policy and practice has long been a key theme in comparative research and scholarship. Recent years have seen renewed attention to the processes of international policy transfer, with new understandings emerging from innovative theorising and analysis. This article examines the nature and implications of…

  13. From the 1930 International Johannesburg conference on silicosis, to "tables" of occupational diseases, France, 2000 onward: A comparative reading.

    PubMed

    Cavalin, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Through the concept of "thought collectives" in particular, Ludwik Fleck was a pioneer in demonstrating how much scientific knowledge is inherently made up of social and historical material. In this article, I propose to follow a Fleckian path by comparing the proceedings of the 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg on the one hand, and on the other the content of the debates that took place in France in the 2000s to revise the "tables" of occupational diseases which define the compensation rules for salaried workers in the French general (as well as the farm) health insurance scheme. The text offers an analysis of the striking similarities between these two distant sources, pointing out particularly the repetitiveness of ignorance and knowledge, and the nature of what can be admitted as a body of "evidence" in medico-legal issues such as the definition and compensation of occupational diseases. PMID:26509754

  14. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  15. International experience with a multidisciplinary table top exercise for response to a PWR accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Table Top Exercises are used for the training of emergency response personnel from a wide range of disciplines whose duties range from strategic to tactical, from managerial to operational. The exercise reported in this paper simulates the first two or three hours of an imaginary accident on a generic PWR site (named Seaside or Lakeside depending on its location). It is designed to exercise the early response of staff of the utility, government, local authority and the media and some players represent the public. The relatively few scenarios used for this exercise are based on actual events scaled to give off-site consequences which demand early assessment and therefore stress the communication procedures. The exercise is applicable in different cultures and has been used in over 20 short courses held in the USA, UK, Sweden, Prague, and Hong Kong. There are two styles of support for players: a linear program which ensures that all players follow the desired path through the event and an open program which is triggered by umpires (who play the reactor crew from a script) and by requests from other players. In both cases the exercise ends with a Press Conference. Players have an initial briefing and are assigned to roles; those who must speak at interviews and at the Press Conference arc given separate briefing by an expert in Public Affairs. The exercise runs with up to six groups and the communication rate reaches about 30 to 40 messages per hour for each group. The exercise can be applied to test management and communication systems and to study human response to emergencies because the merits of individual players are highlighted in the relatively stressful conditions of the initial stage of an accident. For some players the exercise is the first time that they have been required to carry out their task in front of other people.

  16. Organic membranous skeleton of the Precambrian metazoans from Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzik, Jerzy

    1999-06-01

    Unlike the celebrated Ediacara fossils, those from the roughly coeval localities of the Kuibis Quarzite of Namibia are preserved not as imprints on the sandstone bedding plane, but three-dimensionally, within the rock matrix. The pattern of deformation and the presence of sand in lower parts of the bodies of Ernietta, the most common and typical of those organisms, indicate that their three-dimensional preservation is a result of a density-controlled sinking of sand-filled organic skeletons within hydrated mud layers. Specimens of Ernietta have preserved various stages of migration across the mud beds. Their wall material, as documented by the mode of deformation, was not only flexible, but also elastic, which makes it unlike chitin. The walls thus seem to be proteinaceous, built probably of a collagenous fabric. The Ernietta skeleton was built of series of parallel chambers, which excludes the possibility that these were external body covers. The chambers apparently represent walls of hydraulic skeleton units, resembling the basement membrane of chaetognaths or the notochord sheath of primitive chordates. Such chambers are widespread among the earliest fossil animals represented by fossils preserved in sandstone. The rise and fall of the Ediacaran faunas thus seem to be partially preservational artifacts. The range of its occurrence is a result of two successive evolutionary events: the origin of an internal hydraulic skeleton enclosed by a strong basement membrane, and the appearance of decomposers with abilities to disintegrate such collagenous sheaths.

  17. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With Column Supported Fixed Roofs a 24 Table 24 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With Column Supported Fixed Roofs a 24 Table 24 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With Column Supported Fixed Roofs a 24 Table 24 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Typical Number of Columns as a Function of Tank Diameter for Internal Floating Roof Tanks With Column Supported Fixed Roofs a 24 Table 24 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  1. Coral Skeletons Defend against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Reef, Ruth; Kaniewska, Paulina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Background Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. Methodology/Principal Findings By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life. PMID:19946361

  2. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    PubMed

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts. PMID:17076415

  3. Notch Signaling and the Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Notch 1 to 4 receptors are important determinants of cell fate and function, and Notch signaling plays an important role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. After direct interactions with ligands of the Jagged and Delta-like families, a series of cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which translocates to the nucleus where it induces transcription of Notch target genes. Classic gene targets of Notch are hairy and enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey). In cells of the osteoblastic lineage, Notch activation inhibits cell differentiation and causes cancellous bone osteopenia because of impaired bone formation. In osteocytes, Notch1 has distinct effects that result in an inhibition of bone resorption secondary to an induction of osteoprotegerin and suppression of sclerostin with a consequent enhancement of Wnt signaling. Notch1 inhibits, whereas Notch2 enhances, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Congenital disorders of loss- and gain-of-Notch function present with severe clinical manifestations, often affecting the skeleton. Enhanced Notch signaling is associated with osteosarcoma, and Notch can influence the invasive potential of carcinoma of the breast and prostate. Notch signaling can be controlled by the use of inhibitors of Notch activation, small peptides that interfere with the formation of a transcriptional complex, or antibodies to the extracellular domain of specific Notch receptors or to Notch ligands. In conclusion, Notch plays a critical role in skeletal development and homeostasis, and serious skeletal disorders can be attributed to alterations in Notch signaling. PMID:27074349

  4. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  5. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Chloe L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four‐layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel‐fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel‐fibred bone, showing osteon‐like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we

  6. Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Miller, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations. These include three major patterning changes to the branchial skeleton: reductions in the number and length of gill raker bones, increases in pharyngeal tooth number, and increased branchial bone lengths. Here we describe a detailed protocol to dissect and flat-mount the internal branchial skeleton in threespine stickleback fish. Dissection of the entire three-dimensional branchial skeleton and mounting it flat into a largely two-dimensional prep allows for the easy visualization and quantification of branchial skeleton morphology. This dissection method is inexpensive, fast, relatively easy, and applicable to a wide variety of fish species. In sticklebacks, this efficient method allows the quantification of skeletal morphology in genetic crosses to map genomic regions controlling craniofacial patterning. PMID:27213248

  7. Segmentation and Reconstruction of Cultured Neuron Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Donggang; Pham, Tuan D.; Yan, Hong; Lai, Wei; Crane, Denis I.

    2007-11-01

    One approach to investigating neural death is through systematic studies of the changing morphology of cultured brain neurons in response to cellular challenges. Image segmentation and reconstruction methods developed to date to analyze such changes have been limited by the low contrast of cells. In this paper we present new algorithms that successfully circumvent these problems. The binary method is based on logical analysis of grey and distance difference of images. The spurious regions are detected and removed through use of a hierarchical window filter. The skeletons of binary cell images are extracted. The extension direction and connection points of broken cell skeletons are automatically determined, and broke neural skeletons are reconstructed. The spurious strokes are deleted based on cell prior knowledge. The efficacy of the developed algorithms is demonstrated here through a test of cultured brain neurons from newborn mice.

  8. Refining image segmentation by polygon skeletonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.

    1987-01-01

    A skeletonization algorithm was encoded and applied to a test data set of land-use polygons taken from a USGS digital land use dataset at 1:250,000. The distance transform produced by this method was instrumental in the description of the shape, size, and level of generalization of the outlines of the polygons. A comparison of the topology of skeletons for forested wetlands and lakes indicated that some distinction based solely upon the shape properties of the areas is possible, and may be of use in an intelligent automated land cover classification system.

  9. Concise Synthesis of Astellatol Core Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Xie, Shengling; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing

    2016-08-26

    A ten-step, enantiospecific synthesis of the highly challenging core skeleton of sesterterpenoid astellatol has been achieved. Key transformations of this strategy include a facile, convergent construction of the tricyclic motif and a SmI2 -induced reductive radical cyclization that forms the pivotal cyclobutane ring. PMID:27398681

  10. Advances in evaluating the fetal skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Ann-Edwidge; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss aspects of the prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal malformations, concentrating on the advantages offered by different imaging techniques and the approaches that are of value in evaluating a suspected skeletal dysplasia. We also briefly address the findings in some of the commoner malformations of the fetal skeleton that may be encountered. PMID:24868173

  11. Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species: solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT were determined from the analysis of several load–depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitudinal (parallel to the main growth axis) and transverse. Within the experimental and statistical uncertainty, the average values of the mechanical parameters are independent on the section's orientation. The hydration state of the skeletons did not affect the mechanical properties. The measured values, EIT in the 76–77 GPa range, and HIT in the 4.9–5.1 GPa range, are close to the ones expected for polycrystalline pure aragonite. Notably, a small difference in HIT is observed between the species. Different from corals, single-crystal aragonite and the nacreous layer of the seashell Atrina rigida exhibit clearly orientation-dependent mechanical properties. The homogeneous and isotropic mechanical behaviour of the coral skeletons at the microscale is correlated with the microstructure, observed by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the longitudinal and transverse sections. PMID:25977958

  12. Novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids isolated from guava leaves.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Yun-Jiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the plant Psidium guajava L., collected in Guangdong province, afforded two novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids 1 and 2. Compound 2 also known as isocaryolan-9-one was a new natural product. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined as guavacid A by various spectroscopic methods. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was proposed. PMID:26308496

  13. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  14. 1997 casing tables

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Petroleum Engineer International`s 1997 Casing Tables contain premium casing connection and grade data from more than 25 companies worldwide. The Connections section includes performance characteristics and specifications for premium casing connections along with line illustrations and a brief description of the features and applications. The Grades section features premium casing grades manufactured at major mills around the world. The connections are indexed after the data sections. Each company listed has provided the information in these tables. PEI`s Casing Tables should be used as a guide when planning casing programs.

  15. The origin of conodonts and of vertebrate mineralized skeletons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, Duncan J.E.; Dong, Xi-Ping; Repetski, John E.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the ‘inside-out’ hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements. Paraconodonts exhibit a range of grades of structural differentiation, including tissues and a pattern of growth common to euconodont basal bodies. The different grades of structural differentiation exhibited by paraconodonts demonstrate the stepwise acquisition of euconodont characters, resolving debate over the relationship between these two groups. By implication, the putative homology of euconodont crown tissue and vertebrate enamel must be rejected as these tissues have evolved independently and convergently. Thus, the precise ontogenetic, structural and topological similarities between conodont elements and vertebrate odontodes appear to be a remarkable instance of convergence. The last common ancestor of conodonts and jawed vertebrates probably lacked mineralized skeletal tissues. The hypothesis that teeth evolved before jaws and the inside-out hypothesis of dental evolution must be rejected; teeth seem to have evolved through the extension of odontogenic competence from the external dermis to internal epithelium soon after the origin of jaws.

  16. Extraction and applications of skeletons in finite element mesh generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  17. Disconnected skeleton: shape at its absolute scale.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Cagri; Erdem, Aykut; Erdem, Erkut; Tari, Sibel

    2008-12-01

    We present a new skeletal representation along with a matching framework to address the deformable shape recognition problem. The disconnectedness arises as a result of excessive regularization that we use to describe a shape at an attainably coarse scale. Our motivation is to rely on stable properties the shape instead of inaccurately measured secondary details. The new representation does not suffer from the common instability problems of the traditional connected skeletons, and the matching process gives quite successful results on a diverse database of 2D shapes. An important difference of our approach from the conventional use of skeleton is that we replace the local coordinate frame with a global Euclidean frame supported by additional mechanisms to handle articulations and local boundary deformations. As a result, we can produce descriptions that are sensitive to any combination of changes in scale, position, orientation and articulation, as well as invariant ones. PMID:18988951

  18. A Stochastic Skeleton Model for the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, S. N.; Thual, S.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales and planetary spatial scales. Despite the primary importance of the MJO and the decades of research progress since its original discovery, a generally accepted theory for its essential mechanisms has remained elusive. In recent work by two of the authors, a minimal dynamical model has been proposed that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (i) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 m/s, (ii) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω/dk≈0, and (iii) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model, the skeleton model, depicts the MJO as a neutrally stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture, and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. In this article, it is shown that the skeleton model can further account for (iv) the intermittent generation of MJO events and (v) the organization of MJO events into wave trains with growth and demise, as seen in nature. The goal is achieved by developing a simple stochastic parameterization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity, which is coupled to otherwise deterministic processes in the skeleton model. In particular, the intermittent initiation, propagation, and shut down of MJO wave trains in the skeleton model occur through these stochastic effects. This includes examples with a background warm pool where some initial MJO-like disturbances propagate through the western region but stall at the peak of background convection/heating corresponding to the Maritime Continent in nature. Also shown are examples with an idealized seasonal cycle, namely a background warm pool state of heating/moistening displacing meridionally during the year. This seasonally varying case considers both equatorial and off-equatorial components of the envelope of synoptic scale convective

  19. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  20. IFLA General Conference, 1985. International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) Round-Table on Access to Information in International Legal Research. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on international access to information pertaining to legal research, which were presented at the 1985 conference of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) include: (1) "Materials of European Intergovernmental Organizations and Their Accessibility through Available Research Tools" (Irene Berkey, Northwestern University…

  1. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  2. Landform skeleton reconstruction from unorganized points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingliang; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Xuejun; Bian, Lu

    2007-11-01

    Landform skeleton are lines that indicate significant topographic features of the terrain. It is widely used in mapping and surveying, hydrology simulation, topography representation and engineering designing. In order to derive the landform skeleton, many kinds of data source have been used, including digitized contour lines, Grid-DEMs and TIN. As time goes by, more and more unorganized points have been acquired, created, maintained and disseminated in many fields. Those unorganized points are the most original and important information which is vital for mapping and surveying. How to extract the feature lines from unorganized points has been the hot-pot in computer design and reverse-engineering. Methods used to extract landform features in existence have shown dependence on data types and thresholds more or less. In the paper, the view sheds principle used to extract the feature points has been put forward and then those points have been organized into feature lines according to related rules. The result has shown that the view sheds principle can extract the features and give the levels of feature points.

  3. Distribution of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Am in the human skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables.

  4. Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. Appendix D: Standard Error Tables. First Look. NCES 2014-008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides Appendix D, Standard Error tables, for the full report, entitled. "Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008." The full report presents results of the Program for the…

  5. Comparison of premortem and postmortem estimates of plutonium deposited in the skeleton and liver of six individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Kathren, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    Assessment of organ burdens after internal exposures to radionuclides is often necessary to evaluate the health and regulatory implications of the exposure. The assessment of plutonium activity in skeleton and liver is usually estimated from measurements of plutonium excreted via urine. As part of the overall evaluation of internal dose assessment techniques, it is useful to compare the results of organ burden estimates made from evaluation of urinary excretion data with those made at death from tissue samples collected posthumously from the individual. Estimates of plutonium in the skeleton and liver, based on postmortem analysis of tissue samples for six individuals, were obtained from the US Transuranium Registry (USTR). Bioassay data and other radiation exposure information obtained from the individuals' files were used to estimate their skeleton and liver burdens at the times of their deaths, and these estimates were compared to those obtained through tissue analysis. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  7. The skeleton as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Clemens, Thomas L; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-11-01

    Surprising new discoveries in the field of skeletal biology show that bone cells produce endocrine hormones that regulate phosphate and glucose homeostasis. In this Review, we examine the features of these new endocrine pathways and discuss their physiological importance in the context of our current understanding of energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis. Consideration of evolutionary and comparative biology provides clues that a key driving force for the emergence of these hormonal pathways was the development of a large, energy-expensive musculoskeletal system. Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis. The recognition of bone as a true endocrine organ represents a fertile area for further research and should improve the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:23045255

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RÜCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  9. Anatomy of the red cell membrane skeleton: unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lux, Samuel E

    2016-01-14

    The red cell membrane skeleton is a pseudohexagonal meshwork of spectrin, actin, protein 4.1R, ankyrin, and actin-associated proteins that laminates the inner membrane surface and attaches to the overlying lipid bilayer via band 3-containing multiprotein complexes at the ankyrin- and actin-binding ends of spectrin. The membrane skeleton strengthens the lipid bilayer and endows the membrane with the durability and flexibility to survive in the circulation. In the 36 years since the first primitive model of the red cell skeleton was proposed, many additional proteins have been discovered, and their structures and interactions have been defined. However, almost nothing is known of the skeleton's physiology, and myriad questions about its structure remain, including questions concerning the structure of spectrin in situ, the way spectrin and other proteins bind to actin, how the membrane is assembled, the dynamics of the skeleton when the membrane is deformed or perturbed by parasites, the role lipids play, and variations in membrane structure in unique regions like lipid rafts. This knowledge is important because the red cell membrane skeleton is the model for spectrin-based membrane skeletons in all cells, and because defects in the red cell membrane skeleton underlie multiple hemolytic anemias. PMID:26537302

  10. Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods.

    PubMed

    Church, M S

    1995-06-01

    Metric and morphological techniques employed by forensic anthropologists for determination of race are reviewed. Included are several studies which examine cranial morphological techniques such as presence of the oval window of the inner ear, which occurs more frequently in Whites than in Native Americans; or the shape of the alveolar region which distinguishes between Asian, African, and North American Indian groups. A table of common cranial morphologic traits is presented. Metric techniques have also been used to determine race from the skull. Regression equations derived from measurements of the cranial base indicate a 70-90% accuracy for classifying Blacks and Whites, while multivariate discriminant functions for discriminating Blacks, Whites, and Native Americans correctly classify 82.6% of the males and 88.1% of the females. FORDISC, a computer program developed at the University of Tennessee, is another metric technique reviewed that not only distinguishes Whites, Blacks, and Native Americans but also male Hispanics, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Platycnemia, femoral curvature and other morphological attributes of the post-cranial skeleton may be used in support of a racial determination; however, several investigators have turned to post-cranial elements not only to use in support of cranial findings but for use when cranial information is not available. As a result, several discriminant functions from measurements of the pelvis, femur, tibia or combinations of these elements have been developed. Accuracy for these techniques varies from 57% to 95%, depending on the sample and technique used. Other aspects of the femur, such as the diameter of the neck, height of the intercondylar notch and femoral curvature, have been measured for assessment of race. Also included is a brief historical survey of race and current thoughts on the concept of race. PMID:26270337

  11. 1998 casing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.

    1998-11-01

    Petroleum Engineer International`s 1998 Casing Tables contain premium casing connection and grade data from more than 30 companies worldwide. The Connections section includes performance characteristics and specifications for premium casing connections along with line illustrations and a brief description of the features and applications. The Grades section features premium casing grades manufactured at mills around the world. The connections are indexed after the data sections.

  12. A Table! (At the Table).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    A review of French dining habits and table manners outlines: elements of the place setting, courtesies used at the table, serving conventions, restaurant tipping, the size and content of the different meals of the day, subtle differences in common foods, restaurant types, menu types, general wine and cheese choices, waiter-client communication,…

  13. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  14. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  15. Acid-Base and the Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis increases urine calcium (Ca) excretion in the absence of a concomitant increase in intestinal Ca absorption resulting in a net loss of total body. The source of this additional urine Ca is almost certainly the skeleton, the primary reservoir of body Ca. In vitro metabolic acidosis, modeled as a primary reduction in medium bicarbonate concentration, acutely (<24 h) stimulates Ca efflux primarily through physicochemical mineral dissolution while at later time periods (>24 h) cell-mediated mechanisms predominate. In cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, acidosis-induced, cell-mediated Ca efflux is mediated by effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Metabolic acidosis inhibits extracellular matrix production by osteoblasts, as determined by measurement of collagen levels and levels for the non-collagenous matrix proteins osteopontin and matrix gla protein. Metabolic acidosis upregulates osteoblastic expression of RANKL (Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand), an important osteoclastogenic and osteoclast-activating factor. Acidosis also increases osteoclastic activity as measured by release of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme whose secretion correlates with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  16. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Maurice; Henrichs, Marcel P.; Gosheger, Georg; Ahrens, Helmut; Streitbuerger, Arne; Koehler, Michael; Bullmann, Viola; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (n = 6) or sacrum (n = 13) have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4%) patients with sacral and 4 (66.7%) with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors. PMID:22448122

  17. Performance of skeleton-reinforced biomembranes in locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Shoele, Kourosh

    2008-11-01

    Skeleton-reinforced biomembranes are ubiquitous in nature and play critical roles in many biological functions. Representative examples include insect wings, cell membranes, and mollusk nacres. In this study we focus on the ray fins of fish and investigate the effects of anisotropic flexibility on their performance. Employing a fluid-structure interaction algorithm by coupling a boundary-element model with a nonlinear structural model, we examined the dynamics of a membrane that is geometrically and structurally similar to a caudal fin. Several locomotion modes that closely resemble caudal fin kinematics reported in the literature are applied. Our results show that the flexibility of the fin significantly increases its capacity of thrust generation, manifested as increased efficiency, reduced transverse force, and reduced sensitivity to kinematic parameters. This design also makes the fin more controllable and deployable. Despite simplifications made in this model in terms of fin geometry, internal structure, and kinematics, detailed features of the simulated flow field are consistent with observations and speculations based upon Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of flow around live fish.

  18. Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.N.; Socha, J.J.; Hall, B.K.; Summers, A.P.

    2010-08-04

    The endoskeletal elements of sharks and rays are comprised of an uncalcified, hyaline cartilage-like core overlain by a thin fibro-ceramic layer of mineralized hexagonal tiles (tesserae) adjoined by intertesseral fibers. The basic spatial relationships of the constituent tissues (unmineralized cartilage, mineralized cartilage, fibrous tissue) are well-known - endoskeletal tessellation is a long-recognized synapomorphy of elasmobranch fishes - but a high-resolution and three-dimensional (3D) understanding of their interactions has been hampered by difficulties in sample preparation and lack of technologies adequate for visualizing microstructure and microassociations. We used cryo-electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomography to investigate tessellated skeleton ultrastructure but without damage to the delicate relationships between constituent tissues or to the tesserae themselves. The combination of these techniques allowed visualization of never before appreciated internal structures, namely passages connecting the lacunar spaces within tesserae. These intratesseral 'canaliculi' link consecutive lacunar spaces into long lacunar strings, radiating outward from the center of tesserae. The continuity of extracellular matrix throughout the canalicular network may explain how chondrocytes in tesserae remain vital despite encasement in mineral. Extracellular fluid exchange may also permit transmission of nutrients, and mechanical and mineralization signals among chondrocytes, in a manner similar to the canalicular network in bone. These co-adapted mechanisms for the facilitated exchange of extracellular material suggest a level of parallelism in early chondrocyte and osteocyte evolution.

  19. Detection of spicules on mammogram based on skeleton analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kobatake, Hidefumi; Yoshinaga, Yukiyasu

    1996-06-01

    Existence of spicules is one of important clues of malignant tumors. This paper presents a new image processing method for the detection of spicules on mammogram. Spicules can be recognized as line patterns radiating from the center of tumor. To detect such characteristic patterns, line skeletons and a modified Hough transform are proposed. Line skeleton processing is effective in enhancing spinal axes of spicules and in reducing the other skeletons. The modified Hough transform is applied to line skeletons and radiating line structures are obtained. Experiments were made to test the performance of the proposed method. The system was designed using 19 training images, for which one normal case was recognized to be star-shaped. The other cases were recognized correctly. Experiments using 34 test images were also performed. The correct classification rate was 74%. These results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. A method for finding three-dimensional magnetic skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, A. L.; Parnell, C. E.

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic fields are an essential component of a plasma. In many astrophysical, solar, magnetospheric, and laboratory situations the magnetic field in the plasma can be very dynamic and form highly complex structures. One approach to unraveling these structures is to determine the magnetic skeleton of the field, a set of topological features that divide the magnetic field into topologically distinct domains. In general, the features of the magnetic skeleton are difficult to locate, in particular those given by numerical experiments. In this paper, we propose a new set of tools to find the skeleton of general magnetic fields including null points, spines, separatrix surfaces, and separators. This set of tools is found to be considerably better at finding the skeleton than the currently favored methods used in magnetohydrodynamics.

  1. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Penetrating trauma to the facial skeleton by pickaxe - case report.

    PubMed

    Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Przygoński, Aleksander; Timler, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Number of deaths related with injuries suffered as a result of experienced traumas is increasing. Penetrating traumas of the facial skeleton occur relatively rarely and much more often concern rather children than adults. Epidemiology relating this kind of trauma differs depending on the region of the world. In Poland, gunshot injuries as well as traumas caused by explosions of firecrackers or fireworks amount only to a slight percentage among all facial skeleton traumas, and the most common reason for penetrating traumas lies in accidents or assault with the use of sharp, narrow and long objects that easily enter bones of the facial skeleton. The present study reported the case of 50-year-old man who suffered from trauma of the facial skeleton, which resulted from foreign body (pickaxe) penetration into the subtemporal area, zygomatic arch and the right orbital cavity. The surgical treatment method and final outcome was presented and discussed. PMID:27096775

  3. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  4. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  5. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  6. Post-processing techniques for making reliable measurements from curve-skeletons.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Interconnected 3-D networks occur widely in biology and the geometry of such branched networks can be described by curve-skeletons, allowing parameters such as path lengths, path tortuosities and cross-sectional thicknesses to be quantified. However, curve-skeletons are typically sensitive to small scale surface features which may arise from noise in the imaging data. In this paper, new post-processing techniques for curve-skeletons are presented which ensure that measurements of lengths and thicknesses are less sensitive to these small scale surface features. The techniques achieve sub-voxel accuracy and are based on a minimal sphere-network representation in which the object is modelled as a string of minimally overlapping spheres, and as such samples the object on a scale related to the local thickness. A new measure of cross-sectional dimension termed the modal radius is defined and shown to be more robust in comparison with the standard measure (the internal radius), while retaining the desirable feature of capturing the size of structures in terms of a single measure. The techniques are demonstrated by application to trabecular bone and tumour vascular network case studies where the volumetric data was obtained by high resolution computed tomography. PMID:27035863

  7. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, D W; Rubin, C T

    2001-10-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself. PMID:11716022

  8. Enrollment Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    A set of tables is provided summarizing fall enrollment from 1979 through 1988 in the university system of Georgia. The following types of data are provided: headcount enrollment; joint enrollment; developmental studies, freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, graduate students, professional enrollment, transients, others, EFT enrollment, entering…

  9. Skeleton-based morphological coding of binary images.

    PubMed

    Kresch, R; Malah, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents new properties of the discrete morphological skeleton representation of binary images, along with a novel coding scheme for lossless binary image compression that is based on these properties. Following a short review of the theoretical background, two sets of new properties of the discrete morphological skeleton representation of binary images are proved. The first one leads to the conclusion that only the radii of skeleton points belonging to a subset of the ultimate erosions are needed for perfect reconstruction. This corresponds to a lossless sampling of the quench function. The second set of new properties is related to deterministic prediction of skeletonal information in a progressive transmission scheme. Based on the new properties, a novel coding scheme for binary images is presented. The proposed scheme is suitable for progressive transmission and fast implementation. Computer simulations, also presented, show that the proposed coding scheme substantially improves the results obtained by previous skeleton-based coders, and performs better than classical coders, including run-length/Huffman, quadtree, and chain coders. For facsimile images, its performance can be placed between the modified read (MR) method (K=4) and modified modified read (MMR) method. PMID:18276206

  10. Curve-skeleton extraction using iterative least squares optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2008-01-01

    A curve skeleton is a compact representation of 3D objects and has numerous applications. It can be used to describe an object's geometry and topology. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for computing curve skeletons for volumetric representations of the input models. Our algorithm consists of three major steps: 1) using iterative least squares optimization to shrink models and, at the same time, preserving their geometries and topologies, 2) extracting curve skeletons through the thinning algorithm, and 3) pruning unnecessary branches based on shrinking ratios. The proposed method is less sensitive to noise on the surface of models and can generate smoother skeletons. In addition, our shrinking algorithm requires little computation, since the optimization system can be factorized and stored in the pre-computational step. We demonstrate several extracted skeletons that help evaluate our algorithm. We also experimentally compare the proposed method with other well-known methods. Experimental results show advantages when using our method over other techniques. PMID:18467765

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  12. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ungasketed b 28 Column well (see Table 24). Builtup column-sliding cover, gasketed 33 Builtup column-sliding cover, ungasketed b 4710 Pipe column-flexible fabric sleeve seal 19 Pipe column-sliding cover, gasketed 32 Pipe column-sliding cover, ungasketed Ladder well 1. Sliding cover, gasketed 56 Sliding...

  13. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-01-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as “lower” metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for example, an octamerous symmetry, oral-aboral axis, aboral sense organ, and octaradially arranged ctene rows). Unlike most modern counterparts, however, they lack tentacles, have a sclerotized framework, and have eight pairs of ctene rows. They are resolved as a monophyletic group (Scleroctenophora new class) within the ctenophores. This clade reveals a cryptic history and sheds new light on the early evolution of this basal animal phylum. Skeletonization also occurs in some other Cambrian animal groups whose extant members are exclusively soft-bodied, suggesting the ecological importance of skeletonization in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:26601209

  14. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-07-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as "lower" metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for example, an octamerous symmetry, oral-aboral axis, aboral sense organ, and octaradially arranged ctene rows). Unlike most modern counterparts, however, they lack tentacles, have a sclerotized framework, and have eight pairs of ctene rows. They are resolved as a monophyletic group (Scleroctenophora new class) within the ctenophores. This clade reveals a cryptic history and sheds new light on the early evolution of this basal animal phylum. Skeletonization also occurs in some other Cambrian animal groups whose extant members are exclusively soft-bodied, suggesting the ecological importance of skeletonization in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:26601209

  15. Vortex and strain skeletons in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames.

    PubMed

    Sahner, Jan; Weinkauf, Tino; Teuber, Nathalie; Hege, Hans-Christian

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach to analyze mixing in flow fields by extracting vortex and strain features as extremal structures of derived scalar quantities that satisfy a duality property: they indicate vortical as well as high-strain (saddletype) regions. Specifically, we consider the Okubo-Weiss criterion and the recently introduced MZ-criterion. While the first is derived from a purely Eulerian framework, the latter is based on Lagrangian considerations. In both cases high values indicate vortex activity whereas low values indicate regions of high strain. By considering the extremal features of those quantities, we define the notions of a vortex and a strain skeleton in a hierarchical manner: the collection of maximal 0D, 1D and 2D structures assemble the vortex skeleton; the minimal structures identify the strain skeleton. We extract those features using scalar field topology and apply our method to a number of steady and unsteady 3D flow fields. PMID:17622681

  16. [Study of the skeleton of Admiral F. F. Ushakov].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Ivanov, N V; Narina, N V

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of examination of the skeleton of Admiral F. F. Ushakov, carried out in connection with canonization in the Russian Orthodox Church. Heretofore unknown data on the somatic characteristics of F. F. Ushakov and his diseases are presented. Special attention is paid to uneven age involution of the skeleton and the hypoergic aging velocity. A detailed morphological similarity between the skulls of F. F. Ushakov and monk Feodor (Admiral's uncle, I. I. Ushakov) evidenced common features inherited through the masculine line. Modern computer technologies showed that the appearance of F. F. Ushakov, determined by the skull and postcranial skeleton, agree with his appearance on the life-time portrait, in spite of Professor M. M. Gerasimov's opinion (1949). In this connection, the possibility of repeated reconstruction of Admiral Ushakov's appearance is proven. PMID:12063793

  17. Synthesis of Novel Basic Skeletons Derived from Naltrexone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki

    We will describe eight interesting reactions using naltrexone derivatives. Almost all these reactions are characteristic of naltrexone derivatives, and can lead to the synthesis of many novel skeletons that provide new interesting pharmacological data. Some of the new reactions that were found with naltrexone derivatives were expanded into general reactions. For example, the reaction of 6α-hydroxyaldehyde derived from naltrexone led to the oxazoline dimer and the 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton (triplet drug); this reaction was applied to general ketones which were converted to α-hydroxyaldehydes, followed by conversion to dimers and trimers, as described in Sect. 7.

  18. Scaphocephaly in a prehistoric skeleton from Harappa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A; Lovell, N C; Lukacs, J R; Hemphill, B E

    1993-03-01

    Irregularities of cranial suture closure resulting in scaphocephaly are documented for a number of prehistoric and historic human populations of the eastern and western hemispheres, but what may be the first recorded case from southern Asia appeared during the 1987 archaeological field season at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Harappa, Pakistan. The female specimen with this condition also exhibits indicators of developmental abnormalities in the postcranial skeleton. These features are discussed in the context of assessing anatomical and ontogenetical relationships of craniostenostic eccentricities with abnormalities of facial, dental and postcranial regions of the skeletons of scaphocephalic individuals. PMID:8476271

  19. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  20. Tensegrity and mechanoregulation: from skeleton to cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate how mechanical stresses that are applied to the whole organism are transmitted to individual cells and transduced into a biochemical response. DESIGN: In this article, we describe fundamental design principles that are used to stabilize the musculoskeletal system at many different size scales and show that these design features are embodied in one particular form of architecture that is known as tensegrity. RESULTS: Tensegrity structures are characterized by use of continuous tension and local compression; architecture, prestress (internal stress prior to application of external force), and triangulation play the most critical roles in terms of determining their mechanical stability. In living organisms, use of a hierarchy of tensegrity networks both optimizes structural efficiency and provides a mechanism to mechanically couple the parts with the whole: mechanical stresses applied at the macroscale result in structural rearrangements at the cell and molecular level. CONCLUSION: Due to use of tensegrity architecture, mechanical stress is concentrated and focused on signal transducing molecules that physically associate with cell surface molecules that anchor cells to extracellular matrix, such as integrins, and with load-bearing elements within the internal cytoskeleton and nucleus. Mechanochemical transduction may then proceed through local stress-dependent changes in molecular mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics within the cell. In this manner, the entire cellular response to stress may be orchestrated and tuned by altering the prestress in the cell, just as changing muscular tone can alter mechanical stability and structural coordination throughout the whole musculoskeletal system.

  1. The origin of a new fin skeleton through tinkering.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    Adipose fins are positioned between the dorsal and caudal fins of many teleost fishes and primitively lack skeleton. In at least four lineages, adipose fins have evolved lepidotrichia (bony fin rays), co-opting the developmental programme for the dermal skeleton of other fins into this new territory. Here I provide, to my knowledge, the first description of lepidotrichia development in an adipose fin, characterizing the ontogeny of the redtail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus. Development of these fin rays differs from canonical lepidotrich development in the following four ways: skeleton begins developing in adults, not in larvae; rays begin developing at the fin's distal tip, not proximally; the order in which rays ossify is variable, not fixed; and lepidotrichia appear to grow both proximally and distally, not exclusively proximodistally. Lepidotrichia are often wavy, of irregular thickness and exhibit no regular pattern of segmentation or branching. This skeleton is among the most variable observed in a vertebrate appendage, offering a unique opportunity to explore the basis of hypervariation, which is generally assumed to reflect an absence of function. I argue that this variation reflects a lack of canalization as compared with other, more ancient lepidotrichs and suggest developmental context can affect the morphology of serial homologues. PMID:26179803

  2. The origin of a new fin skeleton through tinkering

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose fins are positioned between the dorsal and caudal fins of many teleost fishes and primitively lack skeleton. In at least four lineages, adipose fins have evolved lepidotrichia (bony fin rays), co-opting the developmental programme for the dermal skeleton of other fins into this new territory. Here I provide, to my knowledge, the first description of lepidotrichia development in an adipose fin, characterizing the ontogeny of the redtail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus. Development of these fin rays differs from canonical lepidotrich development in the following four ways: skeleton begins developing in adults, not in larvae; rays begin developing at the fin's distal tip, not proximally; the order in which rays ossify is variable, not fixed; and lepidotrichia appear to grow both proximally and distally, not exclusively proximodistally. Lepidotrichia are often wavy, of irregular thickness and exhibit no regular pattern of segmentation or branching. This skeleton is among the most variable observed in a vertebrate appendage, offering a unique opportunity to explore the basis of hypervariation, which is generally assumed to reflect an absence of function. I argue that this variation reflects a lack of canalization as compared with other, more ancient lepidotrichs and suggest developmental context can affect the morphology of serial homologues. PMID:26179803

  3. A Synthesis of the Carbon Skeleton of Maoecrystal V

    PubMed Central

    Krawczuk, Paul J.; Schöne, Niklas; Baran, Phil S.

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of the maoecrystal V (1) carbon skeleton is described. The key transformations include arylation of a 1,3-dicarbonyl compound with a triarylbismuth(V)dichloride species, oxidative dearomatization of a phenol, and a subsequent intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. PMID:19795876

  4. A practical introduction to skeletons for the plant sciences1

    PubMed Central

    Bucksch, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network. PMID:25202645

  5. Skeletonization and Partitioning of Digital Images Using Discrete Morse Theory.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Friedrichs, Olaf; Robins, Vanessa; Sheppard, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    We show how discrete Morse theory provides a rigorous and unifying foundation for defining skeletons and partitions of grayscale digital images. We model a grayscale image as a cubical complex with a real-valued function defined on its vertices (the voxel values). This function is extended to a discrete gradient vector field using the algorithm presented in Robins, Wood, Sheppard TPAMI 33:1646 (2011). In the current paper we define basins (the building blocks of a partition) and segments of the skeleton using the stable and unstable sets associated with critical cells. The natural connection between Morse theory and homology allows us to prove the topological validity of these constructions; for example, that the skeleton is homotopic to the initial object. We simplify the basins and skeletons via Morse-theoretic cancellation of critical cells in the discrete gradient vector field using a strategy informed by persistent homology. Simple working Python code for our algorithms for efficient vector field traversal is included. Example data are taken from micro-CT images of porous materials, an application area where accurate topological models of pore connectivity are vital for fluid-flow modelling. PMID:26353267

  6. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  7. Interactions between Plasmodium falciparum skeleton-binding protein 1 and the membrane skeleton of malaria-infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Donna W.; Blanc, Lionel; Hale, John; Guo, Xinhua; Pei, Xinhong; Herrmann, Susann; Hanssen, Eric G.; Coppel, Ross L.; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Cooke, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    During development inside red blood cells (RBCs), Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites export proteins that associate with the RBC membrane skeleton. These interactions cause profound changes to the biophysical properties of RBCs that underpin the often severe and fatal clinical manifestations of falciparum malaria. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is one such exported parasite protein that plays a major role in malaria pathogenesis since its exposure on the parasitised RBC surface mediates their adhesion to vascular endothelium and placental syncytioblasts. En route to the RBC membrane skeleton, PfEMP1 transiently associates with Maurer's clefts (MCs), parasite-derived membranous structures in the RBC cytoplasm. We have previously shown that a resident MC protein, skeleton-binding protein 1 (SBP1), is essential for the placement of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface and hypothesised that the function of SBP1 may be to target MCs to the RBC membrane. Since this would require additional protein interactions, we set out to identify binding partners for SBP1. Using a combination of approaches, we have defined the region of SBP1 that binds specifically to defined subdomains of two major components of the RBC membrane skeleton, protein 4.1R and spectrin. We show that these interactions serve as one mechanism to anchor MCs to the RBC membrane skeleton, however, while they appear to be necessary, they are not sufficient for the translocation of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface. The N-terminal domain of SBP1 that resides within the lumen of MCs clearly plays an essential, but presently unknown role in this process. PMID:25883090

  8. Mesa = Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

    Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  9. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Summary of Internal Floating Deck... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Subpart G of Part 63—Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number...

  10. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Internal Floating Deck... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Subpart G of Part 63—Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number...

  11. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary of Internal Floating Deck... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Subpart G of Part 63—Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number...

  12. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary of Internal Floating Deck... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Subpart G of Part 63—Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number...

  13. Atomic force microscopy of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swihart, A H; Mikrut, J M; Ketterson, J B; Macdonald, R C

    2001-12-01

    The atomic force microscope was used to examine the cytoplasmic surface of untreated as well as fixed human erythrocyte membranes that had been continuously maintained under aqueous solutions. To assess the effects of drying, some membranes were examined in air. Erythrocytes attached to mica or glass were sheared open with a stream of isotonic buffer, which allowed access to the cytoplasmic membrane face without exposing cells to non-physiological ionic strength solutions. Under these conditions of examination, the unfixed cytoplasmic membrane face revealed an irregular meshwork that appeared to be a mixture largely of triangular and rectilinear openings with mesh sizes that varied from 35 to 100 nm, although few were at the upper limit. Fixed ghosts were similar, but slightly more contracted. These features represent the membrane skeleton, as when the ghosts were treated to extract spectrin and actin, these meshworks were largely removed. Direct measurements of the thickness of the membrane skeleton and of the lateral dimensions of features in the images suggested that, especially when air dried, spectrin can cluster into large, quite regularly distributed aggregates. Aggregation of cytoskeletal components was also favoured when the cells were attached to a polylysine-treated substrate. In contrast, the membrane skeletons of cells attached to substrates rendered positively charged by chemical derivatization with a cationic silane were much more resistant to aggregation. As steps were taken to reduce the possibility of change of the skeleton after opening the cells, the aggregates and voids were eliminated, and the observed structures became shorter and thinner. Ghosts treated with Triton X-100 solutions to remove the bilayer revealed a meshwork having aggregated components resembling those seen in air. These findings support the proposition that the end-to-end distance of spectrin tetramers in the cell in the equilibrium state is much shorter than the contour

  14. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  15. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  16. Computerized tomography and skeletal density of coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosscher, Hemmo

    1993-07-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the use of medical X-ray computerized tomography (CT) in the study of coral skeletons. CT generates X-ray images along freely chosen sections through the skeleton and offers, as well, the possibility of density measurements based on X-ray attenuation. This method has been applied to measure the skeletal density of the Caribbean reef-building coral Montastrea annularis, from Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. The observed, non-linear increase of skeletal density with depth can be attributed to decreasing photo-synthetic rates with increasing water depth. A comparison with extension rate measurements shows the inverse relationship between extension rate and skeletal density. CT proves to be aquick and non-destructive method to reveal growth structures (density banding) since it measures skeletal density.

  17. Middle holocene age of the sunnyvale human skeleton.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R E; Payen, L A; Gerow, B; Donahue, D J; Zabel, T H; Jull, A J; Damon, P E

    1983-06-17

    A morphologically modern human skeleton from Sunnyvale, California, previously dated by aspartic acid racemization to be approximately 70,000 years old and by uranium series isotopic ratios to be 8300 and 9000 years old, appears to be younger when dated by the carbon-14 method. Four carbon-14 determinations made by both decay and direct counting on three organic fractions of postcranial bone support a middle Holocene age assignment for the skeleton, probably in the range of 3500 to 5000 carbon-14 years before the present. This dating evidence is consistent with the geologic, archeological, and anthropometric relationships of the burial as well as previously determined carbon-14 determinations on associated materials. PMID:17769367

  18. 26 CFR 1.6662-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.6662-0 Section 1.6662-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-0 Table of contents. This section lists the captions...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6664-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.6664-0 Section 1.6664-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6664-0 Table of contents. This section lists...

  20. 26 CFR 54.4980B-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 54.4980B-0 Section 54.4980B-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-0 Table of contents. This section contains...

  1. 26 CFR 1.142-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.142-0 Section 1.142-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.142-0 Table of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1361-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1361-0 Section 1.1361-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-0 Table of contents. This section lists captions contained...

  3. 26 CFR 1.7702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.7702-0 Section 1.7702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-0 Table of contents. This section...

  4. 26 CFR 1.7702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.7702-0 Section 1.7702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-0 Table of contents. This section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.7702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.7702-0 Section 1.7702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-0 Table of contents. This section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.7702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.7702-0 Section 1.7702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-0 Table of contents. This section lists the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.7702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.7702-0 Section 1.7702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-0 Table of contents. This section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6038A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.6038A-0 Section 1.6038A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6038A-0 Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in the regulations...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2702-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 25.2702-0 Section 25.2702-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2702-0 Table of contents. This section lists the major...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1202-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.1202-0 Section 1.1202-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1202-0 Table of contents. This section lists the...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7216-0T - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7216-0T Section 301.7216-0T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-0T Table...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7216-0T - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7216-0T Section 301.7216-0T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-0T Table...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7216-0T - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7216-0T Section 301.7216-0T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures Crimes § 301.7216-0T Table...

  14. 26 CFR 20.2031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 20.2031-0 Section 20.2031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-0 Table of...

  15. 26 CFR 20.2031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2031-0 Section 20.2031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-0 Table of...

  16. 26 CFR 20.2056A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Table of contents. 20.2056A-0 Section 20.2056A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-0 Table...

  17. 26 CFR 20.2031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2031-0 Section 20.2031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-0 Table of...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2056A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2056A-0 Section 20.2056A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-0 Table...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2056A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 20.2056A-0 Section 20.2056A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-0 Table...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2056A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2056A-0 Section 20.2056A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-0 Table...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2031-0 Section 20.2031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-0 Table of...

  2. 26 CFR 20.2031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Table of contents. 20.2031-0 Section 20.2031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-0 Table of...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2056A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 20.2056A-0 Section 20.2056A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-0 Table...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1031-0 Section 1.1031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1031-0 Table of contents. This section lists...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1031-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.1031-0 Section 1.1031-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1031-0 Table of contents. This section lists the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6662-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.6662-0 Section 1.6662-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-0 Table of contents. This section lists...

  7. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  8. Existence of a Flat Phase in Red Cell Membrane Skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christoph F.; Svoboda, Karel; Lei, Ning; Petsche, Irena B.; Berman, Lonny E.; Safinya, Cyrus R.; Grest, Gary S.

    1993-02-01

    Biomolecular membranes display rich statistical mechanical behavior. They are classified as liquid in the absence of shear elasticity in the plane of the membrane and tethered (solid) when the neighboring molecules or subunits are connected and the membranes exhibit solid-like elastic behavior in the plane of the membrane. The spectrin skeleton of red blood cells was studied as a model tethered membrane. The static structure factor of the skeletons, measured by small-angle x-ray and light scattering, was fitted with a structure factor predicted with a model calculation. The model describes tethered membrane sheets with free edges in a flat phase, which is a locally rough but globally flat membrane configuration. The fit was good for large scattering vectors. The membrane roughness exponent, zeta, defined through h propto L^zeta, where h is the average amplitude of out-of-plane fluctuations and L is the linear membrane dimension, was determined to be 0.65 ± 0.10. Computer simulations of model red blood cell skeletons also showed this flat phase. The value for the roughness exponent, which was determined from the scaling properties of membranes of different sizes, was consistent with that from the experiments.

  9. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  10. Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis) in a sample of N = 20 individuals (11 males and 9 females). pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3) and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3) displayed significantly greater (p < 0.01) trabecular bone density than other elements, whereas there was no significant variation among the rest of the elements (p > 0.01). The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements (p > 0.05) suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions. PMID:27148458

  11. 26 CFR 1.41-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.41-0 Section 1.41-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-0 Table of contents. This section lists the table of contents for §§ 1.41-1 through 1.41-9. § 1.41-1Credit for increasing...

  12. Skeleton Pruning Based on the Total Bisector Angle of the End Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Kita, Kenji

    Skeletonization is an important technique for shape representation, but the skeleton's high sensitivity to boundary noise hampers its application to automatic shape matching. In this paper, we propose a linear-time skeleton pruning algorithm based on the total bisector angle of the end branches. The main idea of the proposed algorithm is to iteratively delete the end branches having the smallest total bisector angle. Since the total bisector angle considers both the local and the global skeleton information, the proposed algorithm removes all redundant branches generated by boundary noise and obtains the ideal skeleton. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is highly adaptable, which means that under the same threshold conditions, the pruned skeletons obtained by our proposed algorithm are in accord with human visual perception for most shapes in the MPEG-7 and Tari 56 datasets. Consequently, the pruned skeletons can be applied to automatic shape matching.

  13. Skeleton-migration: Applications in deep crustal reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W.; Vasudevan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The reflection geometry of the sub-surface is three-dimensional in character. A 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing would be the ideal modus operandi for true seismic interpretation. However, almost all deep-crustal reflection profiles recorded on land follow quasi-linear geometry, for economic reasons. Although conventional processing of the lines accommodates crooked-line geometry, the migration algorithms used to produce seismic images for interpretation are generally 2-D in nature. Consequently, the effects of 3-D geometry are not usually well-accounted for. For example, the out-of-plane reflections lead to mislocation errors that increase with recording time. The events may be mislocated by 10’s of km and show spurious apparent dip after migration. In order to circumvent these problems and to gain insight into 3-D structures, we present an easy-to-implement “Skeleton-migration” algorithm. The skeleton-migration method follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we introduce a fast skeletonization of the final pre-processed stack to generate a digital catalogue containing a variety of event attributes including two-way travel times and location information in UTM co-ordinates. In the second step, we apply ray-based migration to the catalogue of events or two-way travel times of the 2-D stack using an appropriate velocity model for the crust and upper mantle. Since often we do not know a priori the strike direction of the reflectors, we have implemented a fast visualization-based optimization procedure to determine the strike. In subsequent steps, we use visualization methods to view and interpret the skeleton-migration results. We illustrate the usefulness of the method with examples from both the synthetic and deep crustal seismic reflection data. For the synthetic examples, we consider physical models corresponding to a point-scatterer, a synform, a fault and a subducting slab. In all these instances, we use an elastic Kirchhoff algorithm

  14. A comprehensive insight into the combined effects of Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders on sludge deep dewatering performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhu, Nairuo; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ye; He, Shu; Yang, Changzhu; Yao, Hong

    2013-08-15

    Conditioning sewage sludge with Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders has been proved to be an effective mean to achieve deep dewatering. This work aimed to give a comprehensive insight into the mechanism involved. The results show that significant synergistic effect existed between Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders. With the optimum dosage, water content of dewatered sludge cake could be reduced to 49.5±0.5%. Furthermore, raw sludge existed in the form of zoogloea and its flocs surface was plate-like. After Fenton oxidation, partial of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was destroyed and the amounts of protein and polysaccharide dissolved in filtrate increased. Meanwhile, sludge flocs turned into smaller ones. After adding skeleton builders, constantly-changing environment promoted senescence and death of microorganism. A large area of plate-like structure disappeared, instead of which were holes. Irregular non-living things inlayed or pierced microbial cells, promoting the conversion from bound water to free water as well as further reduction of the sludge particle size. Additionally, these irregular substances could form a rigid porous structure under high pressure, which could transmit the stresses to the sludge internal parts and provide outflow channels for free water. Consequently, conditioned sludge was suitable for high pressure deep dewatering. PMID:23721731

  15. A Skeleton-Based 3D Shape Reconstruction of Free-Form Objects with Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Deepika; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient approach is proposed for recovering the 3D shape of a free-form object from its arbitrary pair of stereo images. In particular, the reconstruction problem is treated as the reconstruction of the skeleton and the external boundary of the object. The reconstructed skeleton is termed as the line-like representation or curve-skeleton of the 3D object. The proposed solution for object reconstruction is based on this evolved curve-skeleton. It is used as a seed for recovering shape of the 3D object, and the extracted boundary is used for terminating the growing process of the object. NURBS-skeleton is used to extract the skeleton of both views. Affine invariant property of the convex hulls is used to establish the correspondence between the skeletons and boundaries in the stereo images. In the growing process, a distance field is defined for each skeleton point as the smallest distance from that point to the boundary of the object. A sphere centered at a skeleton point of radius equal to the minimum distance to the boundary is tangential to the boundary. Filling in the spheres centered at each skeleton point reconstructs the object. Several results are presented in order to check the applicability and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Weightlessness and the human skeleton: A new perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holick, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    It is now clear after more than two decades of space exploration that one of the major short- and long-term effects of microgravity on the human body is the loss of bone. The purpose of this presentation will be to review the data regarding the impact of microgravity and bed rest on calcium and bone metabolism. The author takes the position in this Socratic debate that the effect of microgravity on bone metabolism can be either reversed or mitigated. As we begins to contemplate long-duration space flight and habitation of Space Station Freedom and the moon, one of the issues that needs to be addressed is whether humans need to maintain a skeleton that has been adapted for the one-g force on earth. Clearly, in the foreseeable future, a healthy and structurally sound skeleton will be required for astronauts to shuttle back and forth from earth to the moon, space station, and Mars. Based on most available data from bed-rest studies and the short- and long-duration microgravity experiences by astronauts and cosmonauts, bone loss is a fact of life in this environment. With the rapid advances in understanding of bone physiology it is now possible to contemplate measures that can prevent or mitigate microgravity-induced bone loss. Will the new therapeutic approaches for enhancing bone mineralization be useful for preventing significant bone loss during long-term space flight? Are there other approaches such as exercise and electrical stimulation that can be used to mitigate the impact of microgravity on the skeleton? A recent study that evaluated the effect of microgravity on bone modeling in developing chick embryos may perhaps provide a new perspective about the impact of microgravity on bone metabolism.

  17. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    PubMed

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. PMID:25139752

  18. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  19. Shedding light into the function of the earliest vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Perez, Carlos; Purnell, Mark; Rayfield, Emily; Donoghue, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates, the first in our evolutionary lineage to develop a biomineralized skeleton. As such, the conodont skeleton is of great significance because of the insights it provides concerning the biology and function of the primitive vertebrate skeleton. Conodont function has been debated for a century and a half on the basis of its paleocological importance in the Palaezoic ecosystems. However, due to the lack of extanct close representatives and the small size of the conodont element (under a milimiter in length) strongly limited their functional analysis, traditional restricted to analogy. More recently, qualitative approaches have been developed, facilitating tests of element function based on occlusal performance and analysis of microwear and microstructure. In this work we extend these approaches using novel quantitative experimental methods including Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy or Finite Element Analysis to test hypotheses of conodont function. The development of high resolution virtual models of conodont elements, together with biomechanical approaches using Finite Element analysis, informed by occlusal and microwear analyses, provided conclusive support to test hypothesis of structural adaptation within the crown tissue microstructure, showing a close topological co-variation patterns of compressive and tensile stress distribution with different crystallite orientation. In addition, our computational analyses strongly support a tooth-like function for many conodont species. Above all, our study establishes a framework (experimental approach) in which the functional ecology of conodonts can be read from their rich taxonomy and phylogeny, representing an important attempt to understand the role of this abundant and diverse clade in the Phanerozoic marine ecosystems.

  20. The integumentary skeleton of tetrapods: origin, evolution, and development

    PubMed Central

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Although often overlooked, the integument of many tetrapods is reinforced by a morphologically and structurally diverse assemblage of skeletal elements. These elements are widely understood to be derivatives of the once all-encompassing dermal skeleton of stem-gnathostomes but most details of their evolution and development remain confused and uncertain. Herein we re-evaluate the tetrapod integumentary skeleton by integrating comparative developmental and tissue structure data. Three types of tetrapod integumentary elements are recognized: (1) osteoderms, common to representatives of most major taxonomic lineages; (2) dermal scales, unique to gymnophionans; and (3) the lamina calcarea, an enigmatic tissue found only in some anurans. As presently understood, all are derivatives of the ancestral cosmoid scale and all originate from scleroblastic neural crest cells. Osteoderms are plesiomorphic for tetrapods but demonstrate considerable lineage-specific variability in size, shape, and tissue structure and composition. While metaplastic ossification often plays a role in osteoderm development, it is not the exclusive mode of skeletogenesis. All osteoderms share a common origin within the dermis (at or adjacent to the stratum superficiale) and are composed primarily (but not exclusively) of osseous tissue. These data support the notion that all osteoderms are derivatives of a neural crest-derived osteogenic cell population (with possible matrix contributions from the overlying epidermis) and share a deep homology associated with the skeletogenic competence of the dermis. Gymnophionan dermal scales are structurally similar to the elasmoid scales of most teleosts and are not comparable with osteoderms. Whereas details of development are lacking, it is hypothesized that dermal scales are derivatives of an odontogenic neural crest cell population and that skeletogenesis is comparable with the formation of elasmoid scales. Little is known about the lamina calcarea. It is

  1. [Princess Anna Vasa--her fascinating life story and skeleton].

    PubMed

    During, Ebba

    2005-01-01

    The Princess Anna Vasa was born in Sweden in 1568 and spent her first 19 years there. She was the daughter of the Swedish king Johan III and his wife, the Polish Royal Princess Katarina Jagellonica. She was brought up as a Catholic but converted to be a Protestant already in 1583 and remained a fervent Protestant to the end of her life. She was an exceptionally intelligent and extensively educated woman. When her brother became king, Sigismund III of Poland, she accompanied him there. She exerted great influence on Sigismund who was brought up to be a Catholic. She was persistent in her religion, yet working for religious liberty. "The Swedish Princess" was also named "the Queen of Polish Botany". She was never married and she died 57 years old in 1625. For religious reasons her body had to wait 11 years for a funeral of royal standing. The funeral took place in 1636 in St Mary's Church in Torun, Poland. During restoration work at the church in April 1994, Anna Vasa's skeleton was removed from the tomb, and an antropological investigation in order to establish her identity was carried by Dr Andrzej Florkowski at the Dept of Anthrop, Nicholas Copernicus University of Torun. I was invited to Torun to examine her remains in May 1995. The skeleton was in a rather good state of preservation. However, her grave had been plundered at least twice. Her skeleton lacked the right forearm and hand, probably as the result of the pillage of her rings and bracelets. Some other bones and teeth were also missing. At our ocular examination the skeleton revealed a number of anatomical deformations and pathological changes. A conventional radiography and CT of Anna Vasa's skeletal remains was later carried out in 1995 by M. Grzegorzewski, Z. Boron and W. Lasek at the Dept of Radiology, Med. Acad. of Bydgoszcz, Polen. A DNA-analysis was carried out by Dr Anders Götherström at the Archaeol. Res. Lab., Stockholm Univ. An odontological and radiological study was performed by Dr Sigrid I

  2. p-Coumaric acid - a monomer in the sporopollenin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Wehling, K; Niester, C; Boon, J J; Willemse, M T; Wiermann, R

    1989-10-01

    Sporopollenin obtained from wings of Pinus mugo (Turra) pollen was analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry. In the spectrum, mass peaks which are characteristic for p-coumaric acid were dominant. p-Coumaric acid was the main degradation compound when the wing material was treated by a gentle method using AII3, and also when the remaining residue of the treated sporopollenin material was saponified. It is therefore assumed that p-coumaric acid is a genuine structural unit in the sporopollenin skeleton. In addition, the effects of AII3 treatment indicate that the p-coumaric acid might be bound by ether linkages. PMID:24201667

  3. [Mechanisms of growth, development and disease of the craniofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial skeleton is derived from several pieces of bone, which hold the brain and house the sensory organ of vision, hearing, taste and smell. It also serves as an entrance of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Hence, craniofacial complex develops under sophisticated balance between the shape and the function. Disruption of such balance leads to various types of malformation and/or deformation of the face. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of growth and developments of the craniofacial structures and also on the genetic basis of congenital craniofacial malformations. PMID:26728542

  4. Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Jessica A; Kier, William M

    2014-06-01

    The structural and functional consequences of changes in size or scale have been well studied in animals with rigid skeletons, but relatively little is known about scale effects in animals with hydrostatic skeletons. We used glycol methacrylate histology and microscopy to examine the scaling of mechanically important morphological features of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris over an ontogenetic size range from 0.03 to 12.89 g. We found that L. terrestris becomes disproportionately longer and thinner as it grows. This increase in the length to diameter ratio with size means that, when normalized for mass, adult worms gain ~117% mechanical advantage during radial expansion, compared with hatchling worms. We also found that the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal musculature scales as body mass to the ~0.6 power across segments, which is significantly lower than the 0.66 power predicted by isometry. The cross-sectional area of the circular musculature, however, scales as body mass to the ~0.8 power across segments, which is significantly higher than predicted by isometry. By modeling the interaction of muscle cross-sectional area and mechanical advantage, we calculate that the force output generated during both circular and longitudinal muscle contraction scales near isometry. We hypothesize that the allometric scaling of earthworms may reflect changes in soil properties and burrowing mechanics with size. PMID:24871920

  5. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    PubMed Central

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationships were also investigated. Results Complete or partial STR profiles were obtained in 3 of the 7 samples. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup was determined in 6 samples, with 5 of them corresponding to the haplogroup H and 1 to the haplogroup U5a. Y-chromosome haplogroup was determined in 2 samples, corresponding to the haplogroup R. In one of them, the sub-branch R1b1b2 was determined. mtDNA sequences indicated that some of the individuals could be maternally related, while STR profiles indicated no direct family relationships. Conclusions Despite the antiquity of the samples and great difficulty that genetic analyses entail, the combined use of autosomal STR markers, Y-chromosome informative SNPs, and mtDNA sequences allowed us to genotype a group of skeletons from the medieval age. PMID:21674829

  6. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

  7. Versatility of Distraction Osteogenesis for the Craniofacial Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Klement, Kristen A; Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

    2016-05-01

    Malformations of the craniofacial skeleton are common. Restoration of anatomic shape, size, and position has been traditionally accomplished using autologous bone grafting to fill gaps created by surgery and segmental movement. The authors present their practice using distraction in many different ages and settings over 20 years. A retrospective review was performed of all craniofacial patients treated using distraction osteogenesis for mandible, midface, and calvarium. The authors identified 205 patient. Mandible: 112 patients were treated at an average age of 3.4 years. 18.8% of patients required repeat distraction. There was no difference in the neonatal versus older group (P = 0.71). There were significantly higher reoperation rates in syndromic children (P < 0.01). Midface: 58 patients underwent Lefort III distraction at an average age of 13.6 years. One (1.7%) required repeat distraction (Miller syndrome). Five (8.6%) patients underwent subsequent Lefort I advancement for occlusal changes. Calvarium: 33 patients were treated at an average age of 4.7 years. No repeat distractions were performed. One patient required an additional advancement procedure. Distraction demonstrates successful long-term correction of defects in the craniofacial skeleton with the versatility and control needed to treat the wide spectrum of deformity. PMID:26999694

  8. XANES mapping of organic sulfate in three scleractinian coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Doucet, Jean; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The presence and localization of organic sulfate within coral skeletons are studied by using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) fluorescence. XANES spectra are recorded from four reference sulfur-bearing organic molecules: three amino acids (H-S-C bonds in cysteine; C-S-C bonds in methionine; one disulfide bond C-S-S-C bonds in cystine) and a sulfated sugar (C-SO 4 bonds in chondroitin sulfate). Spectral responses of three coral skeletons show that the sulfated form is extremely dominant in coral aragonite, and practically exclusive within both centres of calcification and the surrounding fibrous tissues of coral septa. Mapping of S-sulfate concentrations in centres and fibres gives us direct evidence of high concentration of organic sulfate in centres of calcification. Additionally, a banding pattern of S-sulfate is visible in fibrous part of the coral septa, evidencing a biochemical zonation that corresponds to the step-by-step growth of fibres.

  9. WASP localizes to the membrane skeleton of platelets.

    PubMed

    Lutskiy, Maxim I; Shcherbina, Anna; Bachli, Eric T; Cooley, Jessica; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2007-10-01

    Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked blood cell disease, suffer from severe thrombocytopenia due to accelerated loss of defective platelets. The affected gene encodes WASP, an actin regulatory protein thought to reside in the cytoplasm of resting leucocytes. In contrast, this study showed that, for platelets, one-quarter of WASP molecules fractionate in the detergent-insoluble high speed pellet characterized as the membrane skeleton, the scaffold structure that underlies the lipid bilayer and stabilizes the surface membrane. Following treatment of platelets with thrombin and stirring, which induces cytoarchitectural remodelling, WASP and other membrane skeletal components sedimented at lower g force and partitioned in the low-speed pellet. Thrombin and stirring also induced WASP tyrosine phosphorylation, a rapid activating reaction, and proteolytic inactivation by cysteine protease calpain. Both the alteration of the sedimentation profile and the proteolytic inactivation were specific for the membrane skeletal pool of WASP and were abrogated in alphaIIb beta3 integrin-deficient platelets and in normal platelets treated with an integrin antagonist. The findings demonstrate that WASP is a component of the resting platelet membrane skeleton and participates in membrane skeletal rearrangements downstream of integrin outside-in signalling. The possible implications for the platelet defect in WAS are discussed. PMID:17854313

  10. 26 CFR 1.41-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... January 1, 1983, in the case of a subchapter S corporation. (2) Pass-through in the case of an estate or... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.41-0 Section 1.41-0 Internal... § 1.41-0 Table of contents. This section lists the table of contents for §§ 1.41-1 through 1.41-9. §...

  11. Miocene Coral Skeleton Rare Earth Element Patterns Reflect River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz-Kraus, R.; Brachert, T. C.; Jochum, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns of modern coral skeletons usually reflect the REE composition of ambient seawater which is characterized by heavy REE enriched relative to light REE with NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized La/Lu ratios of typically <0.4. The REE concentration in coral aragonite is enriched by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude compared to ambient seawater. Here we report trace element data including REE of coral skeletons of Late Miocene age (~9 Ma, Tortonian) from Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). Analyses were done using a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to an Element2 ICP-MS along the growth axis of the coral skeletons. The profiles show that Ba/Ca ratios have a seasonally induced pattern with high values around the winter months which are identified by δ18O analyses. REE/Ca ratios co-vary with Ba/Ca ratios. Since the Ba/Ca ratio is a proxy used to monitor river discharge, the co-variation suggests the REE/Ca ratio to be a proxy of comparable quality. NASC-normalized REE patterns of the Tortonian corals have negative Ce anomalies like modern corals. However, the Tortonian corals have REE patterns highly enriched in LREE with (La/Lu)N ratios of 4 to 30 which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to modern corals. Al concentrations are low (<10 ppm) and do not correlate with REE concentrations indicating an insignificant fraction of terrigenous material included in the skeleton. Applying distribution coefficients typical for modern corals, the REE composition of the Tortonian ambient water yields (La/Lu)N of about 2 to 16. This range can be explained by binary mixing of modern Eastern Mediterranean sea surface water ((La/Lu)N=0.35, sea surface salinity (SSS) ~38 ‰) with highly LREE-enriched river water ((La/Lu)N >3, salinity ~0.5 ‰) transporting suspended and colloid phases, also highly enriched, especially in LREE, at a ratio of ~9 (seawater):1 (river water). The river water component is considered because paleoenvironmental

  12. 26 CFR 301.7430-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7430-0 Section 301.7430... Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in §§ 301.7430-1 through 301.7430-6... proceeding date. (1) General rule. (2) Notice of the decision of the Internal Revenue Service Office...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7430-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7430-0 Section 301.7430... Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in §§ 301.7430-1 through 301.7430-6... proceeding date. (1) General rule. (2) Notice of the decision of the Internal Revenue Service Office...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7430-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7430-0 Section 301.7430... Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in §§ 301.7430-1 through 301.7430-6... proceeding date. (1) General rule. (2) Notice of the decision of the Internal Revenue Service Office...

  15. 26 CFR 301.7430-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7430-0 Section 301.7430... Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in §§ 301.7430-1 through 301.7430-6... proceeding date. (1) General rule. (2) Notice of the decision of the Internal Revenue Service Office...

  16. 26 CFR 301.7430-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 301.7430-0 Section 301.7430... Table of contents. This section lists the captions that appear in §§ 301.7430-1 through 301.7430-6... proceeding date. (1) General rule. (2) Notice of the decision of the Internal Revenue Service Office...

  17. Food Composition Tables of Japan and the Nutrient Table/Database.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    A global food composition database has been constructed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) based on food composition tables from every country in the world. To improve this database, the FAO has organized the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS). The most recent version of the food composition table for Japan was published by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and is presented in three books: "Standard Tables of Food Composition Japan-2010-," "Fatty Acid Composition of Foods-2005-," and "Amino Acid Composition of Foods-2010-." The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- (Energy, General Components, Minerals, Vitamins, etc. Section; Fatty Acids Section; Amino Acids Section; Carbohydrates Section) will be published in 2015 and is expected to play an important role as one of the main tables of the East Asia food composition tables. PMID:26598875

  18. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  19. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  20. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  1. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

  2. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  3. Mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in archaeological human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Freundorfer, S; Grupe, G; Weickmann, D

    1995-05-01

    Archaeometric approaches to archaelogical human bone also include the extraction, identification and molecular analysis of surviving bone proteins. Due to its abundance as a matrix protein, most studies focus on collagen (e.g. radiocarbon dating). Also, a variety of serum proteins are detectable in excavated skeletons. Very limited knowledge still exists on mineral-bound noncollagenous bone proteins from ancient bones because, in the mature tissue, they occur in trace amounts only. Moreover, post-mortem decomposition is likely to change characteristic features of the molecules. Due to their suggested role as growth and developmental factors, identification and quantification of such proteins should be valuable for both physical anthropology and epidemiology. We present a valid method for the detection of small amounts of surviving mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in excavated human bones up to 7500 years of age. PMID:7588569

  4. Genetic Disorders of the Skeleton: A Developmental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kornak, Uwe; Mundlos, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Although disorders of the skeleton are individually rare, they are of clinical relevance because of their overall frequency. Many attempts have been made in the past to identify disease groups in order to facilitate diagnosis and to draw conclusions about possible underlying pathomechanisms. Traditionally, skeletal disorders have been subdivided into dysostoses, defined as malformations of individual bones or groups of bones, and osteochondrodysplasias, defined as developmental disorders of chondro-osseous tissue. In light of the recent advances in molecular genetics, however, many phenotypically similar skeletal diseases comprising the classical categories turned out not to be based on defects in common genes or physiological pathways. In this article, we present a classification based on a combination of molecular pathology and embryology, taking into account the importance of development for the understanding of bone diseases. PMID:12900795

  5. The International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care: evidentiary tables: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Peter; Menon, David K; Citerio, Giuseppe; Vespa, Paul; Bader, Mary Kay; Brophy, Gretchen; Diringer, Michael N; Stocchetti, Nino; Videtta, Walter; Armonda, Rocco; Badjatia, Neeraj; Bösel, Julian; Chesnut, Randall; Chou, Sherry; Claassen, Jan; Czosnyka, Marek; De Georgia, Michael; Figaji, Anthony; Fugate, Jennifer; Helbok, Raimund; Horowitz, David; Hutchinson, Peter; Kumar, Monisha; McNett, Molly; Miller, Chad; Naidech, Andrew; Oddo, Mauro; Olson, DaiWai; O'Phelan, Kristine; Provencio, J Javier; Puppo, Corinna; Riker, Richard; Roberson, Claudia; Schmidt, Michael; Taccone, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    A variety of technologies have been developed to assist decision-making during the management of patients with acute brain injury who require intensive care. A large body of research has been generated describing these various technologies. The Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and the Latin America Brain Injury Consortium (LABIC) organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference to perform a systematic review of the published literature to help develop evidence-based practice recommendations on bedside physiologic monitoring. This supplement contains a Consensus Summary Statement with recommendations and individual topic reviews on physiologic processes important in the care of acute brain injury. In this article we provide the evidentiary tables for select topics including systemic hemodynamics, intracranial pressure, brain and systemic oxygenation, EEG, brain metabolism, biomarkers, processes of care and monitoring in emerging economies to provide the clinician ready access to evidence that supports recommendations about neuromonitoring. PMID:25608916

  6. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  7. VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SKELETON CREEK, ENID, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Skeleton Creek was studied in August, 1983 and was the fourth site study. A small creek, Boggy Creek receives discharges from both an oil refinery and a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) prior to its confluence with Skeleton Creek. A fertilizer processing plant discharge is l...

  8. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Biology Notes: How the Skeleton Functions in the Movement of Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Argues that the term skeleton is not a word denoting a structure but a word denoting a function--that of allowing animals the freedom of self-motivated purposive local motion. Indeed a skeleton is a necessary prerequisite for there to be locomotion at all.'' (Author/AL)

  10. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  11. Rock fracture skeleton tracing by image processing and quantitative analysis by geometry features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanjie

    2016-06-01

    In rock engineering, fracture measurement is important for many applications. This paper proposes a novel method for rock fracture skeleton tracing and analyzing. As for skeleton localizing, the curvilinear fractures are multiscale enhanced based on a Hessian matrix, after image binarization, and clutters are post-processed by image analysis; subsequently, the fracture skeleton is extracted via ridge detection combined with a distance transform and thinning algorithm, after which gap sewing and burrs removal repair the skeleton. In regard to skeleton analyzing, the roughness and distribution of a fracture network are respectively described by the fractal dimensions D s and D b; the intersection and fragmentation of a fracture network are respectively characterized by the average number of ends and junctions per fracture N average and the average length per fracture L average. Three rock fracture surfaces are analyzed for experiments and the results verify that both the fracture tracing accuracy and the analysis feasibility are satisfactory using the new method.

  12. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    PubMed

    Tambutté, E; Venn, A A; Holcomb, M; Segonds, N; Techer, N; Zoccola, D; Allemand, D; Tambutté, S

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes corals to calcify at reduced rates, but current understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we conduct a mechanistic study into how seawater acidification alters skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Reductions in colony calcification rates are manifested as increases in skeletal porosity at lower pH, while linear extension of skeletons remains unchanged. Inspection of the microstructure of skeletons and measurements of pH at the site of calcification indicate that dissolution is not responsible for changes in skeletal porosity. Instead, changes occur by enlargement of corallite-calyxes and thinning of associated skeletal elements, constituting a modification in skeleton architecture. We also detect increases in the organic matrix protein content of skeletons formed under lower pH. Overall, our study reveals that seawater acidification not only causes decreases in calcification, but can also cause morphological change of the coral skeleton to a more porous and potentially fragile phenotype. PMID:26067341

  13. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2-driven seawater acidification

    PubMed Central

    Tambutté, E.; Venn, A. A.; Holcomb, M.; Segonds, N.; Techer, N.; Zoccola, D.; Allemand, D.; Tambutté, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes corals to calcify at reduced rates, but current understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we conduct a mechanistic study into how seawater acidification alters skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Reductions in colony calcification rates are manifested as increases in skeletal porosity at lower pH, while linear extension of skeletons remains unchanged. Inspection of the microstructure of skeletons and measurements of pH at the site of calcification indicate that dissolution is not responsible for changes in skeletal porosity. Instead, changes occur by enlargement of corallite-calyxes and thinning of associated skeletal elements, constituting a modification in skeleton architecture. We also detect increases in the organic matrix protein content of skeletons formed under lower pH. Overall, our study reveals that seawater acidification not only causes decreases in calcification, but can also cause morphological change of the coral skeleton to a more porous and potentially fragile phenotype. PMID:26067341

  14. 26 CFR 1.36B-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.36B-0 Section 1.36B-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.36B-0 Table of contents. This section lists the captions contained in §§ 1.36B-1 through 1.36B-5. § 1.36B-1Premium tax credit...

  15. 26 CFR 1.882-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.882-0 Section 1.882-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.882-0 Table of contents. This section lists captions contained in §§ 1.882-1, 1.882-2, 1.882-3, 1.882-4...

  16. 26 CFR 1.475-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.475-0 Section 1.475-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.475-0 Table of contents. This section lists the major captions in §§ 1.475(a)-3, 1.475(a)-4,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.409A-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.409A-0 Section 1.409A-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-0 Table of contents. This section lists captions contained in...

  18. 26 CFR 1.882-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.882-0 Section 1.882-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.882-0 Table of contents. This section lists captions contained in §§ 1.882-1, 1.882-2,...

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.401(k)-0 Section 1.401(k)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(k)-0 Table of contents. This section contains first a list...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzz of... - Subsequent Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Subsequent...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzz of... - Subsequent Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Subsequent...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Zzzz of... - Subsequent Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Subsequent...

  3. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  4. Quantifying the deformation of the red blood cell skeleton in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Zhu, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively predict the response of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in shear flow, we carried out multiphysics simulations by coupling a three-level multiscale approach of RBC membranes with a Boundary Element Method (BEM) for surrounding flows. Our multiscale approach includes a model of spectrins with the domain unfolding feature, a molecular-based model of the junctional complex with detailed protein connectivity and a whole cell Finite Element Method (FEM) model with the bilayer-skeleton friction derived from measured transmembrane protein diffusivity based on the Einstein-Stokes relation. Applying this approach, we investigated the bilayer-skeleton slip and skeleton deformation of healthy RBCs and RBCs with hereditary spherocytosis anemia during tank-treading motion. Compared with healthy cells, cells with hereditary spherocytosis anemia sustain much larger skeleton-bilayer slip and area deformation of the skeleton due to deficiency of transmembrane proteins. This leads to extremely low skeleton density and large bilayer-skeleton interaction force, both of which may cause bilayer loss. This finding suggests a possible mechanism of the development of hereditary spherocytosis anemia.

  5. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. PMID:25963195

  6. Table tennis dystonia.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Anne; Vidailhet, Marie; Flamand-Rouvière, Constance; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Gonce, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-02-15

    Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) occurs exclusively during a specific activity that usually involves a highly skilled movement. Classical FTSD dystonias include writer's cramp and musician's dystonia. Few cases of sport-related dystonia have been reported. We describe the first four cases of FTSD related to table tennis (TT), two involving professional international competitors. We also systematically analyzed the literature for reports of sport-related dystonia including detailed clinical descriptions. We collected a total of 13 cases of sport-related dystonia, including our four TT players. Before onset, all the patients had trained for many years, for a large number of hours per week. Practice time had frequently increased significantly in the year preceding onset. As TT is characterized by highly skilled hand/forearm movements acquired through repetitive exercises, it may carry a higher risk of FTSD than other sports. Intensive training may result in maladaptive responses and overwhelm homeostatic mechanisms that regulate cortical plasticity in vulnerable individuals. Our findings support the importance of environmental risk factors in sport-related FTSD, as also suggested in classical FTSD, and have important implications for clinical practice. PMID:20108363

  7. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  8. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  9. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  10. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  11. Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na Kyung; Sowa, Hideaki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Ferron, Mathieu; Ahn, Jong Deok; Confavreux, Cyrille; Dacquin, Romain; Mee, Patrick J.; McKee, Marc D.; Jung, Dae Young; Zhang, Zhiyou; Kim, Jason K.; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The regulation of bone remodeling by an adipocyte-derived hormone implies that bone may exert a feedback control of energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis we looked for genes expressed in osteoblasts, encoding signaling molecules and affecting energy metabolism. We show here that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase OST-PTP are hypoglycemic and protected from obesity and glucose intolerance because of an increase in β-cell proliferation, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, mice lacking the osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin display decreased β-cell proliferation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Removing one Osteocalcin allele from OST-PTP-deficient mice corrects their metabolic phenotype. Ex vivo, osteocalcin can stimulate CyclinD1 and Insulin expression in β-cells and Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, in adipocytes; in vivo osteocalcin can improve glucose tolerance. By revealing that the skeleton exerts an endocrine regulation of sugar homeostasis this study expands the biological importance of this organ and our understanding of energy metabolism. PMID:17693256

  12. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Clode, Peta L.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a “business-as-usual” emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. PMID:26989776

  13. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhöfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  14. Embryonic Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 Causes Malformations in Axial Skeleton*

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Minsub; Foley, Julie; Anna, Colleen; Mishina, Yuji; Eling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COXs) have important functions in various physiological and pathological processes. COX-2 expression is highly induced by a variety of stimuli and is observed during certain periods of embryonic development. In this report, the direct effect of COX-2 expression on embryonic development is examined in a novel COX-2 transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses human COX-2 from the early stages of embryonic development. COX-2 transgenic fetuses exhibit severe skeletal malformations and die shortly after birth. Skeletal malformations are localized along the entire vertebral column and rib cage and are linked to defective formation of cartilage anlagen. The cartilage anlagen of axial skeleton fail to properly develop in transgenic embryos because of impaired precartilaginous sclerotomal condensation, which results from the reduction of cell number in the sclerotome. Despite the ubiquitous expression of COX-2, the number of apoptotic cells is highly increased in the sclerotome of transgenic embryos but not in other tissues, suggesting that it is a tissue-specific response. Therefore, the loss of sclerotomal cells due to an increased apoptosis is probably responsible for axial skeletal malformations in transgenic fetuses. In addition, the sclerotomal accumulation of p53 protein is observed in transgenic embryos, suggesting that COX-2 may induce apoptosis via the up-regulation of p53. Our results demonstrate that the aberrant COX-2 signaling during embryonic development is teratogenic and suggest a possible association of COX-2 with fetal malformations of unknown etiology. PMID:20236942

  15. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    PubMed

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100. PMID:26989776

  16. A new computational growth model for sea urchin skeletons.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Louis G

    2009-08-01

    A new computational model has been developed to simulate growth of regular sea urchin skeletons. The model incorporates the processes of plate addition and individual plate growth into a composite model of whole-body (somatic) growth. A simple developmental model based on hypothetical morphogens underlies the assumptions used to define the simulated growth processes. The data model is based on a Delaunay triangulation of plate growth center points, using the dual Voronoi polygons to define plate topologies. A spherical frame of reference is used for growth calculations, with affine deformation of the sphere (based on a Young-Laplace membrane model) to result in an urchin-like three-dimensional form. The model verifies that the patterns of coronal plates in general meet the criteria of Voronoi polygonalization, that a morphogen/threshold inhibition model for plate addition results in the alternating plate addition pattern characteristic of sea urchins, and that application of the Bertalanffy growth model to individual plates results in simulated somatic growth that approximates that seen in living urchins. The model suggests avenues of research that could explain some of the distinctions between modern sea urchins and the much more disparate groups of forms that characterized the Paleozoic Era. PMID:19376133

  17. The life cycle of chondrocytes in the developing skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Lillian; Nuckolls, Glen

    2002-01-01

    Cartilage serves multiple functions in the developing embryo and in postnatal life. Genetic mutations affecting cartilage development are relatively common and lead to skeletal malformations, dysfunction or increased susceptibility to disease or injury. Characterization of these mutations and investigation of the molecular pathways in which these genes function have contributed to an understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal patterning, chondrogenesis, endochondral ossification and joint formation. Extracellular growth and differentiation factors including bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factors, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, extracellular matrix components, and members of the hedgehog and Wnt families provide important signals for the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Transduction of these signals within the developing mesenchymal cells and chondrocytes results in changes in gene expression mediated by transcription factors including Smads, Msx2, Sox9, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and core-binding factor alpha 1. Further investigation of the interactions of these signaling pathways will contribute to an understanding of cartilage growth and development, and will allow for the development of strategies for the early detection, prevention and treatment of diseases and disorders affecting the skeleton. PMID:11879545

  18. MRI of enthesitis of the appendicular skeleton in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Eshed, Iris; Bollow, Matthias; McGonagle, Dennis G; Tan, Ai Lyn; Althoff, Christian E; Asbach, Patrick; Hermann, Kay‐Geert A

    2007-01-01

    Entheses are sites where tendons, ligaments, joint capsules or fascia attach to bone. Inflammation of the entheses (enthesitis) is a well‐known hallmark of spondyloarthritis (SpA). As entheses are associated with adjacent, functionally related structures, the concepts of an enthesis organ and functional entheses have been proposed. This is important in interpreting imaging findings in entheseal‐related diseases. Conventional radiographs and CT are able to depict the chronic changes associated with enthesitis but are of very limited use in early disease. In contrast, MRI is sensitive for detecting early signs of enthesitis and can evaluate both soft‐tissue changes and intraosseous abnormalities of active enthesitis. It is therefore useful for the early diagnosis of enthesitis‐related arthropathies and monitoring therapy. Current knowledge and typical MRI features of the most commonly involved entheses of the appendicular skeleton in patients with SpA are reviewed. The MRI appearances of inflammatory and degenerative enthesopathy are described. New options for imaging enthesitis, including whole‐body MRI and high‐resolution microscopy MRI, are briefly discussed. PMID:17526551

  19. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, Fred H.

    2008-05-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes.

  20. The membrane skeleton of erythrocytes. A percolation model.

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, M J

    1990-01-01

    The spectrin network on the cytoplasmic surface of the erythrocyte membrane is modeled as a triangular lattice of spectrin tetramers. This network obstructs lateral diffusion of proteins and provides mechanical reinforcement to the membrane. These effects are treated in a systematic and unified manner in terms of a percolation model. The diffusion coefficient is obtained as a function of the fraction of normal spectrin tetramers for both static and fluctuating barriers. The elasticity of the network is calculated as a function of the fraction of normal spectrin and the ratio of bending to stretching energies. For static barriers, elasticity and lateral diffusion are incompatible: if a network is connected enough to be elastic, it is connected enough to block long-range lateral diffusion. The elasticity and the force required for mechanical breakdown go to zero at the percolation threshold; experimental evidence suggests the existence of a stability threshold at or near the percolation threshold. The model is qualitatively applicable to other cells with membrane skeletons, such as epithelial cells, in which localization of membrane proteins is essential to differentiation. PMID:2393702

  1. [Investigation of vasoactive agents with indole skeletons at Richter Ltd].

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, Egon; Bíró, Katalin; Kukorelli, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of agents with indol skeleton was started in Richter Ltd. 50 years ago. This paper presents the results obtained by Richter's scientists. At first, a vasoactive alcaloid, vincamine was extracted from the leaves of Vinca minor in industrial quantity in 1955. This agent selectively improves the cerebral blood supply. Vincamine (Devincan) is used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders from 1959. Vinpocetine (Cavinton), the most powerful vasoactive compound was produced by transforming the chemical structure of vincamine. Cavinton is a cis(3S,16S)-derivate of vincamine having antianoxic, antiischaemic and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, it is frequently used in the therapy of cerebral disorders of vascular origin. Cavinton was introduced into clinical practice in 1978. At present, Cavinton tablets are approved in 47 countries. The third compound, vintoperol is a trans(3S,16R)-derivate of vincamine. Vintoperol proved to be a powerful enhancer of blood flow in the lower extremities. Because of its toxic side effects the agent is not used in clinical practice. PMID:12426785

  2. 26 CFR 1.1366-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Table of contents. 1.1366-0 Section 1.1366-0...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-0 Table of contents. The following table of contents is provided to facilitate the use of §§ 1.1366-1 through 1.1366-5: §...

  3. 26 CFR 1.41-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... January 1, 1983, in the case of a subchapter S corporation. (2) Pass-through in the case of an estate or... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.41-0 Section 1.41-0... Against Tax § 1.41-0 Table of contents. This section lists the table of contents for §§ 1.41-1 through...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1366-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1366-0 Section 1.1366-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-0 Table of contents. The following table of contents is provided to facilitate the use of §§ 1.1366-1 through 1.1366-5: §...

  5. 26 CFR 1.41-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... January 1, 1983, in the case of a subchapter S corporation. (2) Pass-through in the case of an estate or... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.41-0 Section 1.41-0... Against Tax § 1.41-0 Table of contents. This section lists the table of contents for §§ 1.41-1 through...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1366-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1366-0 Section 1.1366-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-0 Table of contents. The following table of contents is provided to facilitate the use of §§ 1.1366-1 through 1.1366-5: §...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1366-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1366-0 Section 1.1366-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-0 Table of contents. The following table of contents is provided to facilitate the use of §§ 1.1366-1 through 1.1366-5: §...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1366-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.1366-0 Section 1.1366-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-0 Table of contents. The following table of contents is provided to facilitate the use of §§ 1.1366-1 through 1.1366-5: §...

  9. Piecewise recognition of bone skeleton profiles via an iterative Hough transform approach without re-voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Giorgio; Beltrametti, Mauro C.; Massone, Anna Maria

    2015-03-01

    Many bone shapes in the human skeleton are characterized by profiles that can be associated to equations of algebraic curves. Fixing the parameters in the curve equation, by means of a classical pattern recognition procedure like the Hough transform technique, it is then possible to associate an equation to a specific bone profile. However, most skeleton districts are more accurately described by piecewise defined curves. This paper utilizes an iterative approach of the Hough transform without re-voting, to provide an efficient procedure for describing the profile of a bone in the human skeleton as a collection of different but continuously attached curves.

  10. Management of missiles injuries of the facial skeleton: primary, intermediate, and secondary phases.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja

    2010-07-01

    This study included 235 patients with missile injuries of the facial skeleton, who were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of the Hospital of Specialized Surgery in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq, during a period of 4 years of war, since Iraq became the international battlefield for terrorism. There were 195 men and 40 women, with ages ranging from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years); all patients had severe facial injuries and posttraumatic missile deformities, including 27 patients with orbital injuries. This study also evaluates the management of the immediate, intermediate, and secondary phases.Deformities of the facial skeleton as a complication of missile injuries were classified into the following cases: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss, 72 patients (30.64%) had soft-tissue loss, 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries, and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation.The bony defects of the mandible were reconstructed by both bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest in 24 patients and by block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest in 38 patients for reconstruction of the mandible, 4 cases for maxillary reconstruction, and 4 cases of orbital floor defect. K-wire was used in 23 cases for holding missing segments of the mandible. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the face was done in 72 cases, local flaps were used in 30 cases, regional flaps including lateral cervical flap in 10 cases, and cervicofacial flaps in 11 cases. The orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and silastic implant. Low-velocity bullet injury to the frontal part of the head was treated by coronal flap, as an access in 6 cases required craniotomy and dura was reconstructed by galea or temporalis muscle. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision, and sinus tract was excised at the same time of scar revision. Primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active