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Sample records for internet overuse adolescents

  1. Adolescents' Over-Use of the Cyber World--Internet Addiction or Identity Exploration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Kim, Taejin; Bukobza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Internet can serve as a valuable tool assisting adolescents in pursuing the developmentally-related need for self concept clarity. Participants in the study were 278 adolescents (48.5% girls; 7th-9th graders) who completed questionnaires relating to their levels of Internet use, Internet addiction,…

  2. Medication Overuse in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Medication overuse is not uncommon among children and adolescents with primary headache disorders. In adults, medication overuse is associated with increased headache frequency and reduced effectiveness of acute and preventive medications. These issues may also exist in children. While withdrawal of overused medications is generally recommended, it may not result in improved headache frequency in all patients. This review summarizes what is known about predicting response to medication withdrawal. Strategies for managing children and adolescents with medication overuse are also offered. PMID:24898106

  3. Overuse Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFiori, John P.

    1999-01-01

    With the growth in youth sports programs, overuse injuries in children and adolescents have become common. Physicians are challenged to make the diagnosis and identify the causes of injury. Growth-related factors require special consideration in injury management. Physicians must make a directed history assessing causative factors and a systematic…

  4. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors. PMID:26963733

  5. Internet over-users' psychological profiles: a behavior sampling analysis on internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Whang, Leo Sang-Min; Lee, Sujin; Chang, Geunyoung

    2003-04-01

    What kinds of psychological features do people have when they are overly involved in usage of the internet? Internet users in Korea were investigated in terms of internet over-use and related psychological profiles by the level of internet use. We used a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale, and 13,588 users (7,878 males, 5,710 females), out of 20 million from a major portal site in Korea, participated in this study. Among the sample, 3.5% had been diagnosed as internet addicts (IA), while 18.4% of them were classified as possible internet addicts (PA). The Internet Addiction Scale showed a strong relationship with dysfunctional social behaviors. More IA tried to escape from reality than PA and Non-addicts (NA). When they got stressed out by work or were just depressed, IA showed a high tendency to access the internet. The IA group also reported the highest degree of loneliness, depressed mood, and compulsivity compared to the other groups. The IA group seemed to be more vulnerable to interpersonal dangers than others, showing an unusually close feeling for strangers. Further study is needed to investigate the direct relationship between psychological well-being and internet dependency. PMID:12804026

  6. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  7. Internet use and addiction among Finnish adolescents (15-19 years).

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found. PMID:24439618

  8. Internet use among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p < 0.001, gamma = 995.205). The most preferred type of game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p < 0.0001, gamma = 283.767). Participants who used the Internet mostly for general information searches and school-related searches had lower OCS scores (p < 0.0001). The highest OCS scores were related to violent games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used. PMID:18785800

  9. Association between internet gambling and problematic internet use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Kormas, George; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A

    2011-09-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate the correlates and psychosocial implications of internet gambling among adolescents, as well as the association between internet gambling and problematic internet use. A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (N = 484) of adolescents (71.2% boys; 28.8% girls; mean age ± standard deviation, SD = 14.88 ± 0.55 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including internet gambling practices, internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were utilized. The prevalence of internet gambling was 15.1%. Internet gambling was associated with psychosocial maladjustment, including Abnormal Conduct Problems (gender adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.86-7.92) and Borderline Peer Problems (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.09-3.85). The likelihood of concomitant problematic internet use was significantly higher among internet gamblers (AOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19). Multivariate regression analyses indicated that among all characteristics of internet use assessed, utilizing the internet for the purposes of gambling practices was independently associated with problematic internet use among adolescents (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.40-8.39). Thus, the study findings suggest that adolescents who participate in internet gambling practices are more likely to concomitantly present with problematic internet use. PMID:20953681

  10. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  11. Adolescent Help-Seeking from the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…

  12. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  13. Older Adolescent's Perceptions of Personal Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Rosalind N.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use is widespread among the older adolescent population. Given the pervasiveness and frequency of internet use, concerns have been raised regarding the impact of excess internet use on adolescent health. In order to understand the impact of internet use on health, we must have accurate and reliable measures of internet use. This study…

  14. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound

  15. Adolescent gambling on the internet: a review.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Mark D; Parke, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Internet gambling is a relatively under-researched area. While our current knowledge remains in its infancy and the prevalence rates are relatively low, researchers and clinicians are predicting greater involvement among youth. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was undertaken. The resulting relevant literature was classified into four areas. These were (a) the empirical studies on adolescent internet gambling, (b) online gambling-like experiences in adolescence, (c) adolescent gambling via social networking sites, and (d) adolescent gambling via online penny auction sites. Age verification in relation to prevention and regulation is also examined. It is concluded that young people appear to be very proficient in using and accessing new media and are likely to be increasingly exposed to remote gambling opportunities. These young people will therefore require education and guidance to enable them to cope with the challenges of convenience gambling in all its guises. PMID:20491418

  16. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  17. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use. PMID:26611139

  18. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  19. Heritability of compulsive Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and-in large parts of the world-inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent twins registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The participants form a sample that is informative for genetic analyses, allowing the investigation of the causes of individual differences in compulsive Internet use. The internal consistency of the instrument was high and the 1.6-year test-retest correlation in a subsample (n = 902) was 0.55. CIUS scores increased slightly with age. Remarkably, gender did not explain variation in CIUS scores, as mean scores on the CIUS were the same in boys and girls. However, the time spent on specific Internet activities differed: boys spent more time on gaming, whereas girls spent more time on social network sites and chatting. The heritability estimates were the same for boys and girls: 48 percent of the individual differences in CIUS score were influenced by genetic factors. The remaining variance (52 percent) was due to environmental influences that were not shared between family members. Because a life without Internet is almost impossible nowadays, it is important to further explore the determinants of compulsive Internet use, including genetic risk factors. PMID:25582809

  20. Adolescents' perceptions toward the internet: a 4-T framework.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2004-08-01

    This study could be viewed as one of the initial attempts to probe adolescents' general perceptions toward the Internet. Through interviewing 40 adolescents in Taiwan, this study found the following 4-T categories for interpreting their perceptions toward the Internet, which included Technology, Tool, Toy, and Travel. Most adolescents perceived the Internet as a tool, implying that these adolescents, in general, held pragmatic views about the Internet. This paper further proposes a framework to elaborate the 4-T categories. The framework consists of the following two axes: one axis probably shows the ontology of the Internet, ranging from a "product" to a "process," whereas the other axis indicates the perceived feature of the Internet, varying from "functional" to "technical." It is finally suggested to carefully investigate the effects of people's Internet perceptions on their behaviors, as well as psychological and cognitive activities in Internet-related environments. PMID:15331033

  1. The Association between Internet User Characteristics and Dimensions of Internet Addiction among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Svoli, Hionia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how internet users' psychological characteristics, amount of internet use and demographic factors contribute to particular dimensions of internet addiction. The sample consisted of 384 adolescents, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. Participants were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), measures of Locus of…

  2. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted. PMID:18605649

  3. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  4. Compulsive Internet Use among Adolescents: Bidirectional Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A.; van Rooij, Tony J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the…

  5. Compulsive internet use among adolescents: bidirectional parent-child relationships.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A; van Rooij, Tony J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-01-01

    Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the bidirectionality of these associations. Two studies were conducted: a cross-sectional study using a representative sample of 4,483 Dutch students and a longitudinal study using a self-selected sample of 510 Dutch adolescents. Results suggest that qualitatively good communication regarding internet use is a promising tool for parents to prevent their teenage children from developing CIU. Besides, parental reactions to excessive internet use and parental rules regarding the content of internet use may help prevent CIU. Strict rules about time of internet use, however, may promote compulsive tendencies. Finally, one opposite link was found whereby CIU predicted a decrease in frequency of parental communication regarding internet use. PMID:19728076

  6. Internet café addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei

    2007-04-01

    With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed. PMID:17474839

  7. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail. PMID:22125466

  8. Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S

    2009-06-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension, probing whether pornography consumers differed from other Internet users, as well as the social characteristics of adolescent frequent pornography consumers. Data from a 2004 survey of a national representative sample of the adolescent population in Israel were used (n=998). Adolescent frequent users of the Internet for pornography were found to differ in many social characteristics from the group that used the Internet for information, social communication and entertainment. Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour. PMID:18694593

  9. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

  10. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  11. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  12. Adolescent Internet Use: What We Expect, What Teens Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation…

  13. Parents as a Resource: Communication Quality Affects the Relationship between Adolescents' Internet Use and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…

  14. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Johnson, Dayna A; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-10-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥ 2 hr/day, moderate use as <2 hr/day and ≥ 5 days/week, and light use as < 2 hr/day and ≤ 4 days/week. Elevated BP was defined as systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 90 th percentile. Heavy Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health. PMID:25377931

  15. Correlates of at-risk/problem internet gambling in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling amongst adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the internet. Method Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high-school-student gamblers were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent internet gamblers than in non-internet gamblers. As compared to at-risk/problem gambling in the non-internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio=2.99; p=0.03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio=0.32; p=0.0003). At-risk/problem gambling in both the internet and non-internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at p<0.05 each with multiple adverse measures including dysphoria/depression (odds ratios=1.76, 1.96), getting into serious fights (odds ratios=2.50, 1.93), carrying weapons (odds ratios=2.11, 1.90), and use of tobacco (odds ratios=2.05, 1.88 for regular use), marijuana (odds ratios=2.02, 1.39) and other drugs (odds ratios=3.24, 1.67). Conclusions Clinically, it is important to assess for teenagers’ involvement in internet gambling, particularly as adolescent at-risk/problem internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use and poor academic functioning. PMID:21241952

  16. Prevalence of Internet addiction in Latino adolescents with psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G

    2011-06-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder. PMID:21114410

  17. Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology. PMID:23451272

  18. Internet use and misuse: a multivariate regression analysis of the predictive factors of internet use among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Kormas, Georgios; Filippopoulou, Anastasia; Tounissidou, Despoina; Freskou, Aliki; Spiliopoulou, Theodora; Louizou, Amalia; Konstantoulaki, Eleftheria; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2009-06-01

    The internet is an integral tool for information, communication, and entertainment among adolescents. As adolescents devote increasing amounts of time to utilizing the internet, the risk for adopting excessive and pathological internet use is inherent. The study objectives include assessing the characteristics and predictors of excessive internet use and evaluating the prevalence of pathological internet use among Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was applied to this effect. The study population (n = 897) consisted of a random sample of adolescents residing in Athens, Greece. Self-completed questionnaires, pertaining to internet access characteristics and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) score, were applied in order to investigate the study objectives. The multivariate regression analysis indicated that the most significant predictors of overall internet use included accessing the internet via one's own home portal and for the purpose of social interaction. Internet access via the school environment was a significant deterrent among low (1-3 h/week) internet users, while access via internet cafés was a significant predictor for high (11-20 h/week) internet users. Moreover, accessing the internet for the purposes of game playing was the most significant predictor for excessive (>20 h/week) internet use. The prevalence of borderline internet use among the study population was 12.8%, while 1.00% reported addictive internet use. Also, 10.4% of male excessive internet users reported addictive internet use (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, excessive internet use is predicted solely by the location of internet access (own home portal) and the scope of internet use (i.e., sites relating to socialization and game playing) and may lead to internet addiction, particularly among male adolescents. PMID:18762980

  19. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708

  20. [Cyberbullying: adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet].

    PubMed

    Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized. PMID:21044514

  1. Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software. PMID:18689104

  2. A study on Turkish adolescent's Internet use: possible predictors of Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Ak, Serife; Koruklu, Nermin; Yılmaz, Yusuf

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the internet use of Turkish adolescents, with a (particular) focus on the risk of Internet addiction. A web-based questionnaire was completed by a total of 4,311 adolescents attending public high schools in grades 9-12, in a small-sized city in western Turkey. Ages ranged from 15 to 19 years, 54 percent were female and 46 percent male. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic information, Internet usage, and a Turkish version of the Young's Internet Addiction Test. The data were analyzed in SPPS 15.0 program using the t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, correlation and hierarchic regression analysis. The findings show that, regardless of gender, Facebook ranked highest in the classification of students' purpose of Internet use; it was also found that females mainly used the Internet for communication, whereas males were more interested in playing online games and reading newspapers and magazines. The results of hierarchic regression analysis indicated that the significant predictors of the internet addiction were the presence of Internet access at home, gender, and family income levels. PMID:23253206

  3. Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318

  4. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  5. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  6. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. PMID:25178955

  7. Sadness, Suicide, and Their Association with Video Game and Internet Overuse among Teens: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…

  8. Access to and Use of Internet by Adolescents Who Have a Physical Disability: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathouwers, Karen; de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations between access to and use of Internet and…

  9. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  10. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  11. Internet and written respiratory questionnaires yield equivalent results for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Raat, H; Mangunkusumo, RT; Mohangoo, AD; Juniper, EF; Van Der Lei, J

    2007-01-01

    This study compared results from Internet and written questionnaires about respiratory symptoms in order to find out if both forms of the survey yielded the same answers. One thousand seventy-one students, ages 13 to 17, were asked to complete either an Internet or a written questionnaire. The demographic characteristics of the participants equalled those of the general Dutch adolescent population. Participants were randomly assigned to fill out an electronic or written questionnaire. In addition to eight items from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, two items on doctor visits (medical attention) regarding asthma or allergic disease during the past 12 months were included. The participation rate was 87%. The Internet version of the questionnaire showed fewer missing answers than the written version, but this was not statistically significant. The respiratory items did not show statistically significant score differences between the Internet and written modes of administration, and there was no visible trend for higher respectively lower scores by either mode of questionnaire administration. From these results, we conclude that respiratory questionnaires may be provided to adolescents electronically rather than on paper, since both approaches yielded equal results. To generalize these findings, we recommend repeated studies in other settings. PMID:17335011

  12. Overuse, Overdose, Overdiagnosis… Overreaction?

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ELM

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays were first discovered, the harmful effects of radiation had to be manifest in the early users before they were known. Today, radiation protection and safety have been established and the effects of radiation, as well as its risks, are known. Even so, medical radiation, in particular the growth in the use of computed tomography (CT), has resulted in soaring radiation doses received by the population in general. Inappropriate use has resulted in overuse, overdose and, perhaps, overdiagnosis, especially when used in screening. In the quest to control and curb the use of procedures involving radiation, however, we must be careful not to provoke a pandemic of irrational fear of radiation. Overreaction to the overuse and overdose of radiation might deter patients from life-saving procedures. PMID:21611049

  13. Exposure to Tobacco on the Internet: Content Analysis of Adolescents' Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Salazar, Laura F.; Daluga, Nichole A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We performed a content analysis of all Web pages viewed by a random sample of adolescents to describe exposure to tobacco- and smoking-related text and images. METHODS Adolescents (14 –17 years of age) with home Internet access were recruited. Internet-tracking software was installed on home computers used by 346 eligible consenting participants. All Web pages viewed by adolescent participants were captured during a 30-day period for each subject. Keywords on smoking and tobacco were used to identify tobacco images or text. RESULTS The 346 participants viewed 1.2 million Web pages, of which 8702 (0.72%) contained tobacco or smoking content. Exposure to tobacco content did not vary according to smoking status. Content was protobacco on 1916 pages, antitobacco on 1572, and complex or unclear on 5055. Social networking sites, mainly MySpace, represented 53% of pages (n = 4612) on which tobacco content was found. All pages with smoking content contained references in text, and 256 (3%) contained images. Many (43%) of the adolescents were exposed to pro-tobacco imagery (median: 3 pages per month). Cigarettes were mentioned on 20% of pages. Tobacco products were sold on 50 pages, and 242 pages contained links to tobacco products sold on other pages. On social networking sites, 4121 pages included a mention of smoking status in the authors' individual profiles, with 23% of authors identifying themselves as smokers. CONCLUSIONS Many adolescents are consistently exposed to tobacco content on the Internet, but the volume of exposure is limited and not all content represents protobacco content. PMID:19620193

  14. The protective effects of parental monitoring and internet restriction on adolescents' risk of online harassment.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Romer, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    With many adolescents using the internet to communicate with their peers, online harassment is on the rise among youth. The purpose of this study was to understand how parental monitoring and strategies parents use to regulate children's internet use (i.e., internet restriction) can help reduce online harassment among adolescents. Online survey data were collected from a nationally representative sample of parents and their 12-17 year old adolescents (n = 629; 49 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring and internet restriction on being a victim of online harassment. Potential mediators included adolescents' frequency of use of social networking websites, time spent on computers outside of school, and internet access in the adolescent's bedroom. Age and gender differences were also explored. Adolescents' reports of parental monitoring and efforts to regulate specific forms of internet use were associated with reduced rates of online harassment. Specifically, the effect of parental monitoring was largely direct and 26 times greater than parental internet restriction. The latter was associated with lower rates of harassment only indirectly by limiting internet access in the adolescent's bedroom. These effects operated similarly for younger and older adolescents and for males and females. Adolescents' perceptions of parental monitoring and awareness can be protective against online harassment. Specific restriction strategies such as regulating internet time and content can also help reduce the risk of online harassment. PMID:25504217

  15. Sadness, suicide, and their association with video game and internet overuse among teens: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the 2009 YRBS, had a significantly higher risk for sadness (adjusted and weighted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 2.1, 1.7-2.5), suicidal ideation (1.7, 1.3-2.1), and suicide planning (1.5, 1.1-1.9). The same pattern was found in the 2007 survey. These findings support an association between excessive video game and Internet use and risk for teen depression and suicidality. PMID:21463355

  16. Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Wang, Guihong; Zeng, Fang; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Jixin; Sun, Jinbo; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Yijun; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that internet addiction disorder (IAD) is associated with structural abnormalities in brain gray matter. However, few studies have investigated the effects of internet addiction on the microstructural integrity of major neuronal fiber pathways, and almost no studies have assessed the microstructural changes with the duration of internet addiction. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the morphology of the brain in adolescents with IAD (N = 18) using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique, and studied the white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) changes using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method, linking these brain structural measures to the duration of IAD. We provided evidences demonstrating the multiple structural changes of the brain in IAD subjects. VBM results indicated the decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the supplementary motor area (SMA), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the cerebellum and the left rostral ACC (rACC). DTI analysis revealed the enhanced FA value of the left posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and reduced FA value in the white matter within the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Gray matter volumes of the DLPFC, rACC, SMA, and white matter FA changes of the PLIC were significantly correlated with the duration of internet addiction in the adolescents with IAD. Conclusions Our results suggested that long-term internet addiction would result in brain structural alterations, which probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of IAD. PMID:21677775

  17. Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine whether different developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) exist, which factors predict these trajectories, and whether sexual behavior develops differently for adolescents in these trajectories. A combination of latent class growth analysis on SEIM use and latent growth curve analysis on sexual behavior was used on four-wave longitudinal data of 787 eighth through tenth grade Dutch adolescents. Among boys, four SEIM use trajectories were identified, which were labeled Nonuse/Infrequent Use, Strongly Increasing Use, Occasional Use, and Decreasing Use. Among girls, a large Stable Nonuse/Infrequent Use and smaller Strongly Increasing Use and Stable Occasional Use trajectories were distinguished. Higher initial levels and/or stronger increases in SEIM use were predicted by demographic, social contextual, personal, and media use characteristics, including a stronger sexual interest, a higher degree of perceived realism regarding sexualized Internet content, and more permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, initial levels of and, to some extent, developmental changes in sexual behavior varied for boys and girls in the different SEIM use trajectories. Whereas some adolescents showed concurrent low levels, or parallel strong increases in SEIM use and sexual behavior, a subgroup of boys decreased their SEIM use while increasing their sexual behavior. PMID:24670248

  18. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. PMID:24388433

  19. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  20. Characteristics and motives of adolescents talking with strangers on the internet.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M; Schouten, Alexander P

    2006-10-01

    Despite widespread concerns about the dangers of adolescents' online communication with strangers, we know little about (a) which types of adolescents talk with strangers and (b) what motivates them to do so. Drawing on a survey among 412 Dutch adolescents, we found that early adolescents (12-14-year-olds) were most prone to talk with strangers on the internet. If adolescents communicated online more frequently, they less often talked with strangers on the internet. However, if adolescents engaged in long chat sessions, they tended to talk with strangers on the internet more often. In contrast to earlier research, introversion was not related to adolescents' tendency to talk with strangers. The motives of entertainment, meeting new people, and social compensation increased adolescents' online communication with strangers. PMID:17034318

  1. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  2. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  3. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  4. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  5. Effects of Internet use on the adolescent brain: despite popular claims, experimental evidence remains scarce.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the invention of the World Wide Web changed society by allowing unfettered access to the Internet. How this technological revolution has affected brain development continues to be an open question. There is particular concern about how Internet use is affecting the brains of adolescents. This Forum article discusses the possible effects of the Internet, as well as the behaviors and capabilities associated with its use, on the adolescent brain. PMID:25064168

  6. Case Study: The Internet as a Developmental Tool in an Adolescent Boy with Psychosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Melita L.; Becker, Daniel F.; Flaherty, Lois T.; Harper, Gordon; King, Robert A.; Lester, Patricia; Milosavljevic, Nada; Onesti, Silvio J.; Rappaport, Nancy; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The Internet has become an increasingly important part of teen culture; however, there still remains little in the medical/psychiatric literature pertaining to the impact of the Internet on adolescent development. Despite the potential problems associated with communication online, the Internet offers a variety of positive opportunities for teens.…

  7. The Relationship between Internet Addiction and Communication, Educational and Physical Problems of Adolescents in North Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcinar, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    The Internet today, beyond being a source of information and communication, has become an "addiction" for some people. The rate of Internet addiction is rapidly increasing in the world. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of Internet addiction among adolescents in North Cyprus. Eight hundred and fifty-one participants between the ages…

  8. The Relationship of Internet Use to Depression and Social Isolation among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel; Kaplan, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether higher levels of Internet use are associated with depression and social isolation among adolescents. Eighty-nine high school seniors were administered a questionnaire that measured Internet use; relationships with mother, father, and peers; and depression. Low Internet users, as compared with high users, reported better…

  9. Adolescents, the Internet, and the Politics of Gender: A Feminist Case Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Meenakshi Gigi

    2001-01-01

    Presents a feminist case analysis based on field observation of hands-on Internet sessions for low-income, minority, urban middle school students. Examination of the social dynamic within which Internet use occurred indicated that adolescents' social locations in terms of gender, race, and class worked to constrain Internet use to support dominant…

  10. Purposes, Causes and Consequences of Excessive Internet Use among Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Excessive internet use, particularly problematic and negative consequences of internet use, is rapidly increasing among children and adolescents throughout the World and in Turkey. While the internet provides potential advantages for users in terms of the academic support, sharing ideas & feelings, and freedom of expression,…

  11. Identifying Problematic Internet Users: Development and Validation of the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents (IMQ-A)

    PubMed Central

    Bischof-Kastner, Christina; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Internationally, up to 15.1% of intensive Internet use among adolescents is dysfunctional. To provide a basis for early intervention and preventive measures, understanding the motives behind intensive Internet use is important. Objective This study aims to develop a questionnaire, the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents (IMQ-A), as a theory-based measurement for identifying the underlying motives for high-risk Internet use. More precisely, the aim was to confirm the 4-factor structure (ie, social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives) as well as its construct and concurrent validity. Another aim was to identify the motivational differences between high-risk and low-risk Internet users. Methods A sample of 101 German adolescents (female: 52.5%, 53/101; age: mean 15.9, SD 1.3 years) was recruited. High-risk users (n=47) and low-risk users (n=54) were identified based on a screening measure for online addiction behavior in children and adolescents (Online-Suchtverhalten-Skala, OSVK-S). Here, “high-risk” Internet use means use that exceeds the level of intensive Internet use (OSVK-S sum score ≥7). Results The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the IMQ-A’s 4-factor structure. A reliability analysis revealed good internal consistencies of the subscales (.71 up to .86). Moreover, regression analyses confirmed that the enhancement and coping motive groups significantly predicted high-risk Internet consumption and the OSVK-S sum score. A mixed-model ANOVA confirmed that adolescents mainly access the Internet for social motives, followed by enhancement and coping motives, and that high-risk users access the Internet more frequently for coping and enhancement motives than low-risk users. Low-risk users were primarily motivated socially. Conclusions The IMQ-A enables the assessment of motives related to adolescent Internet use and thus the identification of populations at risk. The questionnaire enables the development of preventive

  12. Multi-dimensional correlates of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-01-30

    This study examined the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, Internet activities, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among adolescents in Taiwan diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 287 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and aged between 11 and 18 years participated in this study. Their levels of Internet addiction symptoms, ADHD symptoms, reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, and various Internet activities in which the participants engaged were assessed. The correlates of the severities of Internet addiction symptoms were determined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that low satisfaction with family relationships was the strongest factor predicting severe Internet addiction symptoms, followed by using instant messaging, watching movies, high Behavioral Approach System (BAS) fun seeking, and high Behavioral Inhibition System scores. Meanwhile, low paternal occupational SES, low BAS drive, and online gaming were also significantly associated with severe Internet addiction symptoms. Multiple factors are significantly associated with the severity of Internet addiction symptoms among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the Internet use of adolescents who exhibit the factors identified in this study. PMID:25466226

  13. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and problematic internet use in adolescence: an italian study.

    PubMed

    Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic Internet Use, quality of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive-driven coping strategies. Of the participants, 36.7% are characterized by Problematic Internet Use. This subsample showed poorer interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies compared to the non-problematic subsample. Overall quality of interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies were found to be predictors of the level of Internet Problematic Use. PMID:19592733

  14. Incidence and correlates of Internet usage among adolescents in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Gün, Zübeyit

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Internet usage among adolescents in Northern Cyprus. A total of 686 adolescents (mean age of 14.4 years, range of 12-17 years) were recruited from elementary and high schools. Results showed that the Internet was used primarily by male students. Adolescents used the Internet generally for entertainment and communication. The quality of chat on the Internet was studied, and it was found that adolescents generally introduce themselves differently while chatting. Also, the type of games on the Internet and the correlation between playing these games and aggression was studied in this research. It was found that mostly violent games were played on the Internet and playing these games were related to anti-social aggression and aggression toward the self. Research findings indicated that 1.1% of the students who used the Internet were pathological Internet users. These pathological Internet users visited significantly more chat sites, mp3 sites, pornographic sites, and shopping sites than other users. Also, it was found that students' grade point average (GPA) decreased when pathological Internet usage increased. PMID:17474835

  15. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Portnuff, Cory Df

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the "80-90 rule" and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674

  16. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Portnuff, Cory DF

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the “80–90 rule” and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674

  17. Psychometric Validation of the Chinese Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) with Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko

    2015-12-01

    The recent development of internet infrastructure has fuelled a popular concern that young Asian internet users are experiencing Internet addiction due to excessive Internet use. In order to understand the phenomenon, psychometric validation of a 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), with 417 Chinese adolescents has been performed. Compared to other instruments for use with Chinese populations, e.g. the 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the CIUS is relatively concise, and easy to use for measuring and diagnosing Internet addiction. The present psychometric validation has found good factorial stability with a one-factor solution for the CIUS. The internal consistency and model fit indices were very good, and even better than any previous CIUS validations. The Chinese CIUS is a valid and reliable self-reporting instrument for examining compulsive Internet use among Chinese adolescents. Other findings included: male adolescents tend to experience more compulsive Internet use than their female counterparts, and CIUS scores were positively correlated with the daily Internet use time and negatively correlated with the academic performance of the participants. No significant relationships between the CIUS, ICT accessibility, family economic condition, parental occupation or religion were found. PMID:25736798

  18. Navigating the internet safely: recommendations for residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pridgen, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period during human development characterized by a variety of biological, psychological, and social changes. Navigating these changes can be a stressful experience for both adolescents and their families. To complicate matters further, the Internet has altered the landscape of human interaction in a way that may accentuate deficits in the capacity for self-sustaining, reciprocal peer relationships. Adolescents suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders may be especially prone to this influence, as evidenced by our observation of the growing clinical trend of adolescents admitted to inpatient and residential psychiatric units who present with a history of risky cyber-behaviors. Within these settings, education for adolescents and their families around appropriate use of the Internet, as well as social training for the online management of the impulsivity and poor judgment that is so often characteristic of adolescence, is vital. Milieu models employed in the treatment of emotionally troubled adolescents must adapt so as to incorporate the identification of problematic attachment behaviors not only in real-time relationships, but also as those behaviors inevitably occur in more troubling and potentially destructive ways over the Internet. The article addresses this need by offering recommendations for the creation of a skills-based, Internet-focused curriculum for inpatient and residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents. Evaluating the association between online communication habits and the evolution of disturbances in attachment systems is an important future direction for research aimed at safeguarding the emotional and physical well-being of all adolescents. PMID:20235778

  19. The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yun Sook

    2010-01-01

    We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet addiction and lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior were analyzed using a chi-square test. Irregular bedtimes and the use of alcohol and tobacco were higher in high-risk Internet users than no risk Internet users. Moreover, in high-risk Internet users, irregular dietary behavior due to the loss of appetite, a high frequency of skipping meals, and snacking might cause imbalances in nutritional intake. Diet quality in high-risk Internet users was also worse than in potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users. We demonstrated in this study that high-risk Internet users have inappropriate dietary behavior and poor diet quality, which could result in stunted growth and development. Therefore, nutrition education targeting high-risk Internet users should be conducted to ensure proper growth and development. PMID:20198209

  20. Duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariangels; Skärstrand, Eva; Becoña, Elisardo; Talic, Sanela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant contributions from previous studies about the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in Europe, important questions remain regarding adverse consequences of PIU. This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences among adolescents. Key Words: Internet, adolescents, psychosocial problems. PMID:25314040

  1. Compromised Prefrontal Cognitive Control Over Emotional Interference in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. PMID:26430731

  2. Influences of parental problem drinking on internet addiction among early adolescents: a multiple-mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies. PMID:24622496

  3. Developmental Considerations for Determining Appropriate Internet Use Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A request from the National Academies to prepare a presentation for a Workshop on Non-Technical Strategies to Protect Youth from Inappropriate Material on the Internet occurred before much was known about children, youth, and the Internet. The author's strategy was to investigate websites that cater to children and adolescents. The developmental…

  4. Associations between Online Friendship and Internet Addiction among Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…

  5. Limited Knowledge and Limited Resources: Children's and Adolescents' Understanding of the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is a highly complex and newly emerged artifact. Building upon and going beyond two previous studies [Yan, Z. (2005). Age differences in children's understanding of complexity of the Internet. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 385-396.; Yan, Z. (2006). What influences children's and adolescents' understanding of the…

  6. Where Is It? How Deaf Adolescents Complete Fact-Based Internet Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…

  7. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  8. "Who Me? A Cyberteen": Implications of Internet Usage on Realities and Identities of Malaysian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawanteh, Latiffah; Rahim, Samsudin A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the Internet usage pattern of Malaysian adolescents based on a survey of 1,404 adolescents between the ages of 13-16 and focus group discussions. Finds the daily realities of media savvy Malaysian youths are an integration of on-line and off-line relationships, events, information, memberships, chats and online shopping. (RS)

  9. Adolescents' Sexual Self-Disclosure on the Internet: Deindividuation and Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of anonymity on adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the Internet and the impact of topic intimacy on their reply intent for sexual disclosure by conducting a survey with 1,347 adolescents. It was found that male participants were more likely than females to engage in sexual self-disclosure and to correspondingly…

  10. Adolescents Online: The Importance of Internet Activity Choices to Salient Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Julie J.; Craig, Wendy M.; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether using the Internet for different activities affects the quality of close adolescent relationships (i.e., best friendships and romantic relationships). In a one-year longitudinal study of 884 adolescents (Mean age = 15, 46% male), we examined whether visiting chat rooms, using ICQ, using the…

  11. [Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence].

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry. PMID:27595809

  12. Psychometric Validation of Internet Addiction Test with Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed great developments in Internet infrastructure, which have led to increased Internet usage among people of various age groups. However, at the same time, there have been some negative implications associated with increased Internet usage for some individuals. "Internet addiction" (IA) is one such negative…

  13. Developing an Internet-Based Support System for Adolescents with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kurki, Marjo; Hätönen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Selander, Maarit; Saarijärvi, Simo; Anttila, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is the most common mental health problem among adolescents. Despite policy guidance and governmental support to develop usable mental health services, there is still a lack of easily accessible and modern interventions available for adolescents in Finland’s majority official language. Objective Our objective was to develop a user-friendly and feasible Internet-based support system for adolescents with depression. Methods The Internet-based support system for adolescents with depression was developed. To create this new intervention, some examples of existing interventions were studied, the theoretical basis for the intervention was described, and the health needs of adolescents identified. As an outcome of the process, the results were combined and the content and delivery of a new intervention will be described here. Results Six individual weekly Internet-based support sessions were delivered by a tutor over a 6-week period of time and developed to form an intervention called Depis.Net. This was an Internet-based support system for adolescents with depression tailored to improve self-management skills and increase awareness of their own well-being and mental health. The intervention was accessible via an electronic platform, which was secured and password protected for users. The intervention on the Depis.Net website consisted of elements identifying adolescents’ needs, and offering self-monitoring, access to health information and self-reflective written exercises. An educated nurse tutor gave written feedback to each adolescent via the electronic platform. Conclusions An Internet-based support system for adolescents with depression was developed using a systematic approach with four steps. This was done to ensure that the intervention had a sound theoretical background and at the same time caters flexibly for the problems that adolescents commonly face in their daily lives. Its potential for adolescents visiting outpatient clinics will

  14. Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. Methods In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young’s Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Results Adjusting for adolescents’ ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of “married-but-separated” and family structure of “left-behind adolescents” were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. Conclusions The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA. PMID:24731648

  15. The problematic internet entertainment use scale for adolescents: prevalence of problem internet use in Spanish high school students.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa

    2013-02-01

    Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent. PMID:23253204

  16. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out. PMID:21899895

  17. Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghee; Ryu, Eunjung; Chon, Mi-Young; Yeun, Eun-Ja; Choi, So-Young; Seo, Jeong-Seok; Nam, Bum-Woo

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of Internet addiction to depression and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The participants were 1573 high-school students living in a city who completed the self-reported measures of the Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Major Depression Disorder-Simple Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior. A correlational survey design was employed. Among the samples, 1.6% was diagnosed as Internet addicts, while 38.0% was classified as possible Internet addicts. The prevalence of Internet addiction did not vary with gender. The levels of depression and suicide ideation were highest in the Internet-addicts group. Future studies should investigate the direct relationship between psychological health problems and Internet dependency. PMID:16427966

  18. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  19. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  20. The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. Results The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. Conclusion This study suggests that there are differences in

  1. Internet-based adherence interventions for treatment of chronic disorders in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Alexandria M; Farhangian, Michael E; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment adherence is a ubiquitous challenge in medicine, particularly in the adolescent population with chronic disorders. Web-based adherence interventions may be particularly useful in adolescents, due to their familiarity with and frequent use of the Internet. Objective To review web-based interventions used to improve adherence to medication in adolescent patients with chronic disorders. Methods A PubMed search was performed for full-text, English, clinical trials in adolescents using keywords “adherence” or “compliance”, “Internet” or “web”, and “treatment” from inception until November 2014. Articles were selected if they involved using the Internet to provide support to adolescents to help improve their adherence to treatment, excluding those focused on solely providing medical services through the Internet and articles focusing on preventative care, rather than treatment of an illness. Results Fourteen studies were found concentrating on chronic adolescent disorders. Interventions included online surveys, physician chat lines, monitoring programs, and interactive programs. All interventions experienced either greater improvement in adherence or another disease control measure or no statistically significant difference compared with the control group (in-clinic visits). Limitations Few clinical trials studying web-based interventions to improve adherence in adolescents were found. Due to not having one standard outcome measured in all of the studies, it was also difficult comparing the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Web-based interventions play a role in improving adherence in adolescents with chronic disorders by being more time saving and cost effective compared with in-clinic visits. Further research focusing on adherence interventions using the Internet is necessary to determine the ideal ways of utilizing the Internet to improve adherence in adolescents with chronic disorders. PMID:26113787

  2. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet

  3. Aberrant corticostriatal functional circuits in adolescents with Internet addiction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fuchun; Zhou, Yan; Du, Yasong; Zhao, Zhimin; Qin, Lindi; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal structure and function in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been revealed in Internet addiction disorder (IAD). However, little is known about alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits in IAD. The aim of this study was to investigate the integrity of corticostriatal functional circuits and their relations to neuropsychological measures in IAD by resting-state functional connectivity (FC). Fourteen IAD adolescents and 15 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. Using six predefined bilateral striatal regions-of-interest, voxel-wise correlation maps were computed and compared between groups. Relationships between alterations of corticostriatal connectivity and clinical measurements were examined in the IAD group. Compared to controls, IAD subjects exhibited reduced connectivity between the inferior ventral striatum and bilateral caudate head, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and posterior cingulate cortex, and between the superior ventral striatum and bilateral dorsal/rostral ACC, ventral anterior thalamus, and putamen/pallidum/insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and between the dorsal caudate and dorsal/rostral ACC, thalamus, and IFG, and between the left ventral rostral putamen and right IFG. IAD subjects also showed increased connectivity between the left dorsal caudal putamen and bilateral caudal cigulate motor area. Moreover, altered cotricostriatal functional circuits were significantly correlated with neuropsychological measures. This study directly provides evidence that IAD is associated with alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits involved in the affective and motivation processing, and cognitive control. These findings emphasize that functional connections in the corticostriatal circuits are modulated by affective/motivational/cognitive states and further suggest that IAD may have abnormalities of such modulation in this network. PMID:26136677

  4. Relationship between peripheral blood dopamine level and internet addiction disorder in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Luo, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the association between peripheral blood dopamine level and internet addiction disorder (IAD) in adolescents, this could be used to explain the neurobiological mechanism of Internet addiction disorder. Methods: 33 adolescents with IAD diagnosed by Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and 33 healthy controls matched by gender and age were investigated in the present study. Peripheral blood dopamine levels of the all subjects were determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The difference of peripheral blood dopamine level between adolescents with IAD and their controls had reached significant level (t = 2.722, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the plasma dopamine level was significantly correlated with the Internet Addiction Test score (r = 0.457, P < 0.001). The result of rank correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the plasma dopamine level and the weekly online time (r = 0.380, P < 0.01) and there was no significant correlation between the duration of Internet use and the plasma dopamine level (r = 0.222, P > 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that DA level and weekly online time were significant variables which contribute to internet addiction. Conclusions: The peripheral blood dopamine level is associated with adolescents’ internet addiction. The present study provided new evidence in favor of the hypothesis that dopamine played an important role in IAD. PMID:26309680

  5. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  6. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social–emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  7. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  8. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  9. Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence. PMID:26854132

  10. A study on the prevalence of internet addiction and its association with psychopathology in Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Deepak; Subramanyam, Alka; Kamath, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been an explosive growth of internet use not only in India but also worldwide in the last decade. There is a growing concern about whether this is excessive and, if so, whether it amounts to an addiction. Aim: To study the prevalence of internet addiction and associated existing psychopathology in adolescent age group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study sample comprising of 987 students of various faculties across the city of Mumbai was conducted after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval and permission from the concerned colleges. Students were assessed with a specially constructed semi-structured proforma and The Internet Addiction Test (IAT; Young, 1998) which was self-administered by the students after giving them brief instructions. Dukes Health Profile was used to study physical and psychosocial quality of life of students. Subjects were classified into moderate users, possible addicts, and addicts for comparison. Results: Of the 987 adolescents who took part in the study, 681 (68.9%) were female and 306 (31.1%) were males. The mean age of adolescents was 16.82 years. Of the total, about 74.5% were moderate (average) users. Using Young's original criteria, 0.7% were found to be addicts. Those with excessive use internet had high scores on anxiety, depression, and anxiety depression. Conclusions: In the emerging era of internet use, we must learn to differentiate excessive internet use from addiction and be vigilant about psychopathology. PMID:23825847

  11. Assessing the overuse of medicines.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The use of medicines has increased markedly in many countries over recent years, providing clear evidence of the increasing 'pharmacaeuticalisation' of society. This paper contributes to the sociological analysis of pharmaceuticalisation by starting to explore how we can begin to make judgements as to when and to what extent some medicines are being overused--an important aspect that, rather surprisingly, has not so far been the focus of attention those analysing the process. It considers the World Health Organisation's criteria for the 'rational' use of medicines, pointing to some of the issues they raise. It then develops a typology of over and underuse derived from these criteria. This provides a framework for the discussion of assessing overuse that focuses in particular on the widespread and increasing use of medicines that are not very effective for the conditions for which they are prescribed, and their use where the issue of clinical need is in doubt. Some of the factors that encourage overuse are also considered. PMID:25464876

  12. Mental health, personality, and parental rearing styles of adolescents with Internet addiction disorder.

    PubMed

    Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency. PMID:20712498

  13. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Quality of Internet-Administered Adolescent Health Promotion in a Preventive-Care Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangunkusumo, R. T.; Brug, J.; Duisterhout, J. S.; de Koning, H. J.; Raat, H.

    2007-01-01

    An Internet tool for monitoring, personalized feedback and referral was developed to support routine adolescent preventive care and was compared with usual practice using paper and pencil (P&P). A total of 1071 students (average age 15 years) from seven secondary schools were randomly assigned to the Internet or P&P group. The Internet group…

  14. Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression. PMID:21516283

  15. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  16. Frequency and Type of Use of a Home-Based, Internet Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Rock, Emily; Meis, Tracy M.; Decker, Paul A.; Colligan, Robert C.; Pingree, Suzanne; Dornelas, Ellen A.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Boberg, Eric W.; Gustafson, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The Internet offers a potential medium for delivering smoking cessation treatment to adolescents. However, few Internet-based cessation programs for adolescents have been evaluated. We describe adolescent use of a home-based Internet intervention to stop smoking (Stomp Out Smokes; SOS) and explore baseline characteristics associated with SOS use. Methods Participants were 70 adolescent smokers aged 12–18 years (50% female, 90% Caucasian) randomized to receive the SOS intervention for 24 weeks as part of a larger clinical trial. SOS comprised 40 components of which 8 were primarily interactive (e.g., discussion support group, ask an expert, quit plan) and 32 were primarily informational (e.g., managing withdrawal, medications to stop smoking). SOS use data were captured electronically, including total logins to the site, and type of SOS components used defined by page hits on the interactive and information components. Results A total of 7,708 SOS Web site pages (6825 interactive and 883 informational) were accessed over the 24 weeks. The highest proportion of page hits was for the discussion support group (35%) and quit plan (30%). Interactive pages were significantly more likely to be used than informational pages (median 65 vs. 6, p<0.001). Males accessed fewer interactive pages compared to females (p=0.04). No other baseline characteristics were univariately associated with total logins or use of informational or interactive pages. Conclusions Adolescent smokers most often utilized a discussion support group and other interactive Internet based cessation components. Future studies designed to increase adolescent use, and efficacy of, Internet based cessation programs are warranted. PMID:17950163

  17. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns. PMID:27138817

  18. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  19. Internet Lives: Social Context and Moral Domain in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents nowadays socialize, network, and sort out their friendships and relationships online. As such, it is assumed that adolescents' experiences in the online world will influence their experiences in the face-to-face world and will play an important role in their development of social and moral knowledge. In this article, the author…

  20. Internet use and academic achievement: gender differences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2009-01-01

    As a new medium of learning readily connected with the outside world, the Internet has brought unprecedented opportunities to students on the one hand, while becoming a major concern for parents on the other. For parents and educators alike, it is thus critical to stipulate whether and how Internet use is linked to academic achievement. Using panel survey data from middle-school students in northern Taiwan (N = 1,409), this study examines how patterns of Internet use in the 8th grade affect students' performance on their high school entrance exam a year later. The findings confirm that online searching for information helps boost exam scores, while using the Internet for socializing and gaming, as well as going to Internet Cafés, contributes to poorer exam performance. Male and female students differ not only in their patterns of Internet use, but in how these patterns affect their academic performance. While information searching helps both boys and girls, online socializing makes girls particularly vulnerable, and online gaming and Internet Cafés hurt only boys' academic achievement. PMID:20432601

  1. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  2. Adolescents' Internet Search Strategies: Drawing upon Familiar Cognitive Paradigms when Accessing Electronic Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, Kathleen; Eagleton, Maya B.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate and describe the Internet search strategies of adolescent learners. Participants were 161 middle and high school students. Collected data included students' descriptions of the search process, observations of student searching behaviors, and audit trail lists of search strings used by students. The students…

  3. Responding to Messages of Adolescents on the Internet: Theoretical, Practical, and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtarkshall, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the policy and guidelines, which evolved over the last four years, for answering questions and giving counsel on an Internet site dedicated to sexuality and intimate relations of adolescents. The theoretical framework employed is that of non-directive counseling. Some ethical, legal, and practical issues are discussed. The…

  4. Adolescent Learning and the Internet: Implications for School Leadership and Student Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert; Wing, Charlotte; Beckert, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Students were electronically polled about the influence of the Internet in their education and ways teachers could use this resource to motivate them and increase their learning. Responses from the 956 adolescents showed that the school quest to increase student engagement could more often be met through online assignments that facilitate…

  5. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  6. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  7. Adolescents' Constructively Responsive Reading Strategy Use in a Critical Internet Reading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Byeong-Young

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine types and patterns of reading strategies that proficient adolescent readers used while reading on the Internet. Informed by research related to reading comprehension, intertextuality, and new literacies, I drew upon the model of "Constructively Responsive Reading" that had evolved from print reading to…

  8. Adolescent Learning and the Internet: Implications for School Leadership and Student Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert; Wing, Charlotte; Beckert, Troy

    2010-01-01

    Many teenagers are more skilled in using tools of technology for learning than the adults who guide their education. The Center for a Digital Future at the University of Southern California administers annual surveys to track the impact of online technology. Jeffrey Cole, center director, reports that adolescents consider the Internet to be their…

  9. Qualitative Assessment of Adolescents Views about Improving Exposure to Internet-Delivered Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain first insight into factors which might be associated with exposure to internet-delivered interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of Dutch adolescents (n = 54), aged 12-17 years. Several aspects of exposure: a first visit;…

  10. Internet Use and Video Gaming Predict Problem Behavior in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…

  11. Use of the internet as a source of health information by Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet is a fundamental part of the daily life of adolescents, they consider it as a safe and confidential source of information on health matters. The aims is to describe the experience of Spanish adolescents searching for health information on the Internet. Methods A cross-sectional study of 811 school-age adolescents in Granada was carried out. An adapted and piloted questionnaire was used which was controlled by trained personnel. Sociodemographic and health variables were included together with those concerning the conditions governing access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Results 811 adolescents were surveyed (99.38% response rate), mean age was 17 years old. Of these, 88% used the Internet; 57.5% used it on a daily or weekly basis and 38.7% used it occasionally. Nearly half the sample group (55.7%) stated that they used the Internet to search for health-related information. The main problems reported in the search for e-health were the ignorance of good web pages (54.8%) and the lack of confidence or search skills (23.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, it seems plausible to claim that websites designed and managed by health services should have a predominant position among interventions specifically addressed to young people. PMID:20113486

  12. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095

  13. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

    PubMed

    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes. PMID:25486038

  14. Adolescents and the internet: what mental health clinicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Rafla, Malak; Carson, Nicholas J; DeJong, Sandra M

    2014-09-01

    The Internet's permeation into daily life has profoundly changed the practice of psychiatry with adolescents, who mobilize online social media and related technologies in their efforts to develop identity and "hang out" with peers. Technology offers both challenges and opportunities to mental health professionals working with teens. Practitioners will need a new skill-set, including keeping abreast of technological developments; professionally incorporating technology into clinical assessment and practice; identifying the negative impacts of technology on teens' physical and mental health and the particular vulnerabilities of at-risk patients in a digital world; and guiding patients and parents about interventions. Particular patient factors related to race/ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation, mental health and trauma history, family culture, parenting style, and personality traits will need to be considered. This article provides an overview of the literature on adolescents and the Internet focusing on recent research on Internet and digital technologies used for social communication among youth. PMID:25070673

  15. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. PMID:20303580

  16. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  17. Are Adolescents with Internet Addiction Prone to Aggressive Behavior? The Mediating Effect of Clinical Comorbidities on the Predictability of Aggression in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners–Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  18. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  19. Socioeconomic and Geographic Inequalities of Internet Addiction in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the social economic and geographic influences on Internet addiction in Korean youth using the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Middle and high school students (n=73,238) were randomly selected from the respondents to a web-based survey using two-stage stratified complex sampling. A Geographical Information System was used to generate a Korean map of the level of Internet addiction for each province and complex sampling lower case logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between social economic status (SES) and Internet addiction. Gyeonggi-do and Gyeongsang-namdo provinces have a higher total scores of Internet addiction. There were associations between Internet addiction and low SES (OR=1.504, 95% CI 1.156-1.956, p<0.01). There may need to be at multilevel approach which recognizes the different levels of need in provinces as well as trying to understand why the differences arise at an individual level. PMID:26508969

  20. Socioeconomic and Geographic Inequalities of Internet Addiction in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Soon; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the social economic and geographic influences on Internet addiction in Korean youth using the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Middle and high school students (n=73,238) were randomly selected from the respondents to a web-based survey using two-stage stratified complex sampling. A Geographical Information System was used to generate a Korean map of the level of Internet addiction for each province and complex sampling lower case logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between social economic status (SES) and Internet addiction. Gyeonggi-do and Gyeongsang-namdo provinces have a higher total scores of Internet addiction. There were associations between Internet addiction and low SES (OR=1.504, 95% CI 1.156-1.956, p<0.01). There may need to be at multilevel approach which recognizes the different levels of need in provinces as well as trying to understand why the differences arise at an individual level. PMID:26508969

  1. Adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the internet: deindividuation and impression management.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of anonymity on adolescents' sexual self-disclosure on the Internet and the impact of topic intimacy on their reply intent for sexual disclosure by conducting a survey with 1,347 adolescents. It was found that male participants were more likely than females to engage in sexual self-disclosure and to correspondingly respond to cyber partners' sexual disclosure. Results showed that the greater the anonymity, the greater the intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited greater reply intent when cyber partners self-disclosed sexual topics with greater intimacy, and the effect of topic intimacy was more pronounced in male participants. The findings suggest that male adolescents tend to adopt a reciprocal strategy in responding to partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet, whereas females tend to employ a conservative strategy. It was concluded that male and female adolescents revealed differential self-presentation and impression management for their sexual self-disclosing and responding on the Internet. PMID:17225667

  2. Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Adolescents' Sexual Uncertainty: The Role of Disposition-Content Congruency.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation. PMID:26373650

  3. Altered Default Network Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. Results There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (p<0.0001) and higher CIAS (p<0.0001) and BIS-11 (p = 0.01) scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with

  4. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792

  5. Daily and Compulsive Internet Use and Well-Being in Adolescence: A Diathesis-Stress Model Based on Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of…

  6. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Addiction Test Among Hong Kong, Japanese, and Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations. PMID:26468915

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Internet Experiences and Computer-Using Time: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. Results The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Conclusion Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems. PMID:24605120

  8. Internet poses multiple risks to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Maria D; Giardino, Angelo P

    2005-05-01

    Computers and Internet usage, whether by children at home or at public places such as schools and libraries, are here to stay. Tremendous benefits in terms of educational opportunities, communication, and recreation can be expected. With all the benefits that such information technology provides, however, there is an element of risk that should not inhibit its use but must be attended to and managed. The methods child sexual offenders use to pursue their criminal interests will continue to evolve as technology evolves. The first and most important line of defense calls for parents and other caregivers to remain directly responsible for the safety of the children in their care. Parents, teachers, healthcare providers, and other caregivers need to learn continually about the Internet and remain aware of how best to protect children who use the computer and the Internet. Law enforcement agencies must also continue to prepare for advances in computer technology, to better anticipate the behavior of child sexual offenders, and to investigate and prosecute offenders. All law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel who have contact with children on a regular basis must continue to educate children and their parents or guardians about the dangers posed by the Internet. After a child is victimized, law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel also must remain cognizant that the victim's computer may contain evidence that may help identify and prosecute the offender. In short, all those charged with the protection of children and the prosecution of child sexual offenders must continue to adapt to our ever-evolving computer technology. PMID:15948351

  9. [Internet-based approaches in prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults ].

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists. PMID:24877779

  10. Adolescents Searching for Health Information on the Internet: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Holly A; Resnick, Paul J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents' access to health information on the Internet is partly a function of their ability to search for and find answers to their health-related questions. Adolescents may have unique health and computer literacy needs. Although many surveys, interviews, and focus groups have been utilized to understand the information-seeking and information-retrieval behavior of adolescents looking for health information online, we were unable to locate observations of individual adolescents that have been conducted in this context. Objective This study was designed to understand how adolescents search for health information using the Internet and what implications this may have on access to health information. Methods A convenience sample of 12 students (age 12-17 years) from 1 middle school and 2 high schools in southeast Michigan were provided with 6 health-related questions and asked to look for answers using the Internet. Researchers recorded 68 specific searches using software that captured screen images as well as synchronized audio recordings. Recordings were reviewed later and specific search techniques and strategies were coded. A qualitative review of the verbal communication was also performed. Results Out of 68 observed searches, 47 (69%) were successful in that the adolescent found a correct and useful answer to the health question. The majority of sites that students attempted to access were retrieved directly from search engine results (77%) or a search engine's recommended links (10%); only a small percentage were directly accessed (5%) or linked from another site (7%). The majority (83%) of followed links from search engine results came from the first 9 results. Incorrect spelling (30 of 132 search terms), number of pages visited within a site (ranging from 1-15), and overall search strategy (eg, using a search engine versus directly accessing a site), were each important determinants of success. Qualitative analysis revealed that participants

  11. Internet Treatment Delivery of Parent-Adolescent Conflict Training for Families with an ADHD Teen: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Erika M.; Frankel, Fred; Marina, Michael; Duan, Naihua; Smalley, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the feasibility of Internet delivery of a Parent-Adolescent Conflict Training (PACT) program to families with an ADHD teen. The goals of the project are to ascertain the willingness of families to participate in this web-based study, identify relevant issues related to confidentiality of Internet data collection, and…

  12. Measurement and Analysis of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Generalized Problematic Internet Use among Mexican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I.; Calvete, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct…

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  15. Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace.

    PubMed

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W

    2008-02-01

    Many youth have recently embraced online social networking sites such as MySpace (myspace.com) to meet their social and relational needs. While manifold benefits stem from participating in such web-based environments, the popular media has been quick to demonize MySpace even though an exponentially small proportion of its users have been victimized due to irresponsible or naive usage of the technology it affords. Major concerns revolve around the possibility of sexual predators and pedophiles finding and then assaulting adolescents who carelessly or unwittingly reveal identifiable information on their personal profile pages. The current study sought to empirically ascertain the type of information youth are publicly posting through an extensive content analysis of randomly sampled MySpace profile pages. Among other findings, 8.8% revealed their full name, 57% included a picture, 27.8% listed their school, and 0.3% provided their telephone number. When considered in its proper context, these results indicate that the problem of personal information disclosure on MySpace may not be as widespread as many assume, and that the overwhelming majority of adolescents are responsibly using the web site. Implications for Internet safety among adolescents and future research regarding adolescent Internet use are discussed. PMID:17604833

  16. A preliminary investigation on the relationship between virtues and pathological internet use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males = 302, females = 372; junior high school = 296, senior high school = 378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD = 1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD = 2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale = 2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale = 2.25). Relationship (β = -.24) and conscientiousness (β = -.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (β = .25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The

  17. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  18. Overuse Injury: Are Students at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Anne

    1986-01-01

    Use of computer keyboards requires repetitive movements that may cause "overuse injuries" among students. Education on computer literacy must include warning of these negative side effects and must instill safe operating habits among students. (10 references) (CJH)

  19. Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2005-10-01

    Estimates suggest that up to 90% or more youth between 12 and 18 years have access to the Internet. Concern has been raised that this increased accessibility may lead to a rise in pornography seeking among children and adolescents, with potentially serious ramifications for child and adolescent sexual development. Using data from the Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional telephone survey of 1501 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years), characteristics associated with self-reported pornography seeking behavior, both on the Internet and using traditional methods (e.g., magazines), are identified. Seekers of pornography, both online and offline, are significantly more likely to be male, with only 5% of self-identified seekers being female. The vast majority (87%) of youth who report looking for sexual images online are 14 years of age or older, when it is developmentally appropriate to be sexually curious. Children under the age of 14 who have intentionally looked at pornography are more likely to report traditional exposures, such as magazines or movies. Concerns about a large group of young children exposing themselves to pornography on the Internet may be overstated. Those who report intentional exposure to pornography, irrespective of source, are significantly more likely to cross-sectionally report delinquent behavior and substance use in the previous year. Further, online seekers versus offline seekers are more likely to report clinical features associated with depression and lower levels of emotional bonding with their caregiver. Results of the current investigation raise important questions for further inquiry. Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences. PMID:16232040

  20. [Depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour in adolescents engaging in risky and pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Klug, Katja; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimi; Wasserman, Danuta; Vonderlin, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To investigate associations between risky and pathologic internet use with depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour among a representative sample of German adolescents. A total of 1,435 students (48% boys, 52% girls) from the area of Heidelberg/Germany were recruited during the SEYLE study, a European school-based intervention study and completed an assessment of different questionnaires, including the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for the assessment of risky and pathological internet use, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, and the Paykel Suicide Scale. 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8% pathological internet use. The risky and the pathological internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour compared to students with regular internet use. Remarkably, there were no significant differences of levels of depression and suicidal behaviour between risky and pathological users. These results suggest that not only pathologic internet use but also risky internet use is associated with symptoms of depression, self-harm and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, more attention should be paid to adolescents with risky internet use for the early recognition of depression, self-harm and suicidality in adolescence. PMID:22400376

  1. Adolescents' Views about an Internet Platform for Adolescents with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…

  2. Overuse injuries in youth basketball and floorball

    PubMed Central

    Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Kujala, Urho M; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of team sports is growing among young people. High training volume and intensity may predispose young athletes to overuse injuries. Research to date has tended to focus on acute injuries rather than overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence, nature, and severity of overuse injuries in youth basketball and floorball, with the hypothesis that overuse injuries are frequent in youth team sports. Methods The study comprised a total of 401 Finnish team sports athletes (207 basketball and 194 floorball players). The data were collected using a detailed questionnaire. The participants (mean age 15.8±1.9 years) responded to the questionnaire covering information on overuse injuries during the previous 12 months. Results A total of 190 overuse injuries was reported (97 in basketball and 93 in floorball). In both sports, most of the injuries involved the lower extremities (66% and 55% of all injuries in basketball and floorball, respectively). In basketball, the most commonly injured site was the knee (44 cases, 45%). In floorball, the most commonly injured sites were the lower back/pelvis (36 cases, 39%) and knee (32 cases, 34%). Overuse injuries caused an average time loss from full participation of 26±50 (median 7) days in basketball and 16±37 (median 5) days in floorball. Conclusion Overuse injuries are a common problem in youth team sports, and often cause long-term absence from full participation. The findings suggest that injury reduction and training load monitoring strategies are needed in the field. More research using explicit prospective data collection is needed to better understand the problem. PMID:26045679

  3. PIUS-a: Problematic Internet Use Scale in adolescents. Development and psychometric validation.

    PubMed

    Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Isorna Folgar, Manuel; Araujo Gallego, Manuel; Varela Mallou, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' use of the Internet is becoming a matter of great concern for different sectors of society. The psychological and behavioural consequences of problematic Internet use in young people demands quick and effective answers. One of the major challenges in this context is the development of empirically validated tools, which would facilitate early detection and screening for potential risk cases. This is precisely the aim of this paper. Based on a sample of 1,709 secondary-school students from Galicia (a region in northern Spain) aged 11 to 17 (M = 13.74, SD = 1.43), the analysis carried out permitted us to present a brief and simple tool (with just 11 items). It has substantial theoretical support, since both the existing background information and the views of experts from the academic and professional spheres were taken into account in the course of its development. The scale is adapted to the Spanish cultural context and to the language of young people. It has satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability of the scores (α = .82), evidence of its internal structure (tested via a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis), sensitivity (81%), and specificity (82.6%). Moreover, its use enables the gradation of adolescents on a risk or problematic Internet use continuum. In our view, all of this lends it enormous applied potential in both the educational and clinical contexts. PMID:25879477

  4. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. PMID:22311146

  5. Reduction of overweight and eating disorder symptoms via the Internet in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Angela Celio; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Huang, Christina; Winzelberg, Andrew J.; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Overweight in adolescence is a significant problem which is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disorder (ED) behaviors. Cost-effective methods for early intervention of obesity and prevention of ED are important due to the refractory nature of both. This multisite RCT evaluated an Internet-delivered program targeting weight loss and ED attitudes/behaviors in adolescents. Methods Eighty overweight 12-17-year olds completed Student Bodies 2 (SB2), a 16-week cognitive-behavioral program, or usual care (UC). Results BMI z-scores were reduced in the SB2 group compared to the UC group from baseline (BL) to post-intervention (p=.027; ηp2=.08). The SB2 group maintained this reduction in BMI-z at 4-month follow-up, but significant differences were not observed due to improvement in the UC group. The SB2 group evidenced greater increases in dietary restraint at post (p=.016) and less improvement on shape concerns at follow-up (p=.044), however, these differences were not clinically significant. No other statistically significant differences were noted between groups on ED attitudes/behaviors. SB2 participants reported using healthy eating- and physical activity-related skills more frequently than UC participants at post (p=.001) and follow-up (p=.012). Conclusions Findings suggest that an Internet-delivered intervention yielded a modest reduction in weight status that continued four months following treatment and that ED attitudes/behaviors were not significantly improved. Group differences on weight loss were not sustained at 4-month follow-up due to parallel improvements in the groups. Future studies are needed to improve program adherence and to further explore the efficacy of Internet-delivery of weight control programs for adolescents. PMID:18639791

  6. Opportunities on the Internet for child and adolescent psychopharmacologists: net access and mailing lists.

    PubMed

    Giedd, J N; Allen, A J; Behr, R

    1996-01-01

    The Internet, a system linking computers around the world, provides clinical and research psychopharmacologists with a convenient and efficient way to exchange information and offers a growing number of services to facilitate patient care. These opportunities are not theoretical, not in the future, and not for a select few. Many patients are already benefitting from practitioners who have sought guidance for their clinical work on the Internet. This article describes, for the novice user, how to begin the Internet journey. It also discusses psychopharmacology-related mailing lists, including a site that specializes in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Subsequent articles will (1) show how to use Medlines to conduct literature searches and retrieve abstracts and articles from the computer screen, (2) describe ways to enter and traverse the World Wide Web (the "multimedia" portion of Internet), and (3) survey the use of "Web browsers" to find specialized psychopharmacology resources and databases, electronic journals, pertinent bulletin boards, and support services for patients and families-all with an emphasis on direct benefits to the practicing psychopharmacologist. PMID:9231307

  7. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers. PMID:26045395

  8. The alteration of gray matter volume and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongmei; Jin, Chenwang; Yuan, Kai; Shakir, Tahir Mehmood; Mao, Cuiping; Niu, Xuan; Niu, Chen; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been investigated by many behavioral and neuroimaging studies, for it has became one of the main behavior disorders among adolescents. However, few studies focused on the relationship between alteration of gray matter volume (GMV) and cognitive control feature in IGD adolescents. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with IAD and twenty-eight healthy age and gender matched controls participated in the study. Brain morphology of adolescents with IGD and healthy controls was investigated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique. Cognitive control performances were measured by Stroop task, and correlation analysis was performed between brain structural change and behavioral performance in IGD group. Results: The results showed that GMV of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA), superior parietal cortex, left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left insula, and bilateral cerebellum decreased in the IGD participants compared with healthy controls. Moreover, GMV of the ACC was negatively correlated with the incongruent response errors of Stroop task in IGD group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the alteration of GMV is associated with the performance change of cognitive control in adolescents with IGD, which indicating substantial brain image effects induced by IGD. PMID:25852507

  9. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465

  10. The Internet as a source of reproductive health information among adolescent girls in an urban city in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwagwu, Williams E

    2007-01-01

    Background There exists some research evidence regarding how adolescents utilize the Internet for health information seeking purposes. The purpose of this study is to understand how in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria use online resources to meet their reproductive health information needs. The result could be considered very crucial in assessing the potential role of the Internet in providing health information to adolescent girls in a typical Nigerian urban city. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from 1011 adolescent girls in selected secondary schools in the communities, and also from 134 out-of-school girls selected from the same communities. Results More than 73% of the girls reported having ever used the Internet; more than 74% and 68% of them being in-school and out-of-school respectively. The in-school girls (43.9%) reported having home access more than the out-of-school (5.6%) although the out-of-school have used the Internet for finding reproductive and related information more than the in-school. While parents (66.22%) and teachers (56.15%) are the two sources most used to the in-school girls, friends (63.18%) and the Internet (55.19%) were reported by the out-of-school youth as the two most used sources of information to them. Conclusion The Internet is not a first choice of source of reproductive health information for both the in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria. The source is however, more commonly used by the out-of-school than the in-school, but the in-school have a more favorable assessment of the quality of information they obtain from the Internet. PMID:18096032

  11. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-08-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164

  12. Impaired inhibition and working memory in response to internet-related words among adolescents with internet addiction: A comparison with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jia; Li, Wendi

    2016-02-28

    Impairments in response inhibition and working memory functions have been found to be closely associated with internet addiction (IA) symptoms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this study, we examined response inhibition and working memory processes with two different materials (internet-related and internet-unrelated stimuli) among adolescents with IA, ADHD and co-morbid IA/ADHD. Twenty-four individuals with IA, 28 individuals with ADHD, 17 individuals with IA/ADHD, and 26 matched normal controls (NC) individuals were recruited. All participants were measured with a Stop-Signal Task and 2-Back Task under the same experimental conditions. In comparison to the NC group, subjects with IA, ADHD and IA/ADHD demonstrated impaired inhibition and working memory. In addition, in comparison to internet-unrelated conditions, IA and co-morbid subjects performed worse on the internet-related condition in the Stop trials during the stop-signal task, and they showed better working memory on the internet-related condition in the 2-Back Task. The findings of our study suggest individuals with IA and IA/ADHD may be impaired in inhibition and working memory functions that might be linked to poor inhibition specifically related to internet-related stimuli, which will advance our understanding of IA and contribute to prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:26778632

  13. Daily and compulsive internet use and well-being in adolescence: a diathesis-stress model based on big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability, and high levels of introversion would be more likely to develop CIU and lower well-being. Data were used from a sample of 7888 Dutch adolescents (11-21 years). Results from structural equation modeling analyses showed that daily Internet use was indirectly related to low well-being through CIU. In addition, daily Internet use was found to be more strongly related to CIU in introverted, low-agreeable, and emotionally less-stable adolescents. In turn, again, CIU was more strongly linked to loneliness in introverted, emotionally less-stable, and less agreeable adolescents. PMID:19636779

  14. The Internet's Multiple Roles in Facilitating the Sexual Orientation Identity Development of Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-09-01

    One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. PMID:25585861

  15. What Influences Children's and Adolescents' Understanding of the Complexity of the Internet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing complex relationships among Internet use, Internet users, and conceptual understanding of the Internet. It used path models to examine factors related to Internet use (duration of Internet use, frequency of Internet use, and informal Internet classes) and Internet users (age and gender) in affecting understanding of…

  16. [Pilot study on the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group programme for adolescents with pathological internet use].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Thomsen, Monika; Moll, Bettina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Excessive Internet use and its severe form, pathological internet use, are currently increasing in many industrial nations in Asia, North America and Europe. According to recent epidemiological studies pathological internet use occurs more frequently in youth than in adults. In Germany between 4 and 6% of the adolescents use the internet in a pathological way. Only few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions and their effectiveness in affected adolescents. In this pilot study, we surveyed over a period of 15 months all minor participants (aged up to 17) of a cognitive behavioural group programme at the beginning and at the end of the treatment (pre-post design) with standardized questionnaires (CIUS, SPS-J). At the second point of measurement the adolescents (n = 18, 75 percent retention rate) reported a significantly lower severity of problematic internet use as well as reduced average usage times during the week and at the weekend. No changes were revealed in psychological well-being of the youth. The results of this pilot study indicate positive effects of a cognitive behavioural group programme with psychoeducative elements in the treatment of youth affected by pathological internet use. PMID:24693802

  17. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA. PMID:26716791

  18. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with chronic pain and their parents: a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica; Bromberg, Maggie H; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Tai, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Internet-delivered interventions are emerging as a strategy to address barriers to care for individuals with chronic pain. This is the first large multicenter randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric chronic pain. Participants included were 273 adolescents (205 females and 68 males), aged 11 to 17 years with mixed chronic pain conditions and their parents, who were randomly assigned in a parallel-group design to Internet-delivered CBT (n = 138) or Internet-delivered Education (n = 135). Assessments were completed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. All data collection and procedures took place online. The primary analysis used linear growth models. Results demonstrated significantly greater reduction on the primary outcome of activity limitations from baseline to 6-month follow-up for Internet CBT compared with Internet education (b = -1.13, P = 0.03). On secondary outcomes, significant beneficial effects of Internet CBT were found on sleep quality (b = 0.14, P = 0.04), on reducing parent miscarried helping (b = -2.66, P = 0.007) and protective behaviors (b = -0.19, P = 0.001), and on treatment satisfaction (P values < 0.05). On exploratory outcomes, benefits of Internet CBT were found for parent-perceived impact (ie, reductions in depression, anxiety, self-blame about their adolescent's pain, and improvement in parent behavioral responses to pain). In conclusion, our Internet-delivered CBT intervention produced a number of beneficial effects on adolescent and parent outcomes, and could ultimately lead to wide dissemination of evidence-based psychological pain treatment for youth and their families. PMID:26335910

  19. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  20. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  1. Manic defenses against loneliness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on the challenges adolescents face as they progress in the process of object removal. The loosening of primary libidinal object ties triggers object loss and a unique form of loneliness specific to adolescence, which may be misdiagnosed as depression. Rather than stemming from a fear of loss of love from the primary object, the loneliness results from the adolescent's need to transfer love from primary objects to new adult relationships not yet available to him. The resultant emptiness may be defended against by overuse of the Internet, alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, and food. These defenses are manic in quality in that they suggest an orally based regressive attempt to "take in" and "expel out, "preserving the felt "lost" object and converting the loneliness into elation. Clinical vignettes illustrate work with adolescents wherein the ability to tolerate lonely feelings is recognized as a developmental accomplishment leading to personality growth and maturity. PMID:19449791

  2. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU. PMID:26526444

  3. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Adolescent Girls: Outcome Data from an Internet-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Di Noia, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and tested an Internet-based gender-specific drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. A sample of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade girls (N = 236) from 42 states and 4 Canadian provinces were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All girls completed an online pretest battery. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with a 12-session, Internet-based gender-specific drug prevention program. Girls in both groups completed the measurement battery at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Analysis of posttest scores revealed no differences between groups for 30-day reports of alcohol, marijuana, poly drug use, or total substance use (alcohol and drugs). At 6-month follow-up, between-group effects were found on measures of 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, poly drug use, and total substance use. Relative to girls in the control group, girls exposed to the Internet-based intervention reported lower rates of use for these substances. Moreover, girls receiving the intervention achieved gains over girls in the control group on normative beliefs and self-efficacy at posttest and 6-month follow-up, respectively. PMID:19728091

  4. Use of Internet Viral Marketing to Promote Smoke-Free Lifestyles among Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR  = 0.95, p-value <0.01). Conclusions Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010

  5. The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lee M; Wong, Wing S

    2011-06-01

    The negative association of insomnia and internet addiction with mental health is widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about their inter-relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between insomnia, internet addiction and depression. A total of 719 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong participated in this school-based cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and questions assessing internet use pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. The classification of internet addiction and insomnia was based on the CIAS cutoff global score >63 and PSQI cutoff global score >5, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression. Among students with internet addiction (17.2%), 51.7% were also identified as insomniacs. Internet addicts scored significantly poorer on all PSQI components, except sleep duration, than their non-addicted counterparts. After adjustment for gender and internet use time, both internet addiction (β=0.05; Sobel test Z=6.50, P<0.001) and insomnia (β=0.59; Sobel test Z=4.49, P<0.001) demonstrated a significant association with depression. Overall, there is high comorbidity between internet addiction and insomnia. Both insomnia and internet addiction emerged as significant explanatory factors, but they exerted differential effects on depression. Future research should be directed at determining the causal relationship between internet addiction and insomnia, and its underlying mechanism with depression. PMID:20819144

  6. Measurement and analysis of the cognitive-behavioral model of generalized problematic internet use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I; Calvete, Esther

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct and convergent validity and internal consistency. Consistent with the hypotheses put forth by the cognitive-behavioral model, the findings indicate that preference for online social interaction and the use of the Internet for mood regulation increased the probability of reporting deficient self-regulation (i.e., compulsive Internet use and cognitive preoccupations with Internet use), which, in turn, was significantly associated with negative life outcomes. The fit of the model was adequate both for males and females, and there were no significant differences between them. Lastly, we discuss the contributions of this research to this field of study. PMID:22789467

  7. Blunted Feedback Processing During Risk-Taking in Adolescents with Features of Problematic Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a ‘behavioral addiction’ resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recording during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  8. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both. PMID:25679363

  9. The relationship between optimal parenting, Internet addiction and motives for social networking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos

    2013-10-30

    This paper presents a cross-sectional study of a large, high-school Greek student sample (N=1971) with the aim to examine adolescent motives for participating in social networking (SN) for a possible link with parenting style and cognitions related to Internet addiction disorder (IAD). Exploratory statistics demonstrate a shift from the prominence of online gaming to social networking for this age group. A regression model provides with the best linear combination of independent variables useful in predicting participation in SN. Results also include a validated model of negative correlation between optimal parenting on the one hand and motives for SN participation and IAD on the other. Examining cognitions linked to SN may assist in a better understanding of underlying adolescent wishes and problems. Future research may focus in the patterns unveiled among those adolescents turning to SN for the gratification of basic unmet psychological needs. The debate on the exact nature of IAD would benefit from the inclusion of SN as a possible online activity where addictive phenomena may occur. PMID:23415042

  10. BODIMOJO: EFFECTIVE INTERNET-BASED PROMOTION OF POSITIVE BODY IMAGE IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Roehrig, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p < .05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p < .05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p < .05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3 month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term. PMID:23768797

  11. Disrupted inter-hemispheric functional and structural coupling in Internet addiction adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanzhi; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Xing, Lihong; Li, Yangding; Wang, Hongmei; Yu, Dahua; Xue, Ting; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2015-11-30

    Rapid progress had been made towards the effect of Internet addiction (IA) on the adolescents brain, relatively little is known about the alterations in inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes. In the current study, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to examine inter-hemispheric RSFC in IA adolescents (n=21) and controls (n=21). The integrity of the fibers connecting the regions, which showed aberrant inter-hemispheric functional connectivity, was assessed by fiber tractography analysis. In addition, the coupling of inter-hemispheric functional and structural connectivity was investigated. Relative to controls, IA adolescents showed decreased VMHC of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu of corpus callosum (CC). The decreased VMHC of DLPFC was significantly negative correlated with the duration of IA. Moreover, the VMHC of DLPFC showed significant correlations with the FA of CC in healthy controls, which was disrupted in IA. Our findings provided more scientific evidence for the involvement of DLPFC in IA. It is hoped that multimodal imaging methods can provide deeper insights into the IA effects on the brain. PMID:26409575

  12. Overuse Syndromes of the Lower Extremity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Douglas B.; Dolan, Cathleen

    1989-01-01

    Discusses management of common overuse disorders, which are often a result of repetitive stress. Reducing inflammation through icing, rest, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents is the primary treatment goal. Patients taking anti-inflammatories must be cautioned against returning to activity too soon because the medication's analgesic…

  13. Clinical aspects of medication overuse headaches.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Arnaldo Neves; Lake, Alvin E

    2014-01-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a subset of chronic daily headache, occurring from overuse of 1 or more classes of migraine abortive medication. Acetaminophen, combination analgesics (caffeine combinations), opioids, barbiturates (butalbital), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and triptans are the main classes of drugs implicated in the genesis of MOH. Migraine seems to be the most common diagnosis leading to MOH. The development of MOH is associated with both frequency of use of medication and behavioral predispositions. MOH is not a unitary concept. The distinction between simple (type 1) vs complex (type 2) forms is based on both the class of overused medication and behavioral factors, including psychopathology and psychological drug dependence. MOH is a challenging disorder causing decline in the quality of life and causing physical symptoms, such as daily and incapacitating headaches, insomnia, and non-restorative sleep, as well as psychological distress and reduced functioning. MOH is associated with biochemical, structural, and functional brain changes. Relapse after detoxification is a challenge, but can be addressed if the patient is followed over a prolonged period of time with a combination of prophylactic pharmacotherapy, use of abortive medication with minimal risk of MOH, withholding previously overused medication, and providing psychological (cognitive-behavioral) therapy. PMID:24116964

  14. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  15. Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

  16. Observations of Chat Room Conversations on the Internet: Implications for Educators Addressing the Needs of Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…

  17. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  18. Prevention of Overuse Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071

  19. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  20. Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic internet use (PIU) is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866) of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00), as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12), interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82), and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86) and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24), were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52) and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50) problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20) and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56) problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34). Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents. PMID:21794167

  1. Voxel-level comparison of arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with internet gaming addiction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although recent studies have clearly demonstrated functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (IGA), less is known about how IGA affects perfusion in the human brain. We used pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the effects of IGA on resting brain functions by comparing resting cerebral blood flow in adolescents with IGA and normal subjects. Methods Fifteen adolescents with IGA and 18 matched normal adolescents underwent structural and perfusion fMRI in the resting state. Direct subtraction, voxel-wise general linear modeling was performed to compare resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the 2 groups. Correlations were calculated between the mean CBF value in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) scores, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) scores, or hours of Internet use per week (hours) in the 15 subjects with IGA. Results Compared with control subjects, adolescents with IGA showed significantly higher global CBF in the left inferior temporal lobe/fusiform gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus/amygdala, right medial frontal lobe/anterior cingulate cortex, left insula, right insula, right middle temporal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left cingulate gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe. Lower CBF was found in the left middle temporal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, and right cingulate gyrus. There were no significant correlations between mean CBF values in all clusters that survived AlphaSim correction and CIAS or BIS-11 scores or hours of Internet use per week. Conclusions In this study, we used ASL perfusion fMRI and noninvasively quantified resting CBF to demonstrate that IGA alters the CBF distribution in the adolescent brain. The results support the hypothesis that IGA is a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological

  2. The use of sexually explicit internet material and its antecedents: a longitudinal comparison of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-10-01

    An implicit assumption in research on adolescents' use of sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) is that they may feel more attracted to such material than adults, given the "forbidden" character of SEIM for minors. However, systematic comparisons between adolescents' and adults' SEIM use and of its antecedents are missing. We conducted a two-wave panel survey among a nationally representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and a nationally representative sample of 833 Dutch adults. Adolescents' and adults' SEIM use was similar. When significant differences in the SEIM use occurred, they indicated that adults used SEIM more often than adolescents. Male adults were the most frequent users of SEIM. No difference in the antecedent structure of SEIM use emerged between adolescents and adults. In both groups, males, sensation seekers, as well as people with a not exclusively heterosexual orientation used SEIM more often. Among adolescents and adults, lower life satisfaction increased SEIM use. Our findings suggest that the frequency of SEIM use and its antecedents are largely the same among adolescents and adults. PMID:20623250

  3. Altered Structural Correlates of Impulsivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all GM voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents. PMID:26858620

  4. Altered Structural Correlates of Impulsivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all GM voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents. PMID:26858620

  5. Investigation on Internet addiction disorder in adolescents in Anhui, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Kang, Yaowen; Gong, Weizhi; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Yao, Yingshui

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in adolescents so as to provide a scientific basis for the communities, schools, and families. Methods We conducted a survey by randomized cluster sampling on 5,249 students, grades ranging from 7 to 12, in Anhui province, People’s Republic of China. The questionnaire consisted of general information and IA test. Chi-square test was used to compare the status of IA disorder (IAD). Results In our results, the overall detection rate of IAD and non-IAD in students was 8.7% (459/5,249) and 76.2% (4,000/5,249), respectively. The detection rate of IAD in males (12.3%) was higher than females (4.9%). The detection rate of IAD was statistically different between students from rural (8.2%) and urban (9.3%) areas, among students from different grades, between students from only-child families (9.5%) and non-only-child families (8.1%), and among students from different family types. Conclusion Prevalence of IA is high among Chinese adolescents. IAD has more effect on male students, single-child families, single-parent families, and higher grade students. We should take more care of male students, only-child students, and students living with their fathers, and related education should be strengthen for susceptible subjects of IDA. PMID:27621633

  6. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  7. Integrative Internet-Based Depression Prevention for Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Primary Care for Vulnerability and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Vanderplough-Booth, Karen; Fogel, Joshua; Gladstone, Tracy; Bell, Carl; Stuart, Scott; Gollan, Jackie; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Ross, Ruth; Larson, Jon; Watson, Natalie; Paunesku, Dave; Melkonian, Stephanie; Kuwabara, Sachiko; Holper, Tim; Shank, Nicholas; Saner, Donald; Butler, Amy; Chandler, Amy; Louie, Tina; Weinstein, Cynthia; Collins, Shannon; Baldwin, Melinda; Wassel, Abigail; Reinecke, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is both a major public health and clinical problem, yet primary care physicians have limited intervention options. We developed two versions of an Internet-based behavioral intervention to prevent the onset of major depression and compared them in a randomized clinical trial in 13 US primary care practices. Methods We enrolled 84 adolescents at risk for developing major depression and randomly assigned them to two groups: brief advice (BA; 1–2 minutes) + Internet program versus motivational interview (MI; 5–15 minutes) + Internet program. We compared pre/post changes and between group differences for protective and vulnerability factors (individual, family, school and peer). Results Compared with pre-study values, both groups demonstrated declines in depressed mood; [MI: 21.2 to 16.74 (p < 0.01), BA: 23.34 to 16.92 (p < 0.001)]. Similarly, both groups demonstrated increases in social support by peers [MI: 8.6 to 12.1 (p = 0.002), BA: 7.10 to 12.5 (p < 0.001)] and reductions in depression related impairment in school [MI: 2.26 to 1.76 (p = 0.06), BA: 2.16 to 1.93 (p = 0.07)]. Conclusions Two forms of a primary care/Internet-based behavioral intervention to prevent adolescent depression may lower depressed mood and strengthen some protective factors for depression. PMID:19018321

  8. Adolescent Internet addiction: testing the association between self-esteem, the perception of Internet attributes, and preference for online social interactions.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Dèttore, Davide; Casale, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    There is a general consensus that Internet addiction (IA) is mainly related to social aspects of the Web, especially among adolescents. The empirical link between poor social skills and IA is well documented; however, theoretical explanations for this relationship are less developed. One possibility is that people with poor social skills are especially prone to develop a preference for online social interaction (POSI), which, in turn, predicts problematic usage. This hypothesis has been tested for loneliness and social anxiety, but not for self-esteem (SE; one of the main antecedents of IA). Furthermore, the mediating role of the perceived relevance of some Internet features (e.g., anonymity) in the relationship between SE and POSI has never been investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 257 adolescents. Using mediation analyses, we found evidence among females for the mediating role of (a) POSI in the relationship between SE and IA, and (b) the subjective relevance of some Internet features in the association between SE and POSI. No significant effects were found for males. PMID:22703038

  9. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  10. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  11. Pathological Internet use among European adolescents: psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Durkee, Tony; Brunner, Romuald; Carli, Vladimir; Parzer, Peter; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Cohen, Renaud; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Fischer, Gloria; Floderus, Birgitta; Iosue, Miriam; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-11-01

    Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours. PMID:24888750

  12. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenhard, Fabian; Vigerland, Sarah; Andersson, Erik; Rück, Christian; Mataix-Cols, David; Thulin, Ulrika; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Serlachius, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) platform for adolescents with OCD. Methods An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform (“BiP OCD”) was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12–17 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. Results Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0) of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5–3.07) on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS) and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12). Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. Conclusions ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990. PMID:24949622

  13. Medication-overuse headache: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a worldwide health problem with a prevalence of 1%–2%. It is a severe form of headache where the patients often have a long history of headache and of unsuccessful treatments. MOH is characterized by chronic headache and overuse of different headache medications. Through the years, withdrawal of the overused medication has been recognized as the treatment of choice. However, currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal strategy for management of MOH. Treatment approaches are based on expert opinion rather than scientific evidence. This review focuses on aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of MOH. We suggest that information and education about the risk of MOH is important since the condition is preventable. Most patients experience reduction of headache days and intensity after successful treatment. The first step in the treatment of MOH should be carried out in primary care and focus primarily on withdrawal, leaving prophylactic medication to those who do not manage primary detoxification. For most patients, a general practitioner can perform the follow-up after detoxification. More complicated cases should be referred to neurologists and headache clinics. Patients suffering with MOH have much to gain by an earlier treatment-focused approach, since the condition is both preventable and treatable. PMID:25061336

  14. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Overuse: Urologists’ Response to Reimbursement and Characteristics Associated with Persistent Overuse

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Carpenter, William R.; Jackson, George L.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Liu, Huan; Weinberger, Morris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Medicare reimbursement cuts have been associated with declining Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist overuse in localized prostate cancer. Medical school affiliation and foreign training have been associated with persistent overuse. However, physician-level prescribing changes and the practice type of persistent overusers have not been examined. We sought to describe physician-level changes in GnRH agonist overuse and test the association of time in practice and solo practice type with GnRH agonist overuse. METHODS We matched American Medical Association physician data for 2,138 urologists to SEER–Medicare data for 12,943 men diagnosed with early stage and lower grade adenocarcinoma of the prostate between 2000 and 2007. We conducted a population-based, retrospective study using multi-level modeling to control for patient and provider characteristics. RESULTS Three distinct patterns of GnRH agonist overuse were observed. Urologists’ time in practice was not associated with GnRH agonist overuse (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.75–1.05).However, solo practice type (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.34–2.02), medical school affiliation (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55–0.77), and patient race were. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.37–2.27), Hispanics (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12–1.79) and men of “other” race (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.04–1.99) had greater odds of receiving unnecessary GnRH agonists. CONCLUSIONS GnRH agonist overuse remains high among some urologists who may be professionally isolated and difficult to reach. These urologists treat more vulnerable populations, which may contribute to health disparities in prostate cancer treatment quality. Nonetheless, these findings provide guidance to develop interventions to address overuse in prostate cancer. PMID:25849354

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Problematic Internet Use Among Adolescents: Analysis of the Longitudinal Relationships from the Cognitive–Behavioral Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problematic Internet use—frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use—represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use. PMID:25405784

  16. Depressive symptoms and problematic internet use among adolescents: analysis of the longitudinal relationships from the cognitive-behavioral model.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Problematic Internet use-frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use-represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use. PMID:25405784

  17. Validity of the Internet Addiction Test for Adolescents and Older Children (IAT-A): Tests of Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Following the call to ensure the validity of instruments used to assess users' level of Internet usage, this study examined the factor structure of the Internet Addiction Test-Adolescence version (IAT-A) when applied to a sample of young children in a multicultural society and assessed whether the items in the IAT-A were invariant by gender…

  18. Neurochemical correlates of internet game play in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sujin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies have examined the relationship of brain metabolic changes in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, these studies have been limited by a small number of subjects, a large variance in subject age, and different brain regions of interest. The present study assessed the effects of chronic internet game play in ADHD children. Twenty eight ADHD adolescents with IGD (IGD+ADHD), 27 ADHD adolescents without problematic internet game playing (ADHD only) and 42 healthy comparison adolescents (HC) were included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 3T MRI scanner. Our results indicate that the levels of NAA in both ADHD groups were lower than those observed in the HC group. The levels of Glu+Gln in the ADHD only group were increased, compared to those observed in the control group. However, Glu+Gln was not increased in the IGD+ADHD group. In addition, the levels of Glu+Gln in the IGD+ADHD group were positively correlated with K-ARS total and inattention scores. ADHD and IGD subjects were both characterized by decreased NAA levels within the frontal lobe, consistent with hypofrontality. PMID:27295400

  19. Elite US college admissions: could the quest for admission increase overuse injury risk?

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Yang, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This commentary addresses the intriguing correspondence of two trends. First, we describe the increasing selectivity for undergraduate admission to elite colleges and universities in the United States and an apparent preference for “angular” applicants who have demonstrated tremendous accomplishment in a single non-academic pursuit such as music, athletics, or the arts. Second, we describe an apparent increase in overuse injuries among American children and adolescents, a trend that many experts attribute to specialization within a single athletic, musical or artistic pursuit among youth who in previous generations were more “generalist” in their extracurricular activities. It is premature to demonstrate causality and suggest increasing college selectivity has led to increasing rates of overuse injuries, but we speculate there may be a causal relation present and encourage scholarly research on the topic. PMID:27130516

  20. Epidemiology of Overuse and Acute Injuries Among Competitive Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingzhen; Tibbetts, Abigail S.; Covassin, Tracey; Cheng, Gang; Nayar, Saloni; Heiden, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although overuse injuries are gaining attention, epidemiologic studies on overuse injuries in male and female collegiate athletes are lacking. (70.7%) acute injuries were reported. The overall injury rate was Objective: To report the epidemiology of overuse injuries sustained by collegiate athletes and to compare the rates of overuse and acute injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1317 reported injuries sustained by 573 male and female athletes in 16 collegiate sports teams during the 2005–2008 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): The injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were obtained from the Sports Injury Monitoring System. An injury was coded as either overuse or acute based on the nature of injury. Injury rate was calculated as the total number of overuse (or acute) injuries during the study period divided by the total number of AEs during the same period. Results: A total of 386 (29.3%) overuse injuries and 931 63.1 per 10000 AEs. The rate ratio (RR) of acute versus overuse injuries was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05, 2.67). Football had the highest RR (RR = 8.35, 95% CI = 5.38, 12.97), and women's rowing had the lowest (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.10). Men had a higher acute injury rate than women (49.8 versus 38.6 per 10000 AEs). Female athletes had a higher rate of overuse injury than male athletes (24.6 versus 13.2 per 10000 AEs). More than half of the overuse injuries (50.8%) resulted in no time loss from sport. Conclusions: Additional studies are needed to examine why female athletes are at greater risk for overuse injuries and identify the best practices for prevention and rehabilitation of overuse injuries. PMID:22488286

  1. School connectedness and problematic internet use in adolescents: a moderated mediation model of deviant peer affiliation and self-control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wen, Fangfang

    2013-11-01

    Although a growing body of research documents the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent problematic Internet use (PIU), little is known about the mediating mechanism (i.e., how school connectedness relates to PIU?) and moderating mechanism (i.e., when the protection is most potent?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the relationship between school connectedness and PIU, and whether this mediating process was moderated by adolescent self-control. A total of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (46 % male; mean age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school connectedness, deviant peer affiliation, self-control, and PIU. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and parental attachment, it was found that the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent PIU was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger for adolescents with low self-control than for those with high self-control. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the social control theory and organism-environment interaction model to understand how and when school connectedness impacts adolescent PIU. PMID:23695186

  2. Adolescent Dose and Ratings of an Internet-Based Depression Prevention Program: A Randomized Trial of Primary Care Physician Brief Advice versus a Motivational Interview

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Pomper, Benjamin E.; Marko, Monika; Reid, Nicholas; Watson, Natalie; Larson, John; Bradford, Nathan; Fagan, Blake; Zuckerman, Steve; Wiedmann, Peggy; Domanico, Rocco

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions for education and behavior change have proliferated, but most adolescents may not be sufficiently motivated to engage in Internet-based behavior change interventions. We sought to determine how two different forms of primary care physician engagement, brief advice (BA) versus motivational interview (MI), could enhance participation outcomes in an Internet-based depression prevention intervention. Methods Eighty-three adolescents at risk for developing major depression were recruited by screening in primary care and randomized to two groups: BA (1–2 minutes) + Internet program versus MI (10–15 minutes) + Internet program. We compared measures of participation and satisfaction for the two groups for a minimum of 12 months after enrollment. Results Both groups engaged the site actively (MI: 90% versus BA: 78%, p=0.12). MI had significantly higher levels of engagement than BA for measures including total time on site (143.7 minutes versus 100.2 minutes, p=0.03), number of sessions (8.16 versus 6.00, p=0.04), longer duration of session activity on Internet site (46.2 days versus 29.34 days, p=0.04), and with more characters typed into exercises (3532 versus 2004, p=0.01). Adolescents in the MI group reported higher trust in their physician (4.18 versus 3.74, p=0.05) and greater satisfaction with the Internet-based component (7.92 versus 6.66, p=0.01). Conclusions Primary care engagement, particularly using motivational interviewing, may increase Internet use dose, and some elements enhance and intensify adolescent use of an Internet-based intervention over a one to two month period. Primary care engagement may be a useful method to facilitate adolescent involvement in preventive mental health interventions. PMID:20694059

  3. The Effects of Text Message Content on the Use of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention in Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Cai, Bo; Archer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text message content (generic vs. culturally tailored) on the login rate of an Internet physical activity program in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children. A convenience sample of 252 Hong Kong secondary school adolescents (51% female, 49% male; M age = 13.17 years, SD = 1.28 years) were assigned to one of 3 treatments for 8 weeks. The control group consisted of an Internet physical activity program. The Internet plus generic text message group consisted of the same Internet physical activity program and included daily generic text messages. The Internet plus culturally tailored text message group consisted of the Internet physical activity program and included daily culturally tailored text messages. Zero-inflated Poisson mixed models showed that the overall effect of the treatment group on the login rates varied significantly across individuals. The login rates over time were significantly higher in the Internet plus culturally tailored text message group than the control group (β = 46.06, 95% CI 13.60, 156.02; p = .002) and the Internet plus generic text message group (β = 15.80, 95% CI 4.81, 51.9; p = .021) after adjusting for covariates. These findings suggest that culturally tailored text messages may be more advantageous than generic text messages on improving adolescents' website login rate, but effects varied significantly across individuals. Our results support the inclusion of culturally tailored messaging in future online physical activity interventions. PMID:25996371

  4. Competent Adolescent Readers' Use of Internet Reading Strategies: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Byeong-Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, pattern, and complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants performed an academic Internet reading task with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. Strategies for Internet reading were…

  5. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  6. Race/Ethnicity and Overuse of Care: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    KRESSIN, NANCY R; GROENEVELD, PETER W

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points: Racial/ethnic differences in the overuse of care (specifically, unneeded care that does not improve patients’ outcomes) have received little scholarly attention. Our systematic review of the literature (59 studies) found that the overuse of care is not invariably associated with race/ethnicity, but when it was, a substantial proportion of studies found greater overuse of care among white patients. The absence of established subject terms in PubMed for the overuse of care or inappropriate care impedes the ability of researchers or policymakers to synthesize prior scientific or policy efforts. Context The literature on disparities in health care has examined the contrast between white patients receiving needed care, compared with racial/ethnic minority patients not receiving needed care. Racial/ethnic differences in the overuse of care, that is, unneeded care that does not improve patients’ outcomes, have received less attention. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding race/ethnicity and the overuse of care. Methods We searched the Medline database for US studies that included at least 2 racial/ethnic groups and that examined the association between race/ethnicity and the overuse of procedures, diagnostic (care) or therapeutic care. In a recent review, we identified studies of overuse by race/ethnicity, and we also examined reference lists of retrieved articles. We then abstracted and evaluated this information, including the population studied, data source, sample size and assembly, type of care, guideline or appropriateness standard, controls for clinical confounding and financing of care, and findings. Findings We identified 59 unique studies, of which 11 had a low risk of methodological bias. Studies with multiple outcomes were counted more than once; collectively they assessed 74 different outcomes. Thirty-two studies, 6 with low risks of bias (LRoB), provided evidence that whites received more inappropriate or nonrecommended care

  7. Confirmation of the Three-Factor Model of Problematic Internet Use on Off-Line Adolescent and Adult Samples

    PubMed Central

    Koronczai, Beatrix; Urbán, Róbert; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Paksi, Borbála; Papp, Krisztina; Kun, Bernadette; Arnold, Petra; Kállai, János

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As the Internet became widely used, problems associated with its excessive use became increasingly apparent. Although for the assessment of these problems several models and related questionnaires have been elaborated, there has been little effort made to confirm them. The aim of the present study was to test the three-factor model of the previously created Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) by data collection methods formerly not applied (off-line group and face-to-face settings), on the one hand, and by testing on different age groups (adolescent and adult representative samples), on the other hand. Data were collected from 438 high-school students (44.5 percent boys; mean age: 16.0 years; standard deviation=0.7 years) and also from 963 adults (49.9 percent males; mean age: 33.6 years; standard deviation=11.8 years). We applied confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the measurement model of problematic Internet use. The results of the analyses carried out inevitably support the original three-factor model over the possible one-factor solution. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 11 percent of adults and 18 percent of adolescent users characterized by problematic use. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we also suggest a short form of the PIUQ consisting of nine items. Both the original 18-item version of PIUQ and its short 9-item form have satisfactory reliability and validity characteristics, and thus, they are suitable for the assessment of problematic Internet use in future studies. PMID:21711129

  8. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents. PMID:26578922

  9. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents. PMID:26578922

  10. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade.

    PubMed

    Kuss, D J; Griffiths, M D; Karila, L; Billieux, J

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological

  11. Problematic Internet Use and Health in Adolescents: Data from a High School Survey in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Timothy C.; Desai, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the prevalence and health correlates of problematic internet use among high school students in the United States. Method A cross-sectional survey with a sample size of 3560 students was conducted among high schools in Connecticut, USA. Demographic data, characteristics of internet use, health measures and risk behaviors were assessed. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used to study the relationship between problematic internet use and risk behaviors as well as related gender differences. Results When problematic internet use was diagnosed with criteria that address core features of impulse-control disorder (strong urge, growing tension and attempts to cut back), the overall prevalence was about 4% with no significant difference between genders. Problematic internet use was more common among Asian and Hispanic students. Even though boys spent significantly more time on the internet and more frequently missed important school or social activities as a result, girls more frequently self-reported measures of excessive use of the internet. After adjustment of socio-demographic factors, problematic internet use was found to associate significantly with substance use, depression and aggression, with largely similar patterns of associations between genders. Conclusion Problematic internet use may be present in about 4% of high school students in the United States. It may be associated with depression, substance use and aggressive behaviors. High school boys, though may have heavier internet use, may be less self-aware of the related problems. PMID:21536002

  12. Prevalence and Factors of Addictive Internet Use among Adolescents in Wuhan, China: Interactions of Parental Relationship with Age and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianhua; Chen, Xinguang; Han, Juan; Meng, Heng; Luo, Jianghong; Nydegger, Liesl; Wu, Hanrong

    2013-01-01

    Purposes This study examined the prevalence of addictive Internet use and analyzed the role of parental relationship in affecting this behavior among a random sample of adolescents in Wuhan, China. Methods Students (n = 1,101) were randomly selected from four schools, including 638 boys and 463 girls with a mean age of 13.8 (standard deviation = 1.2) years. Addictive Internet use, parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured by validated instruments. Prevalence rate, ANOVA and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the level of Internet addiction and its association with parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity, as well as the interaction of parental relationship with chronological age and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Results The prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01). Compared to non-addictive users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity. Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students. Conclusions Findings of this study indicate that adolescent addictive Internet use is a significant public health threat in China. Prevention interventions targeting parental relationship must consider adolescent’s age and hyperactivity-impulsivity tendency. PMID:23596525

  13. Using cognitive dissonance to induce adolescents' escaping from the claw of online gaming: the roles of personal responsibility and justification of cost.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    The negative impact of the Internet on adolescents has received much attention. How to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is also a critical issue. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, two experiments were conducted to examine whether personal responsibility and justification of cost may play crucial factors in impacting adolescent players' attitude change and their willingness to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that adolescent players who felt a strong sense of responsibility appeared to exhibit greater attitude change. In Experiment 2, the findings indicated that players tended to employ justification of cost in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance between their attitude toward online gaming and invested cost. Adolescent players who perceived a higher cost in online gaming were less willing to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. Reducing adolescents ' overuse of online gaming can be appreciated through the perspective of cognitive dissonance. PMID:17927534

  14. Core brain networks interactions and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder individuals in late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Jin, Chenwang; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Regardless of whether it is conceptualized as a behavioral addiction or an impulse-control disorder, internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been speculated to be associated with impaired cognitive control. Efficient cognitive behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, however, whether the interactions among these networks during resting state modulated cognitive control behavior in IGD adolescents remain unclear. Twenty-eight IGD adolescents and twenty-five age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in our study. Stroop color-word task was conducted to evaluate the cognitive control deficits in IGD adolescents. Functional connectivity and Granger Causal Analysis were employed to investigate the functional and effective connections within and between the salience, central executive, and default mode networks. Meanwhile, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess the structural integrity of abnormal network connections. The abnormal functional connectivity within central executive networks and effective connectivity within salience network in IGD adolescents were detected. Moreover, the inefficient interactions between these two brain networks were observed. In addition, we identified reduced fractional anisotropy in salience network, right central executive network tracts, and between-network (the anterior cingulate cortex-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracts) pathways in IGD individuals. Notably, we observed a significant correlation between the effective and structural connection from salience network to central executive network and the number of errors during incongruent condition in Stroop task in both IGD and control subjects. Our results suggested that impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents is likely to be mediated through the abnormal interactions and structural connection between intrinsic large-scale brain networks. PMID:25573247

  15. Swimming overuse injuries associated with triathlon training.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature. PMID:23147088

  16. Medication-overuse headache: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2016-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on MOH and discuss future avenues for research. MOH accounts for a substantial share of the global burden of disease. Prevalence is often reported as 1–2% but can be as high as 7% overall, with higher proportions among women and in those with a low socioeconomic position. Management consists of withdrawing pain medication, focusing on prophylactic and nonmedical treatments, and limiting acute symptomatic medication. Stress reduction and lifestyle interventions may support the change towards rational pain medication use. Support, follow up, and education are needed to help patients through the detoxification period. There is fertile ground for research in MOH epidemiology, pathophysiology, and neuroimaging. Randomized and long-term follow-up studies on MOH treatment protocols are needed. Further focused research could be of major importance for global health. PMID:27493718

  17. Medication-overuse headache: a perspective review.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2016-08-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on MOH and discuss future avenues for research. MOH accounts for a substantial share of the global burden of disease. Prevalence is often reported as 1-2% but can be as high as 7% overall, with higher proportions among women and in those with a low socioeconomic position. Management consists of withdrawing pain medication, focusing on prophylactic and nonmedical treatments, and limiting acute symptomatic medication. Stress reduction and lifestyle interventions may support the change towards rational pain medication use. Support, follow up, and education are needed to help patients through the detoxification period. There is fertile ground for research in MOH epidemiology, pathophysiology, and neuroimaging. Randomized and long-term follow-up studies on MOH treatment protocols are needed. Further focused research could be of major importance for global health. PMID:27493718

  18. Overuse and throwing injuries in the skeletally immature athlete.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    Over 25 million children participate in school-sponsored sports, and an additional 20 million participate in extracurricular organized sports. Over the past decade, increased intensity of training, more pressure for success, new opportunities for structured play, and more organized advanced leagues and traveling teams have led to a corresponding increase in overuse injuries in the skeletally immature athlete. Perhaps the classic sports model for overuse injuries of the upper extremity is baseball. Throwing sports contribute to an increased incidence of elbow and shoulder injuries that might be related to intensity of training, throwing mechanics, and poor conditioning, including core strength. Specific areas of concern regarding overuse injuries in young athletes include such diagnoses as little leaguer's shoulder, little leaguer's elbow, osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow, tennis elbow, and distal radial epiphysitis. Ultimately, overuse injuries, and particularly physeal injuries, should be suspected in any young athlete who has pain in the upper extremity. Comparative bilateral radiographs are the rule in workup. PMID:12690838

  19. Overuse injuries of the foot: imaging presentations of common pathologies.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Michael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries of the foot are common, resulting in frequent visits to the primary care physician and orthopaedic surgeon. Radiologic workup often ensues. Morton's neuroma, plantar fasciitis and Haglund's syndrome are three such entities with classic MRI appearances. PMID:24367843

  20. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…

  1. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  2. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Sheana; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the 5-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: Despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all 5 modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that “I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program”. Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants – particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga: an Internet-based HIV-prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S; Prescott, Tonya L; Birungi, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV-preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the five-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on the program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all the five modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that "I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program." Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants - particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV

  4. Medication Overuse Headache Due to Butalbital, Acetaminophen, and Caffeine Tablets.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Medication overuse headache is a relatively common cause for chronic daily headache in the migraine patient. In reply to a question, medication overuse headache is reviewed, acute and preventive medications are discussed, and quality of life is considered. PMID:27159186

  5. Overuse injuries of the lower extremity in runners.

    PubMed

    Rolf, C

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on overuse injuries of the lower extremity in runners and to discuss briefly today's knowledge concerning etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Running is a natural entity in many sports and a majority of runners will sustain one or more overuse injuries throughout the career, in most cases affecting the lower extremity. A runner may be regarded as an athlete who regularly runs as the predominant physical activity. From that point, we should subdivide the definition "runner" considering the character of different sports or recreational activities performed. Overuse injuries are often described merely from symptoms, including several different etiological and pathoanatomic correlates covering a variety of ailments. The clinical approach should be focused on a thorough history and physical examination. Analysis of possible injury mechanisms, correction of associated extrinsic and intrinsic factors and advice on alternative training should be given. A knowledge of specific demands from the type of running performed is necessary to evaluate the symptoms presented. Overuse etiology has to be considered multifactorial with a yet unsolved exact pathophysiology needing further research. The definition of a "runner", of "running" and of "overuse injury" should be established and agreed upon. This review attempts to draw attention to the huge multidisciplinary work that has to be done to better understand the mechanisms causing an overuse injury in a runner and to define diagnoses on a scientific base, whether or not excentric or intrinsic factors predispose or trigger. PMID:7552763

  6. Efficacy of an Internet-Based Intervention Targeted to Adolescents with Subthreshold Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Marta Maria

    2011-01-01

    Depression during adolescence is highly prevalent with as many as 20% experiencing a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Adolescent depression causes significant impairment across life areas including school functioning, such as poor academic performance and decreased academic achievement. Despite the existence of many evidence-based…

  7. A Case Study of Korean American Adolescents' Identity Construction through Literacy Practices on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ok, Hyounjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clearer understanding of current Korean American adolescents under the recognition that their stories are barely told in educational research. Based on the literature that has described identity as a core concept in understanding adolescence and literacy practice as a dominant tool for identity…

  8. Parental behavioral and psychological control and problematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: the mediating role of self-control.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23509987

  9. Strategies to Facilitate Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adolescents or Young Adults: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is…

  10. The Development of Compulsive Internet Use and Mental Health: A Four-Year Study of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T.; Heaven, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1,030 males, 1,038 females, M[subscript age] = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly…

  11. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. Methods A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Results Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (P<.001), explaining 1.4% and 2.8% variance, respectively. However, the consequences of engaging in those activities were more important predictors, explaining 11.1% variance. Only Web-based gaming, gambling, and targeted searches had mental health effects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, P<.01) were the only consequences that had a direct effect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. Conclusions The magnitude of Internet use is

  12. Overuse or underuse? An observation of pesticide use in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Guanming; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-12-15

    Pesticide use has experienced a dramatic increase worldwide, especially in China, where a wide variety of pesticides are used in large amounts by farmers to control crop pests. While Chinese farmers are often criticized for pesticide overuse, this study shows the coexistence of overuse and underuse of pesticide based on the survey data of pesticide use in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production in three provinces in China. A novel index amount approach is proposed to convert the amount of multiple pesticides used to control the same pest into an index amount of a referenced pesticide. We compare the summed index amount with the recommended dosage range of the referenced pesticide to classify whether pesticides are overused or underused. Using this new approach, the following main results were obtained. Pesticide overuse and underuse coexist after examining a total of 107 pesticides used to control up to 54 crop pests in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production. In particular, pesticide overuse in more than half of the total cases for 9 crop pest species is detected. In contrast, pesticide underuse accounts for more than 20% of the total cases for 11 pests. We further indicate that the lack of knowledge and information on pesticide use and pest control among Chinese farmers may cause the coexistence of pesticide overuse and underuse. Our analysis provides indirect evidence that the commercialized agricultural extension system in China probably contributes to the coexistence of overuse and underuse. To improve pesticide use, it is urgent to reestablish the monitoring and forecasting system regarding pest control in China. PMID:26296070

  13. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. PMID:25617844

  14. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material. PMID:26208829

  15. The value of usability testing for Internet-based adolescent self-management interventions: “Managing Hemophilia Online”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As adolescents with hemophilia approach adulthood, they are expected to assume responsibility for their disease management. A bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program, “Teens Taking Charge: Managing Hemophilia Online,” was developed to support adolescents with hemophilia in this transition. This study explored the usability of the website and resulted in refinement of the prototype. Methods A purposive sample (n=18; age 13–18; mean age 15.5 years) was recruited from two tertiary care centers to assess the usability of the program in English and French. Qualitative observations using a “think aloud” usability testing method and semi-structured interviews were conducted in four iterative cycles, with changes to the prototype made as necessary following each cycle. This study was approved by research ethics boards at each site. Results Teens responded positively to the content and appearance of the website and felt that it was easy to navigate and understand. The multimedia components (videos, animations, quizzes) were felt to enrich the experience. Changes to the presentation of content and the website user-interface were made after the first, second and third cycles of testing in English. Cycle four did not result in any further changes. Conclusions Overall, teens found the website to be easy to use. Usability testing identified end-user concerns that informed improvements to the program. Usability testing is a crucial step in the development of Internet-based self-management programs to ensure information is delivered in a manner that is accessible and understood by users. PMID:24094082

  16. The development of compulsive internet use and mental health: A four-year study of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T; Heaven, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1030 males, 1038 females, Mage = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly associated with CIU within males and females. Structural equation modeling revealed that CIU predicted the development of poor mental health, whereas poor mental health did not predict CIU development. Latent growth analyses showed that both females and males increased in CIU and mental health problems across the high school years. Females had higher CIU and worse mental health than males, and tended to engage in more social forms of Internet use. We discuss future directions for CIU intervention research. PMID:26595355

  17. [Aiming for the adolescent market: internet and video games, the new strategies of the tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. Historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. Nowadays, Internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. The present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the Internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control. PMID:22689169

  18. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376287

  19. [Overuse injury syndromes of the calf and foot] ].

    PubMed

    Smerdelj, M; Madjarević, M; Oremus, K

    2001-12-01

    The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle. PMID:11831128

  20. Loneliness and Shyness in Adolescent Problematic Internet Users: The Role of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Vivien S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chye, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Davis' ("Comput Hum Behav" 17:187-195, 2001) cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposed and theorized that certain psychopathological characteristics present within an individual, predispose him to PIU. Objective: This study extended Davis' model in hypothesizing that social anxiety…

  1. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools containing Grades 6 through 9. Australian children using Consider This reported reduced 30-day smoking prevalence. This reduction was mediated by decreased subjective norms. The amount of program exposure was low in many classes, but program use displayed a dose-response relationship with reduced smoking prevalence. American children only reported lower expectations for smoking in the future. Intervening to prevent smoking is a challenge, and this data suggest small benefits from an Internet-based program that are unlikely to be of practical significance unless increased by improved implementation. Implementation remains the major challenge to delivering interventions via the Internet, both for health educators and researchers. PMID:17114331

  2. Adolescent Academic Achievement, Bullying Behavior, and the Frequency of Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Tina L.

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I investigated the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use, and academic achievement for Black, Hispanic, and White boys and girls. I assessed three measures of academic achievement, including scores on mathematics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary.…

  3. The Virtual Cutting Edge: The Internet and Adolescent Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Janis L.; Powers, Jane L.; Eckenrode, John

    2006-01-01

    The 2 studies reported here use observational data from message boards to investigate how adolescents solicit and share information related to self-injurious behavior. Study 1 examines the prevalence and nature of these message boards, their users, and most commonly discussed topics. Study 2 was intended to explore the correlations between content…

  4. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-09-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex. PMID:21332367

  5. Pathological Internet use among adolescents: Comparing gamers and non-gamers.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Durkee, Tony; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-07-30

    "Internet gaming disorder" was recently included in Section 3 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Non-gaming Internet activities were not considered because of a lack of evidence. This study examined whether gamers differ from non-gamers with respect to their psychological well-being among students who show pathological Internet use (PIU). This cross-sectional study was conducted within the project "Working in Europe to Stop Truancy Among Youth (WE-STAY)". A total of 8807 European representative students from randomly selected schools were included. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire was applied to assess PIU, and students with this condition were divided into gamers (PIU-G) and non-gamers (PIU-NG). Overall, 3.62% and 3.11% of the students were classified as having PIU-G and PIU-NG, respectively. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students with PIU-G and those with PIU-NG showed similarly increased risks for emotional symptoms, conduct disorder, hyperactivity/inattention, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Students with PIU-G were more likely to be male and have a higher risk for peer problems than those with PIU-NG. Students with PIU-NG had a higher risk of depression than those with PIU-G. The significant psychological impairment of PIU-NG suggests that it should be considered in future diagnostic criteria. PMID:25959265

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with chronic overuse of an adrenaline inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M J; Fraser, D M; Boon, N

    1992-01-01

    Endogenous catecholamines in excess are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy. A patient presented with dilated cardiomyopathy after many years of overusing an adrenaline inhaler. Pathological features and a considerable improvement in myocardial function after withdrawal implicated the exogenous catecholamine excess in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. PMID:1389744

  7. Characteristics of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use in U.S. University Students: A Qualitative-Method Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students’ self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants’ lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research. PMID:25647224

  8. Characteristics of internet addiction/pathological internet use in U.S. university students: a qualitative-method investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students' self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants' lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research. PMID:25647224

  9. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an impulse disorder, or is at least related to impulse control disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that different facets of trait impulsivity may be specifically linked to the brain regions with impaired impulse inhibition function in IGA adolescents. Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and seventeen healthy controls were scanned during performance of a response-inhibition Go/No-Go task using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Results There were no differences in the behavioral performance on the Go/No-Go task between the groups. However, the IGA group was significantly hyperactive during No-Go trials in the left superior medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex, right superior/middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left precuneus and cuneus. Further, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule were significantly hypoactive during No-Go trials. Activation of the left superior medial frontal gyrus was positively associated with BIS-11 and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) total score across IGA participants. Conclusions Our data suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity, while its impaired function may relate to high impulsivity in adolescents with IGA, which may contribute directly to the Internet addiction process. PMID:24885073

  10. Parents of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes - Their Views on Information and Communication Needs and Internet Use. A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nordfeldt, Sam; Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Nordwall, Maria; Krevers, Barbro

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about parents’ views on the use of online resources for information, education and support regarding childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Considering the rapidly evolving new communication practices, parents’ perspectives need to be explored. The main purpose of this paper was to explore parents’ perceptions of their information-seeking, Internet use, and social networking online. This applied to their everyday life, including the contexts of T1DM and contact with peers. A second aim was to identify implications for future development of Internet use in this respect. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven parents of 24 young persons aged 10–17 with T1DM participated in eight focus group interviews during their regular visits to a county hospital. Focus group discussions were video/audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Self-reported demographic and medical information was also collected. A main theme was Finding things out, including two sub-themes, Trust and Suitability. The latter were key factors affecting parents’ perceptions of online resources. Parents’ choice of information source was related to the situation, previous experiences and knowledge about sources and, most importantly, the level of trust in the source. A constantly present background theme was Life situation, including two sub-themes, Roles and functions and Emotions and needs. Parents’ information-seeking regarding T1DM varied greatly, and was closely associated with their life situation, the adolescents development phases and the disease trajectory. Conclusions/Significance Health practitioners and system developers need to focus on creating trust and suitability for users’ needs. They should understand the children’s diverse needs, which depend on their life situation, on the children’s development, and on the disease trajectory. To enhance trust in online health information and support services, the

  11. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lindi; Zhao, Zhimin; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to

  12. [Mediating role of emotional regulation between impulsive behavior in gambling, Internet and videogame abuse, and dysfunctional symptomatology in young adults and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Estévez Gutiérrez, Ana; Herrero Fernández, David; Sarabia Gonzalvo, Izaskun; Jáuregui Bilbao, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The way emotions are regulated might affect the engagement on risk behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, studying the relationship between these variables could be of great importance. Some of the less studied risky behaviors are pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse. This research aims to analyze the existing relationship between such risky behaviors, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional psychological symptomatology (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, somatization, obsessive-–compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). In addition, it also looks to assess whether emotional regulation plays a mediating role between pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse, and psychological symptomatology. The sample was composed of 1312 young adults and adolescents, aged between 12 and 30, recruited from scholar centers, universities and free time groups, and from associations and centers associated with FEJAR (Spanish Federation of Rehabilitated Gamblers). Participants completed measurements of impulsive behavior, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional symptomatology. Results showed that there is generally a positive and significant relation between these variables. Moreover, it has been pointed out that emotion regulation mediates the association between impulsive behavior and dysfunctional symptomatology among those young adults and adolescents who engage in these impulsive behaviors, except for the relation between videogame abuse and depressive symptomatology. Training in emotional regulation skills could be useful in dealing with and treating this type of behaviors in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25577999

  13. The internet, adolescent males, and homemade blowgun darts: a recipe for foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Walz, Patrick C; Scholes, Melissa A; Merz, Meredith N; Elmaraghy, Charles A; Jatana, Kris R

    2013-08-01

    We describe our experience with blowgun dart aspiration via an illustrative case series and review the resources available to teach children how to construct these objects. A 15-year-old boy presented with cough, wheeze, and eventually admitted to aspiration of a homemade blowgun dart. This instance heightened the awareness of our experience with blowgun dart aspiration as 3 cases presented within a 3-month period. Patients uniformly presented with cough and reported aspiration, and wheezing was noted in 2 of the 3. Although all ultimately admitted their behavior, 2 were initially reluctant to admit aspirating the blowgun dart. Radiographic findings of a needle-shaped metallic airway foreign body were consistent in all patients. Each admitted to finding instructions for blowgun dart construction on the Internet. Emergent rigid bronchoscopy with blowgun dart removal resulted in symptom resolution in all without complication. This represents the largest series of blowgun dart aspiration to date. During deep inhalation, when preparing to propel a blowgun dart, the vocal folds maximally abduct, leading to increased risk for aspiration. Twenty websites were identified providing instructions for the construction of homemade blowgun darts. With the accessibility of the Internet and number of instructional websites, this clinical entity may become more common in the future. Unfortunately, only a few of the websites provide any safety warnings. Certainly, prompt treatment can result in good outcomes; however, serious potential complications, including death, could occur especially given the hesitance our patients showed in divulging the truth of the inciting event. PMID:23878050

  14. An Analysis of Some Variables Affecting the Internet Dependency Level of Turkish Adolescents by Using Decision Tree Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…

  15. Internet bullying.

    PubMed

    Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial literature on the impact of the mass media on children's and adolescents' health and development. The question of what role new technology plays in the media's influence is now a subject of both review and discussion, particularly regarding health risks and intervention. This article takes a brief look at online usage and the theoretical mechanisms that might make Internet access more problematic in terms of risks, compared with more traditional media such as television and film. One of these risks, known today as cyberbullying or Internet harassment, is scrutinized in detail. PMID:22643169

  16. Internet Gaming Disorder Among Slovenian Primary Schoolchildren: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Halley M; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) - a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia. PMID:27363464

  17. Increasing Access to Mental Health Care With Breathe, an Internet-Based Program for Anxious Adolescents: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation

  18. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Internet Therapy, Group Therapy and A Waiting List Condition

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant

  19. A short-term longitudinal study of Internet and computer game use by adolescent boys and girls: prevalence, frequency of use, and psychosocial predictors.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence, frequency, and psychosocial predictors of Internet and computer game use were assessed with 803 male and 788 female adolescents across 2 time periods, 21 months apart. At Time 1, participants were in the 9th or 10th grade; at Time 2, they were in the 11th or 12th grade. Most girls (93.7%) and boys (94.7%) reported using the Internet at both time periods, whereas more boys (80.3%) than girls (28.8%) reported gaming at both time periods. Girls reported a small decrease over time in the frequency of hours spent per day on overall technology use, mostly due to a decrease in gaming. Both linear and curvilinear relations were examined between parental relationships, friendship quality, academic orientation, and well-being measured in early high school and the frequency of technology use in late high school. Being male significantly predicted both computer gaming and Internet use. There also were trends in favor of higher friendship quality and less positive parental relationships predicting higher frequency of Internet use. Importantly, moderate use of the Internet was associated with a more positive academic orientation than nonuse or high levels of use. PMID:18194017

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  2. Medication overuse headache: history, features, prevention and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Saper, Joel R; Da Silva, Arnaldo Neves

    2013-11-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a daily, or almost daily, headache form that arises from overuse of one or more classes of migraine-abortive or analgesic medication. The main classes of drugs that cause MOH are opioids, butalbital-containing mixed analgesics, triptans, ergotamine tartrate derivatives, simple analgesics (except for plain aspirin), and perhaps non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. MOH can be debilitating and results from biochemical and functional brain changes induced by certain medications taken too frequently. At this time, migraine and other primary headache disorders in which migraine or migraine-like elements occur seem exclusively vulnerable to the development of MOH. Other primary headache disorders are not currently believed to be vulnerable. The treatment of MOH consists of discontinuation of the offending drug(s), acute treatment of the withdrawal symptoms and escalating pain, establishing a preventive treatment when necessary, and the implementation of educational and behavioral programs to prevent recidivism. In most patients, MOH can be treated in the outpatient setting but, for the most difficult cases, including those with opioid or butalbital overuse, or in patients with serious medical or behavioral disturbances, effective treatment requires a multidisciplinary, comprehensive headache program, either day-hospital with infusion or an inpatient hospital setting. PMID:23925669

  3. Prevalence of overuse (injury) syndrome in Australian music schools.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, H J

    1987-01-01

    Overuse (injury) syndrome, common in musicians, is characterised by persisting pain and tenderness in the muscles and joint ligaments of the upper limb due to excessive use and in more advanced instances by weakness and loss of response and control in the affected muscle groups. This occurs typically in tertiary music students when their practice load is raised. In seven Australian performing music schools the minimum prevalence of the condition was found to be 9.3%. In two music schools where the study was more controlled the incidences were 13% and 21%. The factors leading to overuse (injury) syndrome may be identified as follows: the genetic factor of vulnerability which cannot be altered; the student's technique which may be influenced by teaching and application so that it is more "energy efficient"; and the time X intensity of practice which is totally within the student's control. Prevention involves education of staff and students about the overuse process, rationalisation of practice habits and repertoire, abolition or reduction of static loading of the weight of the instruments, and earlier reporting when the problem is most easily corrected. Psychological problems arising in this syndrome appeared to occur as a reaction to the condition rather than as a causal factor. PMID:3814532

  4. Overuse syndrome in musicians--100 years ago. An historical review.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J

    Overuse syndrome in musicians was extensively reported 100 years ago. The clinical features and results of treatment, which were recorded in considerable detail, match well the condition that is described today. The medical literature that is reviewed here extends from 1830 to 1911 and includes 21 books and 54 articles from the English language literature, apart from two exceptions; however, the writers of the day themselves reviewed French, German and Italian literature on the subject. The disorder was said to result from the overuse of the affected parts. Two theories of aetiology, not necessarily mutually exclusive, were argued. The central theory regarded the lesion as being in the central nervous system, the peripheral theory implied a primary muscle disorder. No serious case was put forward for a psychogenic origin, though emotional factors were believed to aggravate the condition. Advances in musical instrument manufacture--particularly the development of the concert piano and the clarinet--may have played a part in the prevalence of overuse syndrome in musicians. Total rest from the mechanical use of the hand was the only effective treatment recorded. PMID:3540544

  5. Medication-overuse headache: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is one of the most common chronic headache disorders and a public health problem with a worldwide prevalence of 1–2%. It is a condition characterized by chronic headache and overuse of different headache medications, and withdrawal of the overused medication is recognised as the treatment of choice. However, the strategy for achieving withdrawal is, at present, based on expert opinion rather than scientific evidence, partly due to the lack of randomised controlled studies. This narrative review investigates different aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors and pathogenesis as well as management for MOH. We suggest that the first step in the treatment of MOH should be carried out in general practice and should focus primarily on detoxification. For most patients, both prevention and follow up after detoxification can also be performed in general practice, thus freeing resources for referral of more complicated cases to headache clinics and neurologists. These suffering patients have much to gain by an earlier treatment-focused approach lower down on the treatment ladder. PMID:25083264

  6. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments. PMID:22470305

  7. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  8. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  9. Internet use and web communication networks, sources of social support, and forms of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents: different patterns between genders.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fang-Yi; Yang, Hao-Jan

    2015-04-01

    The relationships of Internet use, web communication, and sources of social support with adolescent self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in Taiwan were investigated. The study sample of 391 12 to 18-year-olds was selected from nine public high schools. Findings show that girls are more likely to have SITBs, except for suicide gestures. Web communication is a risk factor for SITBs in boys but not in girls. Family support is protective in both genders. Support from friends is protective and support from significant others was a risk factor for suicide plans in girls. Support from virtual social communities can have both positive and negative effects on adolescent SITBs, with different effects by gender. PMID:25255896

  10. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident. PMID:25189795

  11. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes. PMID:22061038

  12. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal. PMID:24886919

  13. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries. PMID:21922439

  14. Death of a young man after overuse of energy drink.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Sema; Sarıkaya, Rıdvan; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2013-11-01

    A 28-year-old-man admitted to emergency department with ventricular tachycardia. Patient had drunk 3 cans of 250-mL energy drink 5 hours before the basketball match; he had palpitation and nausea before the match. After 30 minutes of the match, during the break, patient lost his consciousness. On admission, normal cardiac rhythm was achieved by cardioversion, and the patient was hospitalized and died on the third day. Energy drinks generally contain caffeine, taurine, various vitamins, glucose, and herbal extracts such as guarana and ginseng. Especially in high doses, caffeine can cause palpitations and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia. Energy drink consumers should be informed about their severe adverse effects in case of overuse. PMID:23896014

  15. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunqi; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition. PMID:25879023

  16. Usability and Navigability of an HIV/AIDS Internet Intervention for Adolescents in a Resource Limited Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele; Biringi, Ruth; Prescott, Tonya; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Internet is growing in Sub Saharan Africa. Evidence of computer and Internet effectiveness for reduction in risk behaviors associated with HIV shown in U.S. settings has yet to be replicated in Africa. We describe the development, usability and navigability testing of an Internet-based HIV prevention program for secondary school students in Uganda, called CyberSenga. For this work, we used four data collection activities, including observation of (a) computer skills and (b) navigation, (c) focus group discussions, and (d) field assessments to document comprehension and usability of program content. We document limited skills among students, but youth with basic computers skills were able to navigate the program after instruction. Youth were most interested in activities with more interaction. Field-testing illustrated the importance of using a stand-alone electrical source during program delivery. This work suggests delivery of Internet-based health promotion content in Africa requires attention to user preparedness and literacy, bandwidth, Internet connection, and electricity. PMID:22918136

  17. Trajectories of Change During a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-delivered Psychological Treatment for Adolescent Chronic Pain: How does Change in Pain and Function Relate?

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Zhou, Chuan; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Logan, Deirdre; Tai, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Although pain and function improve at immediate post-treatment for youth receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain, limited data are available to understand changes that youth make during psychological treatment. We sought to characterize distinct trajectory patterns of change in pain and function in order to understand the temporal association of these changes during internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment. Weekly repeated assessments of pain and function were conducted during eight weeks of treatment among 135 adolescents, ages 11 to 17 years, with chronic pain who were randomized to the cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) arm of an ongoing trial of internet-delivered CBT (Web-Based Management of Adolescent Pain; Web-MAP2). Using random effects growth mixture models we characterized pain and functional disability trajectories finding distinct trajectory groups indicating patterns of both linear as well as quadratic effects. Trajectories of change showed that some patients’ pain and functional disability was improving, others worsened, or changed minimally. Paired t-tests compared the within-subject relative change rate in pain and function demonstrating similar change range for pain and function during the treatment period. There was no support for improvements in either pain or function to precede changes in the other domain. Findings may be useful in informing future studies of psychosocial treatments for pediatric chronic pain to consider how to target treatment strategies to distinct patient response profiles. This may lead to the development of intervention strategies that can both more effectively target children’s pain and function during treatment, and lead to sustained changes following treatment. PMID:25775441

  18. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    PubMed

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries. PMID:23147091

  19. Caught in the Net: How To Recognize the Signs of Internet Addiction--and a Winning Strategy for Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Kimberly S.

    Until recently, little attention has been given to the addictive potential of the Internet. If left unchecked or unnoticed, this addiction can silently run rampant in schools, universities, offices, libraries, and homes. This book teaches how to guard against Internet overuse. It describes how, by drawing from the same criteria used to diagnosis…

  20. The Outcomes of a 12-Week Internet Intervention Aimed at Improving Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight Adolescents: The Young & Active Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riiser, Kirsti; Løndal, Knut; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Misvær, Nina; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this controlled trial, participants (13–15 years) were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test. Results Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04), and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02). Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (−0.39; 95% CI [−0.74;−0.03]; P = 0.03) for the intervention group. Conclusion The results suggest that the Internet

  1. Adolescence, Race, and Ethnicity on the Internet: A Comparison of Discourse in Monitored Vs. Unmonitored Chat Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynes, Brendesha; Reynolds, Lindsay; Greenfield, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    Scholars have argued that the Internet could bring about the realization of an electronic global village, with no race, gender, infirmities, or the social problems that often accompany these physical indicators of difference. In this study, we explored this issue by conducting content and discourse analyses of online conversations about race and…

  2. Overuse tendon conditions: time to change a confusing terminology.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N; Khan, K M; Puddu, G

    1998-01-01

    In overuse clinical conditions in and around tendons, frank inflammation is infrequent, and is associated mostly with tendon ruptures. Tendinosis implies tendon degeneration without clinical or histological signs of intratendinous inflammation, and is not necessarily symptomatic. Patients undergoing an operation for Achilles tendinopathy show similar areas of degeneration. When the term tendinitis is used in a clinical context, it does not refer to a specific histopathological entity. However, tendinitis is commonly used for conditions that are truly tendinoses, and this leads athletes and coaches to underestimate the proven chronicity of the condition. Paratenonitis is characterized by acute edema and hypermia of the paratenon, with infiltration of inflammatory cells, possibly with production of a fibrinous exudate that fills the tendon sheath, causing the typical crepitus that can be felt on clinical examination. The term partial tear of a tendon should describe a macroscopically evident subcutaneous partial tear of a tendon, an uncommon acute lesion. Most articles describing the surgical treatment of 'partial tears' of a given tendon in reality deal with degenerative tendinopathies. The combination of pain, swelling, and impaired performance should be labeled tendinopathy. According to the tissues affected, the terms tendinopathy, paratendinopathy, or pantendinopathy should be used. PMID:9848596

  3. The embodied liminalities of occupational overuse syndrome: Medical anthropology quarterly.

    PubMed

    Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on interviews with sufferers of OOS (occupational overuse syndrome) in Aoteraoa/New Zealand, this article explores the liminalities associated with OOS and the ways in which this liminality is embodied. While successful rehabilitation could lead back to employment, the respondents' fragility while living with OOS and its accompanying social stigma render such rehabilitation both literally and symbolically "out of reach". Their situations reveal social isolation, loss of identities, pain, and functional disability that have been incorporated into renegotiated identities and biographies in which respondents have become exquisitely self-absorbed, exercising constant bodily surveillance and discipline in order to manage their symptoms. We suggest that this problematic extends beyond biographical disruption to encompass the concept of injury to an embodied sense of integrity for people who were notable prior to their affliction for their reputations as extremely competent and conscientious workers. The embodied meaning of OOS in this environment is not so much to have fallen "out of culture" as Hilbert (Ewan et al. 1991) suggests, but to be liminal in Turner's sense of "threshold people" (Turner 1969:56) "ground down to a uniform condition to be fashioned anew." PMID:22905437

  4. Students' Overuse of Linearity: An Exploration in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bock, Dirk; van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-05-01

    In mathematics education, a vast amount of research has shown that students of different ages have a strong tendency to apply linear or proportional models anywhere, even in situations where they are not applicable. For example, in geometry it is known that many students believe that if the sides of a figure are doubled, the area is doubled too. However, also history of science provides several cases of thinkers who inadequately postulated linear relations to describe situations. This article focuses on secondary school students' over-reliance on linearity in physics. Now and then, science educators report students' tendency to assume and impose linear relations in physics, but—as far as we know—no substantial efforts were undertaken to study this phenomenon systematically. We conducted an empirical investigation aimed at identifying the competence of 8th- and 11th-graders—before and after being taught the relevant physical topics—to qualitatively grasp various situations in physics, as well as their tendency to quantify that qualitative insight linearly. The results provide an ambivalent picture of students' overuse of linearity in physics: Although linear reasoning is sometimes used as a default strategy, even after instruction that addresses the relevant physical contents, this study also indicates that context is taken into account more often than is suggested by research on mathematical problem solving.

  5. A conceptual framework for understanding and reducing overuse by primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam A; Bloomfield, Hanna E; Burgess, Diana J; Wilt, Timothy J; Partin, Melissa R

    2013-10-01

    Primary care providers frequently recommend, administer, or prescribe health care services that are unlikely to benefit their patients. Yet little is known about how to reduce provider overuse behavior. In the absence of a theoretically grounded causal framework, it is difficult to predict the contexts under which different types of interventions to reduce provider overuse will succeed and under which they will fail. In this article, we present a framework based on the theory of planned behavior that is designed to guide overuse research and intervention development. We describe categories of primary care provider beliefs that lead to the formation of intentions to assess the appropriateness of services, and propose factors that may affect whether the presence of assessment intentions results in an appropriate recommendation. Interventions that have been commonly used to address provider overuse behavior are reviewed within the context of the framework. PMID:23916984

  6. The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents (Kitle Iletisim Araçlarindaki ve Internetteki Müziksel Unsurlarin Çocuklarin ve Adolesanlarin Sosyal Gelisimleri Üzerindeki Etkileri)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celasin, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…

  7. “ADHD Knowledge, Perceptions and Information Sources: Perspectives from a Community Sample of Adolescents and their Parents”

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Meyer, Johanna.M.; White, Kimberly; Garvan, Cynthia W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The chronic illness model advocates for psychoeducation within a collaborative care model to enhance outcomes. To inform psychoeducational approaches for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study describes parent and adolescent knowledge, perceptions and information sources and explores how these vary by sociodemographic characteristics, ADHD risk, and past child mental health service use. METHODS Parents and adolescents were assessed 7.7 years after initial school district screening for ADHD risk. The study sample included 374 adolescents (56% high and 44% low ADHD risk), on average 15.4 (SD 1.8) years old, and 36% were African American. Survey questions assessed ADHD knowledge, perceptions, and cues to action, and elicited utilized and preferred information sources. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine potential independent predictors of ADHD knowledge. McNemar's tests compared information source utilization against preference. RESULTS Despite relatively high self-rated ADHD familiarity, misperceptions among parents and adolescents were common, including a sugar etiology (25% and 27%, respectively) and medication overuse (85% and 67%). African American respondents expressed lower ADHD awareness and greater belief in sugar etiology than Caucasians. Parents used a wide range of ADHD information sources while adolescents relied on social network members and teachers/school. However, parents and adolescents expressed similar strong preferences for the Internet (49% and 51%) and doctor (40% and 27%) as ADHD information sources. CONCLUSION Culturally appropriate psychoeducational strategies are needed that combine doctor-provided ADHD information with reputable Internet sources. Despite time limitations during patient visits, both parents and teens place high priority on receiving information from their doctor. PMID:23174470

  8. Physicians’ beliefs about breast cancer surveillance testing are consistent with test overuse

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K.J.; Klabunde, Carrie N.; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Earle, Craig C.; Ayanian, John Z.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Virgo, Katherine S.; Potosky, Arnold L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Overuse of surveillance testing for breast cancer survivors is an important problem but its extent and determinants are incompletely understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which physicians’ breast cancer surveillance testing beliefs are consistent with test overuse, and to identify factors associated with these beliefs. Methods 2009–2010 cross-sectional survey of US medical oncologists and primary care physicians (PCPs). Physicians responded to a clinical vignette ascertaining beliefs about appropriate breast cancer surveillance testing. Multivariable analyses examined the extent to which test beliefs were consistent with overuse and associated with physician and practice characteristics and physician perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Results 1098 medical oncologists and 980 PCPs completed the survey (response rate 57.5%). Eighty-four percent of PCPs (95% CI: 81.4%–86.5%) and 72% of oncologists (95% CI: 69.8%– 74.7%) reported beliefs consistent with blood test overuse, while 50% of PCPs (95% CI: 47.3%– 53.8%) and 27% of oncologists (95% CI: 23.9%–29.3%) reported beliefs consistent with imaging test overuse. Among PCPs, factors associated with these beliefs included smaller practice size, lower patient volume, and practice ownership. Among oncologists, factors included older age, international medical graduate status, lower self-efficacy (confidence in knowledge), and greater perceptions of ambiguity (conflicting expert recommendations) regarding survivorship care. Conclusions Beliefs consistent with breast cancer surveillance test overuse are common, greater for PCPs and blood tests than for oncologists and imaging tests, and associated with practice characteristics and perceived self-efficacy and ambiguity about testing. These results suggest modifiable targets for efforts to reduce surveillance test overuse. PMID:23269111

  9. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  10. Internet addiction in young people.

    PubMed

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families. PMID:25142474

  11. Overuse in volleyball training/practice: A review on shoulder and spine-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance. PMID:24251752

  12. Reading on the Internet: The Link between Literacy and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmar-Dobler, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Studies how the Internet is used by adolescents. Considers how the union of reading and technology on the Internet is causing educators to take a new look at what it means to be literate in today's society. (SG)

  13. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries and heart rate variability: Is there a link?

    PubMed

    Gisselman, Angela Spontelli; Baxter, G David; Wright, Alexis; Hegedus, Eric; Tumilty, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Accurate detection and prevention of overuse musculoskeletal injuries is limited by the nature of somatic tissue injury. In the pathogenesis of overuse injuries, it is well recognized that an abnormal inflammatory response occurs within somatic tissue before pain is perceived which can disrupt the normal remodeling process and lead to subsequent degeneration. Current overuse injury prevention methods focused on biomechanical faults or performance standards lack the sensitivity needed to identify the status of tissue injury or repair. Recent evidence has revealed an apparent increase in the prevalence and impact of overuse musculoskeletal injuries in athletics. When compared to acute injuries, overuse injuries have a potentially greater negative impact on athletes' overall health burden. Further, return to sport rehabilitation following overuse injury is complicated by the fact that the absence of pain does not equate to complete physiological healing of the injured tissue. Together, this highlights the need for exercise monitoring and injury prevention methods which incorporate assessment of somatic tissue response to loading. One system primarily involved in the activation of pathways and neuromediators responsible for somatic tissue repair is the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although not completely understood, emerging research supports the critical importance of peripheral ANS activity in the health and repair of somatic tissue injury. Due to its significant contributions to cardiac function, ANS activity can be measured indirectly with heart rate monitoring. Heart rate variability (HRV) is one index of ANS activity that has been used to investigate the relationship between athletes' physiological response to accumulating training load. Research findings indicated that HRV may provide a reflection of ANS homeostasis, or the body's stress-recovery status. This noninvasive marker of the body's primary driver of recovery has the potential to incorporate

  14. Proposal of a model for multidisciplinary treatment program of chronic migraine with medication overuse: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grazzi, L; Prunesti, A; Bussone, G

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic migraine associated with medication overuse is challenging in clinical practice; different strategies of treatment have been recently developed, multidisciplinary treatment approaches have been developed in academic headache centers. Education and support of patients are necessary to improve patients' adherence to pharmacological treatments as well as to non-pharmacological therapies. This study reports a clinical experience conducted at our Headache center with a group of female patients, suffering from chronic migraine complicated by medication overuse, treated by a multidisciplinary approach and followed for a period of 1 year after withdrawal. Results confirm the efficacy of a multifaceted treatment to manage this problematic category of patients. PMID:26017536

  15. No injuries, but plenty of pain? On the methodology for recording overuse symptoms in sports.

    PubMed

    Bahr, R

    2009-12-01

    Overuse injuries may represent as much of a problem as do acute injuries in many sports. This paper reviews key concepts related to the methodology for recording overuse symptoms. Results from the FIVB Volleyball Injury Study were used to compare two different recording methods. The aim of this paper was to provide recommendations on how standardised methodology can be developed to quantify overuse injuries in surveillance studies. Using beach volleyball data, a "traditional" cohort study approach using a time-loss injury definition suggested that injury risk was very low. In contrast, the data from a survey of past and present pain problems in the shoulder, knees and low back demonstrated that these were prevalent. The following recommendations are made: (1) studies should be prospective, with continuous or serial measurements of symptoms; (2) valid and sensitive scoring instruments need to be developed to measure pain and other relevant symptoms; (3) prevalence and not incidence should be used to report injury risk; (4) severity should be measured based on functional level and not time loss from sports. In conclusion, new approaches are needed to develop more appropriate methodology to quantify overuse injuries in studies. PMID:19945978

  16. Clinicians' and Patients' Assessment of Activity Overuse and Underuse and Its Relation to Physical Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2012-01-01

    To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main…

  17. Running from Iliotibial Band Syndrome: A Guide for Preventing Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Codi A.

    2016-01-01

    Iliotbial band syndrome (ITBS) is an overuse injury that affects distance runners and produces a large amount of frustration (and pain) to the runner, coaches and trainers. Treatments for ITBS vary widely and no known cures exist. Many running experts and physicians have prescribed several variations of training programs designed to help runners…

  18. Prospective epidemiological study of basketball injuries during one competitive season: ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries.

    PubMed

    Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0) of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1) per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34) accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR) and Odds Ratio (OR) with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent's foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]). Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day). Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours) was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]). This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research. Key pointsAnkle sprains are the most common acute injuries in basketball with the inciting event being landing on an opponent's foot or changing direction.Anterior knee pain is the most common overuse injury. Etiologic factors are well described in literature, but prevention strategies are lacking.Acute knee injuries account for the

  19. Internet use by the socially fearful: addiction or therapy?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian

    2006-02-01

    The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments. PMID:16497120

  20. Profiles of exercise history and overuse injuries among United States Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) recruits.

    PubMed

    Shwayhat, A F; Linenger, J M; Hofherr, L K; Slymen, D J; Johnson, C W

    1994-01-01

    This prospective study examined running history as a risk factor for subsequent overuse injury in Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) recruits. Recruits preparing to be Navy SEALs undergo 6 months of rigorous physical training programs, which place these recruits at high risk for developing an overuse injury. We assessed the independent variables of age; prior running frequency, duration, and pace; and training surface. Univariate and multivariate estimates of risk were determined for each variable. We observed an incidence of 3.4 overuse injuries per 1000 recruit-days. Assessing the physical activity of the recruits in the 6 months before entrance into basic training, we found that the recruits who ran at a pace slower than 8 minutes per mile and on softer training surfaces were more likely to sustain an overuse injury during basic training, in both univariate and multivariate estimates of risk. Recruits who ran fewer weekly miles and for shorter durations before basic training were also more likely to sustain an overuse injury according to univariate estimates of risk. Our findings suggest that risk of overuse injuries can be reduced by adjusting exercise routines before training. Running on different type surfaces with a gradual increase in speed, duration, and weekly mileage in the period preceding basic training may reduce risk of overuse injury. PMID:7856809

  1. Internet Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X.

    1999-01-01

    States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

  2. Understanding Dispositions toward Reading on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coiro, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Students' perceptions about the Internet's usefulness and potential to engage them in academic learning tasks have been found to influence their success in reading for information in online tasks. This article helps to understand the types of dispositions that adolescents may have toward reading on the Internet and how to characterize these…

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Pediatric Overuse Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806

  4. Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2012-08-01

    Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

  5. Engaging Physicians in Change: Results of a Safety Net Quality Improvement Program to Reduce Overuse

    PubMed Central

    Cammisa, Chris; Partridge, Gregory; Ardans, Cynthia; Buehrer, Katrina; Chapman, Ben; Beckman, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Identifying, understanding, and addressing clinical variation is a useful tool to promote appropriate care while helping control health care costs. Although accurate, relevant, and useful data are important in the process, successfully engaging physicians to change behavior is often the most significant challenge. Using a commercially available variation analysis process, a California Medicaid managed care plan identified significant network practice pattern variation. A team of panel practitioners then developed a strategy to reduce overuse of 5 identified behaviors. The intervention was evaluated using a pre–post comparison of the panel’s use of the 5 behaviors. During the preintervention period, narcotics, muscle relaxants, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and spinal injections increased between 8% and 18% per month. Postintervention, the trends reversed. The differences were statistically significant (P < .0001) for muscle relaxant use, narcotic use, overall MRI use, and spinal injections. Peer comparison data and respectful feedback was associated with significant change in patterns of overuse. PMID:20876341

  6. Comparisons between Thai Adolescent Voices and Thai Adolescent Health Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.

    2006-01-01

    Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…

  7. Internet safety education for youth: stakeholder perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among US youth; risks to internet use include cyberbullying, privacy violations and unwanted solicitation. Internet safety education may prevent these negative consequences; however, it is unclear at what age this education should begin and what group is responsible for teaching this topic. Methods Surveys were distributed to key stakeholders in youth safety education including public school teachers, clinicians, parents and adolescents. Surveys assessed age at which internet safety education should begin, as well as experiences teaching and learning internet safety. Surveys of adults assessed willingness to teach internet safety. Finally, participants were asked to identify a group whose primary responsibility it should be to teach internet safety. Results A total of 356 participants completed the survey (93.4% response rate), including 77 teachers, 111 clinicians, 72 parents and 96 adolescents. Stakeholders felt the optimal mean age to begin teaching internet safety was 7.2 years (SD = 2.5), range 2-15. Internet safety was regularly taught by some teachers (20.8%), few clinicians (2.6%) and many parents (40.3%). The majority of teachers, clinicians and parents were willing to teach internet safety, but all groups surveyed identified parents as having primary responsibility for teaching this topic. Conclusions Findings suggest agreement among key stakeholders for teaching internet safety at a young age, and for identifying parents as primary teachers of this topic. Clinicians have a unique opportunity to support parents by providing resources, guidance and support. PMID:23738647

  8. Adherence to treatment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Egedy, Maud; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals must be alert to the high prevalence of low adherence to treatment during adolescence. Low adherence increases morbidity and medical complications, contributes to poorer quality of life and an overuse of the health care system. Many different factors have an impact on adherence. However, critical factors to consider in teens are their developmental stage and challenges, emotional issues and family dysfunction. Direct and indirect methods have been described to assess adherence. Eliciting an adherence history is the most useful way for clinicians to evaluate adherence, and could be the beginning of a constructive dialogue with the adolescent. Interventions to improve adherence are multiple – managing mental health issues appropriately, building a strong relationship, customizing the treatment regimen if possible, empowering the adolescent to deal with adherence issues, providing information, ensuring family and peer support, and motivational enhancement therapy. Evaluation of adherence at regular intervals should be an important aspect of health care for adolescents. PMID:19119348

  9. Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters as Predictors of Lower-Limb Overuse Injuries in Military Training

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Uri; Lozin, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict lower-limb overuse injuries in cohort of combat soldiers during first year of military service. Newly recruited infantry soldiers walked on a treadmill at a 15° incline with a fixed speed of 1.67 m/sec while wearing a standard military vest with a 10 kg load. Stride time variability, stride length variability, step length asymmetry, and the duration of the loading response phase of the gait cycle were measured. Injury data on 76 soldiers who did not report musculoskeletal complaints at initial screening were collected one year after recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the predictive effect of the gait parameters on lower-limb injuries. Twenty-four soldiers (31.6%) had overuse injuries during the first year after recruitment. Duration of the loading response was a significant predictor of general lower-limb injury (p < 0.05), as well as of foot/ankle and knee injuries (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, resp.). A cutoff value of less than 12.15% for loading response duration predicted knee injuries with 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity. This study demonstrates the utility of spatiotemporal gait evaluation, a simple screening tool before military training, which may help to identify individuals at risk of lower-limb overuse injuries. PMID:27478864

  10. Overuse Activity in the Presence of Scapular Dyskinesis Leads to Shoulder Tendon Damage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Liu, Stephen S.; Caro, Adam C.; Yannascoli, Sarah M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder tendon injuries are common clinical conditions and are a significant source of pain and dysfunction. These conditions are more common in individuals who perform repetitive overhead activities and in individuals who have abnormal scapular kinematics, termed scapular dyskinesis (SD). However, the long term consequences associated with overuse activity in the presence of SD are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of overuse in combination with SD on joint mechanics and properties of the rotator cuff and biceps tendons. A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. 90 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400–450 grams) were randomized into three groups: nerve transection (SD), sham nerve transection + overuse (OV), or nerve transection + overuse (SD + OV). Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function and passive joint mechanics were evaluated over time and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were measured. Results demonstrated that overuse activity and SD are each independently detrimental to tendon properties (e.g., diminished mechanical properties, disorganized collagen). However, tendon damage caused by the addition of overuse may be worse, with more parameters altered, than damage caused by the addition of SD. This study helps define the mechanical mechanisms leading to tendon damage and provides a framework for distinguishing treatment strategies for active patients and those with abnormal scapular mechanics. PMID:25266934

  11. Overuse activity in the presence of scapular dyskinesis leads to shoulder tendon damage in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Reuther, Katherine E; Thomas, Stephen J; Tucker, Jennica J; Vafa, Rameen P; Gordon, Joshua A; Liu, Stephen S; Caro, Adam C; Yannascoli, Sarah M; Kuntz, Andrew F; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder tendon injuries are common clinical conditions and are a significant source of pain and dysfunction. These conditions are more common in individuals who perform repetitive overhead activities and in individuals who have abnormal scapular kinematics, termed scapular dyskinesis (SD). However, the long term consequences associated with overuse activity in the presence of SD are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of overuse in combination with SD on joint mechanics and properties of the rotator cuff and biceps tendons. A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. Ninety adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 g) were randomized into three groups: nerve transection (SD), sham nerve transection + overuse (OV), or nerve transection + overuse (SD + OV). Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function and passive joint mechanics were evaluated over time and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were measured. Results demonstrated that overuse activity and SD are each independently detrimental to tendon properties (e.g., diminished mechanical properties, disorganized collagen). However, tendon damage caused by the addition of overuse may be worse, with more parameters altered, than damage caused by the addition of SD. This study helps define the mechanical mechanisms leading to tendon damage and provides a framework for distinguishing treatment strategies for active patients and those with abnormal scapular mechanics. PMID:25266934

  12. Chronic migraine with medication overuse: association between disability and quality of life measures, and impact of disease on patients' lives.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Schiavolin, Silvia; Leonardi, Matilde; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Bussone, Gennaro; Curone, Marcella; Di Fiore, Paola; Grazzi, Licia; Usai, Susanna; D'Amico, Domenico

    2015-01-15

    Patients with chronic migraine with medication overuse (CM-MO) have decreased quality of life (QoL) and increased disability: the degree to which these outcomes are connected to disease severity and the pattern of MO towards disease severity are unclear. Patients under withdrawal were administered the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), and the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ). They overused NSAIDs, triptans, NSAIDs and triptans, and other drugs (ergotamine, caffeine, opioids/barbiturates). We calculated the correlations between MIDAS, WHODAS, and MSQ; compared WHODAS to normative scores; compared MIDAS, WHODAS, and MSQ in patients with different CM-MO severity; and run a logistic regression to predict CM-MO severity based on overused drugs. One hundred ninety-four patients were enrolled: correlations between WHODAS, MSQ, and MIDAS were moderate; wide differences on WHODAS against normative were found; and no trend was found across severity groups. Compared to triptans overusers, patients overusing NSAID and other drugs had higher odds of severe CM-MO. Coupling different disability measures with QoL assessment offered different insights on the lived experience of CM-MO. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between overused drugs and CM-MO severity: we added evidence that NSAIDs do not have protective effect in high-frequency CM-MO. PMID:25434715

  13. The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method.

    PubMed

    Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Heymans, M W; Engedahl, M; Midtsundstad, G; Rosenlund, L; Thorsen, G; Myklebust, G

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed specifically for this purpose. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail to 45 cross-country skiers, 98 cyclists, 50 floorball players, 55 handball players, and 65 volleyball players for 13 weeks. The prevalence of overuse problems at the shoulder, lower back, knee, and anterior thigh was monitored throughout the study and summary measures of an injury severity score derived from athletes' questionnaire responses were used to gauge the relative impact of overuse problems in each area. The area where overuse injuries had the greatest impact was the knee in volleyball where, on average, 36% of players had some form of complaint (95% CI 32-39%). Other prevalent areas included the shoulder in handball (22%, 95% CI 16-27%) the knee in cycling (23%, 95% CI 17-28%), and the knee and lower back in floorball (27%, 95% CI 24-31% and 29%, 95% CI 25-33%, respectively). PMID:24684525

  14. Internet Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  15. [Internet addiction--a case report].

    PubMed

    Pejović-Milovancević, Milica; Popović-Deusić, Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Lecić-Tosevski, Dusica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behaviour. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction. PMID:19370973

  16. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  17. Discontinuation of medication overuse in headache patients: recovery of therapeutic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Zeeberg, P; Olesen, J; Jensen, R

    2006-10-01

    It is generally accepted that ongoing medication overuse nullifies the effect of prophylactic treatment, although few data support this contention. We set out to describe the treatment outcome in patients withdrawn from medication overuse and relate any improvement to a renewed effect of prophylaxis. For patients with probable medication-overuse headache (pMOH), treated and dismissed from the Danish Headache Centre in 2002 and 2003, we assed, from prospective headache diaries, the headache frequency before and after withdrawal of offending drugs and compared these frequencies with the headache frequency at dismissal. Among 1326 patients, 337 had pMOH. Eligible were 175, mean age 49 years, male/female ratio 1 : 2.7. Overall, there was a 46% decrease in headache frequency from the first visit to dismissal (P < 0.0001). Patients with no improvement 2 months after complete drug withdrawal (N = 88) subsequently responded to pharmacological and/or non-pharmacological prophylaxis with a 26% decrease in headache frequency as measured from the end of withdrawal to dismissal (P < 0.0001). At dismissal, 47% were on prophylaxis. Former non-responders to medical prophylaxis had a 49% decrease in headache frequency from first visit to dismissal (P < 0.0001), whereas those who had never received prophylaxis had a 56% reduction (P < 0.0001). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Almost all MOH patients benefit from drug withdrawal, either just from the withdrawal or by transformation from therapeutic non-responsiveness to responsiveness. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn, the MOH diagnosis requires improvement after drug withdrawal. Our data suggest that these diagnostic criteria are too strict. PMID:16961785

  18. Stress avulsion fracture of the tarsal navicular. An uncommon sports-related overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Karpakka, J; Hulkko, A; Takala, T

    1991-01-01

    We report nine cases of stress-related avulsion fracture of the tarsal navicular in athletes. This uncommon over-use injury is thought to occur following repetitive cyclic compressive loading secondary to an impingement of the tarsal navicular. The small dorsal triangular fragment is best seen in weightbearing lateral view radiographs and isotope scan and/or tomography help confirm the diagnosis. We feel that operative treatment is the method of choice in highly symptomatic cases and among top athletes because of the shorter recovery time. PMID:1897656

  19. Antimicrobial resistance: risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem

    PubMed Central

    Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general practitioners, and respiratory tract infections are the leading reason for prescribing. Multifaceted interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics have been found to be effective and better than single initiatives. Interventions should encompass the enforcement of the policy of prohibiting the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid of information brochures and the performance of more pragmatic studies in primary care with outcomes that are of clinicians’ interest, such as complications and clinical outcomes. PMID:25436105

  20. Histopathological, biomechanical, and behavioral pain findings of Achilles tendinopathy using an animal model of overuse injury

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Leila; Vachon, Pascal; Beaudry, Francis; Langelier, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Animal models of forced running are used to study overuse tendinopathy, a common health problem for which clear evidence for effective and accessible treatments is still lacking. In these models, pain evaluation is necessary to better understand the disease, help design and evaluate therapies, and ensure humane treatment of the animals. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate pain and pathologic findings in an animal model of moderate Achilles tendinopathy induced by treadmill running. Air puffs, instead of electrical shocks, were used to stimulate running so that pain associated with stimulation would be avoided. Pressure pain sensitivity was evaluated in vivo using a new instrumented plier, whereas spinal cord peptides were analyzed ex vivo with high‐performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tendon histologic slides were semiquantitatively evaluated, using the Bonar score technique and biomechanical properties, using the traction test. After 8 weeks of treadmill running (2 weeks for adaptation and 6 weeks for the lesion protocol), the protocol was stopped because the air puffs became ineffective to stimulate running. We, nevertheless, observed some histologic changes characteristic of overuse tendinopathy as well as decreased mechanical properties, increased Substance P and dynorphin A peptides but without pressure pain sensitivity. These results suggest that air‐puffs stimulation is sufficient to induce an early stage tendinopathy to study new therapeutic drugs without inducing unnecessary pain. They also indicate that pain‐associated peptides could be related with movement evoked pain and with the sharp breakdown of the running performance. PMID:25602018

  1. Overuse of surgery in patients with pancreatic cancer. A nationwide analysis in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Balzano, Gianpaolo; Capretti, Giovanni; Callea, Giuditta; Cantù, Elena; Carle, Flavia; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background According to current guidelines, pancreatic cancer patients should be strictly selected for surgery, either palliative or resective. Methods Population-based study, including all patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer in Italy between 2010 and 2012. Hospitals were divided into five volume groups (quintiles), to search for differences among volume categories. Results There were 544 hospitals performing 10 936 pancreatic cancer operations. The probability of undergoing palliative/explorative surgery was inversely related to volume, being 24.4% in very high-volume hospitals and 62.5% in very low-volume centres (adjusted OR 5.175). Contrarily, the resection rate in patients without metastases decreased from 86.9% to 46.1% (adjusted OR 7.429). As for resections, the mortality of non-resective surgery was inversely related to volume (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, mortality of non-resective surgery was higher than that for resections (8.2% vs. 6.7%; p < 0.01). Approximately 9% of all resections were performed on patients with distant metastases, irrespective of hospital volume group. The excess cost for the National Health System from surgery overuse was estimated at 12.5 million euro. Discussion. Discrepancies between guidelines on pancreatic cancer treatment and surgical practice were observed. An overuse of surgery was detected, with serious clinical and economic consequences. PMID:27154812

  2. Effects of phonophoresis and gold nanoparticles in experimental model of muscle overuse: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zortéa, Diogo; Silveira, Paulo C L; Souza, Priscila S; Fidelis, Giulia S P; Paganini, Carla S; Pozzi, Bruna G; Tuon, Talita; De Souza, Claudio T; Paula, Marcos M S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study described here was to investigate the effects of pulsed ultrasound and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on behavioral, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in an experimental model of overuse. Wistar rats performed 21 d of exercise on a treadmill at different intensities and were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of AuNPs. The overuse model promoted behavioral changes and increased creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as the levels of superoxide, nitrotyrosine, nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, carbonyl, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6. These values were significantly decreased by AuNPs and by AuNPs plus ultrasound. Catalase activity remained unchanged and the glutathione level increased significantly after exposure to AuNPs plus ultrasound. These results suggest a susceptibility to anxiety as well as elevated levels of oxidative stress. However, therapeutic interventions with AuNPs plus ultrasound reduced the production of oxidants and oxidative damage and improved the anti-oxidant defense system. PMID:25438848

  3. Internet Censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyotsna; Kapil; Aayush

    2012-09-01

    Censorship on Internet has always wet its hands in the water of controversies, It is said to go in with synonym of "FILTERING THE NET" i.e. Either done to protect minors or for nationís privacy, some take it as snatching their freedom over internet and some take it as an appropriate step to protect minor, It has its supporters as well as opponents.Google has reported a whooping number of requests from Governments of U.K, China, Poland, Spain, and Canada to remove videos and search links that led to harassment, sensitive issues or suspicious people. This paper deals with the cons of censorship on internet and to make people aware of the fact that Internet is not a single body owned by an org. but an open sky of information shared equally by all. Research done has found out many unseen aspects of different people's view point.

  4. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling. PMID:22612024

  5. Measuring the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Robert E.; Williams, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the literature that measures characteristics of the Internet. Discusses: conclusions about the Internet measurement literature; definition of the Internet from a technical standpoint; history of Internet measurement; nature of the Internet data environment; Internet technical characteristics; information measurement and the Internet;…

  6. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  7. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  8. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  9. ["Choosing wisely" in infectious diseases : Overuse of antibiotics - too few vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Jung, N; Koop, H; Riessen, R; Galle, J-C; Jany, B; Märker-Herrmann, E

    2016-06-01

    The "choosing wisely" recommendations of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and its specialist societies address diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are of particular medical importance but applied too often or too rarely in clinical practice. The aim is to further improve treatment of patients. Important topics of overuse and insufficient treatment related to the diagnostics, therapy, prevention and exclusion of infectious diseases could be identified. These topics not only play an important role in the discipline of infectious diseases but are also relevant for other internal medical disciplines. These topics related to infectious diseases have also been integrated into the recommendations of the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases as well as the German Societies for Internal Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, for Pneumology, for Nephrology and for Rheumatology. The pivotal issues of the recommendations are the inappropriate use of antibiotics and insufficient vaccination rates. PMID:27193347

  10. Cellular Phone Overuse as A Cause for Trapeziometacarpal Osteoarthritis: A Two Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Canillas, Fernando; Colino, Alvaro; Menéndez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: New technologies have been related to upper limb diseases Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis in young patients has not been described yet as one of these “overuse pathologies”. Case Report: We present two cases. A 33 and a 32 year-old women, right handed, suffering from trapeziometacarpal pain. Neither previous trauma nor rheumatic disease was reported. Excessive use of last generation cellular phone was the only background reported. Pain and joint crepitation were found on physical examination and osteoarthritis signs were seen on MRI scans. One of the patients improved after using a cast, physical activity restrictions and a specific rehabilitation program; whilst the other required a corticosteroid joint injection. Conclusion: We warn about the potential growth of these pathologies caused by an indiscriminate use (or abuse) of touch-screen cellular phones. PMID:27298990

  11. Water, Water Everywhere, But Can We Drink It? Solving the Blue Planet's Water Problems of Overuse and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Wentworth, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Traces the problems of water overuse to the fact that many farmers are allowed to use water at a fraction of its real cost. Maintains that government subsidies promote misuse and abuse of this resource. Proposes two solutions: environmentally friendly water prices and environmentally friendly water ownership. (MJP)

  12. THE USE AND OVERUSE OF LITERARY CONVENTION. THE PLACE OF VALUES IN LITERATURE. LITERATURE CURRICULUM VI, TEACHER AND STUDENT VERSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    THE FIRST OF THESE TWO 12TH-GRADE UNITS IS DESIGNED TO SHOW STUDENTS THAT THE UNIMAGINATIVE OVERUSE OF LITERARY CONVENTIONS LEADS TO TRITENESS, VERBOSITY, AND DULLNESS. LESSONS ARE ORGANIZED BY GENRE AND FOCUS ON LITERARY SELECTIONS WHICH SHOW VARYING DEGREES OF ORIGINALITY IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF LITERARY CONVENTIONS. AMONG WORKS DISCUSSED ARE…

  13. A Non-Blaming Chance and Action Approach to Therapy with Sexually Explicit Media Overuse: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this clinical presentation a non-blaming, non-judgmental approach to overuse of sexually explicit media (SEM) is introduced. This approach normalizes the problem and sees it in the context of evolution and market forces. It is claimed that such an approach contributes to change and strengthens the therapeutic alliance. A new technique utilizing…

  14. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    PubMed

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling. PMID:16012484

  15. Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…

  16. Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleau, Andrea R.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine adolescents' attitudes towards virtual schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete some or all of their secondary education through…

  17. ‘The blue one takes a battering’ why do young adults with asthma overuse bronchodilator inhalers? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Sue; Seale, Clive; Griffiths, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective Overuse of short-acting bronchodilators is internationally recognised as a marker of poor asthma control, high healthcare use and increased risk of asthma death. Young adults with asthma commonly overuse short-acting bronchodilators. We sought to determine the reasons for overuse of bronchodilator inhalers in a sample of young adults with asthma. Design Qualitative study using a purposive extreme case sample. Setting A large urban UK general practice. Participants Twenty-one adults with moderate asthma, aged 20–32 years. Twelve were high users of short-acting bronchodilators, nine were low users. Results Asthma had a major impact on respondents’ lives, disrupting their childhood, family life and career opportunities. High users of short-acting bronchodilators had adapted poorly to having asthma and expressed anger at the restrictions they experienced. Overuse made sense to them: short-acting bronchodilators were a rapid, effective, cheap ‘quick-fix’ for asthma symptoms. High users had poorer control of asthma and held explanatory models of asthma which emphasised short-term relief via bronchodilation over prevention. Both high and low users held strong views about having to pay for asthma medication, with costs cited as a reason for not purchasing anti-inflammatory inhalers. Conclusions Young adults who were high users of short-acting bronchodilators had adapted poorly to having asthma and had poor asthma control. They gave coherent reasons for overuse. Strategies that might address high bronchodilator use in young adults include improving education to help young people accept and adapt to their illness, reducing stigmatisation and providing free asthma medication to encourage the use of anti-inflammatory inhalers. PMID:23427203

  18. Internet 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Kay

    The Internet, a worldwide network of computer networks, is a noncommercial service with acceptable use restricted to the advancement of education and research. Although it has been in existence for quite a while, it is still new to most elementary and secondary educators in the Pacific region and elsewhere. This report is an introduction to the…

  19. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  20. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan. PMID:26394521

  1. The internet

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shahi, R; Sadler, M; Rees, G; Bateman, D

    2002-01-01

    The growing use of email and the world wide web (WWW), by the public, academics, and clinicians—as well as the increasing availability of high quality information on the WWW—make a working knowledge of the internet important. Although this article aims to enhance readers' existing use of the internet and medical resources on the WWW, it is also intelligible to someone unfamiliar with the internet. A web browser is one of the central pieces of software in modern computing: it is a window on the WWW, file transfer protocol sites, networked newsgroups, and your own computer's files. Effective use of the internet for professional purposes requires an understanding of the best strategies to search the WWW and the mechanisms for ensuring secure data transfer, as well as a compendium of online resources including journals, textbooks, medical portals, and sites providing high quality patient information. This article summarises these resources, available to incorporate into your web browser as downloadable "Favorites" or "Bookmarks" from www.jnnp.com, where there are also freely accessible hypertext links to the recommended sites. PMID:12438460

  2. The internet.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahi, R; Sadler, M; Rees, G; Bateman, D

    2002-12-01

    The growing use of email and the world wide web (WWW), by the public, academics, and clinicians-as well as the increasing availability of high quality information on the WWW-make a working knowledge of the internet important. Although this article aims to enhance readers' existing use of the internet and medical resources on the WWW, it is also intelligible to someone unfamiliar with the internet. A web browser is one of the central pieces of software in modern computing: it is a window on the WWW, file transfer protocol sites, networked newsgroups, and your own computer's files. Effective use of the internet for professional purposes requires an understanding of the best strategies to search the WWW and the mechanisms for ensuring secure data transfer, as well as a compendium of online resources including journals, textbooks, medical portals, and sites providing high quality patient information. This article summarises these resources, available to incorporate into your web browser as downloadable "Favorites" or "Bookmarks" from www.jnnp.com, where there are also freely accessible hypertext links to the recommended sites. PMID:12438460

  3. Decreased Prefrontal Lobe Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder: A Primary Study Using Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-wen; Chen, Xue; Ding, Wei-na; Wang, Wei; Li, Wei; Du, Ya-song

    2015-01-01

    Purposes Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain areas and connections. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with IGD. In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to investigate the interhemispheric rsFC of the whole brain in participants with IGD. Methods We compared interhemispheric rsFC between 17 participants with IGD and 24 healthy controls, group-matched on age, gender, and education status. All participants were provided written informed consent. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for all participants. The rsFC between bilateral homotopic voxels was calculated. Regions showing abnormal VMHC in IGD participants were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, IGD participants showed decreased VMHC between the left and right superior frontal gyrus (orbital part), inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part), middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. Further analyses showed Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS)-related VMHC in superior frontal gyrus (orbital part) and CIAS (r = −0.55, p = 0.02, uncorrected). Conclusions Our findings implicate the important role of altered interhemispheric rsFC in the bilateral prefrontal lobe in the neuropathological mechanism of IGD, and provide further supportive evidence for the reclassification of IGD as a behavioral addiction. PMID:25738502

  4. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  5. Internet Use and Cognitive Development: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, accessing web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  6. A Screen for Identifying Maladaptive Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Siu L.; Leung, G. M.; Ng, Cecilia; Yu, Effie

    2009-01-01

    A screening tool (in Chinese) for maladaptive internet use was developed in two stages. Thirty-five factors were first extracted from data obtained from 378 adolescents with a 179-item questionnaire. Nine higher-order factors were then obtained from 35 factors. A 26-item screen that measures both endogenous and exogenous factors was constructed on…

  7. A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. Crimes against Children Unit.

    While online computer exploration opens a world of possibilities, children and adolescents online can be exposed to individuals who attempt to sexually exploit children through the use of online services and the Internet. This pamphlet, prepared from actual investigations involving child victims, was designed to help parents understand the…

  8. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  9. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  10. [Adolescent and physical activity: addi(c)tive excesses].

    PubMed

    Tercier, Stéphane; Gojanovic, Boris; Depallens, Sarah; Vust, Sophie; Ambresin, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of physical activity during adolescence have widely been demonstrated. Yet, raising awareness among young athletes and their surrounding about risks associated with too early specialization or energy deficit--with or without eating disorder--is of outmost importance. Such behaviours can affect adolescents' physical or psychological development as well as compromise their athletic career not to mention the potential negative impact on their athletic performance. Primary care practitioners play an important role in early detection and prevention of overuse injuries as well as psychological distress associated with intense physical activity. Such situations need the intervention of an interdisciplinary team in order to prevent long-term complications. PMID:27451515

  11. Rectus abdominis overuse injury in a tennis athlete treated with traumeel

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel® injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. Case Report: A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel® on the 2nd, 4th, 6th post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10th post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Conclusions: Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel® injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain. PMID:23569472

  12. Sumatriptan overuse in episodic cluster headache: lack of adverse events, rebound syndromes, drug dependence and tachyphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Centonze, V; Bassi, A; Causarano, V; Dalfino, L; Cassiano, M A; Centonze, A; Fabbri, L; Albano, O

    2000-01-01

    This observational study was designed to examine the pattern of sumatriptan use in patients with cluster headache using more than the recommended daily dose of subcutaneously injected (s.c.) sumatriptan. Thirteen patients suffering from episodic cluster headache were asked to record the characteristics of their attacks and drug intake for 1 year. All reported a high daily frequency of attacks (more than 3 per day) and the related overuse of s.c. sumatriptan. The results show that the overall incidence of adverse events among patients receiving sumatriptan injections for the treatment of cluster headache is low. The extended administration of this drug in episodic cluster headache did not result in tolerance problems or tachyphylaxis. Only 4 patients experienced minor adverse events and recovered more slowly than the others. They suffered from migraine without aura and cluster headache, and showed a family history of migraine. Even though they must be viewed with caution, due to the observational nature of the study and the low number of patients included, these results suggest that the profile of sumatriptan may differ in cluster headache compared with migraine. PMID:11062845

  13. The study of work behaviours and risks for occupational overuse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laoopugsin, Niyom; Laoopugsin, Suwannee

    2012-01-01

    "Occupational overuse syndrome" is defined as the syndrome of work-related musculoskeletal disorders resulting from repetitive hand posture and motion. We looked at 867 employees in seven different factories to determine the groups suffering from trigger fingers, de Quervain's disease and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) from the period of January 2009 to November 2010. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were designated for the subjects in each group. We found the highest prevalence of the syndrome in the rate of CTS development. The differences in the hand spans and the grip strengths between the normal versus the diseased groups were statistically significant. The most common work patterns were a repetitive workload with the hand in a posture of a contracted grasping position. This accounted for 43.1% of the cases of trigger fingers, 38.1% in cases of CTS and this position with a contributing increased speed in the work pattern at 29.8% in the de Quervain's disease patients. PMID:22745084

  14. “The Ultimate Decision Is Yours”: Exploring Patients’ Attitudes about the Overuse of Medical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schleifer, David; Rothman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that American patients strongly believe that more testing and more treatment lead to better outcomes and, to a lesser extent, that newer treatments are more effective. We conducted five focus groups with privately insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans (n = 43) to explore these apparent preferences. Contrary to previous research, an unexpected distinction emerged. Participants placed enormous value on testing and screening, reacting with hostility to guidelines recommending less of either. However, they were suspicious of overmedication. The wariness of pharmaceuticals and enthusiasm for testing and screening both appear to reflect participants’ efforts to take responsibility for their health. But recommendations to test and screen less conflicted with their active, engaged, information-seeking roles. Nonetheless, given patients’ concerns about overuse of pharmaceuticals, we maintain that they can learn to understand the connections between over-testing and over-treatment, and can actively choose to do less. We close with suggestions about how treatment guidelines can better communicate these connections to patients. Our findings cannot necessarily be generalized beyond privately-insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans. But because we found that, among these individuals, attitudes towards pharmaceuticals differ from attitudes towards testing and screening, we maintain that future research should also distinguish among and compare attitudes towards different types of medical interventions. PMID:23300706

  15. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  16. "The ultimate decision is yours": exploring patients' attitudes about the overuse of medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, David; Rothman, David J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that American patients strongly believe that more testing and more treatment lead to better outcomes and, to a lesser extent, that newer treatments are more effective. We conducted five focus groups with privately insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans (n = 43) to explore these apparent preferences. Contrary to previous research, an unexpected distinction emerged. Participants placed enormous value on testing and screening, reacting with hostility to guidelines recommending less of either. However, they were suspicious of overmedication. The wariness of pharmaceuticals and enthusiasm for testing and screening both appear to reflect participants' efforts to take responsibility for their health. But recommendations to test and screen less conflicted with their active, engaged, information-seeking roles. Nonetheless, given patients' concerns about overuse of pharmaceuticals, we maintain that they can learn to understand the connections between over-testing and over-treatment, and can actively choose to do less. We close with suggestions about how treatment guidelines can better communicate these connections to patients. Our findings cannot necessarily be generalized beyond privately-insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans. But because we found that, among these individuals, attitudes towards pharmaceuticals differ from attitudes towards testing and screening, we maintain that future research should also distinguish among and compare attitudes towards different types of medical interventions. PMID:23300706

  17. “Young people, adult worries”: RCT of an internet-based self-support method “Feel the ViBe” for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive health. To prevent problems in adult life, children need help and support. However, while trying to protect their parents, children often do not seek help, or perceive the threshold as too high. Since almost all children of the current generation have access to the internet, an online intervention will make help better available for this target group. In 2011, an internet-based self-support method for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence was developed in the Netherlands: “Feel the ViBe”. The intervention was developed in close collaboration with the target group. This article describes the protocol of the RCT to study the effectiveness of this intervention. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial using the method of minimization to randomize the participants in two parallel groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio, being an intervention group, having access to “Feel the ViBe” and usual care (UC), and a control group, having access to minimally enhanced usual care (mEUC) followed by access to the intervention after twelve weeks. Outcomes are measured with questionnaires on PTSD symptoms, mental health and sexual and reproductive health. Routine Outcome Measurement (ROM) will be used to measure a direct effect of participating in the intervention. Data from a web evaluation questionnaire (WEQ), user statistics and qualitative analysis of online data will be used to support the findings. To compare results Cohen’s d effect sizes will be used. Discussion A RCT and process evaluation will test effectiveness and provide information of how the effects can be explained, how the intervention meets the expectation of participants

  18. Internet-Based Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  19. The Internet and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" examines the "mysteries" surrounding the Internet and offers simple "pointers" on how to access the Smithsonian's teaching materials. Many of the materials are available online. Articles include: (1) "What is the Internet?"; (2) "Connecting to the Internet"; (3) "Internet Shopping List"; (4) "Internet Terms"; (5) "A…

  20. Internet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose, Rajan Mathew

    The World Wide Web and the Internet are rapidly expanding spaces, of great economic and social significance, which offer an opportunity to study many phenomena, often previously inaccessible, on an unprecedented scale and resolution with relative ease. These phenomena are measurable on the scale of tens of millions of users and hundreds of millions of pages. By virtue of nearly complete electronic mediation, it is possible in principle to observe the time and ``spatial'' evolution of nearly all choices and interactions. This cyber-space therefore provides a view into a number of traditional research questions (from many academic disciplines) and creates its own new phenomena accessible for study. Despite its largely self-organized and dynamic nature, a number of robust quantitative regularities are found in the aggregate statistics of interesting and useful quantities. These regularities can be understood with the help of models that draw on ideas from statistical physics as well as other fields such as economics, psychology and decision theory. This thesis develops models that can account for regularities found in the statistics of Internet congestion and user surfing patterns and discusses some practical consequences. practical consequences.

  1. Next Generation Internet Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.

  2. Internet Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Rafael; Argyle, R. W.

    Amateur astronomers can carry out scientific research in many different ways. Some activities require expensive telescopes, cameras, and often access to dark skies. But those who live in highly polluted areas, or do not have access to very specialized equipment, still have many possibilities; amongst which is using the online resources available from the internet. In this chapter we explore Aladin, Simbad, and VizieR, three resources created and maintained by the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Although these applications are intended for professional astronomers, they are also freely available for amateurs. They allow us to find and measure old neglected difficult pairs, discover new double stars, and in general have a better understanding of those tiny pairs of points of light that we love to observe, photograph and measure.

  3. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  4. Overuse of Psychotropic Medications among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Perspective from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ziaee, Vahid; Beygi, Sara; Moshayedi, Pouria; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Psychopharmacotherapy can be an effective part of the treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However debate continues over the potential benefits and costs of these treatments; additionally little is known about the pattern of psychotropic medication use in developing countries. We aimed to survey the use of psychotropic…

  5. Association of Maltreatment With High-Risk Internet Behaviors and Offline Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.; Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Haralson, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High-risk Internet behaviors, including viewing sexually explicit content, provocative social networking profiles, and entertaining online sexual solicitations, were examined in a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years. The impact of Internet behaviors on subsequent offline meetings was observed over 12 to 16 months. This study tested 2 main hypotheses: (1) maltreatment would be a unique contributor to high-risk Internet behaviors and (2) high-quality parenting would dampen adolescents’ propensity to engage in high-risk Internet behaviors and to participate in offline meetings. METHODS: Online and offline behaviors and parenting quality were gleaned from 251 adolescent girls, 130 of whom experienced substantiated maltreatment and 121 of whom were demographically matched comparison girls. Parents reported on adolescent behaviors and on the level of Internet monitoring in the home. Social networking profiles were objectively coded for provocative self-presentations. Offline meetings with persons first met online were assessed 12 to 16 months later. RESULTS: Thirty percent of adolescents reported having offline meetings. Maltreatment, adolescent behavioral problems, and low cognitive ability were uniquely associated with high-risk Internet behaviors. Exposure to sexual content, creating high-risk social networking profiles, and receiving online sexual solicitations were independent predictors of subsequent offline meetings. High-quality parenting and parental monitoring moderated the associations between adolescent risk factors and Internet behaviors, whereas use of parental control software did not. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment modalities for maltreated adolescents should be enhanced to include Internet safety literacy. Adolescents and parents should be aware of how online self-presentations and other Internet behaviors can increase vulnerability for Internet-initiated victimization. PMID:23319522

  6. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  7. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  8. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968

  9. Responsible Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Carol; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice for making school Internet-use guidelines. Outlines responsible proactive use of the Internet for educators and librarians, discusses strengths and weaknesses of Internet blocking software and rating systems, and describes acceptable-use policies (AUP). Lists resources for creating your own AUP, Internet filtering software, and…

  10. Evaluating Internet Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    The following four papers focus on the topic of evaluating Internet information services: "Some Evaluation Criteria To Assess Internet Information Services" (Carmel Galvin); "The Teacher Librarian's Role as Evaluator of Internet Information Services" (Pru Mitchell); "How Students Evaluate Internet Information Services" (Ross Todd); and "Internet…

  11. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse: associations with socioeconomic position and physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-10-01

    Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾ 16 years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ⩾ 15 days per month over 3 months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ⩾ 15 days per month or prescription medication overuse (⩾ 20 or ⩾ 30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH. PMID:25020001

  12. Wide bandwidth nanomechanical assessment of murine cartilage reveals protection of aggrecan knock-in mice from joint-overuse.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Mojtaba; Nia, Hadi Tavakoli; Gauci, Stephanie J; Ortiz, Christine; Fosang, Amanda J; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2016-06-14

    Aggrecan loss in human and animal cartilage precedes clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis, suggesting that aggrecan loss is an initiating step in cartilage pathology. Characterizing early stages of cartilage degeneration caused by aging and overuse is important in the search for therapeutics. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force-displacement micromechanics, AFM-based wide bandwidth nanomechanics (nanodynamic), and histologic assessments were used to study changes in distal femur cartilage of wildtype mice and mice in which the aggrecan interglobular domain was mutated to make the cartilage aggrecanase-resistant. Half the animals were subjected to voluntary running-wheel exercise of varying durations. Wildtype mice at three selected age groups were compared. While histological assessment was not sensitive enough to capture any statistically significant changes in these relatively young populations of mice, micromechanical assessment captured changes in the quasi-equilibrium structural-elastic behavior of the cartilage matrix. Additionally, nanodynamic assessment captured changes in the fluid-solid poroelastic behavior and the high frequency stiffness of the tissue, which proved to be the most sensitive assessment of changes in cartilage associated with aging and joint-overuse. In wildtype mice, aging caused softening of the cartilage tissue at the microscale and at the nanoscale. Softening with increased animal age was found at high loading rates (frequencies), suggesting an increase in hydraulic permeability, with implications for loss of function pertinent to running and impact-injury. Running caused substantial changes in fluid-solid interactions in aggrecanase-resistant mice, suggestive of tissue degradation. However, higher nanodynamic stiffness magnitude and lower hydraulic permeability was observed in running aggrecanase-resistant mice compared to running wildtype controls at the same age, thereby suggesting protection from joint-overuse

  13. Advice alone versus structured detoxification programmes for complicated medication overuse headache (MOH): a prospective, randomized, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an educational strategy (advice to withdraw the overused medication/s) with that of two structured pharmacological detoxification programmes in patients with complicated medication overuse headache (MOH) plus migraine. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven complicated MOH patients participated in the study. MOH was defined as complicated in patients presenting at least one of the following: a) a diagnosis of co-existent and complicating medical illnesses; b) a current diagnosis of mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, or substance addiction disorder; c) relapse after previous detoxification treatment; d) social and environmental problems; e) daily use of multiple doses of symptomatic medications. Group A (46 patients) received only intensive advice to withdraw the overused medication/s. Group B (46 patients) underwent a standard detoxification programme as outpatients (advice + steroids + preventive treatment). Group C (45 patients) underwent a standard inpatient withdrawal programme (advice + steroids + fluid replacement and antiemetics preventive treatment). Withdrawal therapy was considered successful if, after two months, the patient had reverted to an intake of NSAIDs lower than 15 days/month or to an intake of other symptomatic medication/s lower than 10 days/month. Results Twenty-two patients failed to attend follow-up visits (11 in Group A, 9 in Group B, 2 in Group C, p < 0.03). Overall, we detoxified 70% of the whole cohort, 60.1% of the patients in Group A and in Group B, and 88.8% of those in Group C (p < 0.01). Conclusions Inpatient withdrawal is significantly more effective than advice alone or an outpatient strategy in complicated MOH patients. PMID:23565591

  14. Inappropriate overuse of inhaled corticosteroids for COPD patients: impact on health costs and health status.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Rejas-Gutierrez, Javier; Martín-Centeno, Antonio; Gobartt-Vázquez, Elena; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Gil de, Miguel Angel; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between inappropriate overuse of inhaled corticosteroids and self-reported health status and the annual cost of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recruited in the primary-care setting. An observational, crossover, descriptive study was conducted. Patients with stable COPD and aged ≥40 years, evaluated in primary care, were included. Data collected were demographic variables, clinical characteristics, self-reported health status (SF-12), the severity of the illness, treatment, and health-care resource utilization in the past year. The patients were recruited during a period of 3 months (from January 1 to March 31, 2003). Use was considered inappropriate when corticosteroids were prescribed by physicians for patients not meeting criteria for its use as recommended in guidelines. A total of 10,711 patients [75.6% males; mean age = 67.1 (SD = 9.66) years] were evaluated. Disease severity was mild in 35.5% of the cases, moderate in 53.4%, and severe in 11.2%. Among them, 3,697 (34.5%) subjects were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids or drug combinations containing such therapies, with a rate of inappropriate use of 18.2%. Physical health status was significantly lower among patients showing inappropriate corticosteroids use: 37.35 (SD = 9.53) vs. 40.7 (SD = 9.80) (p < 0.05). The annual cost per patient of COPD management was significantly higher in the group with inappropriate inhaled corticosteroids use: 1,590 (SD = 1,834) vs. 1,157 (SD = 1,536) (p < 0.05). Factors statistically associated with inappropriate use of corticosteroids were educational attainment [OR: 2.77 (95% CI: 1.36-5.63) for nonuniversity training], a history of heart disease [OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.02-1.97)], depression [OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05-2.05)], any allergy [OR 1.69 (95% CI: 1.13-2.54)], and physical health status [OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98)]. Lack of adherence to the

  15. Weight-bearing manipulation: a neglected area of medical science relevant to piano playing and overuse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hmelnitsky, I; Nettheim, N

    1987-06-01

    Functional anatomy and physiology have naturally attended mainly to those functions which occur most commonly in everyday life. Piano playing is a more specialized area, where functions arise which have so far been neglected in medical science. These functions are here described by a pianist (IH) in the hope that medical researchers will respond to fill the gaps. The importance of this lies not only in the understanding of skilled manipulative activity but also in the avoidance of overuse syndrome (OUS) or repetitive strain injury (RSI). PMID:3614013

  16. Magical Thinking in Narratives of Adolescent Cutters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Robert J.; Mustata, Georgian T.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents sometimes cut themselves to relieve distress; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have linked self-injury to deficits in processing emotions symbolically through language. To investigate expressive language of adolescent cutters, the authors analyzed 100 narratives posted on the Internet. Most narratives (n = 66)…

  17. The Effect of U.S. University Students' Problematic Internet Use on Family Relationships: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate how college students in the U.S. with problematic Internet use perceive the role the Internet plays within their families of origin. The sample included 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as excessive Internet users. Participants reported spending more than 25 hours a week on the Internet on non-school or non-work-related activities and reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. This study provides descriptive statistics from participants' completion of two problematic Internet use measures (i.e., Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and reports findings from four focus groups. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) family connectedness, (2) family conflict/family disconnection, and (3) family Internet overuse. The findings of this study are a first step toward the design of effective interventions for problematic Internet use among U.S. college students and serve to inform clinical practice and health policy in this area. PMID:26658077

  18. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  19. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  20. Forensic evaluation of problematic Internet use.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    Problematic Internet use appears to be a growing concern in many criminal and civil legal proceedings. Problems range from inappropriate personal use of the Internet in the workplace and excessive use of online games, pornography, and gambling, to cyberbullying among children and adolescents and numerous forms of criminal activity. Forensic psychiatric evaluations may help courts or other agencies to understand individual cases and to discern whether a psychiatric disability may be involved. Furthermore, the forensic psychiatrist may be asked to formulate a prognosis or to suggest which treatments may be helpful. Among the multiple underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that explain problematic Internet use are: addiction, compulsion, impulse-control problems, and mood disorders. There is no definitive or standard treatment protocol for evaluation or treatment of problematic Internet use per se. A comprehensive evaluation should address the underlying psychopathology or personal problems that prompt or contribute to the problematic Internet use. This article suggests approaches that may help forensic psychiatrists to conduct a thorough evaluation with reasonable treatment recommendations. Different formulations of the problem and a discussion of DSM-IV factors are offered to provide starting points for the evaluation and to help psychiatrists to understand how problematic Internet use may relate to Axis I disorders or other factors. PMID:19092069

  1. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents. PMID:26375050

  2. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  3. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  4. Mobile Phone Overuse Among Elementary School Students in Korea: Factors Associated With Mobile Phone Use as a Behavior Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ran; Lee, Kwang-Ja; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the relationships among mobile phone use, anxiety, and parental attitudes toward child-rearing in a convenience sample of 351 Grade 6 elementary school students. There were 157 boys and 194 girls. A mobile phone overuse questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Parental Attitude Inventory were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by the t test, analysis of variance, hierarchical regression, and descriptive analysis using SPSS WIN 18.0. Mobile phone use was greater in girls than in boys, and the difference was statistically significant. Mobile phone use was positively correlated with anxiety, and it was negatively correlated with parental child-raising attitudes. Mobile phone use in girls was mainly affected by anxiety, and in boys, it was significantly affected by the maternal child-raising attitude. This research provides basic data for parent education, school policy, and prevention programs about mobile phone overuse that support mental health improvement in the individual, family, and community. PMID:26053080

  5. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  6. The impact of shyness on problematic internet use: the role of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Huan, Vivien S; Ang, Rebecca P; Chong, Wan Har; Chye, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research indicated that the problematic effects of Internet use must be examined together with individual differences present in its users with which such effects are contingent. This study examined loneliness in adolescents as a mediator of the relationship between shyness and their generalized problematic Internet use (PIU). A total of 1469 adolescents (48.5% male, 51.5% female) from Grade 8 and Grade 9 classes participated in this study. Using the Social Reticence Scale (SRS), the revised UCLA Loneliness scale and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use scale, initial findings indicated significant correlations among the three variables. Results from the study further revealed that loneliness completely mediated the relationship between shyness and generalized problematic Internet use. Implications for intervention work addressing both loneliness and shyness issues facing adolescents who are problematic users of the Internet were discussed. PMID:25175891

  7. Internet-Based Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702

  8. Internet and Internet Use: Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the development and issues of internet and internet use. The study has a descriptive survey design and 185 randomly selected teacher trainees at Marmara University, Ataturk Education Faculty in the 2001-2002 academic year constitute the sample. Data were collected via a questionnaire prepared by the researcher…

  9. The Internet in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubarth, Michael, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Internet World" contains 10 articles on the role of the Internet in education. The articles are: "Internet Cum Laude" (Eric C. Richardson)--technological developments in college and university services; "Campus Connections" (Michael A. Arnzen)--guidelines for taking full advantage of on-campus access; "Major Links"…

  10. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  11. The Internet Scout Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcari, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Internet Scout Project which provides Internet users, particularly those in higher education, with current, selective, and well-annotated pointers to information about resources, network tools, and Internet news items. Offered through regular e-mail updates, titles include The Scout Report, The Scout Report Signpost, Net-Happenings,…

  12. Internet-Savvy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2003-01-01

    Describes national study of the attitudes and behaviors of middle and high school students who use the Internet. Finds that Internet-savvy students use the Internet as a virtual book and reference library, a tutor and study shortcut, a study group, a guidance counselor, and a locker, backpack, and notebook. Offers several explanations about the…

  13. Basic Internet Software Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…

  14. The Next Generation Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Internet II will take three to five years to develop, will be 1,000 times faster than Internet I, and will cost at least $500 million. Key developers are universities, several federal agencies, and leading computer and telecommunications firms. Internet II will support face-to-face communications technology to facilitate "real-time" networking.…

  15. Advertising on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugenheimer, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…

  16. Using an Existential Psychotherapy Framework to Assist Students in Mindful Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the mobile Internet continues to play an increasing role in all of our lives and particularly in the lives of college and university students. Questions have been raised about the impact of the Internet on adolescents' and college students' fulfillment of traditional developmental tasks and more broadly their mental health. The present…

  17. A Theoretical Framework for Organizing the Effect of the Internet on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2006-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, navigating web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

  18. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  19. Clustering of Internet Risk Behaviors in a Middle School Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors of middle…

  20. That Over-Used and Much-Abused 4-Letter Word: DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Elizabeth M.

    2015-08-01

    In its prime state, DATA is a Latin word meaning "[things] given", a plural noun derived from the verb "To Give". Its singular form is DATUM. Modern conversation equates DATA with "Information", while modern philosophies on information management are getting entwined with parallel philosophies on knowledge management. In some ways that is a positive development, and is greatly assisted by Open Access and Internet policies, but in others it is more detrimental, by threatening to blur the essential distinction between objectivity and subjectivity in our science. We examine that essentialdistinction from the view-points of observers, authors (and publishers), and database managers, and suggest where, when and how the distinctiveness of their fundamental contributions to the communication and validation of research results should be respected and upheld.

  1. "Multi-Voicedness" in Internet Guest-Books of German and Italian Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetscher, Doris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the "multiple voices" of 13-15-year-old German and Italian adolescents in internet guest-books are analyzed. The study is based on guest-books texts with a mixture of different registers, languages and dialects. In particular, the German adolescents from the Augsburg region (Bavaria) display a strong regional linguistic identity…

  2. Effect of return to overuse activity following an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear on adjacent intact tendons and glenoid cartilage in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Reuther, Katherine E; Thomas, Stephen J; Sarver, Joseph J; Tucker, Jennica J; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2013-05-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. PMID:23280495

  3. Effect of Return to Overuse Activity Following an Isolated Supraspinatus Tendon Tear on Adjacent Intact Tendons and Glenoid Cartilage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. PMID:23280495

  4. Work-relief ratios and imbalances of load application in sport climbing: another link to overuse-induced injuries?

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roesner, K; Schöffl, V; Gabriel, H H W

    2013-08-01

    An imbalanced load application of the upper extremity may contribute to overuse-induced injuries of the fingers. Thus, the present study evaluated load-application symmetry between the right and the left hand and its work-relief ratios (WRR) depending on climbing ability and pre-exhaustion level. Twenty-eight sport climbers (age: 29 ± 8 years; body mass index: 22 ± 2 kg/m(2); years of climbing: 10 ± 6; climbing level: 6+ UIAA to 9 UIAA) were assigned to a group of recreational (≤8-UIAA, n = 14) or a group of ambitious (≥8 UIAA, n = 14) climbers. Blood lactate and perceived exertion level were recorded at the end of the climbing attempt. Load application and WRR were derived from video analysis separately for the left and the right hand. Differences in load-application time between the left (47 ± 4%) and the right (53 ± 4%) hand (P < 0.001) were observed. Irrespective of side differences, the overall WRR was 5:1. Increasing climbing level leads to a more symmetric load application (r = -0.42, P < 0.03). Differences of lactate concentration and exertion level were found between the pre- and the non-pre-exhausted group. Depending on climbing ability and exhaustion level, load application for the dominant hand (right) prevails. Further longitudinal studies should focus on imbalanced load application and overuse-induced climbing injuries. PMID:22092928

  5. [Choosing wisely--against overuse in healthcare systems--activities in Germany and Austria in geriatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Gogol, Manfred; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation initiated the Choosing Wisely campaign to promote discussion between physicians and patients (or proxies) on decision-making in medicine, and to reduce the use of procedures and therapies which are not necessary, or harmful to patients. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS), the American Medical Directors Association and the Society of Post-Acute and Long-Term Medicine (AMDA) participated in this initiative and both published 10 recommendations on procedures that should be discussed and avoided. Furthermore, some scientific societies have also published recommendations concerning elderly patients. As the campaign attracted considerable international attention, an International Roundtable was established in 2014. In Germany a similar initiative to address overuse and underuse was established by the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) in 2015. The German Society of Geriatrics (DGG) was invited to address subjects affecting elderly patients that are of relevance to the German health care system. As a member of the Commission of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF), it also participated actively in the development of a methods paper on how to prepare recommendations. The German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (DEGAM) has developed a new guideline on this topic and in Austria preliminary activities are already underway. A clear, transparent, structured and evidence-based approach may help avoid some of the methodological weaknesses to be found in the development of the U.S. recommendations. Whereas the U.S. campaign only addresses overuse, the German campaign will also address underuse and misuse. PMID:26811241

  6. Youth Stuck on Web!: The Internet for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Irene E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the procedures developed at the Los Angeles Public Library to offer age-appropriate and user-friendly electronic resources to children and teenagers via the Internet. Discusses filters and dedicated terminals; and describes appropriate Web sites and search engines for parents, children, and adolescents. (LRW)

  7. Overuse and Underuse of Antiosteoporotic Treatments According to Highly Influential Osteoporosis Guidelines: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L.; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate prescribing of antiosteoporotic medications has been observed; however, the joint study of both overuse and underuse has barely been attempted. Spain, with its high utilization rates, constitutes a good example to assess differences in over and under use according to diverse highly-influential osteoporosis guidelines (HIOG) worldwide. We used data of a population-based cross-sectional study including 824 post-menopausal women ≥50 years old living in the city of Valencia, Spain and aimed to estimate the percentage of women eligible for treatment, and the proportion of overuse and underuse of antiosteoporotic treatment according to HIOG. The prevalence of antiosteoporotic treatment in postmenopausal women ≥ 50 in Valencia was 20.9% (95%CI:17.6–24.4). The type of antiosteoporotic drugs prescribed varied greatly depending on the medical specialty responsible of the initial prescription. When applying the HIOG, the percentage of women 50 and over who should be treated varied from less than 9% to over 44%. In real terms, from the approximately eight million women of 50 years old and over in Spain, the number eligible for treatment would range from 0.7 to 3.8 million, depending on the guideline used. A huge proportion of inappropriate treatments was found when applying these guidelines to the Spanish population, combining a high overuse (42–78% depending on the guideline used) and underuse (7–41%). In conclusion, we found that the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in women of 50 and over in this population combines an important overuse and, to a lesser extent, underuse, although the level of inappropriateness varied strikingly depending on the CPG used. It seems urgent to reduce treatment overuse without neglecting underuse, as is urgent an attempt to reach wider agreement worldwide regarding osteoporosis management, in order to facilitate appropriate treatment and development of policies to reduce effectively treatment inappropriateness

  8. A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Harrison, Ben J; Dandash, Orwa; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Chan; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Shim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2015-03-30

    Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Among twelve right-handed male adolescents with internet gaming disorder and 11 right-handed and gender-matched healthy controls, we examined group differences in the functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the caudate nucleus and putamen, as well as the association of these connectivity indices with behavioral measures of internet use. Adolescents with internet gaming disorder showed significantly reduced dorsal putamen functional connectivity with the posterior insula-parietal operculum. More time spent playing online games predicted significantly greater functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral primary somatosensory cortices in adolescents with internet gaming disorder, and significantly lower functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral sensorimotor cortices in healthy controls. The dorsal putamen functional connectivity was significantly and specifically different in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. The findings suggest a possible biomarker of internet gaming disorder. PMID:25553620

  9. Internet Pathways in Suicidality: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Durkee, Tony; Hadlaczky, Gergo; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to review the scientific literature concerning the Internet and suicidality and to examine the different pathways by which suicidal risks and prevention efforts are facilitated through the Internet. An online literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. The main themes that were investigated included pathological Internet use and suicidality, pro-suicide websites, suicide pacts on the Internet, and suicide prevention via the Internet. Articles were screened based on the titles and abstracts reporting on the themes of interest. Thereafter, articles were selected based on scientific relevance of the study, and included for full text assessment. The results illustrated that specific Internet pathways increased the risk for suicidal behaviours, particularly in adolescents and young people. Several studies found significant correlations between pathological Internet use and suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. Pro-suicide websites and online suicide pacts were observed as high-risk factors for facilitating suicidal behaviours, particularly among isolated and susceptible individuals. Conversely, the evidence also showed that the Internet could be an effective tool for suicide prevention, especially for socially-isolated and vulnerable individuals, who might otherwise be unreachable. It is this paradox that accentuates the need for further research in this field. PMID:22073021

  10. Navigating the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Powsner, S M; Roderer, N K

    1994-01-01

    Navigating any complex set of information resources requires tools for both browsing and searching. A number of tools are available today for using Internet resources, and more are being developed. This article reviews existing navigational tools, including two developed at the Yale University School of Medicine, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. A major shortcoming of the present Internet navigation methods is the lack of controlled descriptions of the available resources. As a result, navigating the Internet is very difficult. PMID:7841913

  11. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  12. Bilateral increase in expression and concentration of tachykinin in a unilateral rabbit muscle overuse model that leads to myositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tachykinins can have pro-inflammatory as well as healing effects during tissue reorganization and inflammation. Recent studies report an up-regulation in the expression of the substance P (SP)-preferred receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, in marked muscle inflammation (myositis). There is, however, only very little information on the expression patterns and levels of tachykinins in this situation. Methods The tachykinin system was analyzed using a rabbit experimental model of muscle overuse, whereby unilateral muscle exercise in combination with electrical stimulation led to muscle derangement and myositis in the triceps surae muscle (experimental length 1–6 weeks). Evaluations were made for both parts of the muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius muscles) in experimental and non-experimental (contralateral) sides. Morphologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses were applied. Results Myositis and muscle derangement occurred focally not only in the experimental side but also in the non-experimental side. In the inflammatory areas (focal myositis areas), there were frequent nerve fibers showing tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and which were parts of nerve fascicles and which were freely dispersed in the tissue. Cells in the inflammatory infiltrates showed tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and tachykinin mRNA expression. Specific immunoreactivity and mRNA expression were noted in blood vessel walls of both sides, especially in focally affected areas. With increasing experimental length, we observed an increase in the degree of immunoreactivity in the vessel walls. The EIA analyses showed that the concentration of tachykinin in the tissue on both sides increased in a time-dependent manner. There was a statistical correlation in the concentration of tachykinin and the level of tachykinin immunoreactivity in the blood vessel walls between experimental and non-experimental sides. Conclusions The

  13. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  14. Internet gambling and social responsibility: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Smeaton, Michael; Griffiths, Mark

    2004-02-01

    Within the last few years, we have seen a substantial increase in the amount of gambling opportunities offered on the Internet. Many concerns have been raised about the activity, including the potential for excessive gambling, and the lack of safeguards for vulnerable populations such as adolescents and problem gamblers. Given these concerns, a representative selection of 30 U.K.-owned Internet gambling sites were studied to examine what safeguards were in place to encourage social responsibility of Internet gamblers. It was found that very few sites were engaged in socially responsible practice and that much more could be done to protect vulnerable groups. The findings from this study were then used to compile a list of recommendations for good practice among Internet gambling operators. PMID:15006169

  15. [The digital avatar, an assistant in adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pommereau, Xavier; Deberdt, Jean-Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The digital universe, from the internet to video games, arouses mixed feelings in parents of adolescents. However, it is possible to use the growing "digitisation" of the relationships between young people to develop care tools. Avatars or virtual characters, for example, make it possible to develop a relationship with adolescents hospitalised in child psychiatry units. PMID:22616462

  16. Online Activities and Writing Practices of Urban Malaysian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Ng, Melissa L. Y.; Saw, Kim Guan

    2010-01-01

    Among a number of urban adolescents in Malaysia, going online is a much valued practice. They are regularly drawn to the Internet to engage in activities across school, nonschool, mainstream and alternative domains. The aim of this study is to know more about what these adolescents do online. Data on the online activities were collected from 535…

  17. Online Journaling: The Informal Writings of Two Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara; Gamboa, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    One under-researched writing practice of today's millennial youth is online journaling. Despite the plethora of online journals on the Internet and their ubiquitous use by adolescents, little research has been conducted on online journaling as a literacy practice. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore how and why adolescents choose…

  18. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  19. Understanding the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana

    The Internet is an international network linking hundreds of smaller computer networks in North America, Europe, and Asia. Using the Internet, computer users can connect to a variety of computers with little effort or expense. The potential for use by college faculty is enormous. The largest problem faced by most users is understanding what such…

  20. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  1. Addiction to internet replies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook

    2009-01-01

    This research introduces a new addictive behavior in cyberspace, which is called Internet Reply Addiction. This phenomenon was found and empirically investigated in Korea where addictive behavior on Internet reply is common. This research suggests that the cause of this kind of addiction can be inferred from the Confucian cultural tradition that oppresses free expressions of individuals in real life settings. PMID:19592737

  2. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  3. job.search@internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia.

    1995-01-01

    Presents job-hunting options and career opportunities available by searching the Internet, as well as tips for consulting others in a field of interest through a listserv or usenet news group. A collection of Internet addresses providing access to information on job search strategies or job availability is provided. (JPS)

  4. Internet Basics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks. In the United States, the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet) serves as the Internet "backbone" (a very high speed network that connects key regions across the country). The NSFNet will likely evolve into the National Research and Education Network (NREN) as defined in the High…

  5. Regulating the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    2007-01-01

    The Internet's breakthrough to primetime usage beginning in the mid-1990s evolved in an era of openness. Unfettered access seemed key to Internet development. An important foundation for the 1996 Telecommunications Act was the theory that the telecom industry would work best if it were free of government regulation, a guiding principle that has…

  6. Lessons on Using Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemme, Bobbi; Donovan, Terri

    Intended for beginning Internet users and adult basic education instructors, this manual presents a very basic, instructional approach to exploring the Internet, with explicit instructions on what to do, places to go, and interesting things to try. An introduction on getting started is followed by sections on electronic mail, including using the…

  7. Internet Relay Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes Internet Relay Chats (IRCs), electronic conversations over the Internet that allow multiple users to write messages, and their applications to educational settings such as teacher collaboration and conversations between classes. Explains hardware and software requirements, IRC organization into nets and channels, and benefits and…

  8. Making the Internet Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides information on commercial connections to the Internet via gateways as opposed to direct connection or through a modem. Hardware and software requirements are described; and commercial online services offering an Internet gateway are discussed, including America Online, CompuServe, Delphi, GEnie, and Prodigy. (LRW)

  9. Interlinguistics and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettes, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the Internet offers new opportunities for the development, use, and study of planned languages. Notes that while most Web pages on "constructed" languages are the work of individual hobbyists, a few projects have small communities of users. The paper concludes that the use of Esperanto on the Internet reflects increased socialization…

  10. Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.

    PubMed

    House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group (19.0%) compared to the Saran Insole Group (31.7%). The incidences of lower limb stress fractures, tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI. PMID:23756077

  11. Holding on to the indispensable medication –A grounded theory on medication use from the perspective of persons with medication overuse headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic headache disorder, caused by overuse of acute medication. To date, it remains unclear why some people overuse these medications. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals with MOH use medications and other strategies to manage headaches in their daily lives, and their thoughts about their own use of acute medication. Our intention was to develop a theoretical model about the development of MOH, from the perspective of those with MOH. Methods Data collection and analysis were conducted according to grounded theory methodology. The participants were recruited via newspaper advertisements. Fourteen persons with MOH were interviewed in individual qualitative interviews. Results The basic process leading to medication overuse was holding on to the indispensable medication. The acute medication was indispensable to the participants because they perceived it as the only thing that could prevent headaches from ruining their lives. The participants perceived headaches as something that threatened to ruin their lives. As a result, they went to great lengths trying to find ways to manage it. They tried numerous strategies. However, the only strategy actually perceived as effective was the use of acute medication and they eventually became resigned to the idea that it was the only effective aid. The acute medication thus became indispensable. Their general intention was to use as little medication as possible but they found themselves compelled to medicate frequently to cope with their headaches. They did not like to think about their medication use and sometimes avoided keeping track of the amount used. Conclusions This qualitative study adds understanding to the process via which MOH develops from the perspective of those having MOH. Such knowledge may help bridge the gap between the perspectives of patients and health-care professionals. PMID:23697986

  12. Rehabilitation programs and prevention strategies in adolescent throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Edward G; Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    A specific and early diagnosis must be made in the injured skeletally immature throwing athlete. A well-outlined program of rest, rehabilitation, and proper throwing techniques should be implemented and continued. Overuse injuries are preventable when biomechanics are sound and pitch counts are done with the limits enforced. Guidelines for inning limits, number of pitches, rest intervals, and throwing programs should be followed for adolescent pitchers because adolescents differ from adults. Information is included for specifications of the ball and helmet, as well as chest protective equipment. The goal should be for the Little League players to have fun and be injury free as they are competing, which gives them the best experience and allows continuation of athletic activities for a lifetime. PMID:12690839

  13. Evaluation and Diagnosis of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shah, Suken A; Saller, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Although traditionally it has been accepted that back pain in young children and adolescents most often has an organic etiology, nonorganic back pain in this population is becoming more common. The most common identifiable clinical entities responsible for such pain are spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, Scheuermann kyphosis, overuse syndromes, disk herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, spondylodiscitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and neoplasm. Appropriate clinical workup leads to earlier diagnosis and management of back pain and avoids unnecessary cost. Knowledge of the most common diagnoses associated with back pain in children and adolescents and the use of a systematic method to select the appropriate diagnostic tests can help the clinician to minimize costs and maximize the likelihood of making the correct diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment. PMID:26589458

  14. Introducing the Internet.

    PubMed

    Pallen, M

    1995-11-25

    The benefits to medical practitioners of using the Internet are growing rapidly as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more biomedical resources become available on line. The Internet is the largest computer network in the world; it is also a virtual community, larger than many nation states, with its own rules of behaviour or "netiquette." There are several types of Internet connection and various ways of acquiring a connection. Once connected, you can obtain, free of charge, programs that allow easy use of the Internet's resources and help on how to use these resources; you can access many of these resources through the hypertext references in the on line version of this series (go to http:@www.bmj.com/bmj/ to reach the electronic version). You can then explore the various methods for accessing, manipulating, or disseminating data on the Internet, such as electronic mail, telnet, file transfer protocol, and the world wide web. Results from a search of the world wide web for information on the rare condition of Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis illustrate the breadth of medical information available on the Internet. PMID:8520280

  15. Introducing the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits to medical practitioners of using the Internet are growing rapidly as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more biomedical resources become available on line. The Internet is the largest computer network in the world; it is also a virtual community, larger than many nation states, with its own rules of behaviour or "netiquette." There are several types of Internet connection and various ways of acquiring a connection. Once connected, you can obtain, free of charge, programs that allow easy use of the Internet's resources and help on how to use these resources; you can access many of these resources through the hypertext references in the on line version of this series (go to http:@www.bmj.com/bmj/ to reach the electronic version). You can then explore the various methods for accessing, manipulating, or disseminating data on the Internet, such as electronic mail, telnet, file transfer protocol, and the world wide web. Results from a search of the world wide web for information on the rare condition of Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis illustrate the breadth of medical information available on the Internet. Images p1424-a PMID:8520280

  16. Internet Cum Laude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Internet's role in colleges and universities. Topics include network development, accessing the library's online catalog; attracting students, electronic student handbooks, coursework information, and program listings, teleconferencing, distance education, independent study and online degrees, electronic field trips, journalism…

  17. Medicine and the Internet.

    PubMed Central

    Akatsu, H; Kuffner, J

    1998-01-01

    Practicing physicians are frequently overwhelmed by the amount of new medical information. The internet is increasingly becoming an important vehicle for accessing that information with a variety of online resources for medical professionals. In its current state, however, the internet abounds with misleading information, making it difficult to sort out what is both meaningful and accurate from among the thousands of electronic documents. In this article, we list medical web sites that we have found to be useful, accurate, and easy to navigate. We also give an overview of the internet and World Wide Web to provide a starting point for novice users, and we briefly discuss how internet policy relates to medical practice. PMID:9830368

  18. Saving the internet.

    PubMed

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    The Internet goose has laid countless golden eggs, along with a growing number of rotten ones. But it's the rotten ones that now tempt commercial, governmental, and consumer interests to threaten the Internet's uniquely creative power. The expediently selected, almost accidentally generative properties of the Internet - its technical openness, ease of access and mastery, and adaptability - have combined, especially when coupled with those of the PC, to produce an unsurpassed environment for innovative experiment. Those same properties, however, also make the Internet hospitable to various forms of wickedness: hacking, porn, spam, fraud, theft, predation, and attacks on the network itself. As these undesirable phenomena proliferate, business, government, and many users find common cause for locking down Internet and PC architecture in the interests of security and order. PC and Internet security vulnerabilities are a legitimate menace. However, the most likely reactions - if they are not forestalled - will be at least as unfortunate as the security problems themselves. Consider the growing profusion of "tethered appliances" - devices whose functions cannot readily be altered by their owners (think TiVo). Such appliances take Internet innovations and wrap them up in a neat, easy-to-use package, which is good - but only if the Internet and PC can remain sufficiently in the center of the digital ecosystem to produce the next round of innovations and to generate competition. People buy these devices for their convenience or functionality and may appreciate the fact that they are safer to use (they limit the damage users can do through ignorance or carelessness). But the risk is that users, by migrating to such appliances, will unwittingly trade away the future benefits of generativity - a loss that will go unappreciated even as innovation tapers off. PMID:17580647

  19. Acne and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Joshua A; Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-04-01

    The Internet provides both education and miseducation for acne patients. Although some sites provide disease background information and objective treatment guidance, support networks, and research findings, others may seem to be objective on the surface, but are in reality run by untrained, self-proclaimed experts or are promotional in nature. Providers must be aware of the potential benefits and pitfalls the Internet provides for those suffering with acne. PMID:27015772

  20. Strategy and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    2001-03-01

    Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-coms and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service. It did not have to be this way--and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy. Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it often makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them. Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies. PMID:11246925

  1. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  2. Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children in Saudi Arabia: validation of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotics overuse is a global public health issue influenced by several factors, of which some are parent-related psychosocial factors that can only be measured using valid and reliable psychosocial measurement instruments. The PAPA scale was developed to measure these factors and the content validity of this instrument was assessed. Aim This study further validated the recently developed instrument in terms of (1) face validity and (2) construct validity including: deciding the number and nature of factors, and item selection. Methods Questionnaires were self-administered to parents of children between the ages of 0 and 12 years old. Parents were conveniently recruited from schools’ parental meetings in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Face validity was assessed with regards to questionnaire clarity and unambiguity. Construct validity and item selection processes were conducted using Exploratory factor analysis. Results Parallel analysis and Exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring produced six factors in the developed instrument: knowledge and beliefs, behaviours, sources of information, adherence, awareness about antibiotics resistance, and parents’ perception regarding doctors’ prescribing behaviours. Reliability was assessed (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78) which demonstrates the instrument as being reliable. Conclusion The ‘factors’ produced in this study coincide with the constructs contextually identified in the development phase of other instruments used to study antibiotic use. However, no other study considering perceptions of antibiotic use had gone beyond content validation of such instruments. This study is the first to constructively validate the factors underlying perceptions regarding antibiotic use in any population and in parents in particular. PMID:23497151

  3. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  4. Different types of Internet use, depression, and social anxiety: the role of perceived friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Selfhout, Maarten H W; Branje, Susan J T; Delsing, M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations of time spent on Internet activities for communication purposes (i.e., IM-ing) versus time spent on Internet activities for non-communication purposes (i.e., surfing) with depression and social anxiety, as well as the moderating role of perceived friendship quality in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 307 Dutch middle adolescents (average age 15 years) on two waves with a one-year interval. For adolescents who perceive low friendship quality, Internet use for communication purposes predicted less depression, whereas Internet use for non-communication purposes predicted more depression and more social anxiety. These results support social compensation effects of IM-ing on depression and poor-get-poorer effects of surfing on depression and social anxiety, respectively. PMID:19027940

  5. Cue-induced craving for Internet among Internet addicts.

    PubMed

    Niu, Geng-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kong, Fan-Chang; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Kui

    2016-11-01

    Intense craving is a core feature of addictive disorder, and cue-induced craving is believed to be a key factor in the maintenance and relapse of addictive behaviors. With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet addiction has become a widespread behavioral problem accompanied by many negative effects. This study used the cue-reactivity paradigm to examine cue-induced craving for the Internet among Internet addicts and non-addicts. Participants were exposed to Internet-related words, and asked to report their craving for the Internet. Results indicated that Internet-related words aroused cue-induced craving for the Internet among both Internet addicts and non-addicts; however, the craving was more intense among Internet addicts. These results suggest that craving may not be a unipolar, all or none state found only in addicts, but may also be present among non-addicts. They indicate that Internet-related words may be able to induce craving for the Internet, and that Internet addiction and other addictions may share similar underlying mechanisms. This finding has important implications for designing interventions for Internet addiction. PMID:27305097

  6. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  7. Standardization Study of Internet Addiction Improvement Motivation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Woo; Park, Kee Hwan; Lee, In Jae; Kwon, Min

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure motivation to improve Internet addiction. Motivation is known to be important to treat Internet addiction successfully. The reliability of the scale was assessed, and its concurrent validity was evaluated. Methods Ninety-two adolescents participated in this study. The basic demographic characteristics were recorded and the Korean version of the Stages of Readiness for Change and Eagerness for Treatment Scale for Internet Addiction (K-SOCRATES-I) was administered. Subsequently, the Internet Addiction Improvement Motivation Scale was developed using 10 questions based on the theory of motivation enhancement therapy and its precursor version designed for smoking cessation. Results The motivation scale was composed of three subscales through factor analysis; each subscale had an adequate degree of reliability. In addition, the motivation scale had a high degree of validity based on its significant correlation with the K-SOCRATES-I. A cut-off score, which can be used to screen out individuals with low motivation, was suggested. Conclusion The Internet Addiction Improvement Motivation Scale, composed of 10 questions developed in this study, was deemed a highly reliable and valid scale to measure a respondent's motivation to be treated for Internet addiction. PMID:23251202

  8. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  9. Internet resources for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Kapila, Suman; Prasad, Gbks

    2005-01-01

    Internet is transforming lives of many people in the world. Nowadays Internet has become one of the most common media to extract information of interest to researchers. The Internet is composed of a large number of smaller interconnected networks called Intranets. These Intranets connect thousands computers enabling them to share information with each other and to share various resources such as powerful super computers, software and databases of information. It has made it possible for people all over the world to effectively and inexpensively communicate with each other. The Internet has become world's biggest library where retrieval of scientific resources is only a mouse click away. The geometric growth in Internet usage is mainly due to the great success of "World Wide Web". Various useful databases on diabetes are already on 'the Net' and many more being added regularly. The present article is an attempt to provide a review of several sites that may be of great significance to the diabetes researchers before execution for new assignment/project. PMID:15681892

  10. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  11. Relationships between problematic internet use and problem-gambling severity: findings from a high-school survey.

    PubMed

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  12. The Internet for Librarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.

    Librarianship is currently undergoing major changes. New information sources, accessible via the "network of networks", the Internet, offer opportunities which were previously unknown, but which require continuous ongoing learning. The Internet seems to be organized badly or not at all. The poor appearance might lead to an underestimation of its value. In the following, an introduction to the main functions will be given in order to facilitate understanding and use of the Internet. E-Mail, FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and Telnet will be covered, as well as Mailing lists, Newsgroups and the tools Archie, Gopher, Veronica, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server) and the World Wide Web (WWW). Examples will be given to show possible applications for library services.

  13. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  14. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  15. Cataloging Internet resources.

    PubMed

    Flannery, M R

    1995-04-01

    The number of resources available on the Internet continues to expand exponentially, but finding appropriate resources is still a fragmented, hit-or-miss operation. Traditional library expertise in bibliographic description and access should be applied to the management of this emerging body of material. In the process, catalogers will be able to assess the adequacy of current tools (e.g., cataloging codes, machine-readable cataloging formats, integrated library systems) for providing access to Internet resources and will contribute credibly to design or redesign of access tools. This paper outlines the major issues that must be considered in cataloging electronic resources. PMID:7599587

  16. Is the Excessive Use of Microblogs an Internet Addiction? Developing a Scale for Assessing the Excessive Use of Microblogs in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengqiu; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Yang, Lizhuang; Gu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Jin, Shenghua; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    More and more college students are using microblogs, with some excessive users demonstrating addiction-like symptoms. However, there is currently no published scale available for use in assessing excessive use of these microblogs, a significant impediment to advancing this area of research. We collected data from 3,047 college students in China and developed a Microblog Excessive Use Scale (MEUS) for Chinese college students, comparing it with criteria used for assessing Internet addiction. Our diagnostic scale featured three factors, two of which–“withdrawal and health problem” and “time management and performance”–are already included in Internet addiction assessment scales. The third factor, “social comfort,” does not appear in Internet addiction assessment scales. Our study found that females have significantly higher MEUS scores than males, and that total MEUS scores positively correlated with scores from “self-disclosure” and “real social interaction” scales. These findings differ from results obtained in previous investigations into Internet addiction. Our results indicate that some characteristics of the excessive use of microblogs are different to those of Internet addiction, suggesting that microblog overuse may not correspond exactly to the state of Internet addiction. PMID:25405928

  17. Filtering the Internet: The Children's Internet Protection Act. Legal Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2004-01-01

    Accompanying the explosive growth of the Internet have been concerns about protecting children from viewing pornographic and other harmful images through cyberspace. In the past few years, Congress has passed several acts to censor Internet sites available to children, but only the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) has received Supreme…

  18. Internet Abuse and Internet Addiction in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to internet abuse and internet addiction in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, the paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of internet abuse, and the most extreme form of…

  19. Internet Resources on Aging: Parts of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the Internet and a listing of various resources on aging that can be obtained through the Internet. Components of the Internet discussed are electronic-mail applications (listservs, USENET Newsgroups, Bulletin Board Systems, Freenets, and Commercial Services); File Transfer Protocol; Telnet/Remote Login; Gophers; Wide…

  20. Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet: A Realistic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Cecilia M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes new developments, such as Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative, as well as other potential advances in high-performance applications that these new electronic resources will create. Relates these developments to the evolution of the Internet, and looks ahead to their likely impact beyond the higher education and…

  1. Adolescent online gambling: the impact of parental practices and correlates with online activities.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios D; Siomos, Konstantinos; Fisoun, Virginia; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2013-03-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-19 of the island of Kos and their parents, on the relationship between their Internet gambling and respective parental practices, including aspects of psychological bonding and online security measures. The sample consisted of 2,017 students (51.8% boys, 48.2% girls). Our results indicate that gender, parenting practices as perceived by the adolescents and distinct patterns of adolescent Internet activities are among the best predictor variables for Internet gambling. Security practices exercised by the parents failed to make an impact on the extent of Internet gambling, demonstrating the need for specific measures to tackle this phenomenon since the provision of simple education on the dangers of the Internet is not sufficient to this regard. PMID:22271406

  2. Internet Use for Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Services Utilization > Internet use for Health Information Internet use for Health Information Narrative Due in part to the growth in high-speed broadband, wireless networks, and mobile ...

  3. Teaching and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Problems involved in distance learning where teachers utilizing public chat sites and interactive software crosses the Internet students online are examined. The provisions of the TEACH Act that became law in 2002 and provides guidelines on the use of copyright-protected material are discussed.

  4. Collaborative Internet Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Joanne

    This paper describes pioneering in the area of telecommunications and the use of the Internet across the curriculum in Australian schools through the I*EARN (International Education and Resource Network). Topics discussed include: (1) changes to the traditional learning approach and school structure, including the role of the teacher and resource…

  5. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  6. Commercialization of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Allan H.

    1992-01-01

    Traces the growth of the Internet from its beginnings as the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's ARPAnet. Discusses key issues facing network service providers including: acceptable use policies, liability exposure, the integration of research and production networks, the commercialization of the networks, and the need for global planning.…

  7. Reading the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Similar trends are occurring in schools. Lenhart, Simoin, and Graziano (2001) found that 94% of teens online use the Internet for school research projects, and according to the U.S. Department of Education (2004), "even students from low-income groups without access to technology at home seek and find it-using computers at schools, libraries, or…

  8. Internet Issues in Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

  9. Internet Training Needs Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    The Office of Institutional Research at Johnson County Community College (JCCC), Kansas, conducted a survey to help determine the level of interest in Internet training courses. Surveys were mailed in November 1998 to 9,982 individuals selected from six lists representing the JCCC Business and Industry Division's current and potential clients. A…

  10. Cataloguing the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daniel, Heather B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses problems and opportunities, presented by the information explosion and the growth of the Internet, for libraries to apply and augment traditional methods of cataloging. The first section provides an overview of how the process of cataloging evolved, including the development of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR),…

  11. Modeling the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Serrano, M.; Boguñá, M.; Díaz-Guilera, A.

    2006-03-01

    We model the Internet as a network of interconnected Autonomous Systems which self-organize under an absolute lack of centralized control. Our aim is to capture how the Internet evolves by reproducing the assembly that has led to its actual structure and, to this end, we propose a growing weighted network model driven by competition for resources and adaptation to maintain functionality in a demand and supply balance. On the demand side, we consider the environment, a pool of users which need to transfer information and ask for service. On the supply side, ASs compete to gain users, but to be able to provide service efficiently, they must adapt their bandwidth as a function of their size. Hence, the Internet is not modeled as an isolated system but the environment, in the form of a pool of users, is also a fundamental part which must be taken into account. ASs compete for users and big and small come up, so that not all ASs are identical. New connections between ASs are made or old ones are reinforced according to the adaptation needs. Thus, the evolution of the Internet can not be fully understood if just described as a technological isolated system. A socio-economic perspective must also be considered.

  12. Glossary of Internet Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides definitions for 71 terms related to the Internet, including Archie, bulletin board system, cyberspace, e-mail (electronic mail), file transfer protocol, gopher, hypertext, integrated services digital network, local area network, listserv, modem, packet switching, server, telnet, UNIX, WAIS (wide area information servers), and World Wide…

  13. Internet's critical path horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  14. The Global Internet Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Joy

    2009-01-01

    The global rise of Internet-based education is discussed in relation to models drawn from social studies and epidemiology. Experiential and data density models are highlighted, also the capacity for technological change, and phenomena observed in the spread of disease. The lesson of these illustrations is that even apparently permanent phenomena…

  15. Internet Technology Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes six "pathfinders" to locating information on Internet resources. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in response to…

  16. Toward a Standardized Internet Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiang; Tan, Zixiang

    This paper investigates measurement issues related to elements of the Internet and calls for a standardized measuring scheme to resolve the problem of the measurement. The dilemmas in measuring the elements of the Internet are identified, and previous studies are reviewed. Elements of the Internet are categorized into population, usage, protocol…

  17. Gaining Access to the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Internet services and protocols (i.e., electronic mail, file transfer, and remote login) and provides instructions for retrieving guides and directories of the Internet. Services providing access to the Internet are described, including bulletin board systems, regional networks, nationwide connections, and library organizations; and a…

  18. Internet Resources for General Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Internet tools that can be incorporated into the general music class structure and are appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students: (1) electronic music dictionaries and encyclopedias; (2) Internet practice-and-drill web sites; and (3) virtual learning centers. Discusses the structure of Internet projects and the use of…

  19. Student Use of the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaney, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores Internet use among undergraduates, especially at one public research university where researchers have studied students' self-reported Internet use for several years. Analysis of data from a survey administered to 490 undergraduates in Fall 2000 and a survey of 593 undergraduates in Fall 2003 revealed that Internet use is…

  20. Internet in the Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Sizigendi Subba

    This paper presents briefly the concept of the Internet and lists the Internet service providers in India (Education and Research Network from Department of Electronics, National Informatics Network from National Informatics Center, Gateway Internet Access Service from Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited, and SOFTNET from Software Technology Parks India)…