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Sample records for interpositional gap arthroplasty

  1. Gap Arthroplasty versus Interpositional Arthroplasty for Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junli; Liang, Limin; Jiang, Hua; Gu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gap arthroplasty (GA) and interpositional arthroplasty (IA) are widely used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJA). However, controversy remains as to whether IA is superior to GA. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of science and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for literature regarding these procedures (published from 1946 to July 28, 2014). A study was included in this analysis if it was: (1) a randomized controlled trial or non-randomized observational cohort study; (2) comparing the clinical outcomes between GA and IA with respect to the maximal incisal opening (MIO) and reankylosis; (3) with a follow-up period of at least 12 months. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale Eight non-randomized observational cohort studies with 272 patients were included. All the statistical analyses were performed using the RevMan 5.3 and Stat 12. The pooled analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of reankylosis between the IA group (13/120) and the GA group (29/163) (RR= 0.67, 95% CI=0.38 to 1.16; Z=1.43, p=0.15). The IA group showed a significantly larger MIO than the GA group (MD=1.96, 95% CI=0.21 to 3.72, Z=2.19, p=0.03, I2=0%). In conclusion, patients with TMJA could benefit more from IA than GA, with a larger MIO and a similar incidence of reankylosis. IA shows to be an adequate option in the treatment of TMJA based on the results of maximal incisal opening. PMID:26010224

  2. Modified T-Plate Interpositional Arthroplasty for Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A New and Versatile Option

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Bariar, Lalit Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Background This study has been conducted with the aim of evaluating modified T-plate interpositional arthroplasty. Methods A prospective comparative study in patients admitted with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Ankylotic temporomandibular joint arthroplasty included condylectomy gap arthroplasty in 7, temporalis muscle flap interpositional arthroplasty in 8, and modified T-plate interpositional arthroplasty in 13 cases. The patients were followed for three years. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to Fisher's exact test, chi-square test and probability estimation. Results A significant increase in interincisal distance of 32 mm was seen in 12 (92.31%) patients in the T-plate interposition group, in 2 (25%) cases of the temporalis muscle flap interposition group, and in 1 case (14.28%) of the condylectomy group at 12, 24, and 36 months. Re-ankylosis was observed in 1 case (9.69%) of the T-plate interposition group, while as it was observed in 4 (50%) cases in the temporalis muscle flap interposition group and 4 (57.14%) cases in the condylectomy group, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions Our clinical experience with the use of the T-plate over the past 5 years has been encouraging, and our physiotherapy technique is quite simple. Even illiterate parents can assess it easily. Hence, we recommend this easy technique that does not damage the temporalis muscle for the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. PMID:26618118

  3. Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty with Ligament Reconstruction and Interposition Costochondral Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Thomas; Rafijah, Gregory; Heaton, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background Thumb arthritis at the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is one of the most common sites of arthritis, especially in women. Thumb arthroplasty is an effective method of relieving pain and improving function. Materials and Methods Qualitative and quantitative outcomes were assessed clinically and radiographically in 58 patients (66 thumbs) with thumb basal joint arthritis limited to the trapeziometacarpal joint, treated with hemiresection arthroplasty of the trapezium, flexor carpi radialis (FCR) ligament reconstruction, and allograft costochondral interposition graft. Description of Technique The thumb CMC joint arthroplasty is performed using an FCR tendon for ligament reconstruction combined with removal of the distal half of the trapezium, which is replaced with a life preserver-shaped spacer that is carved out of allograft cartilage. Results Results of the validated Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire at a mean follow-up time of 56 months (range, 24-103 months) revealed that 90% of the patients had a high level of function with minimal symptoms. Important improvements in web space with increased palmar and radial abduction and grip and pinch strength measurements were observed. The trapeziometacarpal space had decreased 21% after surgery, while trapeziometacarpal subluxation was 14% compared with 21% before surgery. There was an inverse correlation between the loss of trapezial height and subluxation and clinical outcome. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that, although the preoperative trapezial height was not maintained, the reconstructed thumbs remained stable, with little subluxation and improved clinical outcomes. Level of Evidence IV, retrospective case series PMID:24436820

  4. Arthroscopic technique of interposition arthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Deepak N; van Rooyen, Karin S; du Toit, Donald F; de Beer, Joe F

    2006-05-01

    Arthroscopic glenohumeral interposition arthroplasty is performed with the patient placed in the lateral decubitus position. Standard posterior, anterior, and anterosuperior portals are created, a routine diagnostic arthroscopy is performed, and the joint is débrided with the use of an arthroscopic shaver. An arthroscopic burr is used to resect prominent osteophytes, to alter the version of the glenoid if necessary, and to create microfractures on the glenoid surface. Next, 3 absorbable sutures are passed percutaneously with a 30 degrees angled suture grasper from 3 different sites posteriorly through the posterior capsular-labral tissue and into the anterior portal cannula, where they are isolated by means of the suture saver kit. The prepared interposition membrane/tissue (GRAFTJACKET Regenerative Tissue Matrix, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., Arlington, TN) is tagged with the 3 sutures in the anterior cannula before it is introduced into the joint. Three additional sutures are attached to the membrane anteriorly at 1, 3, and 5 o'clock positions and are isolated with suture savers. The membrane is next introduced into the joint through the anterior cannula and is aligned with the glenoid rim. The anterior sutures are rerouted through the anterior capsular-labral tissue with a 70 degrees angled suture grasper, and they are retrieved through the anterior cannula. Intra-articular nonsliding knots are used anteriorly to anchor the interposition tissue to the anterior glenoid labrum and capsule. The posterior sutures are knotted intra-articularly, or they may be tied extra-articularly; the proximal and distal posterior sutures are retrieved subcutaneously out through the skin tract of the posterior portal and are knotted with the suture present in this portal, with the use of nonsliding knots. Stability of the interposition tissue is assessed by movement of the glenohumeral joint through its entire range of motion. The postoperative protocol consists of early passive exercises, active exercises after 3 weeks, and muscle-strengthening exercises after 6 weeks. PMID:16651174

  5. Roger Mann Award 1995. Capsular interposition arthroplasty for severe hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W G; O'Malley, M J; Thompson, F M; Kovatis, P E

    1997-02-01

    Thirty patients (37 feet) with severe hallux rigidus underwent resection arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with our modification (reattachment of the extensor hood and extensor brevis to the flexor hallucis brevis as a capsular interposition arthroplasty, with minimal bone resection). Pain and function were significantly improved. Transfer metatarsalgia was not seen. All patients had at least 4/5 plantarflexion strength and averaged 50 degrees of dorsiflexion. In patients with severe hallux rigidus and nearly equal length of first and second metatarsals, capsular interposition arthroplasty offers a surgical option that relieves pain without sacrificing motion or strength. PMID:9043876

  6. The Artelon CMC spacer compared with tendon interposition arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Monica; Alnehill, Hkan; Berggren, Magnus; Bjrnum, Sten; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Sollerman, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The Artelon CMC spacer is designed for surgical treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC-I). Good results using this degradable device were previously presented in a pilot study. We now present results from a larger randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Patients and methods 109 patients (94 females) with a mean age of 60 (4283) years, suffering from painful CMC OA, were included in the study at 7 centers in Sweden. The patients were randomized to Artelon CMC spacer (test, n = 72) or tendon arthroplasty (control, n = 37) at a ratio of 2:1. Perceived pain was recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS) before treatment and after 3, 6, and 12 months, when measuring maximal tripod pinch strength (primary outcome measure). In addition, range of motion, radiographic findings, and functional testing were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Results Swelling and pain were more common in the test group and 6 implants were removed because of such symptoms. 5 of these patients did not receive antibiotics preoperatively according to the study protocol. In a per-protocol analysis, i.e. patients without signs of concomitant OA in the scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid (STT) joint and those in the test group who received antibiotics, the mean difference in tripod pinch strength increase, adjusted for baseline, was 1.4 kg in favor of the test group (not statistically significant). Statistically significant pain relief was achieved in both groups, with perceived pain gradually decreasing during the follow-up period. In the intention-to-treat analysis but not in the per-protocol analysis, significantly better pain relief (VAS) was obtained in the control group. Patient-perceived disability evaluated by the DASH questionnaire improved in both groups. Interpretation The Artelon CMC spacer did not show superior results compared to tendon interposition arthroplasty. Proper use of preoperative antibiotics and a thorough patient selection appear to be important for the results. PMID:20180717

  7. Pyrocarbon Interposition Wrist Arthroplasty in the Treatment of Failed Wrist Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Bellemre, Philippe; Maes-Clavier, Catherine; Loubersac, Thierry; Gaisne, Etienne; Kerjean, Yves; Collon, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of failures after prior wrist surgeries with major articular destruction is challenging. In most cases, total wrist fusion is the only possible salvage procedure. We propose a new interposition arthroplasty with a pyrocarbon implant called Amandys. A total of 16 patients, 14 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 56 years were operated on for a failure of wrist surgery performed previously, with an average time lapse of 12 years. The prior surgeries were partial wrist arthrodesis in seven cases, silicone implant interpositions in five cases, advanced Kienbck disease (Lichtman IV) treatment in two cases, proximal row carpectomy in one case, and an isolated scaphoidectomy in one case. A prospective study with clinical and radiological evaluation was performed with a mean follow-up of 24 months (6 to 41 months). Pain and function showed significant improvement. The mean pain score decreased from 7 of 10 to 4 of 10, postoperatively. The mean grip strength was 19?kg (53% of the contralateral side), and the mean range of motion in flexion extension was 68 degrees. Mean strength and range of motion did not change significantly with the operation. The mean QuickDASH (Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand) score decreased from 59 of 100 to 39 of 100. The mean Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation decreased from 57 of 100 to 33. Two patients (12.5%) required revision for implant repositioning. No dislocation or subsidence of the implant was noted. Pyrocarbon interposition arthroplasty is a new option for treatment of advanced wrist destruction. Preliminary short-term results suggest that it may be a reliable alternative to total wrist fusion. The level of evidence of this study is IV (therapeutic case series). PMID:23904977

  8. Elbow interposition arthroplasty in children and adolescents: long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Janeth; Oliver, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    A long-term follow-up was made of 12 elbows operated upon between 1971 and 1986, with more than 20years follow-up, in nine males and three females, age at the time of surgery between 10 and 19years . Eight right and four left elbows were involved, and there were three aetiological causes. Seven cases were sequelae of elbow fractures, of which five were supracondylar and two were of the olecranon. There were four cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and one was post-osteomyelitis. The surgical technique involved a modification made by Vainio of MacAuslands technique (wider resection of the osseous ends and total covering of the bloody surfaces) [5, 9]. After extirpating the tissue blocking the joint, we proceeded to remodel the distal humerus in a wide V shape, the proximal end of the ulnar and, if necessary, the radial head. The proximal end of the ulna was sectioned transversely. All surgery was carried out sub-periosteally. Then, an interposition material was placed in one piece and sutured over the distal humerus and cut ends of the ulna and radius. The articular ends were brought together, and the capsule was closed using equidistant stitching, as is the skin. A small compression bandage was applied, and the arm was immobilised with a collar and cuff sling, with the forearm flexed to slightly less than a right angle. In ten cases, the interposition material was fascia lata grafts; in one case, skin graft and in one case, Gelfoam graft. Early rehabilitation began when post-operative pain allowed. Follow-up ranged from 25 to 32years. Pre-surgical movement ranged between 90 and 120 of flexion and 30 and 90 of extension. Post-operative range varied between 90 and 150 of flexion. The five cases of full pre-operative ankylosis achieved between 90 and 150 of flexion and between 0 and 70 of extension. The total range of motion at the latest follow-up varied from 35 to 150. Patients who were able to perform flexion of 120 or more were considered to be excellent, those between 90 and 119 were graded good, from 60 to 89 fair and those 59 or less poor. The ability to attain a hand to mouth position requires a mobility of 120. We obtained excellent results in two patients, good results in three, fair results in four and poor results in three. The fascia lata was used in 83% of cases, obtaining excellent to good results in five patients (41%). Elbow interposition arthroplasty has its indications in children and adolescents where arthrodesis or total joint replacement cannot be performed. PMID:17308908

  9. ARTHROPLASTY FOR TRAPEZIUM EXCISION AND TENDON INTERPOSITION IN RHIZARTHROSIS CASES: PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Junior, Walter Gomes Pinheiro; Chaim, Renan Moukbel; de Carvalho, Henrique Bella Freire; Albertoni, Walter Manna; Faloppa, Flávio; Santos, João Baptista Gomes dos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the results from a series of patients who underwent surgical treatment for rhizarthrosis using the technique of trapezium resection associated with interposition of yarn from the long abductor tendon of the thumb. Methods: From May to August 2005, ten patients underwent surgical treatment for rhizarthrosis. Patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the trapezium-metacarpal joint, in stages II, III and IV of the Eaton classification, with persistent pain that was refractory to clinical treatment, were included. For the functional assessment, the visual analogue scale, DASH questionnaire and Buck-Gramcko score were used. For the overall assessment on the patients, strength measurements were made for palm grip, pulp to pulp pinch, lateral pinch, three-point pinch, opposition and radial and palmar abductions. The migration index for the first metacarpal was also determined on radiographs at rest and under stress. Results: The pain relief was considered to be good (p = 0.005), with functional improvements in modules 2 (p = 0.02) and 3 (p = 0.022) of DASH. The Buck-Gramcko score showed one excellent and three very good results. There was an improvement in almost all of the overall assessment and was only non-significant regarding lateral pinch and abduction. For all patients, there was migration of the first metacarpal. Conclusion: Trapeziectomy associated with interposition of yarn from the long abductor tendon of the thumb was shown to be a relatively simple and effective technique for pain relief and functional improvement.

  10. Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: pyrocarbon interposition implants

    PubMed Central

    ODELLA, SIMONA; QUERENGHI, AMOS M.; SARTORE, ROBERTA; DE FELICE, AGOSTINO; DACATRA, UGO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interposition arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint with pyrolitic carbon implants for the treatment of TMC osteoarthritis. Methods we evaluated two groups of patients surgically treated for TMC osteoarthritis: group 1 (34 patients - 36 TMC joints) treated with PyroDisk implantation and group 2 (25 patients - 25 TMC joints) treated with the Pyrocardan implant. All these patients were clinically evaluated at follow-up using the DASH score, Mayo Wrist score and VAS pain score. Results the mean follow-up was 42 months in group 1 and 12 months in group 2. Both groups showed good clinical outcomes in terms of pain relief, range of motion, and pinch and grasp strength. Revision surgery was needed in only one case in group 1 (2.8%) and in three cases (12%) in group 2. Conclusions prosthetic replacement of the TMC joint was found to be a good solution for low-demand patients. However, the PyroDisk could be a good solution in selected patients (Eaton stage I–III, non-subluxated joint): it provides good pain relief, good range of motion, good pinch and grasp strength, and stable results at more than three-years of follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25750903

  11. Gap arthroplasty combined with distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of unilateral ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint and micrognathia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Guofang; Zhang, Shilei; Wang, Xudong

    2009-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous gap arthroplasty and distraction osteogenesis (DO) in the treatment of unilateral ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with micrognathia. During the period January 2000-December 2006, 11 patients with unilateral ankylosis of the TMJ and micrognathia were treated with simultaneous gap arthroplasty, mandibular osteotomy, and implantation of a distractor. Mouth opening exercises were started on the first postoperative day and distraction on the fifth postoperative day. All patients had satisfactory mouth opening at follow-up, the mean (range) being 32.4 (28-37) mm in 13 to 58 months' follow-up. Mean length (range) of the mandibular body increased by DO was 12.4 (7-15) mm. Facial asymmetry was corrected and satisfactory occlusions achieved with the help of postoperative orthodontic treatment. We conclude that DO and gap arthroplasty can be used simultaneously in the treatment of patients with ankylosis of the TMJ and micrognathia. PMID:18805606

  12. Lessons Learned from Selective Soft-Tissue Release for Gap Balancing in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Analysis of 1216 Consecutive Total Knee Arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Christopher L.; Jimenez, Chris; Erickson, Jill; Anderson, Mike B.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue releases are commonly necessary to achieve symmetrical flexion and extension gaps in primary total knee arthroplasty performed with a measured resection technique. We reviewed the frequency of required releases according to preoperative alignment and the clinical and radiographic results; associations with failure, reoperations, and complications are presented. Methods: We reviewed 1216 knees that underwent primary total knee arthroplasty from 2004 to 2009; 774 (64%) were in female patients and 442 (36%), in male patients. In the coronal plane, 855 knees had preoperative varus deformity, 123 were neutral, and 238 had valgus deformity. The mean age at the time of the index procedure was 62.7 years (range, twenty-three to ninety-four years), and the mean body mass index was 32.7 kg/m2 (range, 17.4 to 87.9 kg/m2). Clinical outcomes included the Knee Society Score (KSS), implant failure, reoperation, and complications. Radiographs were analyzed for component alignment. Results: The only difference in the total KSS was found at the time of final follow-up between valgus knees with zero releases (total KSS = 178) and those with one or two releases (KSS = 160, p = 0.026). Overall, 407 knees (33.5%) required zero releases, 686 (56.4%) required oneor two releases, and 123 (10.1%) required three or more releases. Among varus knees, 37% required zero releases, 55% required one or two releases, and 7.5% required three or more releases. Among neutral knees, 39% required zero releases, 55% required one or two releases, and 5.7% required three or more releases. Only 17% of valgus knees required zero releases whereas 61% required one or two releases and 21.8% required three or more releases. Valgus knees required more releases than neutral or varus knees did (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Selective soft-tissue release for gap balancing in primary total knee arthroplasty is an effective technique that produced excellent clinical and radiographic results regardless of preoperative alignment. Consistent anatomic coronal-plane alignment and soft-tissue balance could be achieved without bone cut modification by using measured bone resection and selective soft-tissue release. PMID:24132367

  13. Ten Year Follow-Up of Gap Balanced, Rotating Platform Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients Under 60 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason H; Barnett, Steven L; Patel, Jay J; Nassif, Nader A; Cummings, Dennis J; Gorab, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    68 patients (91 primary total knee arthroplasties) were evaluated at a mean 10-year, minimum 5year follow up in patients younger than sixty years of age utilizing the gap balanced, rotating platform design. Follow up assessment included implant survivorship, adverse events, x-rays, Knee Society rating system and clinical evaluation. Three revisions were performed with only one for aseptic loosening at 45months. Two manipulations were performed in the early postoperative period. Survivorship of the rotating platform, gap balanced knee was 96.7% using surgical revision for any reason and 98.9% using aseptic loosening as endpoints. The rotating platform design using the gap balancing technique in young patients had excellent survivorship at 10-year mean follow up. PMID:26297690

  14. Flexion-extension gap in cruciate-retaining versus posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Joshua; Chong, Alexander; McQueen, David; O'Guinn, Justin; Wooley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We re-examined experimental model results using half-body specimens with intact extensor mechanisms and navigation to evaluate cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) component gaps through an entire range of motion. Six sequential testing regimens were conducted with the knee intact, with a CR TKA in place, and with a PS TKA in place, with and without 22 N traction in place at each stage. Each of 10 knees was taken through six full ranges of motion from 0° to 120° at every stage using a navigated knee system to record component gapping. No significant difference was found between loaded and unloaded component gaps, and no significant differences were found in component gapping between CR and PS TKAs throughout a full range of motion. Flexion-extension gap measurements were significantly different from previously published data (at 90° flexion). No difference was found in kinematics when comparing CR and PS TKA component designs. Our results suggest that intact extensor mechanisms may be required to perform proper kinematic studies of TKA. Our findings provide evidence that the extensor mechanism may play a major role in the flexion-extension gaps in cadaveric knees. PMID:24474152

  15. Obliteration of Intercondylar Notch Mimicking Flexion-Extension Gap Imbalance in a Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Harun Resit; Kiter, Esat; Akkaya, Semih; Ok, Nusret; Yorukoglu, Cagdas

    2015-01-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the most frequent cause of extension deficit and limitation of range of motion in early postoperative period is related to improper tensioning of soft tissues and failure to balance extension and flexion gaps. If a cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis is the planned implant, then attention should be given to balancing the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and any factor that alters this balance may also cause deterioration of knee balance in postoperative period. Here, we report on an unusual case referred from another hospital because of continuous pain and restriction of knee motion in early postoperative period following CR-designed TKA that was initially thought to be due to flexion-extension imbalance. However, during the revision procedure, extruded cement to the intercondylar notch was found to be both mechanically blocking terminal extension and limiting flexion by possible mechanism of irritation of the synovial nerve endings around the stretched anterior fibers of PCL during flexion. This case was successfully treated by removal of extruded cement from intercondylar notch to decompress PCL, polyethylene exchange, and secondary patellar resurfacing. PMID:26185697

  16. Effects of Reduction Osteotomy on Gap Balancing During Total Knee Arthroplasty for Severe Varus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Harato, Kengo; Nagai, Katsuya; Suda, Yasunori; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of down-sizing and lateralizing of the tibial component (reduction osteotomy) on gap balancing in TKA, and the clinical feasibility of an uncemented modular trabecular metal tibial tray in this technique. Reduction osteotomy was performed for 39 knees of 36 patients with knee OA with a mean tibiofemoral angle of 21 varus. In 20 knees, appropriate gap balance was achieved by release of the deep medial collateral ligament alone. Flexion gap imbalance could be reduced by approximately 1.7 and 2.8 for 4-mm osteotomy and 8-mm osteotomy, respectively. Within the first postoperative year, clinically-stable tibial component subsidence was observed in 9 knees, but it was not progressive, and the clinical results were excellent at a mean follow-up of 3.3years. PMID:26239234

  17. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices 872.3970 Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc...

  18. Interposition of lateral pterygoid in temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

    PubMed

    Pappachan, Biju; Snehal, B

    2009-06-01

    Conventionally temporalis myofascial flap is popular for interposition in TMJ ankylosis. Medial pterygoid and masseter also has been used in the past for interposition. We introduce here lateral pterygoid for interposition in cases of mild ankylosis where condylar bony architecture is not distorted. PMID:23139490

  19. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... implant). 872.3970 Section 872.3970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant) is a device that is intended to be an interface between the natural articulating...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... implant). 872.3970 Section 872.3970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant) is a device that is intended to be an interface between the natural articulating...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... implant). 872.3970 Section 872.3970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant) is a device that is intended to be an interface between the natural articulating...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... implant). 872.3970 Section 872.3970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant) is a device that is intended to be an interface between the natural articulating...

  3. Safe esophageal reconstruction by ileocolic interposition.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Hirai, T; Kubota, H; Murakami, H; Higashida, M; Hirabayashi, Y

    2012-04-01

    Many techniques have been proposed for esophageal reconstruction after esophagectomy when a gastric tube cannot be employed. There are two essential criteria for such a substitute: substitute length and sufficient blood supply. We propose ileocolic interposition as an easy and safe option. Two technical aspects contributing to the high success rate of this method are the preservation of an intact arterial network allowing normal blood flow to the ileocolic area, and the ability to quantify blood flow using a Doppler pulse flow meter in six cases. These are enabled by a long (up to 20cm) ileocolic segment. The preservation of the right colic artery is important, because its interruption would reduce blood supply to the long ileum segment. Between July 2003 and October 2008, we used this method in six patients in whom a gastric tube was not an option. We assessed perioperative morbidity and swallowing difficulties in each patient, quantifying dysphagia on scale of 0 to 4. There was no mortality and no anastomotic leak. There was one wound infection, and in one patient, recurrent nerve paralysis was observed. The postoperative hospital stay was 29.5 10.8 days. The average dysphagia score for the six patients was 0.17 0.41 after the operation. All patients can eat normally, without any dietary limitations. Ileocolonic interposition after esophagectomy requires careful assessment of the vascular supply. In this small series, morbidity was low and there was no perioperative mortality. We believe that this is an easy and safe method of reconstruction after esophagectomy in cases in whom a gastric tube cannot be used as a substitute. PMID:21819484

  4. Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Khair, M. Michael; Dines, Joshua S.; Dines, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Increasingly, total shoulder arthroplasty is being performed not only to treat the pain associated with glenohumeral arthritis but also to return patients to the level of activity and function they enjoyed prior to the development of arthritis. While return to sport and activity have been studied in the total knee and total hip replacement literature, it is only relatively recently that the same focus has been placed on total shoulder replacements. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database from the years 2000 to 2014. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included in the review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: An increasing number of patients seeking total shoulder arthroplasty are doing so with the expectation of not only decreased symptoms of glenohumeral arthritis but also of return to a high level of activity. The majority of patients are able to return to their prior level of activity within 6 months of surgery. In some series, patients saw an improvement in their ability to perform their chosen activity. Conclusion: Patients should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level after total shoulder arthroplasty and, in some cases, see an improvement in their abilities to participate in sport. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:25553218

  5. Shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Buck, Florian M; Jost, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg

    2008-12-01

    Shoulder prostheses are now commonly used. Clinical results and patient satisfaction are usually good. The most commonly used types are humeral hemiarthroplasty, unconstrained total shoulder arthroplasty, and semiconstrained inversed shoulder prosthesis. Complications of shoulder arthroplasty depend on the prosthesis type used. The most common complications are prosthetic loosening, glenohumeral instability, periprosthetic fracture, rotator cuff tears, nerve injury, infection, and deltoid muscle dysfunction. Standard radiographs are the basis of both pre- and postoperative imaging. Skeletal scintigraphy has a rather limited role because there is overlap between postoperative changes which may persist for up to 1 year and early loosening and infection. Sonography is most commonly used postoperatively in order to demonstrate complications (hematoma and abscess formation) but may also be useful for the demonstration of rotator cuff tears occurring during follow-up. CT is useful for the demonstration of bone details both pre- and postoperatively. MR imaging is mainly used preoperatively, for instance for demonstration of rotator cuff tears. PMID:18618117

  6. Early results with a patient specific interpositional knee device.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Francis; Akram, Tahira; Roy, Stuart; Pemberton, David; Chandatreya, Amit

    2012-08-01

    The iForma ConforMIS Interpositional knee device is a recently developed patient specific implant used for the treatment of mild to moderate uni-compartmental osteoarthritis. The benefits over traditional methods of surgical management are: it is less invasive, can be performed as a day procedure and does not limit future options. Bespoke implants are produced from data extracted from MRIs. Twenty-six patients with the iForma ConforMIS interpositional knee implant from November 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The average age was 54.7 years, The average pre-operative WOMAC score was 37.8 improving to 67.6 post-operatively. Five patients required revision. No dislocations were reported. Our early experience suggests this device is a viable and safe treatment option. However, patient selection plays an important role in the outcome following surgery and long term results should be awaited. PMID:23019783

  7. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  8. A reversed jejunal segment interposition as feeding gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Lpez, R; Surez, A; Santiago-Delpn, E A

    1977-03-01

    Permanent feeding gastrostomies are needed for prolonged alimentation in some patients with foregut obstruction. The usual gastric flap or tube may be limited in patients with previous gastric surgery or with a small stomach. In these patients, interposition of a short, vascularized jejunal segment between the anterior wall of the stomach and the outside may be valuable. Periodic intubation is easy. Tested initially in dogs and then applied to selected patients, we have not seen ulcers, regurgitation, soiling, pain, or other complications. PMID:66049

  9. Irreducible Anteromedial Dislocation of Radial Head with Biceps Tendon Interposition.

    PubMed

    Climent-Peris, Vicente J; Sirera-Vercher, Josette; Sanz-Amaro, M Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The case presents an isolated irreducible anteromedial dislocation of radial head due to biceps tendon interposition on a 14-year-old female patient. After an unsuccessful closed reduction, a lateral approach of the left elbow was carried out through Kocher's interval. Given that no pathology was found on the radiohumeral joint, the approach was extended distally. This revealed that the biceps tendon was displaced laterally around the radial neck, preventing the reduction. Once the tendon was taken back to its anatomical position, the radial head reduction was performed successfully. The patient achieved a complete functional recovery. Possible injury mechanisms are discussed, as well as the importance of identifying such a rare injury. PMID:26925279

  10. Irreducible Anteromedial Dislocation of Radial Head with Biceps Tendon Interposition

    PubMed Central

    Climent-Peris, Vicente J.; Sirera-Vercher, Josette; Sanz-Amaro, M. Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The case presents an isolated irreducible anteromedial dislocation of radial head due to biceps tendon interposition on a 14-year-old female patient. After an unsuccessful closed reduction, a lateral approach of the left elbow was carried out through Kocher's interval. Given that no pathology was found on the radiohumeral joint, the approach was extended distally. This revealed that the biceps tendon was displaced laterally around the radial neck, preventing the reduction. Once the tendon was taken back to its anatomical position, the radial head reduction was performed successfully. The patient achieved a complete functional recovery. Possible injury mechanisms are discussed, as well as the importance of identifying such a rare injury. PMID:26925279

  11. Interpositional Nerve Grafting of the Prostatic Plexus after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Theodore A.; Waljee, Jennifer F.; Curtin, Catherine M.; Wei, John T.; Montie, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injury to the prostatic plexus may occur during radical prostatectomy even with the use of minimally invasive techniques. Reconstruction of these nerves by interpositional nerve grafting can be performed to reduce morbidity. Although the feasibility of nerve reconstruction has been shown, long-term functional outcomes are mixed, and the role of nerve grafting in these patients remains unclear. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 38 consecutive patients who underwent immediate unilateral or bilateral nerve reconstruction after open prostatectomy. Additionally, 53 control patients who underwent unilateral, bilateral, or nonnerve-sparing open prostatectomy without nerve grafting were reviewed. Outcomes included rates of urinary continence, erections sufficient for sexual intercourse, and ability to have spontaneous erections. Analysis was performed by stratifying patients by DAmico score and laterality of nerve involvement. Results: Unilateral nerve grafting conferred no significant benefit compared with unilateral nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Bilateral nerve-sparing patients demonstrated superior functional outcomes compared with bilateral nonnerve-sparing patients, whereas bilateral nerve-grafting patients displayed a trend toward functional improvement. With increasing DAmico score, there was a trend toward worsening urinary continence and erectile function regardless of nerve-grafting status. Conclusions: In the era of robotic prostatectomy, interpositional nerve reconstruction is not a routine practice. However, the substantial morbidity experienced in patients with bilateral nerve resections remains unacceptable, and therefore, nerve grafting may still improve functional outcomes in these patients. Further investigation is needed to improve the potential of bilateral nerve grafting after nonnerve-sparing prostatectomy. PMID:26301141

  12. SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY RECORDS

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Geraldo Motta; Galvão, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Cohen, Marcio; Brandão, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The study's objective is to evaluate the characteristics and problems of patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasties between July 2004 and November 2006. Methodology: During the period of the study, 145 shoulder arthroplasties were performed. A prospective protocol was used for every patient; demographic, clinical and surgical procedure data were collected. All gathered data were included in the data base. The patients were divided in three major groups: fractures, degenerative diseases and trauma sequels. Information obtained from the data base was correlated in order to determine patients' epidemiologic, injuries, and surgical procedure profiles. Results: Of the 145 shoulder arthroplasties performed, 37% presented trauma sequels, 30% degenerative diseases, and 33% proximal humerus fracture. 12% of the cases required total arthroplasties and 88% partial arthroplasties. Five major complications were observed on early postoperative period. Conclusion: Shoulder arthroplasties have become a common procedure in orthopaedic practice. Surgical records are important in evidencing progressive evolution and in enabling future clinical outcomes evaluation.

  13. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is claimed to allow higher activity levels and to give better quality of life than total hip arthroplasty. In this literature review, we assessed the therapeutic value of hip resurfacing arthroplasty as measured by functional outcome. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Results 9 patient series, 1 case-control study, and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included. Clinically and statistically significant improvement in sporting activity and hip scores were found in 10 studies. Interpretation Studies with low levels of evidence have shown improvement in various different hip scores and one RCT showed better outcomes with hip resurfacing arthroplasty. There is no high-level evidence to prove that there is improved clinical outcome using hip resurfacing arthroplasty. More randomized research needs to be done. PMID:20860440

  14. Total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Siopack, J S; Jergesen, H E

    1995-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty, or surgical replacement of the hip joint with an artificial prosthesis, is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. In this review we briefly summarize the evolution of total hip arthroplasty, the design and development of prosthetic hip components, and the current clinical indications for this procedure. The possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, its clinical performance over time, and future directions in hip replacement surgery are also discussed. Images PMID:7725707

  15. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear*

    PubMed Central

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma. PMID:26929462

  16. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma. PMID:26929462

  17. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arthroplasty, we don’t want to have vigorous terminal stretches. Because this is a constrained implant, we ... limited range, rather than pushing vigorously for a terminal range. The other thing to keep in mind ...

  18. Soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MELONI, MARIA CHIARA; HOEDEMAEKER, RUSSALKA W.; VIOLANTE, BRUNO; MAZZOLA, CLAUDIO

    2014-01-01

    A good outcome in total knee arthroplasty depends on many factors: joint alignment, range of motion, patellar tracking and ligament stability. A correct soft tissue balance keeps the joint aligned in flexion and extension, and therefore constitutes the most important factor for durability of the implant. Indeed, incorrect soft tissue balancing is the primary cause of early implant failure necessitating revision surgery. Soft tissue releases, serving to correct imbalances, are performed until the flexion and extension gaps appear symmetrical and balanced. A knee is considered perfectly balanced when the flexion and extension gaps are perfectly rectangular and all the measurements are absolutely equal. PMID:25606540

  19. Transforming a Biliopancreatic Derivation in an Ileal Interposition with a Single Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Sergio; de Aquino, Caio G Gaspar

    2015-08-01

    The biliopancreatic derivation (BPD) is the most powerful bariatric procedure. However, it never became a very popular procedure, except for Italy, because of the high rate of nutritional problems, intense flatulence, and diarrhea. Here, we describe an extremely simple way (just one anastomosis) to revise the BPD, transforming it into an ileal interposition with duodenal exclusion, solving these described problems. PMID:26084252

  20. Rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, Daniele Antonio; Iapicca, Mario Luigi; Gotti, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    We describe here various surgical options to obtain a correct rotational alignment of femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The correct rotational alignment is the key point to obtain a rectangular balanced flexion gap as well to have a good patellar tracking. For that reason, rotation alignment largely affects postoperative kinematic results particularly during flexion. PMID:26855940

  1. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gorenoi, Vitali; Schönermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Scientific background The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources. The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers. Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection, which is the aim of the registers due to their definition, should not cause disadvantages for certain groups of patients. Conclusion The arthroplasty registers have a large medical and health-economic potential. Aspects of the patient’s data protection and the guaranteed financial support of the registers should be clarified before the introduction of a register. PMID:21289900

  2. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Risitano, Salvatore; Atzori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most worldwide practiced surgery for knee osteoarthritis and its efficacy is mightily described by literature. Concerns about the invasiveness of TKA let the introduction of segmental resurfacing of the joint for younger patients with localized osteoarthritis. Bone stock sparing and ligaments preservation are the essence of both unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA). Advantages related to BKA are the respect of knee biomechanics, lower complications rates, shorter hospital stay, faster rehabilitation. Moreover, in case of failure of the first implant the conversion to TKA is undemanding and can be compared to a standard prosthesis. Our experience suggest that BKA is a reliable technique in selected cases and especially younger people with higher functional requests can favourably profit from it. Although those results are encouraging, we still need further prospective, randomized, long-term studies to finally assess BKA indications and outcomes. PMID:26855941

  3. Cervical total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A

    2012-06-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  4. Bicruciate retaining arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mont, Michael A; John, Mario; Johnson, Aaron

    2012-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful orthopaedic procedures with 10 to 20 year survivorships from multiple studies of greater than 95%. These success rates typically apply to patients over 70 years of age who may only want to return to activities of daily living. However, recently there is a demand by both senior citizens as well as young patients to have TKAs that return them to high activity levels and occasionally high performance sports. In this review, we will describe bicruciate retaining prostheses, including knowledge of their kinematics from fluoroscopic and gait studies, results of clinical studies, a summary of their potential advantages and disadvantages, anterior cruciate ligament viability at time of arthroplasty, considerations for implantation of these devices, and their role in the future of total knee arthroplasty. PMID:22915498

  5. [Reverse shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Schwitzguébel, Adrien J P; Haas, Céline; Lädermann, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Shoulder pain is a common problem for general practitioners. The objectives of a shoulder arthroplasty are to improve the articular function and to provide pain relief. Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty is not the treatment of choice if a rotator cuff deficiency is associated with arthritis. In some circumstances (muscle or tendon deficiency) rotator cuff repair is technically impossible. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has opened new opportunities for patients suffering with shoulder conditions such as shoulder pseudoparalysis and revision surgery. RSA is rarely proposed to patients below the age of 60 but thereafter there is no age limit. With this procedure, the functional improvement can be achieved after days or weeks. A new surgical approach allows for early active mobilization without a specific rehabilitation period. PMID:26999997

  6. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Giachino, Matteo; Risitano, Salvatore; Atzori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most worldwide practiced surgery for knee osteoarthritis and its efficacy is mightily described by literature. Concerns about the invasiveness of TKA let the introduction of segmental resurfacing of the joint for younger patients with localized osteoarthritis. Bone stock sparing and ligaments preservation are the essence of both unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA). Advantages related to BKA are the respect of knee biomechanics, lower complications rates, shorter hospital stay, faster rehabilitation. Moreover, in case of failure of the first implant the conversion to TKA is undemanding and can be compared to a standard prosthesis. Our experience suggest that BKA is a reliable technique in selected cases and especially younger people with higher functional requests can favourably profit from it. Although those results are encouraging, we still need further prospective, randomized, long-term studies to finally assess BKA indications and outcomes. PMID:26855941

  7. [History of hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    P?omi?ski, Janusz; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2007-02-01

    The authors present the history of hip prosthesis in treatment of coxarthrosis. Despite eighty years of experience the problem of gaining good and long-term results still exist and is difficult to solve. Even changing the way on cementless stabilization of prosthesis doesn't has result in solving the problem of aseptic loosening of hip arthroplasty. Problems of wear derbies made the producers find new to reduce particulate debris. The future of hip arthroplasty is connected with hip resurfacing. Moreover, the higher number of primary hip plasty the more prosthesis are loosening. The treatment is far more difficult and more expensive. PMID:17598648

  8. Testicular Interposition Flap for Repair of Perineal Urinary Fistulae: A Novel Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Raup, Valary T.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Brandes, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Rectourinary fistulae and urinary-cutaneous fistulae are a rare yet devastating complication. Current options for tissue interposition include rectus, gracilis, or gluteal muscle, omentum, or intestine for use in coloanal pull-through procedures. In elderly patients, testicular interposition flaps may be an excellent tissue option to use when vitalized tissue is necessary to supplement fistula repair. Elderly patients frequently have increased spermatic cord length, potentially offering a longer flap reach than use of a muscle flap. Additionally, mobilizing one of the testicles and developing it through the external inguinal ring may be a less morbid and less costly procedure than harvesting and tunneling a muscle flap. Longer follow-up and further studies are needed to determine the outcomes of this novel technique. PMID:26483985

  9. Outcomes for jejunal interposition reconstruction compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Kai-Xi; Xu, Zhong-Fa; Wang, Mei-Rong; Li, Dao-Tang; Yang, Xiang-Shan; Guo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical outcomes between jejunal interposition reconstruction and Roux-en-Y anastomosis after total gastrostomy in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted by two independent researchers on PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and other English literature databases, as well as the Chinese Academic Journal, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and other Chinese literature databases using “Gastrostomy”, “Roux-en-Y”, and “Interposition” as keywords. Data extraction and verification were performed on the literature included in this study. RevMan 5.2 software was used for data processing. A fixed-effects model was applied in the absence of heterogeneity between studies. A random effects model was applied in the presence of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Ten studies with a total of 762 gastric cancer patients who underwent total gastrostomy were included in this study. Among them, 357 received jejunal interposition reconstruction after total gastrostomy, and 405 received Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, jejunal interposition reconstruction significantly decreased the incidence of dumping syndrome (OR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.10-0.31; P < 0.001), increased the prognostic nutritional index [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 6.02, 95%CI: 1.82-10.22; P < 0.001], and improved the degree of postoperative weight loss [WMD = 2.47, 95%CI: -3.19-(-1.75); P < 0.001]. However, there is no statistically significant difference in operative time, hospital stay, or incidence of reflux esophagitis. CONCLUSION: Compared with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, patients who underwent jejunal interposition reconstruction after total gastrostomy had a lower risk of postoperative long-term complications and improved life quality. PMID:25780310

  10. [Technic of surgical cure of inguinal hernia by interposition of a crinoplaque].

    PubMed

    Rabec, P; Sesboué, P

    1989-01-01

    The authors report their experience based on 467 cases of cure of inguinal hernia via inguinal incision with interposition of a crinoplaque. 2.1% of recurrences were observed in a total of 381 cases followed-up (81.5%). The technique is described in detail. This method is anatomically logical, effective, associated with low morbidity and deserves an important place in the current range of treatments. PMID:2619211

  11. Total esophagogastrectomy plus extended lymphadenectomy with transverse colon interposition: A treatment for extensive esophagogastric junction cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ceroni, Marco; Norero, Enrique; Henrquez, Juan Pablo; Viuela, Eduardo; Briceo, Eduardo; Martnez, Cristian; Aguayo, Gloria; Araos, Fernando; Gonzlez, Paulina; Daz, Alfonso; Caracci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the post-operative morbidity and mortality of total esophagogastrectomy (TEG) with second barrier lymphadenectomy (D2) with interposition of a transverse colon and to determine the oncological outcomes of TEG D2 with interposition of a transverse colon. METHODS: This study consisted of a retrospective review of patients with a cancer diagnosis who underwent TEG between 1997 and 2013. Demographic data, surgery protocols, complications according to Clavien-Dindo classifications, final pathological reports, oncological follow-ups and causes of death were recorded. We used the TNM 2010 and Japanese classifications for nodal dissection of gastric cancer. We used descriptive statistical analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The series consisted of 21 patients (80.9% men). The median age was 60 years. The 2 main surgical indications were extensive esophagogastric junction cancers (85.7%) and double cancers (14.2%). The mean total surgery time was 405 min (352-465 min). Interposition of a transverse colon through the posterior mediastinum was used for replacement in all cases. Splenectomy was required in 13 patients (61.9%), distal pancreatectomy was required in 2 patients (9.5%) and resection of the left adrenal gland was required in 1 patient (4.7%). No residual cancer surgery was achieved in 75.1% of patients. A total of 71.4% of patients had a postoperative complication. Respiratory complications were the most frequently observed complication. Postoperative mortality was 5.8%. Median follow-up was 13.4 mo. Surgery specific survival at 5 years of follow-up was 32.8%; for patients with curative surgery, it was 39.5% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: TEG for cancer with interposition of a transverse colon is a very complex surgery, and it presents high post-operative morbidity and adequate oncological outcomes. PMID:26464757

  12. Arthroscopic interposition in thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: A series of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Hendriks, S; Gouzou, S; Liverneaux, P

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, we reported good results after a mean follow-up of 14months for a series of 25 patients who underwent thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis surgery in which a poly-L-lactic acid implant was interposed arthroscopically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes after a longer follow-up. The new series consisted of 26 patients, whose average age was 60years, operated with arthroscopy for the interposition of an implant made of poly-L-lactic acid in 12 cases and tendon interposition in 14 cases. After an average follow-up of 20months, the pain assessed with a visual analog scale was on average 6.61/10 before surgery and 6.03/10 after, the QuickDASH score was 56.36/100 before and 53.65/100 after, grip strength was 15.34kg before and 12.8kg after, pinch strength was 3.7kg before and 2.18kg after, Kapandji thumb opposition score was 8.96/10 before and 8.26/10 after. The radiological stage did not change. We noted one case of type 1 complex regional pain syndrome and 12 poor results, 11 of which were reoperated by trapeziectomy. Given our results and the lack of published studies with a high level of evidence, the value of isolated arthroscopy with interposition in the surgical treatment of thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis remains to be demonstrated. PMID:26603368

  13. Retrograde stapling of a free cervical jejunal interposition graft: a technical innovation and case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Free jejunal interposition is a useful technique for reconstruction of the cervical esophagus. However, the distal anastomosis between the graft and the remaining thoracic esophagus or a gastric conduit can be technically challenging when located very low in the thoracic aperture. We here describe a modified technique for retrograde stapling of a jejunal graft to a failed gastric conduit using a circular stapler on a delivery system. Case presentation A 56year-old patient had been referred for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at 20cm from the incisors. On day 8 after thoracoabdominal esophagectomy with gastric pull-up, an anastomotic leakage was diagnosed. A proximal-release stent was successfully placed by gastroscopy and the patient was discharged. Two weeks later, an esophagotracheal fistula occurred proximal to the esophageal stent. Cervical esophagostomy was performed with cranial closure of the gastric conduit, which was left in situ within the right hemithorax. Three months later, reconstruction was performed using a free jejunal interposition. The anvil of a circular stapler (Orvil, Covidien) was placed transabdominally through an endoscopic rendez-vous procedure into the gastric conduit. A free jejunal graft was retrogradely stapled to the proximal end of the conduit. Microvascular anastomoses were performed subsequently. The proximal anastomosis of the conduit was completed manually after reperfusion. Conclusions This modified technique allows stapling of a jejunal interposition graft located deep in the thoracic aperture and is therefore a useful method that may help to avoid reconstruction by colonic pull-up and thoracotomy. PMID:25319372

  14. Comparing reconstruction with ileocecal graft to jejunal interposition pouch after total gastrectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Filho, Irami Arajo; Medeiros, Vtor Brasil; Pinheiro, Laza Arajo Mohana; Freire, Flvio Henrique Miranda Arajo; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Brando-Neto, Jos

    2007-01-01

    After total gastrectomy, the ileocecal graft may act as a reservoir and protect against reflux but give rise to transposition of the ileum and cause possible changes in bile acid metabolism and nutrition. This study compared the ileocecal graft and jejunal pouch. Male Wistar rats weighing 265 +/- 22 g were submitted to sham operation (S), ileocecal interposition graft (IIG), and jejunal pouch interposition graft (JP) after total gastrectomy. Eight weeks later, the esophagus was examined for evidence of esophagitis. Nutritional biochemistry and weight profile were documented preoperatively and 8 weeks after surgery. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Thirty-three rats were operated on and 30 survived for 8 weeks. Esophagitis occurred in seven JP rats. Body weight was significantly higher in IIG than in JP rats (p < .05). Normal glucose tolerance to intragastric glucose load was observed in sham and operated rats. JP rats had a significant decrease in serum albumin, glucose, transferrin, hemoglobin, iron, folate, and calcium, compared to sham (p < .05). Cobalamine was significantly lower in IIG rats than in JP rats (p < .05). In the IIG and JP groups, serum/hepatic total bile acid did not differ significantly from preoperative and sham values. In conclusion, the IIG interposition graft in rats prevented esophagitis, preserved nutrition, and did not interfere with enterohepatic total bile acid circulation. PMID:17365406

  15. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Mahanta, Sunayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years). The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained) hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80°) and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°). Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°). However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25°) of extension (45°) out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100). Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18%) out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head were replaced. Conclusion: Elbow arthroplasty remains a valuable option for deformed and ankylosed elbows especially in the demanding patients with crippling deformity of the elbow. PMID:24379468

  16. Interposition of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament into the Medial Compartment of the Knee Joint on Coronal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Su; Park, Ki Jeong; Wang, Joon Ho; Choe, Bong-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our study was to evaluate the overall prevalence and clinical significance of interposition of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) into the medial compartment of the knee joint in coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 317 consecutive patients referred for knee MRI at our institution between October 2009 and December 2009. Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint on proton coronal MRI was evaluated dichotomously (i.e., present or absent). We analyzed the interposition according to its prevalence as well as its relationship with right-left sidedness, gender, age, and disease categories (osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament tear, and medial meniscus tear). Results Prevalence of interposition of PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint was 47.0% (149/317). There was no right (50.0%, 83/166) to left (43.7%, 66/151) or male (50.3%, 87/173) to female (43.1%, 62/144) differences in the prevalence. There was no significant association between the prevalence and age, or the disease categories. Conclusion Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint is observed in almost half of patients on proton coronal MRI of the knee. Its presence is not associated with any particular factors including knee pathology and may be regarded as a normal MR finding. PMID:26957909

  17. Evolution of open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy: experience with a special angular stable device for internal fixation without interposition material

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Hilaire A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Surgical correction of bowed legs should be performed as early as possible. Overload osteoarthritis, even without significant varus deformity of the knee, is a further indication for open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy. Progression of damage to the joint surfaces due to overloading can be significantly retarded by realigning the extremity with the aim to, at least, reduce overload on the medial compartment to a value close to physiological. Significant improvement to open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) has been made on two fronts: (a) by the use of a more appropriate surgical technique and (b) by promoting osteogenesis through an angular-stable fixation device with just the correct amount of elasticity. A retrospective study of 53 consecutive cases in which no interposition material was used to fill the wedge, with gap openings between 5mm and 20mm, showed that ossification of the gap always progressed from the lateral hinge towards the medial side. Standard radiographs showed 75% of the gap filled in with new bone within 6?18months. In conclusion, we believe that open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy using the TomoFix plate has proved to be successful in treating unicompartmental gonarthrosis, even without bone grafts or bone-substitute material. PMID:19921189

  18. Benign esophageal stricture after thermal injury treated with esophagectomy and ileocolon interposition.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Momose, Kota; Lee, Seigi; Haruta, Shusuke; Shinohara, Hisashi; Ueno, Masaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-07-21

    Thermal injuries of the esophagus are rare causes of benign esophageal stricture, and all published cases were successfully treated with conservative management. A 28-year-old Japanese man with a thermal esophageal injury caused by drinking a cup of hot coffee six months earlier was referred to our hospital. The hot coffee was consumed in a single gulp at a party. Although the patient had been treated conservatively at another hospital, his symptoms of dysphagia gradually worsened after discharge. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a pin-hole like area of stricture located 19 cm distally from the incisors to the esophagogastric junction, as well as circumferential stenosis with notable wall thickness at the same site. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic esophageal resection with reconstruction using ileocolon interposition. The pathological findings revealed wall thickening along the entire length of the esophagus, with massive fibrosis extending to the muscularis propria and adventitia at almost all levels. Treatment with balloon dilation for long areas of stricture is generally difficult, and stent placement in patients with benign esophageal stricture, particularly young patients, is not yet widely accepted due to the incidence of late adverse events. Considering the curability and quality-of-life associated with a long expected prognosis, we determined that surgery was the best treatment option for this young patient. In this case, we decided to perform an esophagectomy and reconstruction with ileocolon interposition in order to preserve the reservoir function of the stomach and to avoid any problems related to the reflux of gastric contents. In conclusion, resection of the esophagus is a treatment option in patients with benign esophageal injury, especially in cases involving young patients with refractory esophageal stricture. In addition, ileocolon interposition may help to improve the quality-of-life of patients. PMID:25083096

  19. [The tendon interposition plastic with partly necrosised scaphoid pseudarthrosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, K; Feldmeier, C

    1975-09-01

    We have seen in 4 cases of 46 operated scaphoid pseudarthrosis aseptic bone necrosis of a fragment. According to the tendon interposition plastic of Froimson for the substitute arthrose of the saddlepoint of the thumb. We exstirpated the bionecrotic fragment of the scaphoid, splitted the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, removed a part of the tendon from the belly of the muscle, rolled it in and fixed it in the excavated cavity of the bone. After an observation time of 6 months to 1.5 years all 4 patients have not developed complications. PMID:1180764

  20. Early Attempts at Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Pablo F; Morcuende, Jose A

    2005-01-01

    Over the last three centuries, treatment of hip arthritides has evolved from rudimentary surgery to modern total hip arthroplasty (THA), which is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions ever developed. We here review the history of the early hip arthroplasty procedures for hip arthritis that preceded Charley total hip arthroplasty. An evaluation of such past enterprises is relevant, and reminds us of the ephemeral nature of human industriousness, and how medical research and procedures are not isolated developments, but correlate to the social, economical, and cultural framework of their time. PMID:16089067

  1. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hohler, Sharon E

    2004-06-01

    Total hip arthroplasty procedures relieve patients' arthritic hip pain. Since the first procedure was performed in the 1960s, surgeons and implant companies have worked to improve prosthesis design, composition of implants, and the mechanisms for holding the implants in place. Recently, surgeons have focused on minimizing the surgical incision. Smaller incisions have resulted in smaller scars and faster recoveries. This article presents a brief historical overview of, as well as current trends in, minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty. All aspects of care for a patient undergoing total hip arthroplasty are discussed. PMID:15239326

  2. [Shoulder arthroplasty: the situation in 2014].

    PubMed

    Oztürk, M; Cunningham, G; Holzer, N; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-12-17

    Evolution of shoulder arthroplasty has led to mainly three types of implants: hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. There is yet no clear consensus about indications for the different existing types of prothesis. The aim of this article is therefore to bring together and clarify the indications found in the current literature. Hemiarthroplasty, historically the first widely used implant, has lost much ground to total shoulder arthroplasty, and keeps its place only for specific situations. Total shoulder arthroplasty is mainly used for centered glenohumeral osteoarthritis, whereas reverse shoulder arthroplasty is indicated for most situations in which the rotator cuff or tuberoties are deficient. PMID:25752009

  3. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Murray, D. W.; Liddle, A. D.; Dodd, C. A. F.; Pandit, H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of evidence available about the relative merits of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA). Based on the same evidence, different people draw different conclusions and as a result, there is great variability in the usage of UKA. The revision rate of UKA is much higher than TKA and so some surgeons conclude that UKA should not be performed. Other surgeons believe that the main reason for the high revision rate is that UKA is easy to revise and, therefore, the threshold for revision is low. They also believe that UKA has many advantages over TKA such as a faster recovery, lower morbidity and mortality and better function. They therefore conclude that UKA should be undertaken whenever appropriate. The solution to this argument is to minimise the revision rate of UKA, thereby addressing the main disadvantage of UKA. The evidence suggests that this will be achieved if surgeons use UKA for at least 20% of their knee arthroplasties and use implants that are appropriate for these broad indications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B(10 Suppl A):3–8. PMID:26430080

  4. Total disk arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Eric L; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2006-12-01

    Spinal fusion remains the gold standard for surgical management of instability and mechanical low back or neck pain. However, even in carefully selected patients, successful clinical results can be difficult to achieve. Reasons for failure include pseudarthrosis and adjacent spine segment disease. The theoretic advantages of removing the painful disk while preserving motion have led to increasing interest in total disk arthroplasty. Although disk replacements have been implanted in Europe for decades, the procedure is relatively new in the United States. Recently, two artificial disks for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration; several others are undergoing clinical trials. Short-term studies demonstrate similar clinical improvements for both disk replacements and fusion procedures at up to 2-year follow-up. Issues requiring further research include optimal design specifications, potential complications, and appropriate patient selection. Consequently, the long-term benefit of total disk arthroplasty over fusion for the treatment of axial low back or neck pain remains to be determined. PMID:17148618

  5. Iatrogenic rectovaginal fistula repair by trans-perineal approach and pubo-coccygeus muscle interposition

    PubMed Central

    Pata, Giacomo; Pasini, Mario; Roncali, Stefano; Tognali, Daniela; Ragni, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is a rare but debilitating complication of a variety of pelvic surgical procedures. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 45-year-old female who underwent the STARR (Stapled Trans Anal Rectal Resection) procedure, that was complicated by a 30mm rectovaginal fistula (RVF). We successfully repaired the fistula by trans-perineal approach and pubo-coccygeus muscle interposition. Seven months later we can confirm the complete fistula healing and good patient's quality of life. We carefully describe our technique showing the advantages over alternative suturing, flap reconstruction or resection procedures. DISCUSSION This technique is fairly easy to perform and conservative. The pubo-coccygeus muscle is quickly recognizable during the dissection of the recto-vaginal space and the tension-free approximation of this muscle by single sutures represents an easy way of replacement of the recto-vaginal septum. CONCLUSION In our experience the use of pubo-coccygeus muscle interposition is an effective technique for rectovaginal space reconstruction and it should be considered as a viable solution for RVF repair. PMID:25016079

  6. Porous, block hydroxyapatite as an interpositional bone graft substitute in orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosen, H M

    1989-06-01

    Forty-six nonconsecutive patients undergoing orthognathic surgery in whom blocks of coralline, porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore-200) were used in lieu of interpositional bone grafts are the subjects of this report. Surgical procedures included inferior repositioning of the maxilla (7) and chin (12), maxillary advancements in cleft (4) and noncleft individuals (13), and transverse maxillary expansions (12). Patients included in this study were only those in whom bone grafts would have been harvested had hydroxyapatite not been available. A total of 93 anatomic sites were implanted. The complication rate attributable to the use of the implant was 4.3 percent. Follow-up period ranged from 6 to 20 months, with a mean of 9.3 months. At this time, osseous stability was confirmed cephalometrically in all but two patients undergoing maxillary expansions. The biologic behavior and mechanical properties of coralline-derived, porous, block hydroxyapatite are discussed. These implant characteristics make it a feasible bone graft substitute for interpositional use in orthognathic surgery. Proper indications for its use as well as technical details to minimize complications are stressed. PMID:2727171

  7. Cervical diverticulitis: a novel complication of a neonatal colonic interposition graft following oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Vishal V; Ong, Eugene; Hii, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented to a tertiary emergency department with an 8-day history of odynophagia, a 4?cm swelling on her left neck and intermittent fevers. Shortly following her birth, a congenital oesophageal atresia had been managed surgically with colonic interposition graft. Contrast CT of the neck demonstrated several large diverticula within her interposition graft at the level of the cervical vertebrae. A colocutaneous fistula was identified between the colon and left neck, with an associated abscess. The patient received intravenous meropenem followed by abscess drainage. A high output fistula developed at the drainage site, and the patient required intravenous fluids and stoma placement to manage fluid discharge. She left the hospital after a 17-day stay. At 6-month follow-up, the wound was erythematous, but the patient was otherwise well. We believe that this is the first reported case of diverticular disease arising in what was originally neonatal colon interposed for oesophageal atresia at birth. PMID:26354840

  8. Talocalcaneal Joint Middle Facet Coalition Resection With Interposition of a Juvenile Hyaline Cartilage Graft.

    PubMed

    Tower, Dyane E; Wood, Ryan W; Vaardahl, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition is the most common tarsal coalition, occurring in ≤2% of the population. Fewer than 50% of involved feet obtain lasting relief of symptoms after nonoperative treatment, and surgical intervention is commonly used to relieve symptoms, increase the range of motion, improve function, reconstruct concomitant pes planovalgus, and prevent future arthrosis from occurring at the surrounding joints. Several approaches to surgical intervention are available for patients with middle facet coalitions, ranging from resection to hindfoot arthrodesis. We present a series of 4 cases, in 3 adolescent patients, of talocalcaneal joint middle facet coalition resection with interposition of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft (DeNovo(®) NT Natural Tissue Graft, Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN). With a mean follow-up period of 42.8 ± 2.9 (range 41 to 47) months, the 3 adolescent patients in the present series were doing well with improved subtalar joint motion and decreased pain, and 1 foot showed no bony regrowth on a follow-up computed tomography scan. The use of a particulate juvenile hyaline cartilaginous allograft as interposition material after talocalcaneal middle facet coalition resection combined with adjunct procedures to address concomitant pes planovalgus resulted in good short-term outcomes in 4 feet in 3 adolescent patients. PMID:25922335

  9. Total Pancreatectomy with Celiac Axis Resection and Hepatic Artery Restoration Using Splenic Artery Autograft Interposition.

    PubMed

    Aosasa, Suefumi; Nishikawa, Makoto; Noro, Takuji; Yamamoto, Junji

    2016-03-01

    Although the indication of locally advanced pancreatic cancer with arterial involvement is controversial, the outcome of the patients with such disease treated by combined resection and reconstruction of the invaded artery has improved recently. For pancreatic body carcinoma invading the celiac axis, distal pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection has been safely performed. However, in case of pancreatic body carcinoma with involvement of the celiac axis, the common hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery, margin-negative resection requires total pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection and restoration of hepatic arterial flow. Here, we describe an interposition grafting technique using the splenic artery harvested from the resected specimen. This technique is effective and may widen the resectability of pancreatic cancer in selected patients. PMID:26487332

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTRO-JEJUNO-DUODENAL TRANSIT AFTER JEJUNAL POUCH INTERPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Alcino Lzaro; GOMES, Clio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Background : The jejunal pouch interposition between the gastric body and the duodenum after the gastrectomy, although not frequent in the surgical practice today, has been successfully employed for the prevention and treatment of the postgastrectomy syndromes. In the latter, it is included the dumping syndrome, which affects 13-58% of the patients who undergo gastrectomy. Aim : Retrospective assessment of the results of this procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome. Methods : Fourty patients were selected and treatetd surgically for peptic ulcer, between 1965 and 1970. Of these, 29 underwent vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunalduodenostomy at the lesser curvature level, and the 11 remaining were submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy, gastrojejunal-duodenostomy at the greater curvature level. The gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit was assessed in the immediate or late postoperative with the contrasted study of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The clinical evolution was assessed according to the Visick grade. Results : Of the 40 patients, 28 were followed with the contrast evaluation in the late postoperative. Among those who were followed until the first month (n=22), 20 (90%) had slow gastro-jejuno-duodenal transit and in two (10%) the transit was normal. Among those who were followed after the first month (n=16), three (19%) and 13 (81%) had slow and normal gastric emptying, respectively. None had the contrasted exam compatible with the dumping syndrome. Among the 40 patients, 22 underwent postoperative clinical evaluation. Of these, 19 (86,5%) had excellent and good results (Visick 1 and 2, respectively). Conclusions : The jejunal pouch interposition showed to be a very effective surgical procedure for the prevention of the dumping syndrome in gastrectomized patients. PMID:26734789

  11. Cervical and lumbar spinal arthroplasty: clinical review.

    PubMed

    Uschold, T D; Fusco, D; Germain, R; Tumialan, L M; Chang, S W

    2012-10-01

    In contrast to cervical and lumbar fusion procedures, the principal aim of disk arthroplasty is to recapitulate the normal kinematics and biomechanics of the spinal segment affected. Following decompression of the neural elements, disk arthroplasty allows restoration of disk height and maintenance of spinal alignment. Based on clinical observations and biomechanical testing, the anticipated advantage of arthroplasty over standard arthrodesis techniques has been a proposed reduction in the development of symptomatic ALD. In this review of cervical and lumbar disk arthroplasty, we highlight the clinical results and experience with standard fusion techniques, incidence of ALD in the population of patients with surgical fusion, and indications for arthroplasty, as well as the biomechanical and clinical outcomes following arthroplasty. In addition, we introduce the devices currently available and provide a critical appraisal of the clinical evidence regarding arthroplasty procedures. PMID:22033716

  12. Robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd P; Mont, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Robotics in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has undergone vast improvements. Although some of the systems have fallen out of favor due to safety concerns, there has been recent increased interest for semi-active haptic robotic systems that provide intraoperative tactile feedback to the surgeon. The potential advantages include improvements in radiographic outcomes, reducing the incidence of mechanical axis malalignment of the lower extremity and better tissue balance. Proponents of robotic technology believe that these improvements may lead to superior functional outcomes and implant survivorship. We aim to discuss robotic technology development, outcomes of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty and the future outlook. Short-term follow-up studies on robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty suggest that, although some alignment objectives may have been achieved, more studies regarding functional outcomes are needed. Furthermore, studies evaluating the projected cost-benefit analyses of this new technology are needed before widespread adoption. Nevertheless, the short-term results warrant further evaluation. PMID:26365088

  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Rates and Outcomes of Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Hania; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparity in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has grown over the last two decades as studies have documented the widening gap between Blacks and Whites in TJA utilization rates despite the known benefits of TJA. Factors contributing to this disparity have been explored and include demographics, socioeconomic status, patient knowledge, patient preference, willingness to undergo TJA, patient expectation of post-arthroplasty outcome, religion/spirituality, and physician-patient interaction. Improvement in patient knowledge by effective physician-patient communication and other methods can possibly influence patient's perception of the procedure. Such interventions can provide patient-relevant data on benefits/risks and dispel myths related to benefits/risks of arthroplasty and possibly reduce this disparity. This review will summarize the literature on racial/ethnic disparity on TJA utilization and outcomes and the factors underlying this disparity. PMID:26984804

  14. Infection Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Keun Churl; Kim, Kwang Mee

    2013-01-01

    For most orthopedists, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been regarded as the most effective surgery for patients with severe knee diseases. Though seldom occur, postoperative infection certainly remains one of the most devastating and dreaded complications of TKA. Thus, careful and early diagnosis is needed. After diagnosis, categorize the infection type and choose a rightful and sequential step of treatment are recommended. PMID:24032096

  15. A case of ruptured infectious anterior cerebral artery aneurysm treated by interposition graft bypass using the superficial temporal artery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takatsugu; Endo, Hidenori; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Miki; Endo, Toshiki; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Background: To describe the application of an interposition graft bypass using superficial temporal artery (STA) for the treatment of a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infectious aneurysm. Case Description: A 30-year-old male suffered from severe headache with high fever. The patient's diagnosis was ruptured infectious ACA aneurysm at the A3 segment with a maximum diameter of 4.5 mm, caused by infectious endocarditis. The patient was initially treated with high-dose intravenous antibiotics. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed that the fusiform aneurysm had enlarged to a maximum diameter of 14.0 mm. A left paracentral artery, supplying the motor area of the left lower extremity, originated from the body of this aneurysm. Because the angiographic findings suggested a risk of recurrent bleeding, the patient underwent open surgery. Interposition graft bypass using the STA was performed to reconstruct the left A3 segment in an end-to-side manner (left proximal callosomarginal artery STA graft left distal pericallosal artery). Then, the origin of the left paracentral artery was cut and anastomosed to the STA graft in an end-to-side manner. The affected parent artery was trapped, and the aneurysm was resected. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no ischemic or hemorrhagic complications, and postoperative DSA revealed the patency of the interposition graft. Pathological diagnosis of the resected aneurysm revealed features corresponding to infectious cerebral aneurysm. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: In the treatment of infectious cerebral aneurysms, revascularization should be considered when the affected artery supplies the eloquent area. Interposition graft bypass using the STA is one of the options for revascularization surgery for the treatment of infectious ACA aneurysms. PMID:26862444

  16. Unlinked total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jonathan P; King, Graham J W

    2015-01-01

    For more than 60 years, total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) has been successfully used to treat a variety of elbow conditions. Although first designed to treat older patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the indications have expanded to include younger, higher-demand patients with a broad range of elbow pathology. Two groups of TEA currently exist. The first group includes linked or semiconstrained elbows with a mechanical connection between the humeral and ulnar components that prevents disassociation. These implants do not rely on muscular or ligamentous tissues for stability. The second group includes unlinked implants that have no physical connection between the humeral and ulnar components. They rely on bearing surface architecture as well as soft-tissue integrity for elbow stability. Critical to the success of unlinked implants is a thorough preoperative evaluation of elbow stability, including bone stock, collateral ligament integrity, and periarticular muscle function. Unlinked implants should apply less strain to the bone-cement-implant interfaces, which may theoretically decrease rates of bearing wear and aseptic loosening. For this reason, some surgeons prefer unlinked implants for younger, higher-demand patients. To date, unlinked implants have not been clinically shown to improve survivorship compared with linked devices. No prospective randomized trials comparing linked and unlinked TEAs are currently available. Historically, unlinked implants have had higher revision rates, mostly caused by instability and early design flaws. More recent series have shown no significant differences in outcomes compared with linked devices. Unlinked TEA provides reliable pain relief and improved range of motion for patients with a variety of elbow disorders. Diligent patient selection and careful surgical technique are of utmost importance when considering an unlinked TEA as a treatment option. The recent development of convertible implants now allows surgeons to make intraoperative decisions regarding elbow stability and convert to a linked implant without revising the stems. PMID:25745909

  17. Optimization of Synthetic Proteins: Identification of Interpositional Dependencies Indicating Structurally and/or Functionally Linked Residues.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, R Wolfgang; Ray, William C

    2015-01-01

    Protein alignments are commonly used to evaluate the similarity of protein residues, and the derived consensus sequence used for identifying functional units (e.g., domains). Traditional consensus-building models fail to account for interpositional dependencies - functionally required covariation of residues that tend to appear simultaneously throughout evolution and across the phylogentic tree. These relationships can reveal important clues about the processes of protein folding, thermostability, and the formation of functional sites, which in turn can be used to inform the engineering of synthetic proteins. Unfortunately, these relationships essentially form sub-motifs which cannot be predicted by simple "majority rule" or even HMM-based consensus models, and the result can be a biologically invalid "consensus" which is not only never seen in nature but is less viable than any extant protein. We have developed a visual analytics tool, StickWRLD, which creates an interactive 3D representation of a protein alignment and clearly displays covarying residues. The user has the ability to pan and zoom, as well as dynamically change the statistical threshold underlying the identification of covariants. StickWRLD has previously been successfully used to identify functionally-required covarying residues in proteins such as Adenylate Kinase and in DNA sequences such as endonuclease target sites. PMID:26274377

  18. Optimization of Synthetic Proteins: Identification of Interpositional Dependencies Indicating Structurally and/or Functionally Linked Residues

    PubMed Central

    Rumpf, R. Wolfgang; Ray, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein alignments are commonly used to evaluate the similarity of protein residues, and the derived consensus sequence used for identifying functional units (e.g., domains). Traditional consensus-building models fail to account for interpositional dependencies functionally required covariation of residues that tend to appear simultaneously throughout evolution and across the phylogentic tree. These relationships can reveal important clues about the processes of protein folding, thermostability, and the formation of functional sites, which in turn can be used to inform the engineering of synthetic proteins. Unfortunately, these relationships essentially form sub-motifs which cannot be predicted by simple majority rule or even HMM-based consensus models, and the result can be a biologically invalid consensus which is not only never seen in nature but is less viable than any extant protein. We have developed a visual analytics tool, StickWRLD, which creates an interactive 3D representation of a protein alignment and clearly displays covarying residues. The user has the ability to pan and zoom, as well as dynamically change the statistical threshold underlying the identification of covariants. StickWRLD has previously been successfully used to identify functionally-required covarying residues in proteins such as Adenylate Kinase and in DNA sequences such as endonuclease target sites. PMID:26274377

  19. Use of autologous interposition vein graft in management of lymphedema: preliminary experimental and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Campisi, C

    1991-06-01

    We report preliminary experimental studies in rats and rabbits together with clinical observations in 39 patients with chronic lymphedema undergoing interposition autologous lymphatic-venous-lymphatic (LVL) anastomoses. This microsurgical operative technique is an alternative to other lymphatic shunting methods particularly where venous disease coexists in the same limb and where direct lymphatic-venous bypass is accordingly inappropriate. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation including lymphatic and venous isotopic scintigraphy, Doppler venous flow metrics and pressure manometry play an essential role in delineating the status of both the lymphatic and venous systems and in determining which microsurgical procedure, if any, is indicated. Our microsurgical method consists of inserting suitably large and lengthy autologous venous grafts between lymphatic collectors above and below the site of blockage to lymph flow. The data demonstrate the feasibility of the LVL technique experimentally and in 39 patients with obstructive lymphedema (either arm or leg). Using LVL shunt, improvement was seen in both limb function and edema, and in some, edema regression was permanent for as long as 5 years. PMID:1921479

  20. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Deora, Savita; Abraham, Dennis; Gaba, Rohini; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Kudva, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Nowadays esthetics plays an important role in dentistry along with function of the prosthesis. Various soft tissue augmentation procedures are available to correct the ridge defects in the anterior region. The newer technique, vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap has been introduced, which has the potential to augment predictable amount of tissue and has many benefits when compared to other techniques. Aim: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of the VIP-CT flap in augmenting the ridge defect. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Class III (Seibert's) ridge defects were treated with VIP-CT flap technique before fabricating fixed partial denture. Height and width of the ridge defects were measured before and after the procedure. Subsequent follow-up was done every 3 months for 1-year. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was performed to detect the significance of the procedure. Results: The surgical site healed uneventfully. The predictable amount of soft tissue augmentation had been achieved with the procedure. The increase in height and width of the ridge was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: The VIP-CT flap technique was effective in augmenting the soft tissue in esthetic area that remained stable over a long period. PMID:25810597

  1. Prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins or superior vena cava combined with resection of malignant tumours: graft patency and risk factors for graft occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geun Dong; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Seung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess graft patency in patients undergoing prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins (BCVs) or the superior vena cava (SVC) combined with resection of malignant tumours. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 16 patients who underwent prosthetic graft interposition of the BCVs or the SVC between 1998 and 2012. Results Among a total of 20 grafts in 16 patients (unilateral graft interposition in 12, bilateral graft interposition in 4), 8 grafts were occluded in 8 patients. Overall graft patency rate was 64.6%, 42.4% at the 2- and 5-year follow-up. Graft patency rate of the left BCV was significantly lower than that of the right BCV or the SVC (2-year patency, 38.1% vs. 81.8%, P=0.024). In univariate analysis, the superior anastomosis site [left BCV vs. right BCV; hazard ratio (HR) =2.312; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0155.265; P=0.046], the inferior anastomosis site (right atrial appendage vs. SVC; HR =2.409; 95% CI, 1.1245.161; P=0.024), and interruption of warfarin (HR =5.015; 95% CI, 1.10622.734; P=0.037) were significant risk factors for graft occlusion. Graft occlusive symptoms were identified in 4 patients who underwent unilateral graft interposition. Conclusions Prosthetic graft interposition between the left BCV and the right atrial appendage resulted in a significant rate of graft occlusion. Prosthetic graft interposition of the bilateral BCVs and long-term warfarin therapy may be necessary to prevent graft occlusive symptoms. PMID:26904213

  2. NAVIGATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire

    2015-01-01

    Navigation was the most significant advance in instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty over the last decade. It provides surgeons with a precision tool for carrying out surgery, with the possibility of intraoperative simulation and objective control over various anatomical and surgical parameters and references. Since the first systems, which were basically used to control the alignment of bone cutting referenced to the mechanical axis of the lower limb, many other surgical steps have been incorporated, such as component rotation, ligament balancing and arranging the symmetry of flexion and extension spaces, among others. Its efficacy as a precision tool with an effective capacity for promoting better alignment of the lower-limb axis has been widely proven in the literature, but the real value of optimized alignment and the impact of navigation on clinical results and the longevity of arthroplasty have yet to be established.

  3. Statistical analysis of arthroplasty data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    It is envisaged that guidelines for statistical analysis and presentation of results will improve the quality and value of research. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has therefore developed guidelines for the statistical analysis of arthroplasty register data. The guidelines are divided into two parts, one with an introduction and a discussion of the background to the guidelines (Ranstam et al. 2011a, see pages x-y in this issue), and this one with a more technical statistical discussion on how specific problems can be handled. This second part contains (1) recommendations for the interpretation of methods used to calculate survival, (2) recommendations on howto deal with bilateral observations, and (3) a discussion of problems and pitfalls associated with analysis of factors that influence survival or comparisons between outcomes extracted from different hospitals. PMID:21619500

  4. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Robertsson, O.; Ranstam, J.; Sundberg, M.; W-Dahl, A.; Lidgren, L.

    2014-01-01

    We are entering a new era with governmental bodies taking an increasingly guiding role, gaining control of registries, demanding direct access with release of open public information for quality comparisons between hospitals. This review is written by physicians and scientists who have worked with the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) periodically since it began. It reviews the history of the register and describes the methods used and lessons learned. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:21722. PMID:24986492

  5. Instability After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cottino, Umberto; Sculco, Peter K; Sierra, Rafael J; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-04-01

    Instability is one of the most common causes of failure after total knee arthroplasty. Although there are several contributing causes, surgical error and poor implant design selection contribute. For this reason, an accurate diagnosis is fundamental and is largely based on a thorough history and physical examination. In general, tibiofemoral instability can be classified into 3 different patterns: flexion instability, genu recurvatum, and extension instability. In this article, these 3 patterns are reviewed in greater depth. PMID:26772939

  6. The infected total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Eduardo A; Gonzlez Della Valle, Alejandro; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P

    2003-01-01

    Deep infection following total hip arthroplasty remains one of the most serious local complications preventing a successful outcome. Correct diagnosis of infection is dependent on identification of the pathogen. Treatment consists of incision and debridement. Before surgery, the patient should be in good dental health, have good nutritional status, and should be free of infection in any organ system that can later seed the artificial joint. PMID:12690851

  7. Advances in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Aumiller, Wade D; Dollahite, Harry Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the success stories of modern surgery. Primary TKA is commonly used when nonsurgical treatments for osteoarthritis fail. The need for TKA is projected to increase by 673% between 2005 and 2030, creating a tremendous burden on the healthcare system. This article reviews selected perioperative management strategies, computer-aided navigation, patient-specific cutting blocks, and medial pivot knee implants as potential sources of improvements in clinical efficiency and patient outcomes. PMID:26840607

  8. Polyethylene Wear in Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rajit; Elmallah, Randa D K; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Kurtz, Steven M; Mont, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear and osteolysis are common causes for late revisions of knee arthroplasties. Several implant and surgical factors have been implicated in contributing to the development of wear, such as type of bearing surface used, inaccurate articular geometry, and poor knee kinematics. In addition, patient-related factors, such as younger age and higher activity levels, may also contribute to wear. Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the effect of these variables on wear rates following knee arthroplasty. Recently, technological advancements have been aimed at reducing the incidence of wear by improving the PE manufacturing process, creating implants that minimize contact stresses, and refining our surgical techniques. Furthermore, the development of newer highly cross-linked PEs (HXLPEs) and the introduction of additives, such as vitamin E, to the PEs may improve overall implant survivorship. As a result, with the advent of newer implant and PE designs, wear is no longer the most common cause of early failure, though it remains an important factor in limiting long-term implant survivorship. However, there are a few clinical studies evaluating the long-term outcomes of newer HXLPEs and implant designs, with further evaluations necessary to determine the best implant-PE combination for improved knee arthroplasty survivorship. PMID:26030263

  9. Adipofascial radial artery perforator flap interposition to treat post-traumatic radioulnar synostosis in a patient with head injury.

    PubMed

    Samson, Deepak; Power, Dominic; Tan, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We report this 47-year-old man who presented with polytrauma following a fall from a roof in March 2011. He sustained a head injury and a complex, comminuted forearm fracture. He underwent an open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture at the time of injury, but later developed a rigid type 2 diaphyseal radioulnar synostosis, with loss of forearm rotation. Synostosis excision and a radial artery perforator-based adipofascial interposition flap to prevent recurrence has resulted in a good functional outcome and no recurrence at 2.5 years follow-up. PMID:25725026

  10. Distal femoral arthroplasty for the treatment of periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M Javad; Kurd, Mark F; Bender, Benjamin; Post, Zachary; Parvizi, Javad; Purtill, James J

    2010-08-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty present substantial challenge if associated with poor bone stock, fracture comminution, and loose or damaged components. Revision total knee arthroplasty with distal femoral arthroplasty is often necessary in these injuries. We reviewed 20 patients (22 knees) with a mean age of 69.5 years who underwent revision with distal femoral arthroplasty fracture. Patients were followed for an average of 58.6 months. At the latest follow-up, the mean Knee Society knee and functional score were 82.8 and 40, and the Short Form 36 mean physical functioning and mental functioning scores were 55.8 and 65.6, respectively. There were 10 postoperative complications with 5 patients requiring additional surgery. Distal femoral arthroplasty seems to be a viable option for complex periprosthetic femoral fractures after total knee arthroplasty. However, considering the relatively high rate of complications, this procedure should be reserved for patients where alternative treatments are not possible. PMID:20171053

  11. Inferior outcome after hip resurfacing arthroplasty than after conventional arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The reported outcomes of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) vary. The frequency of this procedure in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is low. We therefore determined the outcome of HRA in the NARA database, which is common to all 3 countries, and compared it to the outcome of conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods The risk of non-septic revision within 2 years was analyzed in 1,638 HRAs and compared to that for 172,554 conventional total hip arthroplasties (THAs), using Cox regression models. We calculated relative risk (RR) of revision and 95% confidence interval. Results HRA had an almost 3-fold increased revision risk compared to THA (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.93.7). The difference was even greater when HRA was compared to the THA subgroup of cemented THAs (RR = 3.8, CI: 2.75.3). For men below 50 years of age, this difference was less pronounced (HRA vs. THA: RR = 1.9, CI: 1.03.9; HRA vs. cemented THA: RR = 2.4, CI: 1.15.3), but it was even more pronounced in women of the same age group (HRA vs. THA: RR = 4.7, CI: 2.68.5; HRA vs. cemented THA: RR = 7.4, CI: 3.715). Within the HRA group, risk of non-septic revision was reduced in hospitals performing ? 70 HRAs annually (RR = 0.3, CI: 0.10.7) and with use of Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) rather than the other designs as a group (RR = 0.3, CI: 0.10.7). Risk of early revision was also reduced in males (RR = 0.5, CI: 0.20.9). The femoral head diameter alone had no statistically significant influence on the early revision rate, but it eliminated the significance of male sex in a combined analysis. Interpretation In general, our results do not support continued use of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Men had a lower early revision rate, which was still higher than observed for all-cemented hips. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether HRA might be useful as an alternative in males. PMID:20919812

  12. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation.

    PubMed

    Bhende, Harish; Laud, Nanadkishore; Deore, Sandeep; Shashidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    In Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients. PMID:26538765

  13. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Bhende, Harish; Laud, Nanadkishore; Deore, Sandeep; Shashidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients. PMID:26538765

  14. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  15. Bone grafting in shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Garrigues, Grant E

    2012-11-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty is one of the fastest-growing fields in orthopedic surgery. Deficiency of the glenoid or humeral bone stock is a major challenge that can result from degenerative arthritis, component loosening or extraction, fracture, or malignancy. Approximately 15% of primary reconstructions will require bone grafting, and the rate is higher for revisions. The authors present a systematic review of the current literature focused on the indications for and results of bone grafting techniques. This provides the practicing surgeon with a set of strategies to address bone loss in the primary and revision settings, whether using an anatomic or reverse design. PMID:23127445

  16. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  17. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-11-18

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  18. A Case of Laparoscopic Resection for Carcinoma of the Gastric Remnant following Proximal Gastrectomy Reconstructed with Jejunal Interposition

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yuu, Ken; Oohinata, Ryouki; Amaki, Misato; Kohira, Yoshinori; Natsume, Souichiro; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old Japanese man had a history of proximal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach in 2007. Our usual treatment strategy for early gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach in 2007 was open proximal gastrectomy reconstructing by jejunal interposition with a 10 cm single loop. Upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy for annual follow-up revealed a type 0-IIc-shaped tumor with ulcer scar, 4.0 cm in size, located in the gastric remnant near the jejunogastrostomy. A clinical diagnosis of cancer of the gastric remnant, clinical T1b(SM)N0M0, Stage IA, following the proximal gastrectomy was made and a laparoscopic approach was selected because of the cancer's early stage. Remnant total gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out with five ports by a pneumoperitoneal method. Complete resection of the reconstructed jejunum was undergone along with the jejunal mesentery. Reconstruction by the Roux-en-Y method via the antecolic route was selected. Total operative time was 395 min and blood loss was 40 mL. Our patient was the first successful case of resection for carcinoma of the gastric remnant following proximal gastrectomy reconstructed with jejunal interposition in a laparoscopic approach.

  19. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  20. Current status of metacarpophalangeal arthroplasty and basilar joint arthroplasty of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Murray, P M

    1996-07-01

    MP joint arthroplasty finds its widest application in the patient with rheumatoid arthritis. With only minor design modification over the years, the Silastic MP joint space is a predictable, durable device with reasonable longevity. In contrast, reconstruction of the CMC joint of the thumb relies primarily on soft tissue reconstruction with arthroplasty techniques having limited applications. PMID:8826678

  1. Polyethylene in knee arthroplasty: A review.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Gautam; Vashishtha, Mayank; Leeder, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) has been used extensively in knee arthroplasty since the mid 20th century. Progress in material manufacturing and processing has led to newer polyethylenes over last few decades with different material properties. It has been established that PE wear in knee arthroplasty causes particle induced osteolysis which is the main reason for late failure and requires revision surgery. Although there are various causes of wear, the properties of PE have long been a matter of investigation as a contributory factor. The advent of newer highly cross linked PE has been shown to improve wear rates in hip arthroplasty but the benefits have not been shown to be of the same degree in knee arthroplasty. The laboratory and clinical studies so far are limited and slightly conflicting in their conclusions. The risks of using highly cross linked PE in knee arthroplasty include tibial post fracture, disruption of locking mechanism, liner fracture which can lead to increased wear and osteolysis. The current evidence suggests that highly cross linked polyethylenes should be used with caution and only considered in younger active patients. The results of a recently completed randomized trial to compare the conventional with high molecular weight PE in knee arthroplasty are awaited. PMID:25983517

  2. Polyethylene in knee arthroplasty: A review

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Gautam; Vashishtha, Mayank; Leeder, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) has been used extensively in knee arthroplasty since the mid 20th century. Progress in material manufacturing and processing has led to newer polyethylenes over last few decades with different material properties. It has been established that PE wear in knee arthroplasty causes particle induced osteolysis which is the main reason for late failure and requires revision surgery. Although there are various causes of wear, the properties of PE have long been a matter of investigation as a contributory factor. The advent of newer highly cross linked PE has been shown to improve wear rates in hip arthroplasty but the benefits have not been shown to be of the same degree in knee arthroplasty. The laboratory and clinical studies so far are limited and slightly conflicting in their conclusions. The risks of using highly cross linked PE in knee arthroplasty include tibial post fracture, disruption of locking mechanism, liner fracture which can lead to increased wear and osteolysis. The current evidence suggests that highly cross linked polyethylenes should be used with caution and only considered in younger active patients. The results of a recently completed randomized trial to compare the conventional with high molecular weight PE in knee arthroplasty are awaited. PMID:25983517

  3. Joint Line Reconstruction in Navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-16

    Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Because of; Loosening; Instability; Impingement; or Other Reasons Accepted as Indications for TKA Exchange.; The Focus is to Determine the Precision of Joint Line Restoration in Navigated vs. Conventional Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

  4. Instability in total knee arthroplasty : assessment and solutions.

    PubMed

    Petrie, J R; Haidukewych, G J

    2016-01-01

    Instability is a common indication for early revision after both primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA), accounting for up to 20% in the literature. The number of TKAs performed annually continues to climb exponentially, thus having an effective algorithm for treatment is essential. This relies on a thorough pre- and intra-operative assessment of the patient. The underlying cause of the instability must be identified initially and subsequently, the surgeon must be able to balance the flexion and extension gaps and be comfortable using a variety of constrained implants. This review describes the assessment of the unstable TKA, and the authors' preferred form of treatment for these difficult cases where the source of instability is often multifactorial. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):116-19. PMID:26733656

  5. Total knee arthroplasty with computer-assisted navigation: an analysis of 200 cases☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Ambra, Luiz Felipe Morlin; Debieux, Pedro; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Costi, Raquel Ribeiro; Petrilli, Marcelo de Toledo; Kubota, Marcelo Seiji; Albertoni, Leonardo José Bernardes; de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Ferreira, Fábio Pacheco; Granata Júnior, Geraldo Sérgio de Mello; Carneiro Filho, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the results from surgery with computer-assisted navigation in cases of total knee arthroplasty. Method a total of 196 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty with computer-assisted navigation were evaluated. The extension and flexion spaces (gaps) were evaluated during the operation and the alignment after the operation was assessed. The Knee Society Score (KSS) questionnaire for assessing patient's function was applied preoperatively and postoperatively after a mean follow-up of 22 months. Results in all, 86.7% of the patients presented good alignment of the mechanical axis (less than 3° of varus or valgus in relation to the mechanical axis) and 96.4% of the patients presented balanced flexion and extension gaps. Before the operation, 97% of the patients presented poor or insufficient KSS, but after the operation, 77.6% presented good or excellent KSS. Conclusion the navigation system made it possible to achieve aligned and balanced implants, with notable functional improvement among the patients. It was found to be useful in assessing, understanding and improving knowledge in relation to performing arthroplasty procedures. PMID:26229791

  6. Patellar Fracture Following Patellofemoral Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    King, Alexander H; Engasser, William M; Sousa, Paul L; Arendt, Elizabeth A; Dahm, Diane L

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report the incidence of patellar fracture after patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) and to determine associated factors as well as outcomes of patients with and without this complication. 77 knees in 59 patients with minimum two-year follow-up were included. Seven (9.1%) patients experienced a patellar fracture at a mean of 34 (range 16-64) months postoperatively. All were treated nonoperatively. Lower BMI (P=0.03), change in patellar thickness (P<0.001), amount of bone resected (P=0.001), and larger trochlear component size (P=0.01) were associated with a greater incidence of fracture. Fewer fractures occurred when the postoperative patellar height exceeded the preoperatively measured height. No statistically significant differences were found in outcome scores between groups at mean four-year follow-up. PMID:25737384

  7. Differential Reanimation of the Upper and Lower Face Using 2 Interpositional Nerve Grafts in Total Facial Nerve Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Radical parotidectomy often results in complex facial nerve defects involving the main nerve trunk and multiple distal nerve branches. Although cable nerve grafting often leads to good nerve regeneration, severe synkinesis due to aberrant axonal regrowth is inevitable. In such situations, the use of 2 motor sources to differentially reanimate the upper and lower face could minimize synkinesis. Here we describe a method of total facial nerve reconstruction in which the upper and lower face are differentially reconstructed with the hypoglossal nerve and facial nerve, respectively, using 2 interpositional nerve grafts. Reconstruction of the lower face with the facial nerve restored voluntary and coordinated animation, and reconstruction of the upper face with the hypoglossal nerve restored frontalis muscle tone and eye closure. These results suggest that our method could serve as an alternative to conventional techniques that use only the facial or hypoglossal nerve. PMID:26579350

  8. Differential Reanimation of the Upper and Lower Face Using 2 Interpositional Nerve Grafts in Total Facial Nerve Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Koichi; Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2015-10-01

    Radical parotidectomy often results in complex facial nerve defects involving the main nerve trunk and multiple distal nerve branches. Although cable nerve grafting often leads to good nerve regeneration, severe synkinesis due to aberrant axonal regrowth is inevitable. In such situations, the use of 2 motor sources to differentially reanimate the upper and lower face could minimize synkinesis. Here we describe a method of total facial nerve reconstruction in which the upper and lower face are differentially reconstructed with the hypoglossal nerve and facial nerve, respectively, using 2 interpositional nerve grafts. Reconstruction of the lower face with the facial nerve restored voluntary and coordinated animation, and reconstruction of the upper face with the hypoglossal nerve restored frontalis muscle tone and eye closure. These results suggest that our method could serve as an alternative to conventional techniques that use only the facial or hypoglossal nerve. PMID:26579350

  9. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and posttraumatic arthritis carry higher risks of post-operative instability and are indications for more constrained TKA designs. Instability following TKA usually requires revision surgery which must address the cause of the instability for success. PMID:23024625

  10. Patients’ decision making in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, T.; Griffin, D.; Barlow, D.; Realpe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A patient-centred approach, usually achieved through shared decision making, has the potential to help improve decision making around knee arthroplasty surgery. However, such an approach requires an understanding of the factors involved in patient decision making. This review’s objective is to systematically examine the qualitative literature surrounding patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasty. Methods A systematic literature review using Medline and Embase was conducted to identify qualitative studies that examined patients’ decision making around knee arthroplasty. An aggregated account of what is known about patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasties is provided. Results Seven studies with 234 participants in interviews or focus groups are included. Ten themes are replicated across studies, namely: expectations of surgery; coping mechanisms; relationship with clinician; fear; pain; function; psychological implications; social network; previous experience of surgery; and conflict in opinions. Conclusions This review is helpful in not only directing future research to areas that are not understood, or require confirmation, but also in highlighting areas that future interventions could address. These include those aimed at delivering information, which are likely to affect the satisfaction rate, demand, and use of knee arthroplasties. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4;163–169. PMID:26450640

  11. Arthroplasty risk after kidney or liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Orban, H; Adam, R; Orban, C

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rate of kidney or liver transplantation has increased considerably, with an increasing rate of immunosuppressant medication for secondary bone disorders. As the rate of organ transplantation increases, the greater predisposition of these patients to hip or knee arthroplasty is noticed. Although arthroplasty is safe in the general population, its safety in liver transplant recipients is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety and durability of hip or knee arthroplasties in liver or kidney transplanted patients. Our study included 5 hip and knee arthroplasties performed in transplanted liver and kidney. All patients underwent immunosuppressive therapy. All cases were submitted to postoperative antibiotic therapy and in the case of cemented implants, antibiotic impregnated cement was used. There were no major short-term or long-term complications. We noticed no case of postoperative sepsis, and implant durability has not been affected by the directly transplant related causes. In conclusion arthroplasty for patients with kidney or liver transplant has a positive impact on their quality of life, being a safe and successful procedure with minimum perioperative safeguards. PMID:23116844

  12. [Sport activity after hip and knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Keren, Amit; Berkovich, Yaron; Berkovitch, Yaron; Soudry, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Joint arthroplasty is one of the commonest surgical procedures in orthopedic surgery. In recent years there was an increase in the number of procedures, patient satisfaction and implant survival. Originally, these operations were designed for old patients in order to relieve pain and to enable ambulation. Over the past few years, these operations have become common in younger patients which desire to return to activity, including sports activities. The importance of physical activity is a well known fact. In recent years it became clear that with the proper physical activity the outcomes of the operations are better. There are several types of arthroplasty. Many factors influence the outcome of the operation apart from the post-surgery physical activity. These factors include patient factors, surgical technique and type of arthroplasty. This review summarizes the recommendations for sports activities after hip and knee arthroplasties. These activities are evaluated according to surgeons' recommendations, stress applied on the implant and long term outcomes. The recommended sports activities after joint arthroplasties are walking, swimming and cycling. Soccer, basketball and jogging are not advised. Tennis, downhill skiing and horse riding are recommended with previous experience. There are many more sports activities that patients can participate in, and it is important that the patient discuss the different options prior to the operation. Since these operations are so common, many non-orthopedic physicians encounter these patients in their practice. They should be acquainted with the recommendations for sports activities and encourage them. PMID:24416822

  13. Tranexamic Acid in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Melvin, J Stuart; Stryker, Louis S; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative blood loss is a significant concern for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. A growing body of evidence has shown tranexamic acid (TXA) to be effective in decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in both primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty. TXA is a synthetic drug that limits blood loss through inhibition of fibrinolysis and clot degradation. Both topical and intravenous administration of TXA, in a variety of dosing regimens, has proven effective. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal dose and dosing regimens; however, evidence exists to recommend an initial intravenous dose be given before beginning the procedure, with at least one additional intravenous dose administered postoperatively. Additionally, topical TXA doses >2 g appear to be more efficacious than lower doses. Finally, relatively few adverse reactions have been reported in arthroplasty patients, and no study to date has demonstrated an increased risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events in this patient population. PMID:26493971

  14. Micromotion in knee arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of tibial component fixation.

    PubMed

    Ryd, L

    1986-01-01

    The modern era of endoprosthetic joint replacement started with the introduction of acrylic cement to improve component fixation. Long-term results have, however, indicated that prosthetic fixation remains critical; loosening at the bone-cement interface has become an important problem. Research in recent years has focused on attempts to achieve better fixation by improving cementing techniques, improving prosthetic design by, for example, adding metal support of polyethylene components and by exploring alternative ways to bond prosthetic components to bone without cement. The mechanical integrity of the bone-cement interface has been studied under laboratory conditions. Because of the in-vivo reaction of bone, with the interposition of a fibrous tissue layer at the interface, such studies are not totally valid. Studies on autopsy material, more closely resembling the in-vivo situation, are few and there has been only one previous study like the present one. In this study, roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was evaluated and found to have an accuracy ten times better than conventional radiography. This accuracy was judged adequate for studies of micromotion. In this work, two types of micromotion of the tibial component were studied; migration, i.e. gradual motion over time, and inducible displacement, i.e. instant motion in response to external forces. Ninety-six knee arthroplasties for gonarthrosis, representing four different types of fixation were studied by roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Eighty-nine arthroplasties were clinically successful. The follow-up ranged from two to five years. Full post-operative weight-bearing was allowed for all patients, except those operated with a Freeman-Samuelson prosthesis, who were adviced to use crutches for six weeks and partial weight-bearing for another six weeks. Fifty-one conventionally cemented all-polyethylene prostheses, 27 total and 24 unicompartmental, represented a baseline series. Migration was found for all prostheses, with a mean maximum deflection of 1.2 and 0.9 mm, respectively, after four years. In both groups, the major part of the migration occurred during the first year, after which the majority of the components did not migrate further. Some prostheses, with larger migration during the first year, continued to migrate throughout the investigation. None of the total, but the majority of the unicompartmental prostheses showed signs of cold flow within the polyethylene. All prostheses showed reversible inducible displacement, the maximum deflection ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3461667

  15. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Philipp N.; Simone, Juan P.; Cofield, Robert H.; Sperling, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision surgery after humeral head resurfacing (HHR). Our joint registry was queried for all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for failed HHR at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Eleven consecutive patients (average age 54 years; range 38-69 years) that underwent revision of 11 resurfacing arthroplasties were identified. The primary indication for resurfacing had been osteoarthritis in six, glenoid dysplasia in two, a chondral lesion in two, and postinstability arthropathy in one patient. The indication for revision was pain in 10 and infection in one patient. Seven patients had undergone an average of 1.9 surgeries prior to resurfacing (range 1-3). Materials and Methods: All patients were revised to stemmed arthroplasties, including one hemiarthroplasty, two reverse, and eight anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties at a mean 33 months after primary resurfacing (range 10-131 months). A deltopectoral approach was used in seven patients; four patients required an anteromedial approach due to severe scarring. Subscapularis attenuation was found in four cases, two of which required reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone grafting was required in one glenoid and three humeri. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (range 1.6-6.9 years), modified Neer score was rated as satisfactory in five patients and unsatisfactory in six. Abduction and external rotation improved from 73° to 88° (P = 0.32) and from 23° to 32° (P = 0.28) respectively. Reoperation was required in two patients, including one hematoma and one revision for instability. Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made. PMID:26980986

  16. Proprioception and Knee Arthroplasty: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wodowski, Andrew J; Swigler, Colin W; Liu, Hongchao; Nord, Keith M; Toy, Patrick C; Mihalko, William M

    2016-04-01

    Proprioceptive mechanoreceptors provide neural feedback for position in space and are critical for three-dimensional interaction. Proprioception is decreased with osteoarthritis of the knees, which leads to increased risk of falling. As the prevalence of osteoarthritis increases so does the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and knowing the effect of TKA on proprioception is essential. This article reviews the literature regarding proprioception and its relationship to balance, aging, osteoarthritis, and the effect of TKA on proprioception. Knee arthroplasty involving retention of the cruciate ligaments is also reviewed, as well the evidence of proprioception in the posterior cruciate ligament after TKA. PMID:26772938

  17. PERIPROSTHETIC FRACTURES IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; De Bortoli, Giovani; Ventura Vieira, Inácio Facó; Uliana, Christiano Saliba

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of total knee arthroplasties, in combination with the population's longer life expectancy, has led to a greater number of long-term complications. These add to the poor bone quality of elderly patients and often culminate in periprosthetic fractures. This complex orthopedic problem has a great diversity of clinical presentation. It may affect any of the bones in the knee and, because of the difficulty in finding solutions, may lead to disastrous outcomes. Its treatment requires that orthopedists should have broad knowledge both of arthroplasty techniques and of osteosynthesis, as well as an elaborate therapeutic arsenal including, for example, access to a bone bank.

  18. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty: technical pearls

    PubMed Central

    BONIFORTI, FILIPPO

    2015-01-01

    Unicondylar knee arthroplasty implantation is extremely demanding as the prosthesis needs to be integrated in the natural anatomy of the knee. It ensures the integrity of the natural knee kinematic. Some studies and registries data have shown lower success rate in comparison with total knee arthroplasty, and patient-related factors may have an impact on outcome. While, better results have been published by high volume centres. The indications for surgery should be reconsidered critically, even if medial osteoarthritis of the knee remains the most common. This article sets out the diagnostic, and surgical steps in order to fine tuning the unicompartmental replacement of the knee. PMID:26605256

  19. Total Elbow Arthroplasty for Distal Humerus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Luke S; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty is a good treatment alternative for selected patients with distal humerus fractures. Its attractiveness is related to several factors, including the possibility of performing the procedure; leaving the extensor mechanism intact; faster, easier rehabilitation compared with internal fixation; and overall good outcomes reported in terms of both pain relief and function. Implant failure leading to revision surgery does happen, and patients must comply with certain limitations to extend the longevity of their implant. Development of high-performance implants may allow expanding the indications of elbow arthroplasty for fractures. PMID:26498549

  20. Serum metal ion exposure after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Luetzner, Joerg; Krummenauer, Frank; Lengel, Attila Michael; Ziegler, Joerg; Witzleb, Wolf-Christoph

    2007-08-01

    All metal implants release metal ions because of corrosion. This has been studied and debated, especially in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. Total knee arthroplasty implants have large metal surface areas and therefore substantial potential for corrosion. We determined changes in serum levels of metal ions in 41 patients after cemented unconstrained total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing, 18 with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (median, 66 months after surgery) and 23 patients with bilateral total knee arthroplasties (75 and 50 months after first and second surgeries, respectively). Serum concentrations of chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum were analyzed and related to the number of total knee arthroplasties and compared with those of 130 control patients without implants. The median chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum concentrations were 0.92, 3.28, and 2.55 microg/L, respectively, in the unilateral total knee arthroplasty sample and 0.98, 4.28, and 2.40 microg/L, respectively, in the bilateral total knee arthroplasty sample. We observed no difference between the serum levels in patients with unilateral and bilateral arthroplasties, but the serum levels of chromium and cobalt of both study groups were greater than those of the control group (less than 0.25 microg/L). The patients who had total knee arthroplasty had molybdenum profiles that were similar to those of the control group (median, 2.11 microg/L). PMID:17438467

  1. Tissue-Specific Differences in the Spatial Interposition of X-Chromosome and 3R Chromosome Regions in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed Central

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  2. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    PubMed

    Artemov, Gleb; Bondarenko, Semen; Sapunov, Gleb; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC) and 3R chromosomes (32D) attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal dis?s cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal dis?s cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution. PMID:25671311

  3. [What's new about total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Dao Trong, Mai Lang; Helmy, Nder

    2013-10-30

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most common problems in the orthopedic practice and its surgical technique is still challenging. This Mini-Review presents patient specific cutting blocks for the implantation of a total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24169482

  4. Knee Lymphocutaneous Fistula Secondary to Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Prez-de la Fuente, T.; Sandoval, E.; Alonso-Burgos, A.; Garca-Pardo, L.; Crcamo, C.; Caballero, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lower limb lymphorrhea secondary to a surgical procedure is a rare but difficult-to-solve complication. In lower limb, this entity is frequently associated with vascular procedures around the inguinal area. We report on a case of a knee lymphocutaneous fistula secondary to a knee revision arthroplasty. To our knowledge, no previous reports regarding this complication have been published. PMID:25580333

  5. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  6. Prevention of infection after knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gorenoi, Vitali; Schnermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Scientific background Man-made joints (joint endoprostheses), including knee endoprostheses, are used in some irreversible diseases of the human joints. The implantation of joint endoprostheses (arthroplasty) is associated with an increased risk for infection. To prevent infections, different interventions without and with the use of antibiotics (hygiene procedures and antibiotic prophylaxis) are used. The benefits of these interventions are not clear yet. Research questions The presented report addresses the questions regarding the medical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects related to the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. Methods A systematic literature search is conducted in the medical electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciSearch etc. in June 2009 and has been completed by a hand search. The analysis includes publications which describe and/or evaluate clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews of RCT, registers of endoprostheses or databases concerning interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The conducted literature search also aims to identify health-economic studies and publications dealing explicitly with ethical, social or legal aspects in the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The synthesis of information from different publications has been performed qualitatively. Results The systematic literature search yields 1,030 hits. Based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of ten publications is included in the analysis. The presented report does not find evidence of the effectiveness of different hygiene interventions with a high evidence level. Most of the unspecific interventions are recommended on the basis of results from non-RCT, from studies for other clinical indications and/or for clinically not relevant endpoints, as well as on the basis of expert opinions. The evidence of the effectiveness of intravenous prophylaxis with antibiotics in knee arthroplasty on a high level of evidence is also missing. The recommendations use evidence on the intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis transferred from RCT in hip arthroplasty to the arthroplasty of all joints including knee replacement. Moreover, no evidence is found for differences in the effectiveness between various antibiotics in knee arthroplasty. The presented report finds strong hints for the effectiveness of antibiotics in cement in addition to the intravenous prophylaxis; however, evidence of the effectiveness may be accepted only for operating rooms without clean-air measures. Discussion The conclusiveness of the results from non-RCT and from studies for clinically non-relevant endpoints is relatively low. The determined evidence from studies for other clinical indications may be generally transferred to knee replacement operations. Conclusions No proposal to change the recommendations of the Robert Koch Institute with respect to hygiene interventions and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis can be made from the presented analysis. Also, no recommendations on the selection of certain antibiotic can be derived from the analysed data. The use of antibiotics in cement in addition to the intravenous prophylaxis may be generally recommended. The cost-effectiveness of different interventions to prevent infections in knee arthroplasty remains unclear. There are no signs for concern regarding any ethical, social and/or legal consequences in the use of interventions to prevent infections in knee arthroplasty. PMID:21289883

  7. [Intraoperative Evaluation of Total Knee Arthroplasty: Anatomic and Kinematic Assessment with Trial Components].

    PubMed

    von Roth, P; Pfitzner, T; Fuchs, M; Perka, C

    2015-06-01

    The intraoperative use of trial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of paramount importance to prevent inadequate ligament balance and to achieve optimal position of the definitive components. This review demonstrates an 8-step algorithm to assess the anatomy of the femoral, tibial and patellar component as well as the kinematics of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Trial components allow an easy assessment of the anatomic fit of the final implants. Upon the trials insertion, bone coverage and the component overhang should be evaluated. The femoral rotation should be assessed using the transepicondylar axis and for the tibial component rotation assessment, the tibial tuberosity would be the most reliable bony landmark. Addressing the patella, sizing and bone coverage should be thoroughly evaluated. In order to restore physiological kinematics the remnants of the meniscus rim can be used to determine the correct reconstruction of the joint line. A tight extension gap results in limited extension, whereas a tight or unbalanced flexion gap leads to "booking" or "spin-out" of the inlay. The POLO test (pull-out, lift- off) allows an easy assessment of the posterior cruciate ligament tension and the size of the flexion gap as well. To prevent postoperative dislocation and overstuffing, specific tests for correct patellar positioning and tracking support should be performed. The anatomy and kinematics of total knee arthroplasty have to be evaluated by trial components on a routine basis before inserting the final implants in order to identify implant positioning errors and inadequate ligament balance. PMID:26114563

  8. Perioperative considerations in esophageal replacement for epidermolysis bullosa: report of two cases successfully treated by colon interposition.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, R J; Schonholz, S M; Gryboski, J D; Oh, T H; McGuire, J

    1988-08-01

    Esophageal stricture commonly occurs in patients with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica recessive (EBDR), but esophageal replacement is considered a high risk procedure because of limited exposure of the airway, malnutrition, and postoperative skin bullae to secondary infection. Recent innovations in care, including preoperative parenteral nutrition, topical care for bullae and skin ulceration, fiberoptic tracheal intubation, electrocardiogram monitoring with metallic pacer leads, and an overall concern to protect the fragile intact skin, have improved the results of esophageal replacement. Utilizing these adjunctive measures, ileocolonic substernal interposition has been successfully performed in a 26-yr-old male and a 19-yr-old female at our institution. Despite cervical anastomotic stricture requiring resection in one, and an obstructive cervical esophageal bullous developing acutely 5 yr after operation in the second, both patients now gum or chew a solid diet. The first patient also benefited from total esophagectomy for squamous dysplasia detected at the time of esophageal replacement. Multidisciplinary management by the surgeon, gastroenterologist, anesthesiologist, and dermatologist makes esophageal replacement available for younger patients with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica recessive and esophageal strictures. PMID:3293434

  9. Effectively Axonal-supercharged Interpositional Jump-Graft with an Artificial Nerve Conduit for Rat Facial Nerve Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Yamato, Masayuki; Miyata, Mariko; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interpositional jump graft (IPJG) is a nerve graft axonally supercharged from the hypoglossal nerve. However, for using the technique, an autologous nerve, which should contain the great auricular and sural nerves, must be obtained. Depending on the donor site, unavoidable issues such as nerve disorders and postoperative scarring may appear. To reduce the issues, in this study, the authors developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit and investigated the efficacy of an IPJG with an artificial nerve conduit in a rat facial nerve paresis model. Methods: A ligature clip was used to crush the facial nerve trunk, thereby creating a partial facial nerve paresis model. An artificial nerve conduit was then prepared with a 10-mm-long silicone tube containing 10 μL type I collagen and used to create an IPJG between the facial nerve trunk and the hypoglossal nerve (the silicone tube group). Thirteen weeks after the surgery, the outcome was histologically and physiologically compared with conventional IPJG with autograft using the great auricular nerve. Results: Retrograde tracer test confirmed a double innervation by the facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei. In the autograft and silicone tube groups, the regeneration of myelinated axons was observed. Conclusion: In this study, the authors successfully developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit, and revealed that an IPJG in the conduit was effective in the rat facial nerve paresis model. PMID:26180717

  10. Colonic interposition between the liver and left diaphragm - management of Chilaiditi syndrome: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    WENG, WEI-HONG; LIU, DA-REN; FENG, CHENG-CHENG; QUE, RI-SHENG

    2014-01-01

    Chilaiditi syndrome refers to a medical condition that is indicated by the presence of Chilaiditi sign, the radiological observation of a colonic interposition between the liver and the diaphragm, and is associated with other clinical symptoms. Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare entity and therefore, is often misdiagnosed in clinical practice, however, it may be accompanied by a series of severe complications, such as bowel obstruction and perforation. The current study describes a 47-year-old male who presented with repeated abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. The patient was diagnosed with Chilaiditi syndrome via radiological observation and was cured by conservative treatment. The clinical data of seven additional patients with Chilaiditi syndrome, which was reported in the Chinese literature between January 1990 and January 2013, were also collected. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome have been reviewed and analyzed. The current study may be useful to familiarize clinical practitioners with Chilaiditi syndrome, in order to avoid a misdiagnosis during clinical treatment. PMID:24765195

  11. Robotic repair of a vesicovaginal fistula in an irradiated field using a dehydrated amniotic allograft as an interposition patch.

    PubMed

    Price, David T; Price, Tina C

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 66 year old female with a supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) that developed after undergoing radical hysterectomy, chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. VVF repairs in an irradiated field are known to be complicated procedures with significant morbidity and a high rate of failure due to the effect of radiation. Amniotic membranes have been demonstrated to improve healing rates in difficult to heal wounds. To decrease morbidity a minimally invasive robotic procedure was performed and a dehydrated amniotic allograft patch was used to augment tissue healing. The VVF was repaired using the da Vinci Surgical System and the amniotic membrane was used as an interposition patch over the repair. There were no operative or postoperative complications and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. A cystogram performed 3 weeks postoperatively demonstrated a healed fistula. Follow-up at 5 months revealed no incontinence. This is the first reported case of a robotic VVF repair performed in an irradiated pelvis and the first use of an amniotic membrane allograft in the repair a VVF. PMID:26661412

  12. Ileal Interposition in Rats with Experimental Type 2 Like Diabetes Improves Glycemic Control Independently of Glucose Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jurowich, Christian Ferdinand; Otto, Christoph; Rikkala, Prashanth Reddy; Wagner, Nicole; Vrhovac, Ivana; Sabolić, Ivan; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Koepsell, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric operations in obese patients with type 2 diabetes often improve diabetes before weight loss is observed. In patients mainly Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass with partial stomach resection is performed. Duodenojejunal bypass (DJB) and ileal interposition (IIP) are employed in animal experiments. Due to increased glucose exposition of L-cells located in distal ileum, all bariatric surgery procedures lead to higher secretion of antidiabetic glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after glucose gavage. After DJB also downregulation of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was observed. This suggested a direct contribution of decreased glucose absorption to the antidiabetic effect of bariatric surgery. To investigate whether glucose absorption is also decreased after IIP, we induced diabetes with decreased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in male rats and investigated effects of IIP on diabetes and SGLT1. After IIP, we observed weight-independent improvement of glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased plasma GLP-1 after glucose gavage. The interposed ileum was increased in diameter and showed increased length of villi, hyperplasia of the epithelial layer, and increased number of L-cells. The amount of SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake in interposed ileum was increased 2-fold reaching the same level as in jejunum. Thus, improvement of glycemic control by bariatric surgery does not require decreased glucose absorption. PMID:26185767

  13. Quality of outcome data in knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pabinger, Christof; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Cupak, Daniel; Berghold, Andrea; Boehler, Nikolaus; Labek, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Recent reports on developer bias in unicondylar knee arthroplasty led to concerns about quality of publications regarding knee implants. We therefore compared revision rates of registry and non-registry studies from the beginning of knee arthroplasty up to the present. We assessed the time interval between market introduction of an implant and emergence of reliable data in non-registry studies. Material and methods We systematically reviewed registry studies (n = 6) and non-registry studies (n = 241) on knee arthroplasty published in indexed, peer-reviewed international scientific journals. The main outcome measure was revision rate per 100 observed component years. Results and interpretation For 82% of the 34 knee implants assessed, revision data from non-registry studies are either absent or poor. 91% of all studies were published in the second and third decade after market introduction. Only 5% of all studies and 1% of all revisions were published in the first decade. The first publications on revision rates of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) started 6 years after market introduction, and reliable data were found from year 12 onward in non-registry studies. However, in unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) the first publications on revision rates could be found first 13 years after market introduction. Revision rates of TKA from non-registry studies were reliable after year 12 following market introduction. UKA revision rates remained below the threshold of registry indices, and failed to demonstrate adjustment towards registries. Thus, the superiority of registry data over non-registry data regarding outcome measurement was validated. PMID:25191934

  14. Mobile-bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty: the Oxford experience.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jason M; Berend, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increase in medial unicompartmental arthroplasty, this article reviews the design history, indications, results, and modern technique for the implantation of the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental arthroplasty. The article also discusses how the indications for the Oxford differ from the historical indications for medial unicompartmental arthroplasty and supports this paradigm shift with review of the recent data. A detailed series of surgical pearls is also presented to help surgeons with the surgical nuances of the Oxford partial knee. PMID:24274849

  15. Mobile-bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty: the Oxford experience.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jason M; Berend, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in medial unicompartmental arthroplasty, this article reviews the design history, indications, results, and modern technique for the implantation of the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental arthroplasty. The article also discusses how the indications for the Oxford differ from the historical indications for medial unicompartmental arthroplasty and supports this paradigm shift with review of the recent data. A detailed series of surgical pearls is also presented to help surgeons with the surgical nuances of the Oxford partial knee. PMID:25435040

  16. Enlarged transacromial superior approach with reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fractures

    PubMed Central

    Poignard, Alexandre; Bouhou, Mohamed; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hernigou, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a step-by-step technique for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using arthrotomy via the enlarged transacromial superior approach. This technique seems ideal for reinsertion of the tuberosities and to ensure adequate postoperative tensional balance of the infraspinatus and the subscapularis, which is critical for the rotator cuffs to function properly and to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability. Reviewing these different steps helps understanding each rotator cuff individual component's contribution to achieve optimal arthroplasty stability and external rotation with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:21808714

  17. Unexpected wear of an unicompartimental knee arthroplasty in oxidized zirconium.

    PubMed

    Luyet, A; Fischer, J-F; Jolles, B M; Lunebourg, A

    2015-12-01

    Unicompartimental knee arthroplasty is a successful procedure for the treatment of localized osteoarthritis to one compartment of the knee with good long-term results. However, several modes of failure of unicompartimental knee arthroplasty have been -described, namely aseptic or septic loosening, progression of disease, wear, and instability. Metallosis after unicompartimental knee arthroplasty is rarely reported and is most often related with polyethylene wear or break. We report on a case of rapid failure of unicompartimental knee arthroplasty in oxidized -zirconium associated with metallosis secondary to the dislocation of the polyethylene. PMID:26790806

  18. Influence of Intraoperative Soft Tissue Balance on Postoperative Active Knee Extension in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kanto; Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Takahara, Shunsuke; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the influence of intraoperative soft tissue balance on postoperative active knee extension using Offset Repo-Tensor among 73 varus osteoarthritic knees underwent primary posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The joint center gap between osteotomized surfaces and the component gap after femoral trial component placement were measured using a joint distraction force of 40lb. The active knee extension angle was measured 4weeks after surgery. The postoperative extension angle was not correlated with the joint center gap at 0, but positively correlated with the component gap at 0, and the joint looseness at 0 which was calculated by subtracting insert thickness from the component gap. Thus, intraoperative soft tissue measurement with femoral trial component placement would be useful to predict the postoperative knee extension angle. PMID:25697891

  19. Qualifying CT for wrist arthroplasty: extending techniques for total hip arthroplasty to total wrist arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, Yvonne; Olivecrona, Henrik; Olivecrona, Lotta; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Sollerman, Christer

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous work to detect migration of total wrist arthroplasty non-invasively, and with greater accuracy. Two human cadaverous arms, each with a cemented total wrist implant, were used in this study. In one of the arms, 1 mm tantalum balls were implanted, six in the carpal bones and five in the radius. Five CT scans of each arm were acquired, changing the position of the arm each time to mimic different positions patients might take on repeated examinations. Registration of CT volume data sets was performed using an extensively validated, 3D semi-automatic volume fusion tool in which co-homologous point pairs (landmarks) are chosen on each volume to be registered. Three sets of ten cases each were obtained by placing landmarks on 1) bone only (using only arm one), 2) tantalum implants only, and 3) bone and tantalum implants (both using only arm two). The accuracy of the match was assessed visually in 2D and 3D, and numerically by calculating the distance difference between the actual position of the transformed landmarks and their ideal position (i.e., the reference landmark positions). All cases were matched visually within one width of cortical bone and numerically within one half CT voxel (0.32 mm, p = 0.05). This method matched only the bone/arm and not the prosthetic component per se, thus making it possible to detect prosthetic movement and wear. This method was clinically used for one patient with pain. Loosening of the carpal prosthetic component was accurately detected and this was confirmed at surgery.

  20. Gap Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges. In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.

  1. Gap Resolution

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  2. Biomarkers in Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Marty T; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2011-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of all MEDLINE-published studies of biomarkers in arthroplasty. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria; majority evaluated biomarkers for osteolysis, aseptic prosthetic loosening, and prosthetic infections. Four studies reported an elevated Cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (urine or serum) in patients with osteolysis or aseptic prosthetic loosening when compared to appropriate controls. Two or more studies each found elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and interleukin-6 in patients with infected prosthetic joints compared to controls. Most other biomarkers were either examined by single studies or had inconsistent or insignificant associations with outcomes. We conclude that the majority of the biomarkers currently lack the evidence to be considered as biomarkers for arthroplasty outcomes. Further studies are needed. PMID:21584201

  3. [Bearing selection in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, R; Reinders, J; Mller, U; Kretzer, J P

    2015-12-01

    Different bearing materials are available in total hip arthroplasty and it's the surgeon who has the choice between hard-on-soft, hard-on-hard and alternative materials. Ideally, the material selection should rely on evidence-based data regarding the wear performance, the incidence of revision surgery and other potential bearing-associated risk factors for the corresponding combinations of materials in the individual patient. While there are high-quality studies available for some materials, adequate data is lacking for other materials. Therefore, the current article aims to provide bearing selection criteria for the surgeon and to review the current literature regarding different combinations of bearing materials in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26367145

  4. Expanding roles for reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Keener, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    Since its introduction in the USA in 2003, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has been used with increasingly frequency as surgeons have observed the remarkable improvement in pain, range of motion, and function associated with this implant. RTSA was initially used exclusively for elderly, low demand individuals with end-stage rotator cuff tear arthropathy. However, RTSA is now being increasingly successfully employed for the management of irreparable rotator cuff tears, glenohumeral osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff, acute proximal humerus fractures, the sequelae of proximal humerus fractures, neoplasms of the proximal humerus, inflammatory arthropathy, young patients and failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty. While long-term outcomes are pending, short- and mid-term follow-up results suggest that in experienced hands, RTSA may be a reasonable treatment for many previously difficult to treat pathologies within the shoulder. PMID:26803609

  5. Cost Analysis in Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Teusink, Matthew J.; Virani, Nazeem A.; Polikandriotis, John A.; Frankle, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Cost in shoulder surgery has taken on a new focus with passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. As part of this law, there is a provision for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) and the bundled payment initiative. In this model, one entity would receive a single payment for an episode of care and distribute funds to all other parties involved. Given its reproducible nature, shoulder arthroplasty is ideally situated to become a model for an episode of care. Currently, there is little research into cost in shoulder arthroplasty surgery. The current analyses do not provide surgeons with a method for determining the cost and outcomes of their interventions, which is necessary to the success of bundled payment. Surgeons are ideally positioned to become leaders in ACOs, but in order for them to do so a methodology must be developed where accurate costs and outcomes can be determined for the episode of care. PMID:23243515

  6. Proximal tibial fracture following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Krause, Heike; Dunleavy, Kim

    2011-09-01

    The patient was a 74-year-old man, with a history of total knee arthoplasty 14 years earlier, after having sustained a pathological fracture of the proximal diaphysis of the left tibia following a fall. Given the unstable nature of the fracture and the severe osteolysis noted below the total knee arthroplasty, surgical management 1 day after the fall entailed packing cancellous bone graft into the defect and realigning the fracture. PMID:21885911

  7. Arthroplasty after war injuries to major joints.

    PubMed

    Haspl, M; Pe?ina, M; Orli?, D; Cicak, N

    1999-05-01

    From 1992 to 1995, replacement of the joint with an endoprosthesis after serious wounding and major destruction of joint elements was performed in 10 soldiers. Arthroplasty was performed on five knees, three hips, and two shoulders. The age range of the wounded soldiers was 22 to 55 years (mean, 37.7 years). Six soldiers suffered explosive injuries, and 4 were injured by gunfire. Time elapsed from the moment of wounding to the time of total joint replacement was 9 to 42 months. We decided on arthroplasty as the preferred treatment because of the presence of strong contractures and very painful movement. In 8 patients, the results of the treatment, based on a follow-up time of 36 to 48 months, were good. In 2 patients, early septic arthritis developed after arthroplasty of the knee with concomitant loosening of the endoprosthesis. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in both patients. In those 2 patients, therefore, arthrodesis of the knee with external fixation was performed. PMID:10332176

  8. Modular tibial augmentations in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fehring, T K; Peindl, R D; Humble, R S; Harrow, M E; Frick, S L

    1996-06-01

    Proximal tibial bony deficiencies are not uncommon in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty. Modular tibial augmentations were introduced to address these deficiencies. Alterations in strain distribution as a result of medial wedge and block augmentations were evaluated for a modular total knee arthroplasty system in 6 fresh frozen anatomic specimen tibias. Full-field strain patterns were examined using photoelastic coating methods, and high strain regions were evaluated using strain gage rosette techniques. The total knee arthroplasty installations were tested in static physiologic axial and torsional load configurations. The relative effects of sequential wedge and block augmentations compared with the nonaugmented case were statistically analyzed. There were no overall statistical differences in the 3 treatments in terms of maximal (principal) strains. A secondary analysis that evaluated specific location and load pattern combinations established several minor statistical differences along with insights into the manner in which each construct loads the proximal tibia. Although metal wedge augmentation commonly is used, block augmentation seems to be an appropriate alternative from a strain distribution standpoint in cases in which the block geometry better approximates the bony defect. PMID:8641065

  9. Minimally invasive knee arthroplasty: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Tria, Alfred J; Scuderi, Giles R

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for arthroplasty of the knee began with surgery for unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). Partial knee replacements were designed in the 1970s and were amenable to a more limited exposure. In the 1990s Repicci popularized the MIS for UKA. Surgeons began to apply his concepts to total knee arthroplasty. Four MIS surgical techniques were developed: quadriceps sparing, mini-mid vastus, mini-subvastus, and mini-medial parapatellar. The quadriceps sparing technique is the most limited one and is also the most difficult. However, it is the least invasive and allows rapid recovery. The mini-midvastus is the most common technique because it affords slightly better exposure and can be extended. The mini-subvastus technique entirely avoids incising the quadriceps extensor mechanism but is time consuming and difficult in the obese and in the muscular male patient. The mini-parapatellar technique is most familiar to surgeons and represents a good starting point for surgeons who are learning the techniques. The surgeries are easier with smaller instruments but can be performed with standard ones. The techniques are accurate and do lead to a more rapid recovery, with less pain, less blood loss, and greater motion if they are appropriately performed. PMID:26601062

  10. Defining high activity in arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Robertson, N B; Battenberg, A K; Kertzner, M; Schmalzried, T P

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that high levels of physical activity following arthroplasty of the hip or knee can lead to early revision. However, the term 'highly active' is not well defined. A validated ankle accelerometer was used to quantify activity in 13 patients, who had undergone a total of 20 arthroplasties of the lower limbs and who had active lifestyles. The assessments were taken at a mean of 8.7 years post-operatively (1.8 to 15.8). The mean gait cycles per day was 8273 (5964 to 12 557), which extrapolates to 3.0 million cycles per year (cpy) (2.2 to 4.6). The mean percentage of time spent in high activity mode was 4.3%, or about one hour per day. The mean percentage of cycles in high activity was 40%. Based on these data, we propose the following definitions of high activity: > 3 million cpy; one hour per day in high activity mode; 40% of cycles in high activity mode. Extrapolating the sample of activity over the time since operation, the mean cycles per arthroplasty was 25.2 million, with a maximum of 44.1 million. No joint has been revised, or shows evidence of impending failure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):95-7. PMID:26733651

  11. TREATMENT OF INFECTION AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Cinagawa, Eduardo Hitoshi Tsuge; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Klautau, Giselle Burlamaqui; Salles, Mauro José Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To identify and compare the rate of success of therapeutic modalities applied in surgeries for the treatment of infections associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to evaluate the functional outcome and pain in different therapeutic modalities by means of quality of life scores. Methods: We evaluated all patients who developed periprosthetic infection after TKA for primary or secondary osteoarthritis, in the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2010. Results: In the study period, 29 patients with TKA had infection, and 12 of these underwent debridement and retention of the prosthesis (D+R), seven received two-stage and six one-stage exchange arthroplasties, and four patients were treated with suppressive antibiotic therapy because they could not undergo another surgical procedure. Conclusion: The D+R, one-stage revision and two-stage revision success rates were 75%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. The best results of quality of life (QoL) and function occur in patients undergoing D+R. In contrast, the worst QoL and functional results were obtained in patients treated with two-stage revision arthroplasty. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Outcome of Disease. PMID:26981029

  12. Periprosthetic Fractures Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality. PMID:25750888

  13. Rotating-platform knee arthroplasty: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-ming; Ouyang, Gui-lin; Xiao, Lian-bo

    2011-11-01

    Fixed versus rotating-platform knee arthroplasty for total knee arthroplasty is still a controversial topic. In this article, biomechanical and clinical aspects of rotating-platform knee arthroplasty are reviewed. In regard to its biomechanical characteristics, the rotating-platform knee arthroplasty design has been proved to provide less tibiofemoral contact stress under conditions of tibiofemoral malalignment. It also reduces the wear rate. However, in regard to its clinical characteristics, the mid-term and long-term survivorship of rotating-platform knee arthroplasties is not superior to that of fixed-platform knees. It appears that we are at a crossroads. In this article, progress in biomechanical and clinical aspects of rotating-platform knee prosthesis is reviewed. PMID:22021137

  14. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  15. Limb-length discrepancy after total hip arthroplasty: novel treatment and proposed algorithm for care.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Rishi; Johnson, Aaron J; Specht, Stacy C; Conway, Janet D; Issa, Kimona; Mont, Michael A; Herzenberg, John E

    2014-02-01

    Limb-length discrepancy after total hip arthroplasty (THA) leads to patient dissatisfaction and can be a cause of orthopedic surgery malpractice cases. Nonsurgical and surgical techniques exist to correct limb-length discrepancies. Two limb-lengthening methods were used to correct greater than 2-cm limb-length discrepancies after THA: lengthening over a femoral nail with an external fixator and lengthening with an intramedullary kinetic skeletal distractor. These techniques achieved equal length in less than 4 weeks, with both resulting in a healed distraction gap within 4 months. No patient had loss of proximal or distal joint motion, and mean Harris Hip Score was 90 points at final follow-up. No surgical complications were reported with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Limb lengthening using an intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor is a viable treatment option resulting in reliable lengthening, healing of the distraction gap, and progression to full weight bearing. PMID:24679191

  16. Historical view and future demand for knee arthroplasty in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rolfson, Ola; W-Dahl, Annette; Garellick, Gran; Sundberg, Martin; Krrholm, Johan; Robertsson, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The incidence of knee osteoarthritis will most likely increase. We analyzed historical trends in the incidence of knee arthroplasty in Sweden between 1975 and 2013, in order to be able to provide projections of future demand. Patients and methods We obtained information on all knee arthroplasties in Sweden in the period 19752013 from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register, and used public domain data from Statistics Sweden on the evolution of and forecasts for the Swedish population. We forecast the incidence, presuming the existence of a maximum incidence. Results We found that the incidence of knee arthroplasty will continue to increase until a projected upper incidence level of about 469 total knee replacements per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older is reached around the year 2130. In 2020, the estimated incidence of total knee arthroplasties per 105 Swedish residents aged 40 years and older will be 334 (95% prediction interval (PI): 281374) and in 2030 it will be 382 (PI: 308441). Using officially forecast population growth data, around 17,500 operations would be expected to be performed in 2020 and around 21,700 would be expected to be performed in 2030. Interpretation Todays levels of knee arthroplasty are well below the expected maximum incidence, and we expect a continued annual increase in the total number of knee arthroplasties performed. PMID:25806653

  17. Cervical disk arthroplasty versus ACDF for preoperative reducible kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Xinwei; Lu, Xuhua; Yang, Haisong; Chen, Deyu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical total disk arthroplasty has proven to be an effective and safe alternative for anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical disk degenerative disease. However, whether and when cervical disk arthroplasty is indicated for preoperative cervical spine kyphosis is unclear. In the authors' clinical experiences, preoperative kyphosis can generally be divided into reducible and irreducible forms according to the results of dynamic flexion-extension lateral radiographs. Reducible kyphosis is mostly related to local disk prolapse, clinical symptoms, and musculature weakness, but irreducible kyphosis is always associated with significant cervical degeneration or congenital bone malformation. In this study, 32 patients with preoperative reducible kyphosis were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either single-level total cervical arthroplasty with the Discover cervical disk prosthesis (DePuy Spine, Raynham, Massachusetts) (arthroplasty group) or single-level ACDF with a polyetheretherketone cage and plate (ACDF group). No significant differences existed in clinical and radiological results at 2-year follow-up between the arthroplasty and ACDF groups. The global and functional spinal unit angles of the arthroplasty group were significantly lower than those of the ACDF group 6 months postoperatively, which was consistent with the result of the comparison in Neck Disability Index score. However, the sagittal alignment of the overall cervical spine and the treated segment and the Neck Disability Index score significantly improved after 6 months in the arthroplasty group but not in the ACDF group. Therefore, preoperative reducible kyphosis is not a contraindication for cervical total disk arthroplasty. However, neck strength-building exercises should be emphasized for the postoperative rehabilitation after cervical total disk arthroplasty. PMID:23823056

  18. The use of oxidized zirconium alloy in knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Heyse, Thomas J; Haas, Steven B; Efe, Turgay

    2012-07-01

    Polyethylene wear is a key contributor to long-term failure in total knee arthroplasty. Oxidized zirconium alloy was created as a bearing surface for total joint arthroplasty in an attempt to address this concern. Oxidized zirconium has shown considerable improvements over existing materials in several key areas related to component longevity, including resistance to roughening, wear reduction, frictional behavior and biocompatibility. This review aims to summarize the current use of oxidized zirconium alloy in knee arthroplasty, as well as the possible advantages and downsides of this material. PMID:22905845

  19. [Application and development of kinematical alighment during total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang Guo-dong; Yang, Chen; Yang, Guang; Qi, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Kinematical alignment during total knee arthroplasty is an emerging process, and draws more and more attentions from scholars. Knee joint is close to normal joint after TKA through kinematical alighment, which has good clinical results and functional scores, and not increase failure probility. Thus, it may increase joint stress of patella-femur joint, lead to patellar maltracking and increase abrasion. The paper summarized defination and basical principle, operative method, clinical outcomes and deficiency of kinematical alignment during total knee arthroplasty, in order to choose a better way for kinematical alignment during total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26911130

  20. Computer Assisted Navigation in Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) was used to improve the positioning of implants during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Most studies have reported that computer assisted navigation reduced the outliers of alignment and component malpositioning. However, additional sophisticated studies are necessary to determine if the improvement of alignment will improve long-term clinical results and increase the survival rate of the implant. Knowledge of CAS-TKA technology and understanding the advantages and limitations of navigation are crucial to the successful application of the CAS technique in TKA. In this article, we review the components of navigation, classification of the system, surgical method, potential error, clinical results, advantages, and disadvantages. PMID:22162787

  1. The arthritic glenoid: anatomy and arthroplasty designs.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nikolas K; Ferreira, Louis M; Athwal, George S

    2016-03-01

    The number of shoulder arthroplasty procedures has increased dramatically in recent years, with the primary indication being osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, morphology and subchondral bone changes associated with OA may be important factors to consider when choosing a replacement component. For surgical treatment, many implant options exist and survivability is often dependent on patient age, activity level, and progression of OA. In the placement of these replacement components, patient-specific guides now exist to improve component positioning, with the goal to improve long-term survivability by ensuring that intra-operative placement meets component design. PMID:26803610

  2. Prosthetic Design in Total Wrist Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Huang, Jerry I

    2016-01-01

    Total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) provides a motion-preserving alternative to total wrist arthrodesis for low-demand patients with debilitating pancarpal arthritis. The earlier generation total wrist implants had high complication and failure rates. Advances in prosthetic design have contributed to improved clinical outcomes and implant survivorship. The current fourth-generation implants allow for expansion of indications for TWA. Careful patient selection remains critical; patients with high-demand lifestyles and poor bone stock may not be candidates. Long-term studies on implant survival and patient outcomes are critical for the current generation total wrist implants in assessing their long-term value compared with total wrist arthrodesis. PMID:26614934

  3. Stem length in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anay Rajendra; Barlow, Brian; Ranawat, Amar S

    2015-12-01

    Stems are intramedullary extensions of either the femoral or tibial component of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designed to increase the mechanical stability to decrease the risk of aseptic loosening. Biomechanical studies have shown that TKA stems increase the mechanical stability by transferring load over a larger area and thereby reduce strain at the bone-component interface [1-4]. The length of a revision TKA stem is determined by the patient's anatomy and the intended fixation, namely fully cemented or press-fit cortical contact. The advantages and disadvantages of various stem lengths must be weighed against the needs of the patient to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26371072

  4. Massive rotator cuff tears: arthroscopy to arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Jawa, Andrew; Morman, Monica; Sanofsky, Benjamin; Higgins, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of rotator cuff disease has increased exponentially since Codman drew attention to this pathology in the early 1900s. Although challenging, the surgical treatment of massive rotator cuff tears is rational, with treatment decisions based on physical examination, imaging, biologic, and patient factors. Arthroscopy can be used to treat ancillary pain generators, dbride necrotic tissue, and possibly restore balance to the force couples about the shoulder. Tendon transfers may be effective in restoring functional strength to irreparable, ineffectual muscle units. Arthroplasty is both a primary treatment and a salvage option. PMID:20415384

  5. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  6. Results of sleeves in revision total knee arthroplasty: an editorial comment on recently published in the Journal of Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled Direct, cementless, metaphyseal fixation in knee revision arthroplasty with sleeves-short-term results published in the Journal of Arthroplasty to analyze the short- and mid-term results in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a largest series so far. This article shown that cementless metaphyseal fixation with sleeves is a promising option for revision TKA implant fixation. The clinical outcomes regarding the range of motion and the KSS are also promising. Based on this article and related literatures about sleeves, we assess the short to mid-term outcomes and the clinical perspectives in revision TKAs. PMID:26697477

  7. Preoperative Planning in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, Michael; Makhdom, Asim M

    2016-04-01

    Preoperative planning is of paramount importance in primary total knee arthroplasty. A thorough preoperative analysis helps the surgeon envision the operation, anticipate any potential issues, and minimize the risk of premature implant failure. Obtaining a thorough history is critical for appropriate patient selection. The physical examination should evaluate the integrity of the soft tissues, the neurovascular status, range of motion, limb deformity, and the status of the collateral ligaments to help determine the soft-tissue balancing and constraint strategy required. Standard radiographs, with a known magnification, should be obtained for preoperative total knee arthroplasty templating. Routine standing AP, lateral, and skyline radiographs of the knee can help the surgeon plan the bone cuts and tibial slope as well as the implant size and position at the time of surgery. In certain circumstances, such as severe coronal deformities, bone deficiencies, and/or extra-articular deformities, additional measures are frequently necessary to successfully reconstruct the knee. Constrained implants, metal augments, and bone graft must be part of the surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:26990712

  8. Extensor mechanism allograft in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Tozi, Mateus Ramos; Flix, Alessandro Monterroso; Angelini, Fbio Janson; Pcora, Jos Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the experience with allograft transplantation of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty and compare results with the international experience. Methods We retrospectively evaluated three cases of extensor mechanism allograft after total knee arthroplasty performed in our hospital with the aid of one of the few tissue banks in Brazil and attempt to establish whether our experiences were similar to others reported in the world literature regarding patient indication, techniques, and outcomes. Results Two cases went well with the adopted procedure, and one case showed bad results and progressed to amputation. As shown in the literature, the adequate tension of the graft, appropriate tibial fixation and especially the adequate patient selection are the better predictors of good outcomes. Previous chronic infection can be an unfavorable predictor. Conclusion This surgical procedure has precise indication, albeit uncommon, either because of the rarity of the problem or because of the low availability of allografts, due to the scarcity of tissue banks in Brazil. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453688

  9. Assessing hospital cost of joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    BONIFORTI, FILIPPO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose total joint replacement is one of the most successful procedures in medicine and cost reimbursements to hospitals for the joint arthroplasty diagnosis-related group are among the largest payments made by a Regional Health Service. Despite the popularity of these procedures, there are few high-quality cost-effectiveness studies on this topic. This study evaluates the cost of total joint arthroplasty performed in a district hospital. Methods direct and indirect costs have been measured and patient procedure pathway was analyzed subdivided into three stages: surgical procedure, inpatient care and outpatient clinic. Results the cost of the surgical procedure stage was calculated as 3,798 euros, while that of the inpatient stage was 2,924 euros. The mean hospital costs per procedure amounted to 6,952 euros. Conclusions although the Health Service tariffs fully reimburse the cost of providing a joint replacement, our data contribute to point out the role of hospital staff’s organization to support sustainable improvements on health care for joint replacement surgery. Level of evidence Level VI, single economic evaluation. PMID:26904524

  10. Dual mobility cups in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Ivan; Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios Konstantinos; Sculco, Peter Keyes; Sculco, Thomas Peter

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered one of the most successful surgical procedures in orthopaedics. With the increase in the number of THAs performed in the world in the next decades, reducing or preventing medical and mechanical complications such as post-operative THA instability will be of paramount importance, particularly in an emerging health care environment based on quality control and patient outcome. Dual mobility acetabular component (also known as unconstrained tripolar implant) was introduced in France at the end of the 1970s as an alternative to standard sockets, to reduce the risk of THA dislocation in patients undergoing primary THA in France. Dual mobility cups have recently gained wider attention in the United States as an alternative option in the prevention and treatment of instability in both primary and revision THA and offer the benefit of increased stability without compromising clinical outcomes and implant longevity. In this article, we review the use of dual mobility cup in total hip arthroplasty in terms of its history, biomechanics, outcomes and complications based on more than 20 years of medical literature. PMID:25035820

  11. Robot-assisted total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffery J; Elmallah, Randa K; Pierce, Todd P; Jauregui, Julio J; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate biomechanical reconstruction during total hip arthroplasty (THA) is essential for durable long-term survivorship. Accurate fit of cementless hip implants is also crucial to reduce micromotion between the bone-implant interfaces to allow for stable osseointegration. Robotic technology aims to minimize potential human errors and improve implant alignment and fit, and address persisting concerns with modern-day cementless THA. Although robotic THA dates back to the early 1990s, concerns with increased operating times, costs, and complications led to its withdrawal. However, semi-active systems have renewed interest in robot-assisted joint arthroplasty. We reviewed the current technology, its potential benefits, and the reported clinical and radiographic outcomes. Early evidence suggests that robotic use may lead to more accurate reconstruction of radiographic parameters, such as implant positioning, fit, center-of-rotation, and leg-length discrepancy. Further research is needed to determine if these will translate into better outcomes and improved implant longevity to justify increased costs. PMID:26592900

  12. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  13. Conversion of a failed hip resurfacing arthroplasty to total hip arthroplasty: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Jacob A; Stambough, Jeffrey B; Barrack, Robert L; Nam, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) remains a viable alternative to total hip arthroplasty (THA) in appropriately selected, active adults with degenerative hip disease. However, orthopedic surgeons are facing a number of scenarios where revision of one or both components of an SRA is indicated. Indications for revision vary and impact the potential outcomes of conversion of a SRA to THA. While clinical outcomes are generally favorable, a growing body of data illustrates patients who undergo conversion of a SRA to THA to be at increased risk of requiring a repeat revision surgery and experiencing functional outcomes inferior to that of a primary THA. The results of patients undergoing conversion of a SRA to THA highlight the need for careful patient selection, thorough preoperative counseling, and technical precision when performing a SRA. Furthermore, a systematic approach to the failed SRA is necessary to ensure optimal clinical results. PMID:26803608

  14. Infection prevention in total knee and total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Mark; Rosenstein, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Infection after primary joint arthroplasty is responsible for severe morbidity to the patients and staggering costs to society. Understanding the patient population undergoing these procedures and the use of appropriate prophylactic regiments and precautions in the perioperative and postoperative periods is crucial for the ultimate success of the procedures. In this article, we review the current related literature and our techniques for reducing the likelihood of infection after total knee and total hip arthroplasties. PMID:18309390

  15. SCREW MIGRATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: CLINICAL REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernando; Tomé, José; Barreto, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Complications from total knee arthroplasty caused by the implanted material are rare, with the exception of polyethylene wear. Descriptions of screw migration into the knee joint cavity are very rare. The authors report intra-articular migration of a polyethylene safety screw in a case of total knee arthroplasty, with sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament (TKA Performance; Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA), which necessitated new surgery to remove the screw, replace the polyethylene insert and emplace a new fixation screw.

  16. Resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Voorde, Pia C ten; Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Olsen, Bo S; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no consensus on which type of shoulder prosthesis should be used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe patients with RA who were treated with shoulder replacement, regarding patient-reported outcome, prosthesis survival, and causes of revision, and we compare outcome after resurfacing hemi-arthroplasty (RHA) and stemmed hemi-arthroplasty (SHA). Patients and methods We used data from the national Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry and included patients with RA who underwent shoulder arthroplasty in Denmark between 2006 and 2010. Patient-reported outcome was obtained 1-year postoperatively using the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder index (WOOS), and rates of revision were calculated by checking revisions reported until December 2011. The patient-reported outcome of RHA was compared to that of SHA using regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and previous surgery. Results During the study period, 167 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty because of rheumatoid arthritis, 80 (48%) of whom received RHA and 34 (26%) of whom received SHA. 16 patients were treated with total stemmed shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), and 24 were treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). 130 patients returned a completed questionnaire, and the total mean WOOS score was 63. The cumulative 5-year revision rate was 7%. Most revisions occurred after RHA, with a revision rate of 14%. Mean WOOS score was similar for RHA and for SHA. Interpretation This study shows that shoulder arthroplasty, regardless of design, is a good option in terms of reducing pain and improving function in RA patients. The high revision rate in the RHA group suggests that other designs may offer better implant survival. However, this should be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:25673155

  17. The rationale for short uncemented stems in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak M; Stulberg, S David

    2014-01-01

    Uncemented femoral implants of various designs have proved to provide stable initial and long-term fixation in patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty. Challenges in primary total hip arthroplasty have led to the evolution of short stem designs. These challenges include proximal/metaphyseal and distal/diaphyseal mismatch; facilitation of less-invasive surgical exposures, especially the direct anterior approach; and bone preservation for potential revision surgery. PMID:24267204

  18. Traumatic Migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Kang, Daniel G; Helgeson, Melvin D

    2016-02-01

    Study Design?Case study. Objective?To describe a case of dislodgment and migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee, United States) arthroplasty more than 6 months after implantation secondary to low-energy trauma. Methods?The inpatient, outpatient, and radiographic medical records of a patient with traumatic migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty were reviewed. The authors have no relevant disclosures to report. Results?A 36-year-old man with chronic left upper extremity radiculopathy underwent uncomplicated Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty at C5-C6, with complete resolution of his symptoms. Approximately 6 months after his index procedure, he sustained low-energy trauma to the posterior cervical spine, after being struck by a book falling from a shelf. The injury forced his neck into flexion, and though he did not have recurrence of his radiculopathy symptoms, radiographs demonstrated anterior migration of the arthroplasty device. He underwent revision to anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Conclusions?Although extremely rare, it is imperative that surgeons consider the potential for failure of osseous integration in patients undergoing cervical disk arthroplasty, even beyond 3 to 6 months postoperatively. This concern is especially relevant to press-fit or milled devices like the Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty, which lack direct fixation into adjacent vertebral bodies. We are considering modification of our postoperative protocol to improve protection of the device after implantation, even beyond 3 months postoperatively. PMID:26835211

  19. Traumatic Migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Scott C.; Kang, Daniel G.; Helgeson, Melvin D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case study. Objective?To describe a case of dislodgment and migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee, United States) arthroplasty more than 6 months after implantation secondary to low-energy trauma. Methods?The inpatient, outpatient, and radiographic medical records of a patient with traumatic migration of the Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty were reviewed. The authors have no relevant disclosures to report. Results?A 36-year-old man with chronic left upper extremity radiculopathy underwent uncomplicated Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty at C5C6, with complete resolution of his symptoms. Approximately 6 months after his index procedure, he sustained low-energy trauma to the posterior cervical spine, after being struck by a book falling from a shelf. The injury forced his neck into flexion, and though he did not have recurrence of his radiculopathy symptoms, radiographs demonstrated anterior migration of the arthroplasty device. He underwent revision to anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion. Conclusions?Although extremely rare, it is imperative that surgeons consider the potential for failure of osseous integration in patients undergoing cervical disk arthroplasty, even beyond 3 to 6 months postoperatively. This concern is especially relevant to press-fit or milled devices like the Bryan Cervical Disc arthroplasty, which lack direct fixation into adjacent vertebral bodies. We are considering modification of our postoperative protocol to improve protection of the device after implantation, even beyond 3 months postoperatively. PMID:26835211

  20. Hybrid Total Knee Arthroplasty Revisited: Midterm Followup of Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pelt, Christopher E.; Gililland, Jeremy M.; Doble, Justin; Stronach, Benjamin M.; Peters, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    The optimal method of fixation in total knee arthroplasty is still debated. Hybrid total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components, is a proposed method of fixation to improve outcomes. Although several studies have shown favorable outcomes, there is still lack of consensus in the literature. We hypothesized that hybrid TKA yields similar clinical, radiographic, and survivorship results compared to fully cemented TKA. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of 304 cruciate retaining TKAs with minimum two-year followup, including 193 hybrid (mean followup of 4.1 years) and fully cemented TKAs (mean followup of 3.2 years) were evaluated. Knee society scores were similar between the two groups. The total number of femoral radiolucencies was also similar between the two groups, while a greater number of femoral Zone 4 radiolucencies were seen in the cemented group (9% versus 1.6%, P = 0.005). The hybrid group demonstrated a 99.2% survival rate of the femoral component out to seven years for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all cause or aseptic failure at seven years. We conclude that hybrid fixation leads to similar intermediate-term outcomes as fully cemented components and remains a viable option in total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24224179

  1. Digital versus analogue preoperative planning of total hip arthroplasties: a randomized clinical trial of 210 total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Verdonschot, Nico; van Horn, Jim R; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Diercks, Ron L

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the clinical and technical results of digital preoperative planning for primary total hip arthroplasties with analogue planning. Two hundred and ten total hip arthroplasties were randomized. All plans were constructed on standardized radiographs by the surgeon who performed the arthroplasty the next day. The main outcome was accuracy of the preoperative plan. Secondary outcomes were operation time and a radiographic assessment of the arthroplasty. Digital preoperative plans were more accurate in planning the cup (P < .05) and scored higher on the postoperative radiologic assessment of cemented cup (P = .03) and stem (P < .01) components. None of the other comparisons reached statistical significance. We conclude that digital plans slightly outperform analogue plans. PMID:17826278

  2. Combined application of roll flap and combination onlay-interpositional graft to enhance esthetics of maxillary anterior fixed partial denture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Dong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In the maxillary anterior region, reconstruction of the localized alveolar ridge defect is very important in enhancing the esthetics of fixed partial denture. A 40-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of the inconvenience and unesthetic problem of 3-unit maxillary anterior prosthesis due to alveolar ridge resorption. After removal of old prosthesis, intraoral examination revealed moderate (buccolingually 4 mm) ridge deficiency in missing tooth region, leading to the diagnosis of Class I alveolar ridge defect. One of the reconstruction techniques to overcome this problem might be a technique that combines two types of soft tissue augmentation techniques. The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the new combined technique of roll flap and combination onlay-interpositional graft utilized to acquire sufficient dimension of recipient area by one time of operation and to present the esthetic improvement of fixed partial denture by using this procedure in case of maxillary anterior localized ridge defect. PMID:26949490

  3. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection. PMID:25437575

  4. Level of constraint in revision knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Giori, Nick; Maloney, William

    2015-12-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of major bone deficiency and/or soft tissue laxity might require increasing levels of constraint to restore knee stability. However, increasing the level of constraint not always correlates with mid-to-long-term satisfactory results. Recently, modular components as tantalum cones and titanium sleeves have been introduced to the market with the goal of obtaining better fixation where bone deficiency is an issue; theoretically, satisfactory meta-diaphyseal fixation can reduce the mechanical stress at the level of the joint line, reducing the need for high levels of constraint. This article reviews the recent literature on the surgical management of the unstable TKA with the goal to propose a modern surgical algorithm for adult reconstruction surgeons. PMID:26373770

  5. Patellofemoral arthroplasty in a bilateral Syme's amputee.

    PubMed

    Kanna, Raj; Barrett, David S

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old woman, who is a bilateral Syme's amputee and subsequently underwent patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) for osteoarthritis primarily involving the patellofemoral (PF) joint. History and physical examination were suggestive of severe PF arthritis without patellar instability of the right knee. The diagnosis was confirmed by roentgenogram and a PFA was performed. A slightly modified rehabilitation program was implemented and the patient was followed until 6 years after surgery. In comparison to the preoperative scores, the Oxford, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC), the Knee Society, and the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores improved significantly (p<0.05) at the time of final follow-up. PF problems specific to below-knee amputees, factors to be considered before performing PFA, and the drawbacks of other treatment modalities in these patients have been discussed. PMID:26908975

  6. Robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Cuneyt; Poehling, Gary G

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, development of computer graphics and haptic feedback technology enabled the use of virtual reality. Virtual reality provides the opportunity to combine 3D visual imagery with interactivity, visual, and tactile realism. Robotic-assisted orthopedic surgery is defined as the use of computers and robotic technology to assist the orthopedist in providing musculoskeletal care, in which machine has the capability of precision and accuracy. Robotic-assisted orthopedic surgery is used in simulating diagnosis, preoperative and intraoperative planning, and actual surgery. One of the main areas for computer-assisted surgical applications is unicompartmental or bicompartmental knee arthroplasty, in which the clinical efficacy is improved by providing enhanced component positioning with dynamic ligament balancing. PMID:25370877

  7. Trends in total knee arthroplasty implant utilization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long-Co L; Lehil, Mandeep S; Bozic, Kevin J

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has increased alongside our knowledge of knee physiology, kinematics, and technology resulting in an evolution of TKA implants. This study examines the trends in TKA implant utilization. Data was extracted from The Orthopedic Research Network to evaluate trends in level of constraint, fixed vs. mobile bearing, fixation, and type of polyethylene in primary TKAs. In 2012, 88% used cemented femoral and tibial implants, and 96% involved patellar resurfacing. 38% of implants were cruciate retaining, 53% posterior stabilized or condylar stabilized, 3% constrained. 91% were fixed-bearing, 7% mobile-bearing. 52% of tibial inserts were HXLPE. TKA implant trends demonstrate a preference for cemented femoral and tibial components, patellar resurfacing, fixed-bearing constructs, metal-backed tibial components, patellar resurfacing, and increased usage of HXLPE liners. PMID:25613663

  8. Metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Austin, Matthew S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of bone loss encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often multifactorial and can include stress shielding, osteolysis, osteonecrosis, infection, mechanical loss due to a grossly loose implant, and iatrogenic loss at the time of implant resection. Selection of the reconstructive technique(s) to manage bone deficiency is determined by the location and magnitude of bone loss, ligament integrity, surgeon experience, and patient factors including the potential for additional revision, functional demand, and comorbidities. Smaller, contained defects are reliably managed with bone graft, cement augmented with screw fixation, or modular augments. Large metaphyseal defects require more extensive reconstruction such as impaction bone grafting with or without mesh augmentation, prosthetic augmentation, use of bulk structural allografts, or use of metaphyseal cones or sleeves. While each technique has advantages and disadvantages, the most optimal method for reconstruction of large metaphyseal bone defects during revision TKA is not clearly established. PMID:26362647

  9. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: in opposition.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2004-06-01

    At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable. PMID:15190556

  10. A new design concept for wrist arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, D E T; Johnstone, A

    2005-01-01

    The wrist joint is frequently affected by arthritis, which leads to pain, loss of function and ultimately deformity. Various designs of wrist arthroplasty have been introduced to attempt to relieve pain and provide a functional range of motion. The first generation of wrist implant was a one-piece silicone elastomer. Later generations have designs that have two parts that articulate against each other. However, wrist implants have not achieved the same clinical success to date, compared with hip and knee implants, and there is a high revision rate associated with them. This paper describes a new design concept for wrist arthroplasty, based around the idea of combining the principles of an articulating implant with that of a flexible elastomer implant. The design consists of assembling a radial, carpal/metacarpal, plate and flexible parts together. The radial and carpal/metacarpal parts are to be made from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. The bearing surfaces of the radial and carpal/metacarpal parts articulate against the flat surfaces of the plate, made from cobalt chrome molybdenum alloy. The radius on the bearing surface of the radial part enables flexion/extension, while the radius on the carpal/metacarpal surface enables radial/ulnar deviation. The articulation of the carpal/metacarpal part against the plate also allows for rotation as well as flexion/extension. The flexible part, made from Elast-Eon, which is a silicone polyurethane elastomer, is inserted through the hole of the plate and into the holes of the radial and carpal/metacarpal parts. PMID:15777056

  11. The merits of cell salvage in arthroplasty surgery: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Dusik, Chris J.; Hutchison, Carol; Langelier, David

    2014-01-01

    Arthroplasty entails considerable exposure to allogenic blood transfusion. Cell salvage with washing is a contemporary strategy that is not universally used despite considerable potential benefits. We searched Embase and Medline to determine if blood salvage with washing during primary and/or revision hip and knee arthroplasty results in lower rates of transfusion and postoperative complications. We included 10 studies in our analysis, which we rated according to Downs and Black criteria. With primary knee arthroplasty, there was a reduction in transfusion rate from 22% to 76% and a 48% reduction in transfusion volume (n = 887). With primary hip arthroplasty, there was a reduction from 69% to 73% in transfusion rate and a 31% reduction in transfusion volume (n = 239). There was a significant decrease in length of hospital stay (9.6 v. 13.6 d). Studies of revision arthroplasty reported a 31%59% reduction in transfusion volume (n = 241). The available evidence demonstrates reduced exposure to allogenic blood with the use of salvage systems. Studies have been underpowered to detect differences in infection rates and other postoperative complications. Future cost analysis is warranted. PMID:24461268

  12. [Rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty of hip and knee].

    PubMed

    Jansen, E; Brienza, S; Gierasimowicz-Fontana, A; Matos, C; Reynders-Frederix-Dobre, C; HateM, S M

    2015-09-01

    Numbers of total hip and knee arthroplasties are increasing on a regular basis. Clinical pathways tend to shorten the duration of hospitalization in acute care after surgery. Therefore, the preoperative preparation of the patient and his abilities for postoperative rehabilitation should be carefully addressed. Before the surgical intervention, it is recommended that the patient receives an educational program and a physical preparation. After the surgical intervention, the patient can benefit from a home-based rehabilitation program supervised by a physiotherapist, if there were no preoperative reasons for prolonging the hospital stay and if the surgery took place without complications. Some patients may benefit from postsurgical rehabilitation in a specialized locomotor rehabilitation long-stay care unit. The indications for inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation are : two simultaneous arthroplasties, revision of a previous hip or knee arthroplasty, postsurgical complications, advanced age, comorbidities influencing the rehabilitation process, social difficulties, necessity for adaptation of the environment, insufficient or unadapted out-patient (para)medical care. The goals of the rehabilitation treatment depend on the patient's characteristics and environment, on the properties of the prosthesis and on the postsurgical complications. The functional prognosis of a total joint arthroplasty of the knee or hip is excellent, provided that there are no post-surgical complications and that the patient benefits from adequate rehabilitation therapy. The present paper describes the different phases of rehabilitation treatment and the general and specific complications of total hip and knee arthroplasties that may influence the rehabilitation outcome. PMID:26591319

  13. Effect of rotational alignment on outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Breugem, Stefan J; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; Tuinebreijer, Willem E; van Geenen, Rutger C I

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Poor outcomes have been linked to errors in rotational alignment of total knee arthroplasty components. The aims of this study were to determine the correlation between rotational alignment and outcome, to review the success of revision for malrotated total knee arthroplasty, and to determine whether evidence-based guidelines for malrotated total knee arthroplasty can be proposed. Patients and methods We conducted a systematic review including all studies reporting on both rotational alignment and functional outcome. Comparable studies were used in a correlation analysis and results of revision were analyzed separately. Results 846 studies were identified, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. From this selection, 11 studies could be included in the correlation analysis. A medium positive correlation (? = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.270.59) and a large positive correlation (? = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.640.73) were found between external rotation of the tibial component and the femoral component, respectively, and the Knee Society score. Revision for malrotation gave positive results in all 6 studies in this field. Interpretation Medium and large positive correlations were found between tibial and femoral component rotational alignment on the one hand and better functional outcome on the other. Revision of malrotated total knee arthroplasty may be successful. However, a clear cutoff point for revision for malrotated total knee arthroplasty components could not be identified. PMID:25708694

  14. Reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder for treating rotator cuff arthropathy???

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Marcus Vinicius Galvo; de Faria, Jos Leonardo Rocha; Siqueira, Glucio; Cohen, Marcio; Brando, Bruno; Moraes, Rickson; Monteiro, Martim; Motta, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    Objective to present a retrospective analysis on the clinical-functional results and complications among patients with rotator cuff arthropathy (RCA) who underwent reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder. Methods patients with a diagnosis of RCA associated with pseudoparalysis of anterior elevation who underwent reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder with a minimum follow-up of one year were selected. Results preoperative information was gathered from our shoulder and elbow arthroplasty register, comprising age, sex, laterality, history of previous procedures, Constant's functional scores and the preoperative range of motion as described in the protocol of the American Academy of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (ASES). After a mean follow-up of 44 months, 17 patients (94%) were satisfied with the result from the procedure. Conclusion reverse arthroplasty for treating RCA in patients with pseudoparalysis of the shoulder was shown to be effective in achieving a statistically significant improvement in range of motion regarding anterior flexion and abduction. However, in this series, there was no improvement in range of motion regarding external and internal rotation. Reverse arthroplasty is a procedure that reestablishes shoulder joint function in patients who previously did not present any therapeutic possibilities. PMID:26229813

  15. Prophylactic antibiotics in elective hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, C. J.; Metcalfe, D.; Elgohari, S.; Oswald, T.; Masters, J. P.; Rymaszewska, M.; Reed, M. R.; Sprowson†, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We wanted to investigate regional variations in the organisms reported to be causing peri-prosthetic infections and to report on prophylaxis regimens currently in use across England. Methods Analysis of data routinely collected by Public Health England’s (PHE) national surgical site infection database on elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures between April 2010 and March 2013 to investigate regional variations in causative organisms. A separate national survey of 145 hospital Trusts (groups of hospitals under local management) in England routinely performing primary hip and/or knee arthroplasty was carried out by standard email questionnaire. Results Analysis of 189 858 elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and 1116 surgical site infections found statistically significant variations for some causative organism between regions. There was a 100% response rate to the prophylaxis questionnaire that showed substantial variation between individual trust guidelines. A number of regimens currently in use are inconsistent with the best available evidence. Conclusions The approach towards antibiotic prophylaxis in elective arthroplasty nationwide reveals substantial variation without clear justification. Only seven causative organisms are responsible for 89% of infections affecting primary hip and knee arthroplasty, which cannot justify such widespread variation between prophylactic antibiotic policies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:181–189. PMID:26585304

  16. More than 95% completeness of reported procedures in the population-based Dutch Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    van Steenbergen, Liza N; Spooren, Anneke; van Rooden, Stephanie M; van Oosterhout, Frank J; Morrenhof, Jan W; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose A complete and correct national arthroplasty register is indispensable for the quality of arthroplasty outcome studies. We evaluated the coverage, completeness, and validity of the Dutch Arthroplasty Register (LROI) for hip and knee arthroplasty. Patients and methods The LROI is a nationwide population-based registry with information on joint arthroplasties in the Netherlands. Completeness of entered procedures was validated in 2 ways: (1) by comparison with the number of reimbursements for arthroplasty surgeries (Vektis database), and (2) by comparison with data from hospital information systems (HISs). The validity was examined by conducting checks on missing or incorrectly coded values in the LROI. Results The LROI contains over 300,000 hip and knee arthroplasties performed since 2007. Coverage of all Dutch hospitals (n = 100) was reached in 2012. Completeness of registered procedures was 98% for hip arthroplasty and 96% for knee arthroplasty in 2012, based on Vektis data. Based on comparison with data from the HIS, completeness of registered procedures was 97% for primary total hip arthroplasty and 96% for primary knee arthroplasty in 2013. Completeness of revision arthroplasty was 88% for hips and 90% for knees in 2013. The proportion of missing or incorrectly coded values of variables was generally less than 0.5%, except for encrypted personal identity numbers (17% of which were missing) and ASA scores (10% of which were missing). Interpretation The LROI now contains over 300,000 hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, with coverage of all hospitals. It has a good level of completeness (i.e. more than 95% for primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures in 2012 and 2013) and the database has high validity. PMID:25758646

  17. Revision knee arthroplasty with a rotating-hinge design in elderly patients with instability following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez-Merchn, E. Carlos; Gmez-Cardero, Primitivo; Martnez-Lloreda, ngel

    2014-01-01

    Background Revision knee arthroplasty with a rotating-hinge design could be an option for the treatment of instability following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in elderly patients. Purpose To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of revision arthroplasties in TKAs with instability using a rotating-hinge design in elderly patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 96 rotating-hinge arthroplasties. The average age of the patients was 79 years (range, 7586 years); the minimum follow-up was 5 years (mean, 7.3 years; range, 510 years). Patients were evaluated clinically (Knee Society score) and radiographically (position of prosthetic components, signs of loosening, bone loss). Results At a minimum followup of 5 years (mean, 7.3 years; range, 510 years), Knee Society pain scores improved from 37 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively, and function scores improved from 34 to 53. ROM improved on average from ?15 of extension and 80 of flexion before surgery to ?5 of extension and 120 of flexion at the last followup (p=0.03). No loosening of implants was observed. Nonprogressive radiolucent lines were identified around the femoral and tibial components in 2 knees. One patient required reoperation because of a periprosthetic infection. Conclusions Revision arthroplasty with a rotating-hinge design provided substantial improvement in function and a reduction in pain in elderly patients with instability following TKA. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:26549947

  18. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty-current results and designs.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean; Athwal, George S

    2016-03-01

    Stemless shoulder arthroplasty was originally introduced in 2004 by a single manufacturer. Now, over a decade later, numerous designs are available outside the USA, but as yet, only one implant has been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is available for use within the USA. Often referred to as "canal sparing," these implants are designed for metaphyseal fixation to minimize humeral bone removal, avoid intraoperative and postoperative humeral fracture complications, and to decrease morbidity associated with revision operations. Recently, the second generation of stemless arthroplasty, a convertible implant allowing use in either anatomic or reverse arthroplasty configuration, was released for use outside the USA. This paper will review the available designs, reported results, and raise potential concerns for this emerging technology. PMID:26809955

  19. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, R.; Soudry, M.

    1986-04-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent.

  20. The 50 highest cited papers in hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Lukas A; Holzer, Gerold

    2014-03-01

    The 50 highest cited articles related to hip and knee arthroplasty were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 2495 citations. The top 10 papers according to absolute number were cited 580 times at least. Most papers were published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American Volume (n = 22). Eight countries contributed to the list with most contributions from the United States (n = 30). The majority of papers were published since 1990 (n = 27). Studies focusing on the clinical outcome of hip arthroplasty dominate the literature in orthopedic arthroplasty in respect to absolute citations numbers. In the last decade however, papers on perioperative management have been published that show a high citation frequency. PMID:23993347

  1. Silent cardiac comorbidity in arthroplasty patients: an unusual suspect?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vijay D; Nazare, Santosh P; Shitole, Bhushan R; Jain, Sanjeev K; Kumar, A V Ganesh

    2011-04-01

    We studied 109 patients who were subjected to dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) for preoperative cardiac risk assessment before undergoing elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty. Patients were selected for DSE based on several criteria. There were 16 patients with history of ischemic heart disease and 93 patients without. Seven of the 93 patients showed a positive DSE test result, of which 5 developed postoperative cardiac events (P = .00). This study clearly shows that serious "silent" cardiac comorbidity can exist even in so-called healthier patients undergoing routine hip and knee arthroplasty. We believe that identifying these patients and treating them before arthroplasty can significantly improve the overall outcome of the surgery. PMID:20381288

  2. Multimodal analgesia without parenteral narcotics for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Lawrence D; Raya, Julio; Long, William T; Boutary, Myriam; Sirianni, Leigh Ellen

    2008-06-01

    Use of parenteral narcotics after total knee arthroplasty is considered by most orthopedic surgeons to be the standard of care. This study tested the hypothesis that a multimodal oral pain medication protocol could control pain and minimize complications of parenteral narcotics. Postoperative oral analgesia was augmented with either continuous epidural infusion or continuous femoral infusion using ropivacaine only. Seventy patients had total knee arthroplasty with a protocol that included preemptive oral analgesics, epidural anesthesia, pericapsular analgesic injection, and postoperative analgesia without parenteral opioids. The average daily pain score was less than 4 out of 10, nausea occurred in 15 patients (21%), emesis in 1 patient (1.4%), and there were no severe complications. This study proved the hypothesis that pain after total knee arthroplasty could be effectively managed without routine use of parenteral opioids. PMID:18514865

  3. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Soudry, M

    1986-04-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent. PMID:3698369

  4. The management of fixed flexion contractures during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Firestone, T P; Krackow, K A; Davis, J D; Teeny, S M; Hungerford, D S

    1992-11-01

    Fifty-one knees in 40 patients with joint surface degeneration accompanied by fixed flexion contractures (FFC) greater than 20 degrees were treated with total knee arthroplasty using a minimally constrained posterior cruciate ligament retaining prosthesis. Special techniques were employed in an attempt to achieve maximal correction at the time of surgery. The residual FFC measured 3.1 degrees at the completion of the arthroplasty, 10.1 degrees at three months, and 7 degrees at two years. At 55 months postoperatively, the FFC for the osteoarthrotic group had improved from 25.5 degrees to 3.6 degrees, whereas the rheumatoid group improved from 28.7 degrees to 8.6 degrees. The average knee score for the osteoarthrotic group was 89 compared with 81 for the rheumatoid group. Knees that were left with greater residual FFC at the completion of the arthroplasty were found to have greater residual FFC at the latest review. PMID:1395297

  5. Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Max; Rysinska, Agata; Garland, Anne; Rolfson, Ola; Aspberg, Sara; Eisler, Thomas; Garellick, Gran; Stark, Andr; Hailer, Nils P.; Skldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery. A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n?=?270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 721). The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events. During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.010.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.051.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.061.11). Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls. PMID:26871792

  6. Total elbow replacement: outcome of 1,146 arthroplasties from the Scottish Arthroplasty Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Total elbow replacement (TER) is used in the treatment of inflammatory arthropathy, osteoarthritis, and posttraumatic arthrosis, or as the primary management for distal humeral fractures. We determined the annual incidence of TER over an 18-year period. We also examined the effect of surgeon volume on implant survivorship and the rate of systemic and joint-specific complications. Methodology We examined a national arthroplasty register and used linkage with national hospital episode statistics, and population and mortality data to determine the incidence of complications and implant survivorship. Results There were 1,146 primary TER procedures (incidence: 1.4 per 105 population per year). The peak incidence was seen in the eighth decade and TER was most often performed in females (F:M ratio = 2.9:1). The primary indications for surgery were inflammatory arthropathy (79%), osteoarthritis (9%), and trauma (12%). The incidence of TER fell over the period (r = 0.49; p = 0.037). This may be due to a fall in the number of procedures performed for inflammatory arthropathy (p < 0.001). The overall 10-year survivorship was 90%. Implant survival was better if the surgeon performed more than 10 cases per year. Interpretation The prevalence of TER has fallen over 18 years, and implant survival rates are better in surgeons who perform more than 10 cases per year. A strong argument can be made for a managed clinic network for total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:23485072

  7. History and factors of survival of total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kolundi?, Robert; Trkulja, Vladimir; Orli?, Dubravko

    2012-02-01

    Since the 1960s total hip arthroplasty (THA) has represented one of the greatest accomplishments in orthopedic surgery. It improves the functionality, working ability and quality of life of patients with non-functional hip joint due to various reasons. This article reviews general and regional history of THA, current knowledge and concepts regarding the long-term outcomes of the procedure and emphasizes the need for establishing national (and international) THA registries as an essential way of gathering data critical for decision making in daily practice as well as in defining national healthcare policies in respect to arthroplasty procedures. PMID:22634928

  8. Current indications for hip resurfacing arthroplasty in 2016.

    PubMed

    Sershon, Robert; Balkissoon, Rishi; Valle, Craig J Della

    2016-03-01

    Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is an alternative to conventional, stemmed total hip arthroplasty (THA). The best reported results are young, active patients with good bone stock and a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Since the 1990s, metal-on-metal (MoM) HRA has achieved excellent outcomes when used in the appropriate patient population. Concerns regarding the metal-on-metal bearing surface including adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) to metal debris have recently lead to a decline in the use of this construct. The current paper aims to provide an updated review on HRA, including a critical review of the most recent literature on HRA. PMID:26830851

  9. Alignment and fixation in total knee arthroplasty: changing paradigms.

    PubMed

    Oussedik, S; Abdel, M P; Cross, M B; Haddad, F S

    2015-10-01

    Many aspects of total knee arthroplasty have changed since its inception. Modern prosthetic design, better fixation techniques, improved polyethylene wear characteristics and rehabilitation, have all contributed to a large change in revision rates. Arthroplasty patients now expect longevity of their prostheses and demand functional improvement to match. This has led to a re-examination of the long-held belief that mechanical alignment is instrumental to a successful outcome and a focus on restoring healthy joint kinematics. A combination of kinematic restoration and uncemented, adaptable fixation may hold the key to future advances. PMID:26430082

  10. Advances in Small Joint Arthroplasty of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Adkinson, Joshua M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial effort has been directed at the development of small joint prostheses for the hand. Despite advances in prosthetic joint design, outcomes have been relatively unchanged over the past 60 years. Pain relief and range of motion achieved after surgery have yet to mirror the success of large joint arthroplasty. Innovations in biotechnology and stem cell applications for damaged joint surfaces may someday make prostheses obsolete. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status, ongoing advances, and future of small joint arthroplasty of the hand. PMID:25415093

  11. Acetabular blood flow during total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    ElMaraghy, Amr W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effect of reaming and insertion of the acetabular component with and without cement on periacetabular blood flow during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design A clinical experimental study. Setting A tertiary referral and teaching hospital in Toronto. Patients Sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 30 to 78 years and suffering from arthritis. Intervention Elective primary THA with a cemented (8 patients) and noncemented (8 patients) acetabular component. All procedures were done by a single surgeon who used a posterior approach. Main outcome measure Acetabular bone blood-flow measurements made with a laser Doppler flowmeter before reaming, after reaming and after insertion of the acetabular prosthesis. Results Acetabular blood flow after prosthesis insertion was decreased by 52% in the noncemented group (p < 0.001) and 59% in the cemented group (p < 0.001) compared with baseline (prereaming) values. Conclusion The significance of these changes in periacetabular bone blood flow during THA may relate to the extent of bony ingrowth, periprosthetic remodelling and ultimately the incidence of implant failure because of aseptic loosening. PMID:10851413

  12. Muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Winther, Siri B; Husby, Vigdis S; Foss, Olav A; Wik, Tina S; Svenningsen, Svein; Engdal, Monika; Haugan, Kristin; Husby, Otto S

    2016-02-01

    Background and purpose - Minimizing the decrease in muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty (THA) might allow patients to recover faster. We evaluated muscular strength in patients who were operated on using 3 surgical approaches. Patients and methods - In a prospective cohort study, 60 patients scheduled for primary THA were allocated to the direct lateral, posterior, or anterior approach. Leg press and abduction strength were evaluated 2 weeks or less preoperatively, 2 and 8 days postoperatively, and at 6-week and 3-month follow-up. Results - Differences in maximal strength change were greatest after 2 and 8 days. The posterior and anterior approaches produced less decrease in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach. 6 weeks postoperatively, the posterior approach produced greater increase in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach, and resulted in a greater increase in abduction strength than the anterior approach. At 3-month follow-up, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found. The operated legs were 18% weaker in leg press and 15% weaker in abduction than the unoperated legs, and the results were similar between groups. Interpretation - The posterior and anterior approaches appeared to have the least negative effect on abduction and leg press muscular strength in the first postoperative week; the posterior approach had the least negative effect, even up to 6 weeks postoperatively. THA patients have reduced muscle strength in the operated leg (compared to the unoperated leg) 3 months after surgery. PMID:26141371

  13. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Hemophilic Arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Merchn, E Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Hemophilic arthropathy of the knee is common among patients with hemophilia and is a major cause of severe joint pain and functional disability requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated TKA outcomes and complications with a special focus on prosthetic survival and infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 74 patients with chronic hemophilic arthropathy of the knee treated with TKA (N = 88) over a 13-year period. The same type of implant was used in all cases. Fourteen patients had 2-stage bilateral TKAs. Mean patient age was 38.2 years (range, 24-73 years). Fourteen patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus, and 32 for hepatitis C virus. Mean follow-up was 8 years (range, 1-13 years). The prosthetic survival rate with implant removal for any reason regarded as final endpoint was 92%. Causes of TKA failure were prosthetic joint infection (6.8%) and aseptic loosening (2.2%). Clinical outcomes of the primary TKAs in this series were good prosthetic survival and excellent pain relief. TKA infection continues to be a major concern for patients with hemophilia relative to patients without hemophilia. PMID:26665252

  14. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Some reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted. PMID:26752739

  15. Patient Satisfaction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful and effective surgical options to reduce pain and restore function for patients with severe osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article was to review and summarize the recent literatures regarding patient satisfaction after TKA and to analyze the various factors associated with patient dissatisfaction after TKA. Patient satisfaction is one of the many patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Patient satisfaction can be evaluated from two categories, determinants of satisfaction and components of satisfaction. The former have been described as all of the patient-related factors including age, gender, personality, patient expectations, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, patient's diagnosis leading to TKA and severity of arthropathy. The latter are all of the processes and technical aspects of TKA, ranging from the anesthetic and surgical factors, type of implants and postoperative rehabilitations. The surgeon- and patient-reported outcomes have been shown to be disparate occasionally. Among various factors that contribute to patient satisfaction, some factors can be managed by the surgeon, which should be improved through continuous research. Furthermore, extensive discussion and explanation before surgery will reduce patient dissatisfaction after TKA. PMID:26955608

  16. Chronic Knee Dislocation After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ross, John P; Brown, Nicholas M; Levine, Brett R

    2015-12-01

    Knee dislocation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), although rare, is a dangerous injury that can lead to neurovascular compromise and permanent disability. Chronic dislocation after TKA is even less common and is defined as dislocation that is present for 4 weeks or more. There are few reports of its management. Chronic dislocation may be complicated further by concomitant extensor mechanism disruption, ligamentous instability, and/or capsular contracture. This article describes 3 cases of chronically dislocated TKAs and the challenges encountered in treating this difficult problem. A higher level of constraint was required to maintain knee stability, and an extensor mechanism allograft was needed in 2 of the 3 reported patients. The preferred technique at the authors' institution is a complete allograft composite, tensioned in full extension. In the setting of a chronically dislocated TKA, the authors now recommend revision surgery with an enhanced measure of constraint (constrained condylar device or hinged knee prosthesis), reconstruction of the extensor mechanism when necessary, and restoration of the joint while compensating for concomitant bony defects. Even when surgeons follow these principles, it is important to inform the patient that long-term outcomes will likely be inferior to those of revision surgery for other causes. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1155-e1159.]. PMID:26652339

  17. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  18. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population. Clinical Need Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries. The Technology Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a conventional THR with a small (28 mm) ball. First, the large femoral head reduces the chance of dislocation, so that rates of dislocation are less than those with conventional THR. Second, the range of motion with hip resurfacing arthroplasty is higher than that achieved with conventional THR. A variety of MOM hip resurfacing implants are used in clinical practice. Six MOM hip resurfacing implants have been issued licences in Canada. Review Strategy A search of electronic bibliographies (OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and DSR, INAHTA) was undertaken to identify evidence published from Jan 1, 1997 to October 27, 2005. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search yielded 245 citations. Of these, 11 met inclusion criteria (9 for effectiveness, 2 for safety). The result of the only reported randomized controlled trial on MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty could not be included in this assessment, because it used a cemented acetabular component, whereas in the new generation of implants, a cementless acetabular component is used. After omitting this publication, only case series remained. Summary of Findings Health Outcomes The Harris hip score and SF-12 are 2 measures commonly used to report health outcomes in MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty studies. Other scales used are the Oxford hip score and the University of California Los Angeles hip score. The case series showed that the mean revision rate of MOM hip resurfacing arthroplasty is 1.5% and the incidence of femoral neck fracture is 0.67%. Across all studies, 2 cases of osteonecrosis were reported. Four studies reported improvement in Harris hip scores. However, only 1 study reported a statistically significant improvement. Three studies reported improvement in SF-12 scores, of which 2 reported a significant improvement. One study reported significant improvement in UCLA hip score. Two studies reported postoperative Oxford hip scores, but no preoperative values were reported. None of the reviewed studies r

  19. The need for surgical revision after isolated valenti arthroplasty for hallux rigidus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Isolated Valenti arthroplasty has been proposed for treatment of moderate to severe hallux rigidus because of the perceived safety and efficacy. Furthermore, it has been proposed that undergoing isolated Valenti arthroplasty does not prevent the ability to perform revision surgery consisting of Keller resection arthroplasty, prosthetic implant arthroplasty, or arthrodesis. The author undertook a systematic review of electronic databases and other relevant sources to identify material relating to the need for surgical revision after isolated Valenti arthroplasty for hallux rigidus. Information from peer-reviewed journals as well as non-peer-reviewed publications, abstracts, and posters was also considered. In an effort to procure the highest quality studies available, studies were eligible for inclusion only if they involved consecutively enrolled patients undergoing isolated Valenti arthroplasty, if they evaluated patients in person at mean follow-up > or = 12 months' duration, and if they included details of complications after Valenti arthroplasty requiring surgical intervention. Three studies involving isolated Valenti arthroplasty were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Therefore, a total of 44 isolated Valenti arthroplasties were identified that met the inclusion criteria, with 2 (4.6%) undergoing surgical revision in the form of Keller resection arthroplasty (n = 1) and 1 plantarflexory base osteotomy (n = 1). No studies provided detailed information regarding complications specific to the exact grade of hallux rigidus in patients who underwent isolated Valenti arthroplasty. The results of this systematic review make clear the low incidence of revision surgery required after isolated Valenti arthroplasty for hallux rigidus. However, there is still a need for methodologically sound prospective cohort studies that focus on the use of isolated Valenti arthroplasty for specific grades of hallux rigidus and compare this procedure with other accepted forms of surgical treatment for moderate to severe hallux rigidus. PMID:20350824

  20. Unfractionated heparin and mechanical thromboprophylaxis in hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flvio Lus; Marins, Murilo Humberto Tobias; Raddi, Thiago Bortoletto; Picado, Celso Hermnio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of unfractionated heparin associated with mechanical prophylaxis as a method for preventing venous thromboembolism in hip arthroplasty. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 181 hip arthroplasties out of 216 consecutive cases performed over a period of 39 months in our hospital. We excluded 35 cases due to non-adherence to the standardized method of thromboprophylaxis or loss to follow-up. All arthroplasties evaluated completed one-year follow-up after surgery with five consultations at predefined periods. Efficacy of the proposed method was evaluated by the occurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism confirmed by specific tests and safety was determined by the lack of occurrence of major bleeding according to criteria established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. RESULTS: There were four cases of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (2.2%), with three cases of deep vein thrombosis (1.65%) and one case of pulmonary embolism (0.55%). We found one case of severe bleeding (0.55%). CONCLUSION: Unfractionated heparin associated with mechanical prophylaxis proved to be an effective and safe method for preventing venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, presenting rates of thromboembolic complications and major bleeding within the range reported with other methods currently used of thromboprophylaxis. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series PMID:26327803

  1. Exactech Opteon Femoral Component Fracture 12 Years after Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shaun P.; Antoci, Valentin; Kadzielski, John J.; Vrahas, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Arthroplasty implant fracture is a rare but critical complication that requires difficult revision surgery, often with poor results, patient disability, and significant cost. Several reports show component fracture either at the stem or at the neck interface after a relatively short postoperative course. We report such failure after 12 years, suggesting no safe period after which femoral implant fracture does not occur. PMID:26955493

  2. Total Knee Arthroplasty Failure Induced by Metal Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ryan; Phan, Duy; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 70 Final Diagnosis: Metal hypersensitivity Symptoms: Joint pain • swelling • instability Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Revision total knee arthroplasty Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Metal hypersensitivity is an uncommon complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that can lead to significant functional impairment and aseptic prosthesis failure. Case Report: We describe a 70-year-old patient who presented with persistent pain, swelling, and instability 2 years after a primary TKA. The patient had a history of metal hypersensitivity following bilateral metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) that was revised to ceramic-on-polyethylene implants. Knee radiographs showed severe osteolysis with implant loosening. Serum cobalt was elevated and serum chromium was significantly elevated, while joint aspiration and inflammatory marker levels ruled out a periprosthetic infection. Revision TKA was performed, with intraoperative tissue pathology and postoperative leukocyte transformation testing confirming metal hypersensitivity as the cause for aseptic implant failure. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates the clinical and laboratory signs that suggest metal hypersensitivity in total knee arthroplasty and the potential for joint function restoration with revision surgery. PMID:26278890

  3. The association between metal allergy, total knee arthroplasty, and revision

    PubMed Central

    Münch, Henrik J; Jacobsen, Stig S; Olesen, Jens T; Menné, Torkil; Søballe, Kjeld; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose It is unclear whether delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions against implanted metals play a role in the etiopathogenesis of malfunctioning total knee arthroplasties. We therefore evaluated the association between metal allergy, defined as a positive patch test reaction to common metal allergens, and revision surgery in patients who underwent knee arthroplasty. Patients and methods The nationwide Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register, including all knee-implanted patients and revisions in Denmark after 1997 (n = 46,407), was crosslinked with a contact allergy patch test database from the greater Copenhagen area (n = 27,020). Results 327 patients were registered in both databases. The prevalence of contact allergy to nickel, chromium, and cobalt was comparable in patients with and without revision surgery. However, in patients with 2 or more episodes of revision surgery, the prevalence of cobalt and chromium allergy was markedly higher. Metal allergy that was diagnosed before implant surgery appeared not to increase the risk of implant failure and revision surgery. Interpretation While we could not confirm that a positive patch test reaction to common metals is associated with complications and revision surgery after knee arthroplasty, metal allergy may be a contributor to the multifactorial pathogenesis of implant failure in some cases. In cases with multiple revisions, cobalt and chromium allergies appear to be more frequent. PMID:25582229

  4. The management of an infected total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, T; Alijanipour, P; Parvizi, J

    2015-10-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most feared and challenging complications following total knee arthroplasty. We provide a detailed description of our current understanding regarding the management of PJI of the knee, including diagnostic aids, pre-operative planning, surgical treatment, and outcome. PMID:26430083

  5. Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture after Ipsilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Shin, Sung Jin; Kang, Byoung Youl

    2016-01-01

    Insufficiency fracture of the calcaneus is a rare entity. In the absence of trauma, evaluating a painful ankle in an elderly patient can be difficult and also it might be overlook the insufficiency fracture. We experienced a case of insufficiency calcaneus fracture that occurred after ipsilateral total knee arthroplasty. Here, we report our case with a review of literatures. PMID:26981521

  6. Medial pivot knee in primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Wael; Sabatini, Luigi; Mousa, Shazly; Khalefa, Abdelrahman

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a medial pivot design was developed in order to mimic normal knee kinematics; the highly congruent medial compartment implant should improve clinical results and decrease contact stresses. Clinical and radiographic mid-term outcomes are satisfactory, but we need other studies to evaluate long-term results and indications for unusual cases. PMID:26855942

  7. Proprioception after arthroplasty: role of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Cash, R M; Gonzalez, M H; Garst, J; Barmada, R; Stern, S H

    1996-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that retaining the posterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty helps preserve the threshold of proprioceptive sensation, a machine was designed that permitted direct measurement of passive angular deflection from a resting point to the threshold of patient perception. Sixty patients with unilateral primary total knee arthroplasties were evaluated; 30 with posterior cruciate ligament retaining prostheses and 30 with posterior cruciate ligament substituting prostheses. All patients had a minimum postoperative followup of 1 year, a good or excellent result as defined by the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score, and no evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The gender and age distributions were equivalent between groups. The average threshold of perception for the posterior cruciate ligament retention group was 2.4 degrees. The average threshold of perception for the posterior cruciate ligament substitution group was also 2.4 degrees. Substitution or retention of the posterior cruciate ligament makes no clinical difference in proprioception as measured by threshold testing. This study provides new information for surgeons performing total knee arthroplasty to aid in the decision to retain or substitute the posterior cruciate ligament. Previous proprioception evaluation in patients with posterior cruciate ligament retaining versus posterior cruciate ligament substituting arthroplasties, using different testing methods, has revealed different results. PMID:8895635

  8. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mognet, S. A. I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S. E.; von Doetinchem, P.; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F. H.; Hailey, C. J.; Koglin, J. E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R. A.; Perez, K. M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (~ 33 km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  9. Physiotherapy-led arthroplasty review clinic: a preliminary outcomes analysis.

    PubMed

    Large, Kate E; Page, Carolyn J; Brock, Kim; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F M

    2014-11-01

    Objective With the rising demand for Orthopaedics in the healthcare sector, service delivery innovations need to be explored to accommodate the increasing workload. Senior Musculoskeletal Physiotherapists have the specialised skills in the assessment of musculoskeletal conditions to determine the impact of surgery on patient outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare outcomes between a physiotherapy-led arthroplasty review clinic (PT clinic) and the traditional model of orthopaedic surgeon review (OS clinic) after hip and knee replacement. Methods This study was a retrospective case-controlled audit using a comprehensive database. Twenty-four patients who had a hip arthroplasty and 52 patients who had a knee arthroplasty were reviewed solely by the PT clinic at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgical reviews. These patients were matched 1:2 against patients seen only by the OS clinic. The outcome measures included International Knee Score (IKS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short Form (SF)-12. Results There were no significant differences in HHS or SF-12 scores for patients after hip arthroplasty. Significant differences for knee arthroplasty were observed favouring the PT clinic; IKS, PT clinic 147.6 (37.07), OS clinic 135.4 (35.68), P?0.01, and physical component of the SF-12, PT clinic 41.98 (10.45), OS clinic 37.20 (10.44), P<0.01. Conclusion Implementation of a physiotherapy-led arthroplasty review clinic appears to be a safe and effective service alternative to reviews conducted by orthopaedic surgeons. What is known about the topic? Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability and the burden of the disease is rapidly increasing. Joint arthroplasty surgery is the mainstay of treatment for people with end-stage OA; it is a high-cost, high-volume procedure that dominates surgical wait lists around Australia. Long-term follow up is encouraged by the Arthroplasty Society of Australia and endorsed by the Australian Orthopaedics Association, but it is acknowledged that it is impossible to achieve this with solely orthopaedic surgeon reviews, an issue that is only going to worsen with the increased demand for surgery. Physiotherapists have become involved in many advanced scope roles within public health care, and emerging research suggests that patients are highly satisfied with their care in these types of clinics. What does this paper add? Although it has been shown that patients are satisfied in physiotherapy-led advanced clinics, there is a paucity of evidence in the outcomes of patients attending these clinics. Implementation of a physiotherapy-led arthroplasty review clinic demonstrated that outcome measures in this patient cohort were not compromised and, following knee joint arthroplasty, may even be improved. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings of this study indicate that joint review clinics involving physiotherapists acting in an advanced scope role are unlikely to compromise patient outcomes. The use of this role substitution on a broader scale can be recommended. PMID:25297119

  10. Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements have been made with regard to fixation technique and implant quality. PMID:24605198

  11. Periprosthetic Bone Remodelling in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    GEORGEANU, Vlad; ATASIEI, Tudor; GRUIONU, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical studies have shown that the displacement of the prosthesis components, especially of the tibial one is higher during the first year, after which it reaches an equilibrum position compatible with a good long term functioning. This displacement takes place due to bone remodelling close to the implant secondary to different loading concentrations over different areas of bone. Material and Method: Our study implies a simulation on a computational model using the finite element analysis. The simulation started taking into account arbitrary points because of non-linear conditions of bone-prosthesis interface and it was iterative.. A hundred consecutive situations corresponding to intermediate bone remodelling phases have been calculated according to given loadings. Bone remodelling was appreciated as a function of time and bone density for each constitutive element of the computational model created by finite element method. For each constitutive element a medium value of stress during the walking cycle was applied. Results: Analyse of proximal epiphysis-prosthesis complex slices showed that bone density increase is maintained all over the stem in the immediately post-operative period. At 10 months, the moment considered to be the end of bone remodelling, areas with increased bone density are fewer and smaller. Meanwhile, their distribution with a concentration toward the internal compartment in the distal metaphysis is preserved. Conclusions: After the total knee arthroplasty the tibial bone suffered a process of remodelling adapted to the new stress conditions. This bone remodelling can influence, sometimes negatively, especially in the cases with tibial component varus malposition, the fixation, respectively the survival of the prosthesis. This process has been demonstrated both by clinical trials and by simulation, using the finite elements method of periprosthetic bone remodelling. PMID:25553127

  12. Infection after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie; Hartman, Zach; Noshchenko, Andriy; Cruse, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    The number of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed in the United States each year continues to climb, as does the incidence of infectious complications. The changing profile of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has made preventing and treating primary THA infections increasingly complex. The goal of this review was to summarize (1) the published data concerning the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after primary THA by type of bacteria and (2) the effect of potentially modifying factors. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed were searched. Studies dated between 2001 and 2011 examining primary THA in adults were included. Meta-analysis of the collected data was performed. The pooled SSI rate was 2.5% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.4%-4.4%; P<.001; n=28,883). The pooled deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rate was 0.9% (95% Cl, 0.4%-2.2%; P<.001; n=28,883). The pooled rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSI was 0.5% (95% Cl, 0.2%-1.5%; P<.001; n=26,703). This is approximately 20% of all SSI cases. The pooled rate of intraoperative bacterial wound contamination was 16.9% (95% Cl, 6.6%-36.8%; P=.003; n=2180). All these results had significant heterogeneity. The postoperative risk of SSI was significantly associated with intraoperative bacterial surgical wound contamination (pooled rate ratio, 2.5; 95% Cl, 1.4%-4.6%; P=.001; n=19,049). PMID:24762833

  13. Future Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements have been made with regard to fixation technique and implant quality. PMID:24605198

  14. Alumina versus polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Oonishi, H; Aono, M; Murata, N; Kushitani, S

    1992-09-01

    The cementless alumina total knee prosthesis, which uses alumina in the portions coming in contact with the bone and a combination of alumina and ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in the sliding portions, is referred to as a total condylar. Alumina total knee arthroplasty was performed on 137 patients, including 103 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 34 osteoarthrosis (OA) patients, from January 1982 to February 1985. The follow-up period was seven years 11 months and four years ten months, respectively. At follow-up evaluation, 108 patients were available for clinical and roentgenographic examinations, amounting to a 79% follow-up rate. At follow-up examination, 67 joints (62%) were completely pain free and 28 joints (26%) caused slight pain on bearing weight. Walking ability was recovered moderately in RA and markedly in OA. In RA, 14 of 84 knees were cemented and one knee was treated with loosening. Of 72 cementless implantations, 55 sustained displacing distally and one sustained loosening in the tibia, whereas 31 sustained displacing proximally and six sustained loosening in the femur. In OA, 21 cementless knees had 17 displacings in the tibia, and ten displacings and two loosenings in the femur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of the UHMWPE surface in tibial plates revealed smoothing and burnishing. Alumina is far superior to metal for the sliding part, although it is not always best for the portion in contact with the bone. To resolve these problems, for cementless fixation, anchoring portions of Ti alloy and alumina implants were covered with beads and coated with hydroxyapatite. For cement fixation, "the interface bioactive bone cement technique" interposing hydroxyapatite granules between bone and cement was performed. PMID:1516334

  15. Return to work following knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Foote, J A J; Smith, H K; Jonas, S C; Greenwood, R; Weale, A E

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of 109 patients, under the age of 60, who had either a Patellofemoral replacement (PFR), Unicompartmental replacement (UKR) or a Total knee replacement (TKR). They were operated on by two senior surgeons between 2002 and 2006 at the Avon Orthopaedic Centre in Bristol. The aim of this study was to look at the effect of knee replacement on the employment status of this group of patients. Data were collected from patient's hospital records and a questionnaire regarding occupational status was sent postoperatively to the patients. Statistical analysis showed that our groups were similar which meant that further comparison between them was valid. Eighty-two percent of the patients who were working prior to surgery and who had either a TKR or UKR were able to return to work postoperatively. Only 54% of those who had a PFR were able to return to work and this was statistically significant when compared with patients in the other two groups p=0.047. The median time for return to work postoperatively for the study population was 12 weeks. Those in the PFR group took significantly longer to do so (20 weeks) compared to those who had either a UKR (11 weeks) or TKR (12 weeks) p=0.01. Patient's subjective opinion as to their ability to work following knee arthroplasty was worse in the PFR group p=0.049. This is the first study to compare employment status following Patellofemoral, Unicompartmental knee and Total Knee Replacement. TKR and UKR are effective in returning patients under 60 years old to active employment and this is typically 3 months following surgery. Patients who had a PFR did not experience the same benefits in terms of numbers returning to work, time to do so and their subjective opinion as to their ability to cope with normal duties. PMID:19632120

  16. Total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Tom M; Reijman, Max; Furlan, Andrea D; Verhaar, Jan AN

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous osteotomy may compromise subsequent knee replacement, but no guidelines considering knee arthroplasty after prior osteotomy have been developed. We describe a systematic review of non-randomized studies to analyze the effect of high tibial osteotomy on total knee arthroplasty. Methods A computerized search for relevant studies published up to September 2007 was performed in Medline and Embase using a search strategy that is highly sensitive to find nonrandomized studies. Included were observational studies in which patients had total knee arthroplasty performed after prior high tibial osteotomy. Studies that fulfilled these criteria, were assessed for methodologic quality by two independent reviewers using the critical appraisal of observational studies developed by Deeks and the MINORS instrument. The study characteristics and data on the intervention, follow-up, and outcome measures, were extracted using a pre-tested standardized form. Primary outcomes were: knee range of motion, knee clinical score, and revision surgery. The grade of evidence was determined using the guidelines of the GRADE working group. Results Of the 458 articles identified using our search strategy, 17 met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen studies were cohort study with a concurrent control group, one was a historical cohort study and one a case-control study. Nine studies scored 50% or more on both methodological quality assessments. Pooling of the results was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies, and our analysis could not raise the overall low quality of evidence. No significant differences between primary total knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty after osteotomy were found for knee range of motion in four out of six studies, knee clinical scores in eight out of nine studies, and revision surgery in eight out of eight studies after a median follow-up of 5 years. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that osteotomy does not compromise subsequent knee replacement. However, the low quality of evidence precludes solid clinical conclusions. PMID:19619275

  17. [Knee and ankle arthroplasty – What results can be expected?].

    PubMed

    Pagenstert, Geert; Barg, Alexej

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthrits is listed number one reason for adult disability. Therefore treatment of arthritis has maximum impact for the general practitioner. Disability of knee and ankle osteoarthritis causes inability to work and loss of independence. Patients will ask their physicians about expectations after total knee or ankle arthroplasty when other treatment has failed. The satisfaction rate after knee prosthesis is 75 – 89 % and for total ankle arthroplasty even slightly higher at 79 – 97 %. This is surprising because the survival in joint registry data after knee arthroplasty is 94 % compared to ankle arthroplasty significantly less at 69 % after 10 years, when a component revision is used as endpoint. In addition, knee component revision usually means exchanging to knee revision prosthesis while at the ankle it is usually prosthetic removal and conversion to ankle fusion. This difference of satisfaction is probably caused by the fact that knee arthroplasty is a standard operation and patients have very high expectations. Key to this is realistic patient education before surgery by general practitioners and specialists about the typical postoperative course with significant pain reduction not within days but rather in the first 2 postoperative years with moderate activity allowed. Candidates for total ankle replacement must be carefully selected because the prosthesis relies on a good bone stock, stable ligaments and proper limb alignment. Unlike for the knee, none of these can currently be corrected by the ankle prosthesis itself. Patients can expect significant pain reduction, better function and a slight improved range of motion after knee and ankle prosthesis. Sports activities are possible, but should be in a low-impact area. Heavy physical work or running and jumping activities are usually not possible and surely not recommended due to increased wear. PMID:26227977

  18. Long-term results of compartmental arthroplasties of the knee: Long term results of partial knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Lunebourg, A; Abdel, M P; Argenson, J-N

    2015-10-01

    Partial knee arthroplasty (PKA), either medial or lateral unicompartmental knee artroplasty (UKA) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are a good option in suitable patients and have the advantages of reduced operative trauma, preservation of both cruciate ligaments and bone stock, and restoration of normal kinematics within the knee joint. However, questions remain concerning long-term survival. The goal of this review article was to present the long-term results of medial and lateral UKA, PFA and combined compartmental arthroplasty for multicompartmental disease. Medium- and long-term studies suggest reasonable outcomes at ten years with survival greater than 95% in UKA performed for medial osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis, and similarly for lateral UKA, particularly when fixed-bearing implants are used. Disappointing long-term outcomes have been observed with the first generation of patellofemoral implants, as well as early Bi-Uni (i.e., combined medial and lateral UKA) or Bicompartmental (combined UKA and PFA) implants due to design and fixation issues. Promising short- and med-term results with the newer generations of PFAs and bicompartmental arthroplasties will require long-term confirmation. PMID:26430081

  19. Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: an update on indications, technique, results and complication rates

    PubMed Central

    MATTEI, LORENZO; MORTERA, STEFANO; ARRIGONI, CHIARA; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

    2015-01-01

    A shoulder replacement is indicated in patients affected by glenohumeral arthropathy with severely reduced range of motion, persistent pain, especially at night, and loss of strength. There is much discussion in the scientific community about the prosthetic options for these cases: hemiarthroplasty, anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. We analyzed the indications for, results of, and complications associated with this kind of surgery, focusing on anatomic arthroplasty and on the concept of modularity. PMID:26605254

  20. TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY IN A PATIENT WITH HOFFA FRACTURE PSEUDARTHROSIS: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Giordano, Vincenzo; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro do; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Barretto, João Maurício

    2015-01-01

    A rare occurrence of a case of Hoffa fracture pseudarthrosis in an alcoholic patient with genu valgum associated with venous insufficiency who underwent total knee arthroplasty is reported. The literature is reviewed and the main factors for surgical indication of total knee arthroplasty after a fracture of the knee are discussed. Total knee arthroplasty was a viable option in a 60-year-old patient with Hoffa fracture pseudarthrosis and comorbidities.

  1. Unusual prosthetic femoral head fracture in total hip arthroplasty: ceramic on polyethylene articulation

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Damien; Acharya, Mehool

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old man with a previous right total hip arthroplasty presented with acute pain in the right hip, and no associated trauma was reported. The previous hybrid arthroplasty consisted of a ceramic femoral head articulating on an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene liner. The unusual diagnosis of fractured ceramic femoral head was made and an urgent revision arthroplasty was performed to remove the ceramic bearing as well as all implants that may have come into contact with the ceramic. This case report highlights the material properties of ceramics in total hip arthroplasties as well as the importance of regular follow-up in these patients. PMID:24515234

  2. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  3. L5 S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, 5Nm). The level of significance was ? = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 2.9 to 18.7 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 1.8 to 9.3 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 2.0 to 5.9 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 2.2 vs. 15.3 2.9 degrees, P < .017). The load-displacement curves after the facet arthroplasty system implantation at L5-S1 were sigmoidal, and quality of motion measures were similar to intact, demonstrating graded resistance to angular motion in F-E, LB and AR. Conclusions The facet arthroplasty system was able to restore stability to the lumbosacral segment after complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy, while also allowing near-normal kinematics in all planes. While F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value, it was within the physiologic norms for L5-S1. These results are consistent with previous studies of facet arthroplasty at L3-L4 and L4-L5 and demonstrate that TFAS technology can be adapted to the lumbosacral joint with functionality comparable to its application in superior lumbar levels. PMID:25802628

  4. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Bethany P; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Graham, James L; Kim, Jaehyoung; Ma, Fangrui; Shibata, Noreene; Stanhope, Kimber L; Giulivi, Cecilia; Hansen, Frederik; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels; Kowala, Mark; Chouinard, Michael L; Haj, Fawaz G; Havel, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of ?-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and ?-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in glucose homeostasis after IT surgery by ameliorating ER stress. PMID:23264565

  5. [Diagnosis in patients with a painful arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Carrega, Giuliana; Antonini, Andrea; Burastero, Giorgio; Casalino-Finocchio, Giorgetta; Ronca, Agostina; Salomone, Carlo; Riccio, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The differential diagnosis between asepting loosening or prosthetic joint infection is not always easy. Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scans, frozen section and histology can help recognise doubtful cases. We report the experience of the Unit for Infectious Diseases and Septic Orthopaedics of the ASL-2 Liguria, Italy, with a Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and intraoperative frozen section to choose the best therapeutic approach: one-stage or two-stage exchange or arthrodesis-arthroplastica. All cases underwent histology and intraoperative cultures to confirm the diagnosis, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated at follow up after 18 months. From January 2011 to December 2012, 36 patients were evaluated (21 hip and 15 knee arthroprosthesis). The Tc-99m-labelled leukocyte scan was positive in 31 and negative in 5 patients. Frozen section was negative in 7 patients. Five of them were patients with a negative Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and were treated successfully with one-stage exchange, even if, in one of them, Enterococcus faecalis was isolated at replacement and suppressive antibiotic treatment was needed. The other 31 patients were treated with arthrodesis arthroplasty (3 patients) or a two-stage exchange. In this group the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in all patients and the frozen section was positive in 29/31 cases with 6% false negative. Histology was positive in 27/31 with 13% of false negative. The sensitivity and specificity value was respectively 90% and 100% in the frozen section, 84% and 100% in histology. Cultures were positive in 23/31 cases. Patients subjected to two-stage exchange were evaluated again during prosthesis replacement but the results of the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan and histology showed unclear results more frequently: the Tc-99m-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in two cases, the frozen section in three and histology in seven in spite of positive culture in three cases and one relapse in a patient with a frozen section and histology positive but negative culture. In the second step sensitivity and specificity were respectively 67% and 96% in the frozen section, 75% and 88% in histology. Finally, our experience suggests the utility of nuclear and histological tests during diagnostic work-up for differential diagnosis of aseptic loosening or prosthetic joint infection. The same tests produce more uncertain data when performed in two-stage exchange during the second step. PMID:26110294

  6. Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Kaulback, K; Levin, L

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is in clinical use as an appropriate alternative to total hip arthroplasty in young patients. In this technique, a metal cap is placed on the femoral head to cover the damaged surface of the bone and a metal cup is placed in the acetabulum. Objectives The primary objective of this analysis was to compare the revision rates of MOM HRA using different implants with the benchmark set by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The secondary objective of this analysis was to review the literature regarding adverse biological effects associated with implant material. Review Methods A literature search was performed on February 13, 2012, to identify studies published from January 1, 2009, to February 13, 2012. Results The revision rates for MOM HRA using 6 different implants were reviewed. The revision rates for MOM HRA with 3 implants met the NICE criteria, i.e., a revision rate of 10% or less at 10 years. Two implants had short-term follow-ups and MOM HRA with one of the implants failed to meet the NICE criteria. Adverse tissue reactions resulting in failure of the implants have been reported by several studies. With a better understanding of the factors that influence the wear rate of the implants, adverse tissue reactions and subsequent implant failure can be minimized. Many authors have suggested that patient selection and surgical technique affect the wear rate and the risk of tissue reactions. The biological effects of high metal ion levels in the blood and urine of patients with MOM HRA implants are not known. Studies have shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with MOM articulations, but the clinical implications and long-term consequences of this increase are still unknown. Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with MOM HRA implants did not have an overall increase in mortality or risk of cancer. There is insufficient clinical data to confirm the teratogenicity of MOM implants in humans. Conclusions Metal-on-metal HRA can be beneficial for appropriately selected patients, provided the surgeon has the surgical skills required for performing this procedure. Plain Language Summary There are many young patients with hip diseases who need to have hip replacement surgery. Although a traditional hip replacement is an acceptable procedure for these patients, some surgeons prefer using a newer technique in young patients called hip resurfacing. In this technique, instead of removing the head of the femoral bone, a metal cap is placed on the femoral head to cover the damaged surface of the bone and a metal cup is placed in the hip socket, similar to the cups used in traditional hip replacement. The analysis of the revision rates (i.e., how soon and in how many patients the surgery needs to be redone) and safety of resurfacing implants showed that generally these implants can last 10 years or more for the majority of young people. Good outcomes can be expected when skilled surgeons perform the surgery in properly selected patients. However, since these implants are made of metal (cobalt and chromium alloy), there is concern about excess metal debris production due to friction between the 2 metal components leading to high levels of metal ions in the blood and urine of patients. The production of metal debris may result in inflammation in the joint or development of a benign soft tissue mass leading to implant failure. However, it has been shown that this risk can be reduced by proper positioning of the implant and the careful selection of patients for this procedure. Little is known about the long-term biological effects of high levels of metal ions in the blood and urine of patients who have received metal implants. There is concern about potential increases in the risk of cancer and the risk of fetal abnormalities, but these effects have not been established yet. However, since cobalt and chromium can pass the placental barrier, implants that are not metal-on-metal are recommended for women at childbearing ages if they need a hip replacement. PMID:23074429

  7. Uncemented and cemented primary total hip arthroplasty in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Garellick, Göran; Kärrholm, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Since the introduction of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Sweden, both components have most commonly been cemented. A decade ago the frequency of uncemented fixation started to increase, and this change in practice has continued. We therefore analyzed implant survival of cemented and uncemented THA, and whether the modes of failure differ between the two methods of fixation. Patients and methods All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 who received either totally cemented or totally uncemented THA were identified (n = 170,413). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with revision of any component, and for any reason, as the endpoints was performed. Cox regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for revision for various reasons, adjusted for sex, age, and primary diagnosis. Results Revision-free 10-year survival of uncemented THA was lower than that of cemented THA (85% vs. 94%, p < 0.001). No age or diagnosis groups benefited from the use of uncemented fixation. Cox regression analysis confirmed that uncemented THA had a higher risk of revision for any reason (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4–1.6) and for aseptic loosening (RR = 1.5, CI: 1.3–1.6). Uncemented cup components had a higher risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.6–2.0), whereas uncemented stem components had a lower risk of stem revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 0.4, CI: 0.3–0.5) when compared to cemented components. Uncemented stems were more frequently revised due to periprosthetic fracture during the first 2 postoperative years than cemented stems (RR = 8, CI: 5–14). The 5 most common uncemented cups had no increased risk of revision for any reason when compared with the 5 most commonly used cemented cups (RR = 0.9, CI: 0.6–1.1). There was no significant difference in the risk of revision due to infection between cemented and uncemented THA. Interpretation Survival of uncemented THA is inferior to that of cemented THA, and this appears to be mainly related to poorer performance of uncemented cups. Uncemented stems perform better than cemented stems; however, unrecognized intraoperative femoral fractures may be an important reason for early failure of uncemented stems. The risk of revision of the most common uncemented cup designs is similar to that of cemented cups, indicating that some of the problems with uncemented cup fixation may have been solved. PMID:20180715

  8. Total knee arthroplasty in osteopetrosis using patient-specific instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stephanie W; Hug, Kevin T; Hansen, Benjamin J; Bolognesi, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Osteopetrosis is an uncommon endocrine disease characterized by defective osteoclast resorption of bones. This causes a hard, sclerotic, and brittle bone throughout the skeleton. Fractures and unforgiving subchondral bone are common in this condition, both of which can lead to osteoarthritis. Total knee arthroplasty is often the treatment of choice but presents challenges due to the hard and sclerotic bone present throughout the metaphysis and diaphysis of the femur and the tibia. We present a case of knee osteoarthritis in a patient with osteopetrosis who underwent total knee arthroplasty using patient-specific instrumentation. This technique eliminates intramedullary alignment and minimizes drilling, reaming, and saw passes, making it attractive in the setting of diseases such as osteopetrosis to decrease operative time and potential complications. PMID:22285231

  9. Deep infection after hip arthroplasty: staying current with change.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, M R; Parry, M C; Konan, S; Duncan, C P

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) complicates between 0.5% and 1.2% primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and may have devastating consequences. The traditional assessment of patients suffering from PJI has involved the serological study of inflammatory markers and microbiological analysis of samples obtained from the joint space. Treatment has involved debridement and revision arthroplasty performed in either one or two stages. We present an update on the burden of PJI, strategies for its diagnosis and treatment, the challenge of resistant organisms and the need for definitive evidence to guide the treatment of PJI after THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):27-30. PMID:26733637

  10. Unicompartmental polycentric knee arthroplasty: description and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Skolnick, M D; Bryan, R S; Peterson, L F

    1975-10-01

    Unicompartmental polycentric knee arthoplasty is a procedure that we have performed in relatively few patients whose disease has not been suitable for conventional reconstruction or for total knee replacement. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations and operative technique differ little from that previously published for total knee arthroplasty. One-year follow-up of 14 knees (13 patients) reveals no major complications. These early results encourage further trial of the procedure in selected patients. Unicompartmental arthroplasty is reserved for conditions affecting predominantly one side of the joint. More specific indications are clearly defined and pertain to patients who have osteoarthritis unsuitable for valgus upper tibial osteotomy, condylar fracture and necrosis, and failure of osteotomy and tibial plateau prosthesis. PMID:1192634

  11. In vivo determination of total knee arthroplasty kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Komistek, Richard D; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Bertin, Kim; Rosenberg, Aaron; Kennedy, William

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consistent posterior femoral rollback of an asymmetrical posterior cruciate retaining (PCR) total knee arthroplasty was mostly influenced by the implant design, surgical technique, or presence of a well-functioning posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Three-dimensional femorotibial kinematics was determined for 80 subjects implanted by 3 surgeons, and each subject was evaluated under fluoroscopic surveillance during a deep knee bend. All subjects in this present study having an intact PCL had a well-functioning PCR knee and experienced normal kinematic patterns, although less in magnitude than the normal knee. In addition, a surprising finding was that, on average, subjects without a PCL still achieved posterior femoral rollback from full extension to maximum knee flexion. The findings in this study revealed that implant design did contribute to the normal kinematics demonstrated by subjects having this asymmetrical PCR total knee arthroplasty.

  12. Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Joseph A; Bookman, Jared; Slover, James; Edusei, Emmanuel; Levine, Brett

    2015-08-01

    Infection is a rare, serious complication following total joint arthroplasty and constitutes a considerable emotional and financial burden for patients, surgeons, and healthcare systems. Prevention of surgical site and periprosthetic joint infections is crucial. This requires knowledge of the microorganisms that commonly cause these infections, including Staphylococcus species. Selection of the appropriate antibiotic regimen to treat infection remains controversial, but cefazolin and cefuroxime are the most commonly recommended antibiotics for prophylaxis. Appropriate timing of administration before surgery, with redosing performed as needed, can help to ensure optimal antibiotic concentration during surgery. Given the increasing evidence that S aureus colonization is a risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection, an exploration of the potential benefits of preoperative S aureus carrier screening and decolonization protocols is warranted. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total joint arthroplasty and antibiotic powder at wound closure are other controversial topics that require additional research. PMID:26209148

  13. Blood Loss and Transfusion Rates in the Revision of Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty to Total Knee Arthroplasty Are Similar to Those of Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty But Are Lower Compared With the Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Deniz; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    A total of 42 patients revised from unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were matched with 40 aseptic patients, including both component revision TKA and 88 primary TKA patients. The hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of each patient were screened preoperatively and postoperatively. There were no statistically significant differences in the postoperative hemoglobin or hematocrit levels, calculated blood loss, or blood transfusion rates between the revision UKA and primary TKA groups, whereas the hemoglobin (P = .010) and hematocrit (P = .015) levels were lower and the calculated blood loss (P = .034) and blood transfusion rates (P = .031) were higher in the revision TKA group. Revision of a failed UKA is more similar to primary TKA with respect to blood loss and transfusion rate. PMID:26350261

  14. Implementing Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Infections Following Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mori, Candy

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections can have a devastating effect on a patient's morbidity impacting their quality of life and productivity in society. Financial burdens are placed on healthcare organizations because of surgical site infections as well. Evidence has shown that it is a worthwhile endeavor to implement a practice to screen and treat patients who are nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Implementing evidence-based practices to combat surgical site infections can help ensure quality healthcare, while producing best possible patient outcomes; however, getting evidence to the bedside can be a challenge. The Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice model is designed to help nurses translate evidence into practice. This article describes the steps one community hospital took to implement an evidence-based practice using the Johns Hopkins model to decrease the likelihood of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26213870

  15. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26021098

  16. Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hip Arthroplasty: Routine and High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Keeney, James A; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    This study's purpose was to present the use of a risk stratification protocol in which "routine" risk patients receive a mobile compression device with aspirin and "high" risk patients receive warfarin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. 1859 hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively enrolled (1402 routine risk - 75.4%, 457 high risk - 24.6%). The cumulative rate of venous thromboembolism events was 0.5% in the routine versus 0.5% in the high-risk cohort within 6weeks postoperatively (P=1.00). Patients in the routine risk cohort had a lower rate of major bleeding (0.5% versus 2.0%, P=0.006) and wound complications (0.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.01). Use of our risk stratification protocol allowed the avoidance of more aggressive anticoagulation in 75% of patients while achieving a low overall incidence of symptomatic VTE. PMID:26182980

  17. Fracture of the Tibial Baseplate in Bicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Stuyts, Bart; Vandenberghe, Melanie; Van der Bracht, Hans; Fortems, Yves; Van den Eeden, Elke; Cuypers, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA) addresses combined medial and patellofemoral compartment osteoarthritis, which is relatively common, and has been proposed as a bridge between unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Case Presentation. We present the case report of a young active man treated with BKA after unsuccessful conservative therapy. Four years later, loosening with fracture of the tibial baseplate was identified and the patient was revised to TKA. Discussion. Although our case is only the second fractured tibial baseplate to be reported, we believe that the modular titanium design, with two fixation pegs, is too thin to withstand daily cyclic loading powers. Light daily routine use, rather than high-impact sports, is therefore advised. Failures may also be related to the implant being an early generation and known to be technically complex, with too few implant sizes. We currently use TKA for the treatment of medial and patellofemoral compartment osteoarthritis. PMID:26843998

  18. The use of collatamp in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Logroscino, G; Malerba, G; Pagano, E; Ziranu, A; Ciriello, V

    2011-08-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common orthopedic operations in the world. The number of THA is expected to grow and with it the number of associated complications. Although improved surgical technique and the development of more scrupulous asepsis has decreased the incidence of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), it remains one of the most feared complications of joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study is to present the use of antibiotic-loaded collagen sponges (Collatamp EG) in the prophylaxis and treatment of PJI. For this scope a case report is described. The advantages offered by the antibiotic loaded sponges in terms of high and sustained concentration of antibiotic at the site of infection, diffused by the fully reabsorbable carrier, showed to be a an important adjuvant therapy in the treatment of PJI. Low systemic concentration of the drug and a wide versatility in surgical application are other advantages of this dispositive. PMID:22480071

  19. Rehabilitation following revision hip arthroplasty using morselized bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Siwek, W; Kwiatkowski, K

    2001-01-01

    For over 25 years, arthroplasty has been in general use as a means of treating degenerative changes in the coxofemoral joint. Loosening of the hip prosthesis is often observed, accompanied by bone defects in the area enveloping the prosthesis. This constitutes an indication for revision surgery.
    The authors present their own technique for rehabilitation following revision hip arthroplasty using frozen morselized bone grafts. The procedures used in such cases should be highly individualized. It is necessary to apply a controlled early load on the operated limb at bedside. The authors emphasize the necessity to reduce flexion contracture of the joint. Full load on the limb is proposed between the 4th and 6th month after surgery, depending on the extent of the reconstructed bone defects. PMID:17986967

  20. Fracture of the Tibial Baseplate in Bicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Stuyts, Bart; Vandenberghe, Melanie; Van der Bracht, Hans; Fortems, Yves; Van den Eeden, Elke; Cuypers, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA) addresses combined medial and patellofemoral compartment osteoarthritis, which is relatively common, and has been proposed as a bridge between unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Case Presentation. We present the case report of a young active man treated with BKA after unsuccessful conservative therapy. Four years later, loosening with fracture of the tibial baseplate was identified and the patient was revised to TKA. Discussion. Although our case is only the second fractured tibial baseplate to be reported, we believe that the modular titanium design, with two fixation pegs, is too thin to withstand daily cyclic loading powers. Light daily routine use, rather than high-impact sports, is therefore advised. Failures may also be related to the implant being an early generation and known to be technically complex, with too few implant sizes. We currently use TKA for the treatment of medial and patellofemoral compartment osteoarthritis. PMID:26843998

  1. Establishing Realistic Patient Expectations Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Husain, Adeel; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 20% of patients are dissatisfied following well-performed total knee arthroplasty with good functional outcomes. Surgeons must understand the drivers of dissatisfaction to minimize the number of unhappy patients following surgery. Several studies have shown that unfulfilled expectations are a principal source of patient dissatisfaction. Patients contemplating total knee arthroplasty expect pain relief, improved walking ability, return to sports, and improvement in psychological well-being and social interactions. However, patients are typically overly optimistic with regard to expected outcomes following surgery. Patient expectations and satisfaction can be influenced by age, socioeconomic factors, sex, and race. The interplay of these factors can be complex and specific to each person. Published data on clinical and functional outcomes show that persistence of symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and failure to return to preoperative levels of function, are common and normal. Therefore, the surgeon needs to help the patient to establish realistic expectations. PMID:26493969

  2. Learning curve for the anterior approach total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Goytia, Robin N; Jones, Lynne C; Hungerford, Marc W

    2012-01-01

    The anterior approach to total hip arthroplasty has the advantages of using intermuscular and internervous planes, but it is technically demanding. We evaluated the learning curve for this approach with regard to operative parameters and immediate outcomes. From November 2005 through May 2007, 73 patients underwent 81 consecutive primary anterior-approach total hip arthroplasties. We grouped the hips into three consecutive groups of 20 and one of 21, and surgical and fluoroscopy times, estimated blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative complications, patient comorbidities, component position, and leg-length discrepancy were compared (statistical significance, p < 0.05). Comparing Groups 1 and 4, there were only two significant differences: operative time, 124 to 98 minutes, respectively, and estimated blood loss, 596 to 347 mL, respectively. Proficiency improved after Group 2 (40 cases) and was more marked after Group 3 (60 cases), with no major complications. Surgeons considering this approach should expect a substantial learning period. PMID:22995355

  3. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy Improves Component Position During Anterior Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jennings, John D; Iorio, Justin; Kleiner, Matthew T; Gaughan, John P; Star, Andrew M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this retrospective review was to determine whether fluoroscopic guidance improves acetabular cup abduction and anteversion alignment during anterior total hip arthroplasty. The authors retrospectively reviewed 199 patients (fluoroscopy group, 98; nonfluoroscopy group, 101) who underwent anterior total hip arthroplasty at a single center with and without C-arm fluoroscopy guidance. Included in the study were patients of any age who underwent primary anterior approach total hip arthroplasty performed by a single surgeon, with 6-month postoperative anteroposterior pelvis radiographs. Acetabular cup abduction and anteversion angles were measured and compared between groups. Mean acetabular cup abduction and anteversion angles were 43.4° (range, 26.0°-57.4°) and 23.1° (range, 17°-28°), respectively, in the fluoroscopy group. Mean abduction and anteversion angles were 45.9° (range, 29.7°-61.3°) and 23.1° (range, 17°-28°), respectively, after anterior total hip arthroplasty without the use of C-arm guidance (nonfluoroscopy group). The use of fluoroscopy was associated with a statistically significant difference in cup abduction (P=.002) but no statistically significant difference in anteversion angles. In the fluoroscopy group, 80% of implants were within the combined safe zone compared with 63% in the nonfluoroscopy group. A significantly higher percentage of both acetabular cup abduction angles and combined anteversion and abduction angles were in the safe zone in the fluoroscopy group. Fluoroscopy is not required for proper anteversion placement of acetabular components, but it may increase ideal safe zone placement of components. PMID:26558676

  4. Total hip arthroplasty following an ipsilateral above knee amputation.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Owen J; Mullan, Conor J; McAlinden, M Gavan; Brown, John G

    2013-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty in patients with previous above knee amputations is rare. We present a unique case where the patient had only 130 mm of proximal femur remaining following a previous traumatic above knee amputation. The short segment of femur meaning a conventional femoral stem could not be used. We describe the technique of total hip arthoplasty for this patient using a mini hip prosthesis and report a successful clinical and radiological outcome at 2 years post-op. PMID:23417532

  5. Vibroacoustography for the assessment of total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Hermes A. S.; Wang, Liao; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Kinnick, Randall R.; An, Kai-Nan; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper proposes imaging with 3-dimensional vibroacoustography for postoperatively assessing the uncovered cup area after total hip arthroplasty as a quantitative criterion to evaluate implant fixation. METHODS: A phantom with a bone-like structure covered by a tissue-mimicking material was used to simulate a total hip arthroplasty case. Vibroacoustography images of the uncovered cup region were generated using a two-element confocal ultrasound transducer and a hydrophone inside a water tank. Topological correction based on the geometry of the implant was performed to generate a 3-dimensional representation of the vibroacoustography image and to accurately evaluate the surface. The 3-dimensional area obtained by the vibroacoustography approach was compared to the area evaluated by a 3-dimensional motion capture system. RESULTS: The vibroacoustography technique provided high-resolution, high-contrast, and speckle-free images with less sensitivity to the beam incidence. Using a 3-dimensional-topology correction of the image, we accurately estimated the uncovered area of the implant with a relative error of 8.1% in comparison with the motion capture system measurements. CONCLUSION: Measurement of the cup coverage after total hip arthroplasty has not been well established; however, the covered surface area of the acetabular component is one of the most important prognostic factors. The preliminary results of this study show that vibroacoustography is a 3-dimensional approach that can be used to postoperatively evaluate total hip arthroplasty. The favorable results also provide an impetus for exploring vibroacoustography in other bone or implant surface imaging applications. PMID:23778334

  6. Revision rate after short-stem total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Molleman, Jeroen; Klaver, Michel; Poolman, Rudolf W; Haverkamp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The aim of short-stem total hip arthroplasty is to preserve proximal bone stock for future revisions, to improve biomechanical reconstruction, and to make minimally invasive approaches easier. It is therefore being increasingly considered to be a sound alternative to conventional total hip arthroplasty, especially for young and active patients. However, it is still unknown whether survival rates of short-stem hips match current standards. We made a systematic summary of reported overall survival after short-stem total hip arthroplasty. Materials and methods We conducted a systematic review of English, French, German, and Dutch literature. 2 assessors independently identified clinical studies on short-stem hip arthroplasty. After recalculating reported revision rates, we determined whether each implant had a projected revision rate of 10% or less at 10 years of follow-up or a revision rate per 100 observed component years of 1 or less. Stems were classified as “collum”, “partial collum”, or “trochanter-sparing”. Results and Interpretation We found 49 studies, or 51 cohorts, involving 19 different stems. There was a large increase in recent publications. The majority of studies included had a follow-up of less than 5 years. We found a large number of observational studies on “partial collum” and “trochanter-sparing” stems, demonstrating adequate survival rates at medium-term follow-up. Clinical evidence from “collum stem” studies was limited to a small number of studies with a medium-term follow-up period. These studies did not show a satisfactory overall survival rate. PMID:24694271

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the painful total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sneag, Darryl B; Bogner, Eric A; Potter, Hollis G

    2015-02-01

    Optimization of metal artifact reduction pulse sequences over the past decade has rendered MRI valuable in knee arthroplasty assessment. MRI can reliably predict the presence and extent of infection, component loosening and polyethylene wear, and component malrotation, and it can evaluate the integrity of surrounding soft tissue structures. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced angiographic techniques, vascular pathology such as pseudoaneurysm formation and recurrent hemarthrosis can also be assessed. PMID:25633024

  8. Patellar fractures following total knee arthroplasty: a review.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Siraj A; Naziri, Qais; Patel, Yashika D; Boylan, Matthew R; Issa, Kimona; Mont, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    There are several periprosthetic complications associated with total knee arthroplasty, with femoral fracture as the most common and patellar fractures as the second most common. Patellar fractures are challenging complications that occur almost exclusively on the resurfaced patellae, although unresurfaced patellar fractures have been reported in literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomy of the patella, the etiology of patellar fractures, and strategies to treat and manage these fractures following knee arthroplasty. The vascular supply to the patella may be compromised during total knee arthroplasty and special care must be taken to preserve it. Vessel injury may result in further complications, most notably avascular necrosis with subsequent fracture. Other patient-, surgical-, and prosthetic-related factors can contribute to increased risk of patellar fracture. Patellar fractures are classified into three types. Type I fractures have an intact extensor mechanism with a stable implant. Type II fractures have a complete disruption of the extensor mechanism with or without a stable implant. Type III fractures, which are further subclassified into types IIIa and IIIb, have an intact extensor mechanism but a loose patellar component. While type IIIa fractures have reasonable remaining bone stock, type IIIb fractures have poor bone stock. Type I patellar fractures may be best managed nonoperatively, but types II and III patellar fractures often necessitate surgical intervention. Patellectomy should be reserved for comminuted fractures, as well as fractures in patients with poor bone stock. Larger prospective randomized studies are necessary to better evaluate the treatment algorithm for patellar fractures following total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24579901

  9. Outcomes of Pyrolytic Carbon Arthroplasty for the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Ram, Ashwin N.; Shauver, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the PIP joint is a debilitating condition commonly treated with arthroplasty. The pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) implant has been developed for PIP joint arthroplasty in these patients. This prospective outcomes study will evaluate the outcomes and complications of the pyrocarbon implant for the PIP joint. Methods Consecutive candidates for PIP joint arthroplasty with pyrocarbon implant were prospectively evaluated. Functional measurements and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) were administered pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Pre-operative means and 12-month post-operative means for all functional measures were compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and effect size was reported for MHQ. Results Fourteen patients treated with 21 implants enrolled in the study. At the 12-month follow-up period, mean active arc of motion (AAM) was 38, decreasing slightly from the pre-operative value. Mean grip strength improved from 11.3 kg to 15.1 kg, although the difference was not statistically significant. Mean key pinch values improved significantly from 6.6 kg pre-operatively to 9.2 kg at the 12-month follow-up time (p=0.03). Jebsen-Taylor test scores showed improvement, although not significantly. Changes in all MHQ domains showed high effect size. Complications were minimal. Three patients experienced squeaking of the implant and three patients experienced dislocation of the pyrocarbon joint. Conclusions The pyrocarbon implant for PIP joint arthroplasty shows encouraging results, primarily in patient satisfaction and pain relief, but is associated with complications related to implant dislocations, which required prolonged treatment with external fixators. PMID:19407625

  10. Changes in knee kinematics following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Akbari Shandiz, Mohsen; Boulos, Paul; Saevarsson, Stefan Karl; Yoo, Sam; Miller, Stephen; Anglin, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) changes the knee joint in both intentional and unintentional, known and unknown, ways. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics play an important role in postoperative pain, function, satisfaction and revision, yet are largely unknown. Preoperative kinematics, postoperative kinematics or changes in kinematics may help identify causes of poor clinical outcome. Patellofemoral kinematics are challenging to record since the patella is obscured by the metal femoral component in X-ray and moves under the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic degrees of freedom having significant changes and to evaluate the variability in individual changes to allow future study of patients with poor clinical outcomes. We prospectively studied the 6 degrees of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral weightbearing kinematics, tibiofemoral contact points and helical axes of rotation of nine subjects before and at least 1 year after total knee arthroplasty using clinically available computed tomography and radiographic imaging systems. Normal kinematics for healthy individuals were identified from the literature. Significant differences existed between pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics, with the post-TKA kinematics being closer to normal. While on average the pre-total knee arthroplasty knees in this group displayed no pivoting (only translation), individually only five knees displayed this behaviour (of these, two showed lateral pivoting, one showed medial pivoting and one showed central pivoting). There was considerable variability postoperatively as well (five central, two lateral and two medial pivoting). Both preop and postop, flexion behaviour was more hinge-like medially and more rolling laterally. Helical axes were more consistent postop for this group. An inclusive understanding of the pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics and changes in kinematics due to total knee arthroplasty could improve implant design, patient diagnosis and surgical technique. PMID:26936959

  11. Leg Length Discrepancy in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pyrko, Peter; Zuckerman, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is one of the most common complications of total hip arthroplasty. It may cause pain and disability to the patient, and it is the number one reason for filing a lawsuit against an orthopaedic surgeon. This manuscript reviews the preparation for and execution of the operative plan with emphasis on avoiding pitfalls leading to LLD. It also considers the treatment of LLD in the postoperative period. PMID:26977553

  12. Revision total hip arthroplasty: hospital cost and reimbursement analysis.

    PubMed

    Crowe, John F; Sculco, Thomas P; Kahn, Barbara

    2003-08-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty is a complex surgical procedure that frequently requires high levels of hospital resources. The purpose of the current study was to report the actual costs and reimbursement to the hospital for a stratified group of patients having revision total hip arthroplasty based on a severity index. The clinical and financial records of 49 patients (51 hips) stratified by complexity of revision were reviewed. Clinical variable included age, length of stay, operating time, estimated blood loss, number of transfusions, implant type, metallic augmentation, use of bone graft, and time spent in the postanesthesia care unit. Financial review included the actual fixed and variable costs associated with each procedure. Hospital costs associated with revision total hip arthroplasty were significantly greater in the most complex revisions and in older patients. The use of bone grafting techniques on the femur resulted in significantly greater costs. The average loss to the hospital was $5402 US dollars per procedure with a range of $5657 (US dollars) profit to $28,780 (US dollars) loss. Procedures in patients younger than 65 years has an average loss of $1133 US dollars. All procedures in patients who were 65 years or older resulted in a loss to the hospital, with the average loss being $8617 US dollars. Despite improvements in length of stay, use of clinical pathways, and negotiated discounts on implants, the hospital loss on each hip revision procedure averaged $5402 US dollars. PMID:12897608

  13. Planning software and patient-specific instruments in shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2016-03-01

    Computer planning software and patient-specific instrumentation have been investigated in multiple subspecialties of orthopedics with mixed results. Shoulder arthroplasty has evolved over the last decade with improvements in implant design and surgical instrumentation. Despite these advances, glenoid positioning in shoulder arthroplasty continues to be a difficult problem. Recent advances in three-dimensional imaging techniques and the use of computer planning software may potentially address some of the common difficulties encountered by surgeons. The addition of patient-specific instrumentation and guides provide an option for patients with significant glenoid deformity that may allow improved accuracy of glenoid component implantation compared to using standard instrumentation. Studies have reported improved positioning of the glenoid component in both anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with patient-specific instrumentation and guides. More research is needed to determine whether these improvements lead to better patient-reported outcomes or implant survival. In addition, further studies will be needed to address whether this technology is cost effective for large-scale implementation in the orthopedic community. PMID:26809956

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Li, Weili; Xu, Pengchen; Liu, Jin; Qiu, Yue; Zhu, Yuchang

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing, which is one of the most frequent operations in orthopedic practice. To further investigate the safe and effective role of using tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing transfusion rate and blood loss in total knee arthroplasty. Material/Methods This meta-analysis was conducted according to the Cochrane methodology. Twenty-eight superior quality and well designed randomized controlled trials (RCT) were collected to analyze for this study. Patients who had undergone primary unilateral TKA were chosen. The software, RevMan 5.2, was used to analyze collected data. Results Finally, 28 RCTs were collected to analyze for this study. Total blood loss was dramatically decreased via the application of TA, by a mean of 420 ml [95% CI: −514 to −327]. A significant reduction about blood transfusion rate was also found in patients who received TA. [RD: −0.26, 95%CI: −0.33 to −0.19]. Moreover, no significant differences were found between TA and control groups in incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that the application of TA in TKA could decrease total blood loss and transfusion rate. On the other hand, the application of TA is not associated with high incidence of DVT or other adverse events. TA should be taken into account in routine use in primary knee arthroplasty to benefit the patients. PMID:26463641

  15. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Comparative outcomes and contemporary results.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-02-18

    Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular among arthroplasty surgeons, in large part due to the use of an intramuscular interval and desire to reduce soft tissue damage. Several studies have now been published comparing the anterior intramuscular to other commonly used approaches, and many studies have published complication rates on large series of patients. Review of comparative studies indicates direct anterior hips tend towards shorter hospital stays and high rates of patients discharged to home. Although some studies show evidence of early benefit in functional outcomes, there is no strong evidence that the anterior approach provides any long term functional improvements compared to other approaches. Additionally, evidence to support reduced damage to soft tissue may not translate to certain clinical significance. Rates of intra-operative femur fracture, operative time and blood loss rates are notably higher for those developing familiarity with this approach. However, when surgeons have performed a modest number of procedures, the complication rates tend to markedly decrease in most studies to levels comparable to other approaches. Accuracy of component positioning also favors the anterior approach in some studies. This review summarizes the available literature comparing the direct anterior to other approaches for total hip arthroplasty and provides a comprehensive summary of common complications. PMID:26925380

  16. Hemi- versus bipolar shoulder arthroplasty for chronic rotator cuff arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Gza

    2007-01-01

    Both bipolar and hemiarthroplasty have been used to treat rotator cuff arthropathy (RCA) of the shoulder in patients with low functional demands. In this study, 41 patients treated with either a bipolar or hemiarthroplasty were selected retrospectively to detect possible differences in the functional outcome and to evaluate radiological properties of the implants. Patients were examined before and 30??6months after surgery. There were no differences in the Constant scores between the groups treated with hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty, 58.9??13.1 points and 55.8??13.5 points, respectively (P?=?0.457). We found a significant increase in abduction postoperatively in both groups (P?=?0.041 bipolar, P?=?0.000 hemiarthroplasty) but without statistical significance between the hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty groups (P?=?0.124, F?=?2.6). This result is related in the bipolar group due to movement between the shell and inner head (P?=?0.042) and in the hemiarthroplasty group due to movement between the humeral head component and the glenoid (P?=?0.000). In conclusion, we found that both hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty are effective treatment options for carefully selected patients with RCA and low functional demands, with no differences between the groups. PMID:17609946

  17. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC ARTHROSCOPY IN SYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS AFTER KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Fabricio Roberto; Souza, Clodoaldo José Duarte de; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Assess the worthiness of arthroscopy in investigating and treating knee pain after arthroplasty unexplained by clinical and subsidiary examinations. Methods: Among 402 patients submitted to total or unicompartimental arthroplasty between September 2001 and April 2007 at a public university hospital, 17 presented with pain on prosthetic articulation, without clear diagnosis by clinical, X-ray, laboratory, scintiscan, or nuclear magnetic resonance tests. All patients were submitted to arthroscopy and symptoms were assessed by using the Lysholm scale, comparing pre-and post-arthroscopy periods. Peroperative findings have been recorded. Results: The procedure was effective for pain relief in 14 of 17 patients (82.35%). The median for Lysholm scale climbed from 36 points before arthroscopy to 94 points after the procedure (p < 0.001). Most of the patients (12) were arthroscopically diagnosed with fibrosis known as “cyclop”; on the remaining five patients, anterior synovitis was found. All patients were treated by resection. Conclusions: Knee arthroscopy after arthroplasty in patients presenting unclear persistent pain shows localized arthrofibrosis (“cyclops”) or synovitis, which can be treated by using the same procedure, resulting in pain relief.

  18. Outcome following deep wound contamination in cemented arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Byrne, A M; Morris, S; McCarthy, T; Quinlan, W; O'byrne, J M

    2007-02-01

    Infection remains a devastating complication of joint replacement surgery causing a significant burden to both patient and surgeon. However, despite exhaustive prophylactic measures, intraoperative contamination still occurs during cemented arthroplasty with current infection rates of 1-2%. A study was undertaken to determine the incidence of perioperative contamination in cemented arthroplasty patients, to identify contaminating organisms, to identify contaminated regions within the operative wound, to identify factors associated with increased contamination, and finally to assess the medium-term clinical outcome in patients with confirmed intraoperative wound contamination. Eighty consecutive patients undergoing hip and knee cemented arthroplasty were prospectively enrolled over a 6-month period. All scrubbed personnel wore total body exhaust isolation suits and procedures were carried out in ultra-clean air theatres. Of 441 samples, contamination was identified at 21 sites (4.8%) representing a cohort of 18 patients (22.5%). Longer duration of surgery predisposed to higher contamination rates while lower contamination rates were significantly related to fewer gowned personnel within the ultra-clean system, and fewer total personnel in theatre during the procedure. None of the patients developed clinical evidence of deep prosthetic infection at follow-up. We noted a high incidence of intraoperative contamination despite standard prophylaxis. However, this was not reflected by a similar rate of postoperative infection. This may be due to a small bacterial inoculum in each case or may be due to the therapeutic effect of perioperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:16586132

  19. Anterior muscle sparing approach for total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G; Scanelli, John A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the validity of positive claims regarding the direct anterior approach (DAA) with a fracture table for total hip arthroplasty. Recent literature regarding the DAA was searched and specific claims investigated including improved early outcomes, speed of recovery, component placement, dislocation rates, and complication rates. Recent literature is positive regarding the effects of total hip arthroplasty with the anterior approach. While the data is not definitive at present, patients receiving the anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty tend to recover more quickly and have improved early outcomes. Component placement with the anterior approach is more often in the safe zone than with other approaches. Dislocation rates tend to be less than 1% with the anterior approach. Complication rates vary widely in the published literature. A possible explanation is that the variance is due to surgeon and institutional experience with the anterior approach procedure. Concerns remain regarding the learning curve for both surgeons and institutions. In conclusion, it is not a matter of should this approach be used, but how should it be implemented. PMID:23362470

  20. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bierbaum, Benjamin E; Nairus, James; Kuesis, Daniel; Morrison, J Craig; Ward, Daniel

    2002-12-01

    The ideal bearing surface for total hip arthroplasty still is being sought. This bearing would be durable, cost-effective, easy to implant, inert, and produce minimal wear debris. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have continued to evolve and have enjoyed success in many European centers throughout the past 3 decades. A limited number of early reports from the United States discouraged widespread acceptance and use of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Once critically analyzed most of the failures from the early reports are attributable to design and material specific flaws. Vast improvements have been made in ceramic manufacturing leading to even more superior wear characteristics and higher burst strengths. The case for alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearings is becoming stronger as data accumulate clinically and in vitro. In a multicenter, prospective and randomized study, an alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing is compared with a cobalt chrome-on-polyethylene bearing. After as many as 48 months there has been no significant difference in clinical performance between the two study groups. No ceramic head fracture or ceramic bearing failure has occurred. Therefore, this new alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing is a safe option for total hip arthroplasty and may provide a more durable prosthesis especially in young and active patients. PMID:12461368

  1. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Comparative outcomes and contemporary results

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-01-01

    Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular among arthroplasty surgeons, in large part due to the use of an intramuscular interval and desire to reduce soft tissue damage. Several studies have now been published comparing the anterior intramuscular to other commonly used approaches, and many studies have published complication rates on large series of patients. Review of comparative studies indicates direct anterior hips tend towards shorter hospital stays and high rates of patients discharged to home. Although some studies show evidence of early benefit in functional outcomes, there is no strong evidence that the anterior approach provides any long term functional improvements compared to other approaches. Additionally, evidence to support reduced damage to soft tissue may not translate to certain clinical significance. Rates of intra-operative femur fracture, operative time and blood loss rates are notably higher for those developing familiarity with this approach. However, when surgeons have performed a modest number of procedures, the complication rates tend to markedly decrease in most studies to levels comparable to other approaches. Accuracy of component positioning also favors the anterior approach in some studies. This review summarizes the available literature comparing the direct anterior to other approaches for total hip arthroplasty and provides a comprehensive summary of common complications. PMID:26925380

  2. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  3. Analysis of the Flexion Gap on In Vivo Knee Kinematics Using Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Komistek, Richard D; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information on the relationships between postoperative knee laxity and in vivo knee kinematics. The correlations were analyzed in 22 knees with axial radiographs and fluoroscopy based 3D model fitting approach after a tri-condylar total knee arthroplasty. During deep knee bend activities, the medial flexion gap had significant correlations with the medial contact point (r=0.529, P=0.011) and axial rotation at full extension. During kneeling activities, a greater medial flexion gap caused larger anterior translation at complete contact (r=0.568, P=0.011). Meanwhile, the lateral flexion gap had less effect. In conclusion, laxity of the medial collateral ligament should be avoided because the magnitude of medial flexion stability was crucial for postoperative knee kinematics. PMID:25680453

  4. Autosomal dominant type I osteopetrosis is related with iatrogenic fractures in arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van Hove, Ruud P; de Jong, Tjitte; Nolte, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO) is a sclerotic bone disorder due to failure of osteoclasts. ADO poses difficulties during arthroplasty because of the increased chance for iatrogenic fractures due to sclerotic bone. ADO is divided into two types based on radiological findings, fracture risk, and osteoclast activity. These differences suggest less brittle bone in patients with ADO I compared to that of patients with ADO II, which suggests a smaller chance of preoperative fractures during cementless arthroplasty in ADO I compared with that in ADO II. A case of cementless total knee arthroplasty in a patient with ADO I is presented. Total hip arthroplasty was performed during follow-up, and known major problems related to ADO II were experienced. Therefore, the differences between ADO I and ADO II may not be clinically relevant for an iatrogenic fracture during arthroplasty in patients with ADO. PMID:25436076

  5. Total joint arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: an alarming rate of early failure.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Javad; Sullivan, Thomas A; Pagnano, Mark W; Trousdale, Robert T; Bolander, Mark E

    2003-04-01

    The results of 21 total joint arthroplasties (13 knees, 8 hips) in 15 patients were reviewed. There were 13 men and 2 women with an average age of 38 years (range, 28 to 69 years). The mean follow-up period was 10.2 years (range, 2 to 23 years). Six patients died within an average of 10.6 years (range, 3 to 18 years) of joint arthroplasty. All patients died of AIDS. Deep infection developed in 6 joints. Knee Society scores improved significantly, but 13 repeat surgeries were required. An alarmingly high rate of complications was found after total knee and total hip arthroplasty in these patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Physicians and surgeons should be made aware of this high rate of complications after joint arthroplasty in patients with HIV and include a frank discussion of this information with their patients who are contemplating total joint arthroplasty. PMID:12728415

  6. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty: short-term survivorship of 4,401 hips from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Population-based registry data from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) and from the National Joint Register of England and Wales have revealed that the outcome after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is inferior to that of conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). We analyzed the short-term survival of 4,401 HRAs in the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Methods We compared the revision risk of the 4,401 HRAs from the Register to that of 48,409 THAs performed during the same time period. The median follow-up time was 3.5 (09) years for HRAs and 3.9 (09) years for THAs. Results There was no statistically significant difference in revision risk between HRAs and THAs (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.781.10). Female patients had about double the revision risk of male patients (RR = 2.0, CI: 1.42.7). Hospitals that had performed 100 or more HRA procedures had a lower revision risk than those with less than 100 HRAs (RR = 0.6, CI: 0.40.9). Articular Surface Replacement (ASR, DePuy) had inferior outcome with higher revision risk than the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing implant (BHR, Smith & Nephew), the reference implant (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.22.7). Interpretation We found that HRA had comparable short-term survivorship to THA at a nationwide level. Implant design had an influence on revision rates. ASR had higher revision risk. Low hospital procedure volume worsened the outcome of HRA. Female patients had twice the revision risk of male patients. PMID:22616745

  7. The computer-assisted sequential lateral soft-tissue release in total knee arthroplasty for valgus knees

    PubMed Central

    Oczipka, F.; Grifka, J.; Perlick, L.

    2007-01-01

    Soft-tissue management is a critical factor in total knee arthroplasty, especially in valgus knees. The stepwise release has been based upon surgeons experience. Computer-assisted surgery has gained increasing scientific interest in recent times and allows the intraoperative measurement of leg axis and gap size in extension and flexion. We therefore aimed to analyse the effect of sequential lateral soft-tissue release and the resulting change in the a.p. limb axis on the one hand and the tibiofemoral gaps on the other hand in extension as well as in flexion in eight cadaveric knees. Measurements were obtained using a CT-free navigation system. In extension the highest increase compared to the previous release step was found for the first (iliotibial band, P?=?0.002), second (popliteus muscle, P?=?0.0003), third (LCL, 0.007) and the sixth (entire PCL, P?=?0.001) release step. In 90 flexion all differences of the lateral release steps were statistically significant (P?gap in flexion was found after the second (popliteus muscle, P?=?0.004) and third (LCL, 0.007) release step. Computer-assisted surgery allows measurement of the effect of each release step of the sequential lateral release sequence and helps the surgeon to better assess the result. PMID:17216522

  8. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  9. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's

  10. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  11. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the

  12. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  13. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly

  14. Senseless Extravagance, Shocking Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Dodge, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Although most people in the United States believe, at least theoretically, in educational equality, fewer and fewer appear to care about the resource gaps between affluent and poor schools, says Weissbourd. He illustrates these gaps with vivid descriptions of what he calls an "opulence arms race" among affluent independent schools, but points out

  15. Preventing Hospital Readmissions and Limiting the Complications Associated With Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yu, Stephen; Garvin, Kevin L; Healy, William L; Pellegrini, Vincent D; Iorio, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a highly successful surgical procedure for patients with painful arthritic joints. The increasing prevalence of the procedure is generating significant expenditures in the American healthcare system. Healthcare payers, specifically the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, currently target total joint arthroplasty as an area for healthcare cost-savings initiatives, resulting in increased scrutiny surrounding orthopaedic care, health resource utilization, and hospital readmissions. Identifying the complications associated with total hip and total knee arthroplasty that result in readmissions will be critically important for predictive modeling and for decreasing the number of readmissions following total joint arthroplasty. Additionally, improving perioperative optimization, providing seamless episodic care, and intensifying posthospital coordination of care may result in a decreasing number of unnecessary hospital readmissions. Identified modifiable risk factors that significantly contribute to poor clinical outcome following total joint arthroplasty include morbid obesity; poorly controlled diabetes and nutritional deficiencies; Staphylococcus aureus colonization; tobacco use; venous thromboembolic disease; cardiovascular disease; neurocognitive, psychological, and behavioral problems; and physical deconditioning and fall risk. Both clinical practice and research will be enhanced if there is standardization of defined total joint arthroplasty complications and utilization of stratification schemes to identify high-risk patients. Subsequently, clinical intervention would be warranted to address modifiable risk factors before proceeding with total joint arthroplasty. PMID:26498587

  16. Artificial Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (ACDA): tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Khadivi, Masoud; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa; Abdollahzade, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is currently treatment of choice for managing medical therapy refractory cervical degenerative disc disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ACDF; patients generally experience rapid recoveries, and dramatic improvement in their pain and quality of life. However, as several studies reported symptomatic adjacent segment disease attributed to fusions altered kinematics, cervical disc arthroplasty emerged as a new motion-sparing alternative to fusion. Fusion at one level increases motion at adjacent levels along with increased intradiscal pressures. This phenomenon can result in symptomatic adjacent level degeneration, which can necessitate reoperation at these levels. The era of cervical arthroplasty began in Europe in the late 1990s. In recent years, artificial cervical disc arthroplasty (ACDA) has been increasingly used by spine surgeons for degenerative cervical disc disease. There have been several reports of safety, efficacy and indications of ACDA. Cervical arthroplasty offers several theoretical advantages over anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of selected patients with medically refractory cervical radiculopathy. Preserving motion at the operated level, cervical TDR has the potential to decrease the occurrence of adjacent segment degeneration. There are a few studies on the efficacy and effectiveness of ACDA compared to cervical fusion. However, the true scenery of cervical arthroplasty yet to be identified. Objective: This study is intended to define patients' characteristics and outcomes of ACDA by a single surgeon in Iran. Methods: This retrospective study was performed in two general Hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2005 To 2010. All patients were operated by one senior neurospine surgeon. One hundred fifty three patients were operated in this period. All patients signed the informed consent form prior to surgery. All patients presented with cervical discopathy who had myelopathy or radiculopathy and failed conservative management, undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty by ACDA were included, consecutively. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. Exclusion criteria was age greater than 60 years, non compliance with the study protocol, osteoporosis, infection, congenital or post traumatic deformity, malignancy metabolic bone disease, and narrow cervical canal (less than 12 mm). Heterotopic ossification and adjacent segment degenerative changes were assessed at 2 years follow up by means of neutral and dynamic xrays and CT/MRI if clinically indicated. Neck and upper extremity pain were assessed before the procedure and in the first post-operative visit and 3 months later by means of visual analogue scale. A standard approach was performed to the anterior cervical spine. Patients were positioned supine while holding neck in neutral position. A combination of sharp and blunt dissection was performed to expose longus coli musculature and anterior cervical vertebrae. Trachea and esophagus were retracted medially and carotid artery and jugular vein laterally. After a thorough discectomy, the intersomatic space is distracted in a parallel way by a vertebral distracter. Followed by Caspar distractor is applied to provide a working channel into posterior disc space. In this stage, any remnant disc materials as well as osteophytes are removed and foraminal decompression is done. Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) opening and removal, although discouraged by some, is done next. In order to define the size of the prosthesis, multiple trials are tested. It is important not to exceed the height of the healthy adjacent disc to avoid facet joint overdistraction. An specific insertor is applied to plant the prosthesis in disc space. Control X-rays are advised to check the precise positioning of the implant. Results: one hundred-fifty three patients including 87 females and 66 males were included. The mean age was 41 for females and 42 for males. Affected level was C5-C6 in 81 cases, C6-C7 in 72

  17. Treatment of major wound necrosis following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lian, G; Cracchiolo, A; Lesavoy, M

    1989-01-01

    Following total knee arthoplasty, seven patients developed significant wound necrosis and dehiscence, requiring wound coverage with soft tissue flaps. Three patients had rheumatoid arthritis, three had degenerative arthritis, and one had osteosarcoma of the distal femur. Five different prostheses were used and the wound problems were discovered on average 21 days after arthroplasty. The average wound size was 6.0 cm2. Five were infected, four with Staphylococcus epidermidis and one with Staphylococcus aureus. All patients were treated with antibiotics and local debridement for an average of 10 days prior to the flap procedure. Medical gastrocnemius muscle flaps were used in two patients, unipedicle flaps transposed from the lateral thigh in three, and bipedicle flaps shifted from the medial thigh in two. Flaps were done an average of 56 days after arthroplasty, and knee rehabilitation was delayed an average of 76 days after arthroplasty. Patients were followed an average of 48 months after the flap procedure. Six patients had mild or no knee pain and one who remained infected had moderate constant pain. Three of the patients had greater than 90 degrees of knee motion and one had 75 degrees of motion. The remaining three had only 35 degrees of motion, due in part to significant preoperative contractures, infection, local radiation, and chemotherapy. Late infection developed in two patients at 20 and 45 months following the flap procedure. There was one excellent, three good, two fair, and one poor result using the Hospital for Special Surgery knee rating system at final follow-up examination. PMID:2584984

  18. Pain after hip arthroplasty managed by Brennan Healing Science.

    PubMed

    Namavar, Roxanna

    2014-01-01

    A case is presented illustrating the potential effect of Brennan Healing Science on pain following hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis. A 54-year-old woman experienced anterior groin pain, numbness at the bottom of her foot, and occasional grinding at her hip 22 years after right total hip arthroplasty secondary to avascular necrosis. X-ray films showed signs of osteolysis behind the acetabular cup and asymmetric decreased polyethylene thickness of the acetabular prosthetic. Her orthopedic surgeon advised the patient to follow up every 6-9 months to avoid catastrophic failure of the implant, with plans for surgical revision to be scheduled at the next appointment. The patient sought alternative treatment to avoid an invasive procedure. On presentation, the patient had difficulty walking up the stairs into the treatment room due to pain which she rated a 9/10. She found it painful to rotate, flex, extend her hip, or to sit. Hands-on healing techniques based on the Brennan Healing Science method were initiated, starting at the feet, balancing the energy, and working the way up the joints. Once the work at the hip was completed, the hands-on techniques continued up the centerline of the body and the healing was brought to a close. On completion of a 60-minute healing, the patient was able to stand freely and rated her pain as a 4/10. Flexion, extension, and rotation at the hip were no longer distressing. She was able to walk up and down stairs without distress and denied instability, bursitis, or trochanteric or iliopsoas pain or swelling. Repeat X-rays showed decrease in bone spurs and no hardware problem, and her orthopedic surgeon recommended follow-up after 2 years. It is suggested that Brennan Healing Science techniques could play an effective and cost-efficient role in the treatment of pain following hip arthroplasty. PMID:24439097

  19. Medialized Versus Lateralized Center of Rotation in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be performed using components that medialize or lateralize the center of rotation. The purpose of this prospective study was to directly compare 2 reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs. Two treatment groups and 1 control group were identified. Group I comprised 9 patients using a medialized Grammont-style (GRM) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 155. Group II comprised 9 patients using a lateralized (LAT) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 135. Pre- and postoperative assessment of range of motion, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and visual analog scale pain score were performed. Radiographic measurements of lateral humeral offset and acromiohumeral distance were compared. The GRM prosthesis achieved greater forward flexion (143.9 vs 115.6; P=.05), whereas the LAT achieved greater external rotation (35.0 vs 28.3; P=.07). The lateral humeral offset was greater for the LAT prosthesis compared with the GRM prosthesis, but this distance was not significantly different from that found in the control group. The acromiohumeral distance was significantly greater in the GRM prosthesis group compared with both the LAT and the control groups. The results of this study confirm that different reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs produce radiographically different anatomy. Whereas the GRM prosthesis significantly alters the anatomy of the shoulder, the LAT design can preserve some anatomic relationships found in the normal shoulder. The clinical outcomes indicate that this may have an effect on range of motion, with traditional designs achieving greater forward flexion and lateralized designs achieving greater external rotation. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1098-e1103.]. PMID:26652330

  20. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  1. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; S, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10 before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  2. Outcome of iatrogenic collateral ligaments injuries during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dragosloveanu, Serban; Cristea, Stefan; Stoica, Cristian; Dragosloveanu, Calin

    2014-12-01

    Soft tissue balance is an essential step in total knee arthroplasty by providing a good knee stability and an even distribution of load over the prosthesis components. During surgery, because of the need of having a good balance in most cases is necessary to do some soft tissue release in the medial compartment. Lateral release is far more rare and is generally needed for patients with valgus knees after high tibial osteotomy. Our purpose is to evaluate the complications that arise during soft tissue release and how to manage this unfortunate events for getting the best functional results for the patients. In this study, we analyzed 434 knee arthroplasties that were operated in our clinic in the past 8 years by the same knee team (2005-2012). Average age was 64.8 years. Eight of this patients had medial collateral ligament injuries during surgery, and two had lateral collateral ligament rupture. Average age of patients who suffered from medial collateral ligaments injuries was 62.8 years and for lateral collateral ligaments was 72.5 years. Body mass index was 34 for both groups. We used for evaluation the knee society pain and functional scores, and X-rays obtained after the surgery with a calibrated Siemens machine. Seven patients with MCL repair were satisfied with after surgery (Knee Society score was 87.7, and functional score was 80). One complained of knee instability associated with pain and needed revision. In LCL group, all patients had excellent results (Knee Society score was 91.5, and functional score was 85). We found that repair to collateral ligaments injuries must be obtained during surgery, especially complete ruptures of the MCL. There are several approaches to collateral ligaments ruptures during total knee arthroplasty that will be discussed during the article. PMID:24121794

  3. Clinical Biomechanics of Wear in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, John J; Pedersen, Douglas R; Johnston, Richard C; Brown, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    Complementary clinical and laboratory studies were performed to identify variables associated with polyethylene wear following total hip replacement, and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for accelerated wear in the total hip arthroplasty construct. Observational cohort studies were performed using a prospective clinical database of more than 4000 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon, to identify wear-related variables. These variables included head size, acetabular/femoral component impingement, and third body debris. Novel digital edge detection techniques were developed and employed to accurately measure wear, and to determine the relationships of head size and third body debris to acceleration of wear. A novel slidingdistance-coupled finite element model was formulated and employed to examine the mechanisms responsible for wear. The long-term cohort studies demonstrated smaller head sizes to be associated with less wear. Third body debris generated from cable fretting was associated with an increase in wear, osteolysis, and acetabular loosening, especially with larger head sizes. The sliding-distance-coupled finite element model replicated the wear rates occurring in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the importance of sliding distance on polyethylene wear following total hip arthroplasty. It also demonstrated substantial increases in wear associated with femoral head scratching from third body debris. Further extension of the finite element formulation demonstrated the potential for acetabular component rim damage from impingement wear, and the enhanced potential for third body ingress to the bearing surface with larger head sizes. Edge detection wear measurement techniques demonstrated that early wear rates were predictive of long-term wear rates. These complementary clinical and laboratory investigations have provided insight into 1) the significance of sliding distance and physiologic loci of motion as contributing factors in minimizing wear, 2) the deleterious effects of third body particulates in accelerating wear, 3) the potential for, and factors related to, impingement wear, and 4) the potential advantages and compromises related to the use of larger head sizes in the bearing surface construct. PMID:14575243

  4. Novel method for ensuring leg length in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Maratt, Joseph D; Weber, Alexander E; Knesek, Michael; Lien, John R; Urquhart, Andrew G

    2013-04-01

    Despite the overwhelming clinical success of total hip arthroplasty, complications such as leg-length discrepancy can be a significant cause of functional impairment and patient dissatisfaction. Multiple intraoperative techniques are available for measuring femoral limb length; however, many require additional invasive hardware and those that do not are less accurate at measuring limb length. This article introduces a novel, noninvasive intraoperative technique that quickly and accurately measures limb length and prevents postoperative leg-length discrepancy.The authors' method relies on the accurate reproduction of a line perpendicular to the femoral axis near the proximal aspect of the greater trochanter intraoperatively and during preoperative planning and requires minor modifications to the instrumentation used. A narrow slot for the placement of a guide plate was machined into a standard trial head 37° from the axis of the neck for use with a high offset 127° Secur-Fit PLUS stem and 42° from the axis of the neck for use with a standard offset 132° Secur-Fit stem (Stryker Orthopaedics, Kalamazoo, Michigan). Once a broach is securely seated, a trial neck, slotted trial head, and guide plate are assembled and the distance from the guide plate to the proximal tip of the greater trochanter is compared with the preoperative planning measurements to assess the stem position.A retrospective radiographic analysis of 31 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasty using this technique showed the mean postoperative leg-length discrepancy to be 2.18±6.08 mm. This method is an additional tool for the arthroplasty surgeon's armamentarium to ensure accurate leg-length restoration. PMID:23590776

  5. 21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Newfound Gap Road, last pullout before gap, North Carolina side. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  7. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  8. Prevention of VTE Following total hip and knee arthroplasty in Hemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Stein, Matthew I; Park, Justin; Raterman, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    The often debilitating condition of hemophilic arthropathy is treated with elective total joint arthroplasty. Little has been published addressing the role of thromboembolic prophylaxis in the hemophilic patient population following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although the American College of Chest Physicians and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons have set guidelines for thromboembolic prophylaxis in the general population, no such standard of care is in place for hemophilic patients. While the risk of thrombosis in hemophilic patients following THA and TKA is thought to be lower, cases have been reported of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hemophilic patients. PMID:21553745

  9. Total hip arthroplasty: use and select complications in the US Medicare population.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J A; Barrett, J; Katz, J N; Liang, M H

    1996-01-01

    Use and outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty among US Medicare recipients more than 65 years of age were investigated by means of physician and hospital claims for a 5% random sample during 1986 through 1989. Cases involving hip fracture or evidence of existing orthopedic devices in the hip were omitted. Use rates were higher for women than for men and were substantially lower for Blacks than Whites. Major complications (death, further hip surgery, infection pulmonary embolism) were uncommon. These data document the frequent use of total hip arthroplasty, and confirm the rarity of serious adverse outcomes. Further studies should investigate the lower use of total hip arthroplasty among Blacks. PMID:8561246

  10. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the hip: a complication of arthroplasty to be recognized by the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Boas, Raquel de Melo Santos Vilas; Madeira, Ivana Andrade; Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Paiva, Edson Barreto; Rodrigues, Andr Soares

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue complications following hip arthroplasty may occur either in cases of total hip arthroplasty or in hip resurfacing, a technique that has become popular in cases involving young patients. Both orthopedic and radiological literatures are now calling attention to these symptomatic periprosthetic soft tissue masses called inflammatory pseudotumors or aseptic lymphocytic vasculites-associated lesions. Pseudotumors are associated with pain, instability, neuropathy, and premature loosening of prosthetic components, frequently requiring early and difficult reoperation. Magnetic resonance imaging plays a relevant role in the evaluation of soft tissue changes in the painful hip after arthroplasty, ranging from early periprosthetic fluid collections to necrosis and more extensive tissue damage. PMID:26543283

  11. [Management of extensor mechanism injuries following total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Abdel, M P; Fuchs, M; von Roth, P

    2016-01-01

    Extensor mechanism injuries in total knee arthroplasty include disruption of the quadriceps tendon, disruption of the patellar tendon, and/or patellar fractures. While these injuries are rare, they are a devastating complication to manage. This review summarizes the anatomy of the extensor mechanism, risk factors for extensor mechanism injuries, and the prevalence and diagnosis of extensor mechanism injuries. In addition, this review outlines non-operative and operative management options. A new surgical approach for the reconstruction and augmentation of the extensor mechanism with the use of a synthetic mesh is described in detail. In multiple publications and in our own experience this newly developed technique shows promising results. PMID:26597798

  12. Predicting Blood Loss in Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sizer, Stephen C; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Elmallah, Randa D K; Pierce, Todd P; Beaver, Walter B; Mont, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Marked blood loss during lower extremity total joint arthroplasties may lead to higher rates of transfusion, which may negatively affect surgical outcomes and yield greater complication rates. It is therefore ideal to identify factors that may increase the likelihood of blood loss, so they can be modified. From this review, it can be concluded that preoperative anemia, older age, multiple comorbidities, increased operative time, and use of postoperative anticoagulation may lead to higher blood loss and transfusion rates, although the influence of other factors remains controversial. PMID:26410634

  13. Survivorship analysis in total condylar knee arthroplasty. A statistical review.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, R G; Brand, R; Rozing, P M

    1992-03-01

    Survivorship analysis, which is often encountered in the medical literature, is used to calculate the probability of a certain event, such as failure of a prosthesis, as a function of the time elapsed since an operation. Possible pitfalls in the use of this method are related to the size of the population of patients and the definition of how the outcome is measured. We studied the outcomes of 204 total knee arthroplasties in 165 patients, using six different end-points, in order to illustrate these problems. Survivorship estimates that are cited without confidence intervals have little clinical value. PMID:1548265

  14. PAIN FOLLOWING TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY – A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Wilson Mello; Migon, Eduardo Zaniol; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amim

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is known to be a successful procedure. The aging of the population and the growing demand for quality of life have greatly increased the indications for the procedure. Nonetheless, TKA presents some complications that still lack definitive resolution. Pain after TKA is caused by a myriad of reasons that need to be systematically studied in order to reach the correct diagnosis and treatment. History, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging examinations must all be included in the workup and repeated until a plausible reason has been identified, since if pain is the only indication for TKA revision, the results may be catastrophic.

  15. Intraoperative limb length measurement in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Naito, M; Ogata, K; Asayama, I

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative measurement of limb length inequality (LLI), we performed a prospective study on 64 patients who underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The patients were divided into 2 groups. In Group I, the LLI was evaluated by the Shuck test, and in Group II by intraoperative measurement using a Steinman pin and an adjustable caliper. Preoperative LLIs assessed on radiographs averaged 1.18 cm in Group I and 0.37 cm in Group II. PMID:10192014

  16. Evaluation and management of the painful total ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Haddad, Steven L; Myerson, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly popular treatment option for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis. Although improved short- and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes have been achieved with TAA, revision surgery may be necessary in the setting of aseptic loosening, subsidence, impingement, arthrofibrosis, or infection. Factors such as patient selection, implant design, and surgical technique can all contribute to TAA failure. Treatment of patients with a painful TAA is complex and requires careful consideration of symptom history, workup, and nonsurgical and surgical treatment options. Surgical management of failed TAA includes arthrodesis, revision surgery, or below-knee amputation. PMID:25829450

  17. Better survival of hybrid total knee arthroplasty compared to cemented arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Petursson, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Gthesen, ystein; Lygre, Stein Hkon Lstad; Rhrl, Stephan M; Furnes, Ove

    2015-12-01

    Background and purpose - There have been few comparative studies on total knee replacement (TKR) with cemented tibia and uncemented femur (hybrid TKR). Previous studies have not shown any difference in revision rate between cemented and hybrid fixation, but these studies had few hybrid prostheses. We have evaluated the outcome of hybrid TKR based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). Patients and methods - We compared 4,585 hybrid TKRs to 20,095 cemented TKRs with risk of revision for any cause as the primary endpoint. We included primary TKRs without patella resurfacing that were reported to the NAR during the years 1999-2012. To minimize the possible confounding effect of prosthesis brands, only brands that were used both as hybrids and cemented in more than 200 cases were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were done with adjustment for age, sex, and preoperative diagnosis. To include death as a competing risk, cumulative incidence function estimates were calculated. Results - Estimated survival at 11 years was 94.3% (95% CI: 93.9-94.7) in the cemented TKR group and 96.3% (CI: 95.3-97.3) in the hybrid TKR group. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a lower risk of revision in the hybrid group (relative risk = 0.58, CI: 0.48-0.72, p < 0.001). The hybrid group included 3 brands of prostheses: LCS classic, LCS complete, and Profix. Profix hybrid TKR had lower risk of revision than cemented TKR, but the LCS classic and LCS complete did not. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival at 11 years was 96.8% (CI: 95.6-98.0) in the hybrid Profix group and 95.2% (CI: 94.6-95.8) in the cemented Profix group. Mean operating time was 17 min longer in the cemented group. Interpretation - Survivorship of the hybrid TKR at 11 years was better than that for cemented TKR, or the same, depending on the brand of prosthesis. Hybrid fixation appears to be a safe and time-efficient alternative to cemented fixation in total knee replacement surgery. PMID:26179889

  18. Better survival of hybrid total knee arthroplasty compared to cemented arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Gøthesen, Øystein; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Röhrl, Stephan M; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — There have been few comparative studies on total knee replacement (TKR) with cemented tibia and uncemented femur (hybrid TKR). Previous studies have not shown any difference in revision rate between cemented and hybrid fixation, but these studies had few hybrid prostheses. We have evaluated the outcome of hybrid TKR based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). Patients and methods — We compared 4,585 hybrid TKRs to 20,095 cemented TKRs with risk of revision for any cause as the primary endpoint. We included primary TKRs without patella resurfacing that were reported to the NAR during the years 1999–2012. To minimize the possible confounding effect of prosthesis brands, only brands that were used both as hybrids and cemented in more than 200 cases were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were done with adjustment for age, sex, and preoperative diagnosis. To include death as a competing risk, cumulative incidence function estimates were calculated. Results — Estimated survival at 11 years was 94.3% (95% CI: 93.9–94.7) in the cemented TKR group and 96.3% (CI: 95.3–97.3) in the hybrid TKR group. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a lower risk of revision in the hybrid group (relative risk = 0.58, CI: 0.48–0.72, p < 0.001). The hybrid group included 3 brands of prostheses: LCS classic, LCS complete, and Profix. Profix hybrid TKR had lower risk of revision than cemented TKR, but the LCS classic and LCS complete did not. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival at 11 years was 96.8% (CI: 95.6–98.0) in the hybrid Profix group and 95.2% (CI: 94.6–95.8) in the cemented Profix group. Mean operating time was 17 min longer in the cemented group. Interpretation — Survivorship of the hybrid TKR at 11 years was better than that for cemented TKR, or the same, depending on the brand of prosthesis. Hybrid fixation appears to be a safe and time-efficient alternative to cemented fixation in total knee replacement surgery. PMID:26179889

  19. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  20. Bone Cement Solidifiliation Influence the Limb Alignment and Gap Balance during TKA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dongquan; Xu, Xingquan; Guo, Anyun; Dai, Jin; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Dongyang; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mechanical alignment deviation after total knee arthroplasty is a major reason for early loosening of the prosthesis. Achieving optimum cement penetration during fixation of the femoral and tibial component is an essential step in performing a successful total knee arthroplasty. Bone cement is used to solidify the bone and prosthesis. Thickness imbalance of bone cement leads to the deviation of mechanical alignment. To estimate the influence of bone cement, a retrospective study was conducted. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 subjects were studied. All the TKA were performed following the standard surgical protocol for navigated surgery by medial approach with general anaesthesia. Prostheses were fixed by bone cement. Results. We compared the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance before and after cementation. All the factors were different compared with those before and after cementation. Internal rotation was reached with statistical significance (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Bone cement can influence the mechanical axis, flexion/extension, and gap balance. It also can prompt us to make a change when poor knee kinematics were detected before cementation. PMID:25688349

  1. Patellofemoral crepitus after total knee arthroplasty: etiology and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Conrad, David N; Dennis, Douglas A

    2014-03-01

    Patellofemoral crepitus and clunk syndrome are infrequent, yet troublesome complications of total knee arthroplasty with a reported incidence of 0%-18%. They are primarily associated with implantation of posterior cruciate substituting designs. These entities are the result of peripatellar fibrosynovial hyperplasia at the junction of the superior pole of the patella and the distal quadriceps tendon which becomes entrapped within the superior aspect of the intercondylar box of the femoral component during knee flexion. When the knee extends, a crepitant sensation occurs as the fibrosynovial tissue exits the intercondylar box. Numerous etiologies have been proposed such as femoral component designs with a high intercondylar box ratio, previous knee surgery, reduced patellar tendon length, thinner patellar components, reduced patella-patellar component composite thickness, and smaller femoral components. Preventative measures include choice of femoral components with a reduced intercondylar box ratio, use of thicker patellar components, avoidance of over-resection of the patella, and debridement of the fibrosynovial tissue at the time of knee arthroplasty. Most patients with crepitus are unaware of the problem or have minimal symptoms so that no treatment is required. If significant disability is incurred, symptoms can be eliminated in a high percentage of patients with arthroscopic debridement of the fibrosynovial hyperplasia. PMID:24605184

  2. Lower limb length and offset in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Flecher, X; Ollivier, M; Argenson, J N

    2016-02-01

    Restoration of normal hip biomechanics is a key goal of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and favorably affects functional recovery. Furthermore, a major concern for both the surgeon and the patient is preservation or restoration of limb length equality, which must be achieved without compromising the stability of the prosthesis. Here, definitions are given for anatomic and functional limb length discrepancies and for femoral and hip offset, determined taking anteversion into account. Data on the influence of operated-limb length and offset on patient satisfaction, hip function, and prosthesis survival after THA are reviewed. Errors may adversely impact function, quality of life, and prosthetic survival and may also generate conflicts between the surgeon and patient. Surgeons rely on two- or three-dimensional preoperative templating and on intraoperative landmarks to manage offset and length. Accuracy can be improved by using computer-assisted planning or surgery and the more recently introduced EOS imaging system. The prosthetic's armamentarium now includes varus-aligned and lateralized implants, as well as implants with modular or custom-made necks, which allow restoration of the normal hip geometry, most notably in patients with coxa vara or coxa valga. Femoral anteversion must also receive careful attention. The most common errors are limb lengthening and a decrease in hip offset. When symptoms are caused by an error in length and/or offset, revision arthroplasty may deserve consideration. PMID:26797005

  3. Timing of Tourniquet Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Huang, ZeYu; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Yun; Pei, FuXing; Yang, Jing; Zhou, ZongKe; Kang, PengDe; Shen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the available tourniquet application strategies for patients treated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 2. Differentiate the potential strengths and limitations of tourniquet release before and after wound closure in TKA. 3. Cite the available evidence regarding tourniquet release before and after wound closure in TKA. 4. Recognize the optimal tourniquet application strategy in TKA based on the available evidence. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to determine the optimal tourniquet application strategy in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fourteen high-quality randomized, controlled trials were retrieved. The results showed tourniquet release before wound closure for hemostasis could significantly increase not only the total measured blood loss but also the calculated blood loss in patients treated with TKA, regardless of fixation type. With proper control of the amount of pressure (less than 293 mm Hg) and the duration of application (less than 150 minutes), tourniquet release after wound closure can reduce blood loss in patients treated with primary TKA without increasing the risk of complications. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(7):445-451.]. PMID:26186313

  4. Patellofemoral Crepitus after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Etiology and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Patellofemoral crepitus and clunk syndrome are infrequent, yet troublesome complications of total knee arthroplasty with a reported incidence of 0%-18%. They are primarily associated with implantation of posterior cruciate substituting designs. These entities are the result of peripatellar fibrosynovial hyperplasia at the junction of the superior pole of the patella and the distal quadriceps tendon which becomes entrapped within the superior aspect of the intercondylar box of the femoral component during knee flexion. When the knee extends, a crepitant sensation occurs as the fibrosynovial tissue exits the intercondylar box. Numerous etiologies have been proposed such as femoral component designs with a high intercondylar box ratio, previous knee surgery, reduced patellar tendon length, thinner patellar components, reduced patella-patellar component composite thickness, and smaller femoral components. Preventative measures include choice of femoral components with a reduced intercondylar box ratio, use of thicker patellar components, avoidance of over-resection of the patella, and debridement of the fibrosynovial tissue at the time of knee arthroplasty. Most patients with crepitus are unaware of the problem or have minimal symptoms so that no treatment is required. If significant disability is incurred, symptoms can be eliminated in a high percentage of patients with arthroscopic debridement of the fibrosynovial hyperplasia. PMID:24605184

  5. Hospital volume affects outcome after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pamilo, Konsta J; Peltola, Mikko; Paloneva, Juha; Mkel, Keijo; Hkkinen, Unto; Remes, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The influence of hospital volume on the outcome of total knee joint replacement surgery is controversial. We evaluated nationwide data on the effect of hospital volume on length of stay, re-admission, revision, manipulation under anesthesia (MUA), and discharge disposition for total knee replacement (TKR) in Finland. Patients and methods 59,696 TKRs for primary osteoarthritis performed between 1998 and 2010 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Hospitals were classified into 4 groups according to the number of primary and revision knee arthroplasties performed on an annual basis throughout the study period: 199 (group 1), 100249 (group 2), 250449 (group 3), and ? 450 (group 4). The association between hospital procedure volume and length of stay (LOS), length of uninterrupted institutional care (LUIC), re-admissions, revisions, MUA, and discharge disposition were analyzed. Results The greater the volume of the hospital, the shorter was the average LOS and LUIC. Smaller hospital volume was not unambiguously associated with increased revision, re-admission, or MUA rates. The smaller the annual hospital volume, the more often patients were discharged home. Interpretation LOS and LUIC ought to be shortened in lower-volume hospitals. There is potential for a reduction in length of stay in extended institutional care facilities. PMID:25323798

  6. Easy Identification of Mechanical Axis during Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Kim, Sang-Min; Jo, Byung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We devised an intraoperatively identifiable mechanical axis (IIMA) as a reference of alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and Methods Between February 2010 and January 2011, primary TKAs were consecutively performed on 672 patients (1007 knees) using an IIMA as a reference in the coronal plane. Results The alignment of the lower extremity improved from a mean of 11.4±6.7° (-10.3-34.4°) of varus preop. to 0.7±3.5° (-5.2-8.6°) immediately after surgery. Mean alignment of the femoral component in the coronal plane was 89.3±2.3° (83.4-97.2°) postop. and mean alignment of the tibial component was 90.4±2.2° (85.1-94.2°) postop. Conclusion This study showed that IIMA could be of considerable value as a new guider of alignment that is easily accessible and highly effective during total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24142658

  7. Complications in shoulder arthroplasty: an analysis of 485 cases

    PubMed Central

    Raiss, Patric; Rickert, Markus; Loew, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the complication rates of six different shoulder arthroplasty concepts for different diagnoses in the short and midterm. The study included 485 primary shoulder arthroplasties. The mean follow-up of the cohort was 3.5 (110) years. Complications were classified into three categories: (1) without reoperation, (2) soft tissue revision and (3) implant revision. In total, 56 complications were recorded (11.6%): 34 (7%) were category 1 complications, 11 (2.3%) were category 2 and 11 (2.3%) were category 3. For the whole cohort the median follow-up was 1.6years (110years) and the survival rate without any complication was 90.5% (95% CI: 87.993.1). Patients rated the result of their surgery in 270 (55.7%) cases as very satisfied, in 148 (30.5%) as satisfied, in 43 (8.9%) as somewhat disappointed and in 24 (4.9%) as disappointed. A relatively low complication rate was found in this study. Long-term observations are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:19396634

  8. Risk Prediction Tools for Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Manning, David W; Edelstein, Adam I; Alvi, Hasham M

    2016-01-01

    The current healthcare environment in America is driven by the concepts of quality, cost containment, and value. In this environment, primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures have been targeted for cost containment through quality improvement initiatives intended to reduce the incidence of costly complications and readmissions. Accordingly, risk prediction tools have been developed in an attempt to quantify the patient-specific assessment of risk. Risk prediction tools may be useful for the informed consent process, for enhancing risk mitigation efforts, and for risk-adjusting data used for reimbursement and the public reporting of outcomes. The evaluation of risk prediction tools involves statistical measures such as discrimination and calibration to assess accuracy and utility. Furthermore, prediction tools are tuned to the source dataset from which they are derived, require validation with external datasets, and should be recalibrated over time. However, a high-quality, externally validated risk prediction tool for adverse outcomes after primary total joint arthroplasty remains an elusive goal. PMID:26604220

  9. Analysis and Treatment of Complications after Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song; Lee, Jae Il; Kim, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the causes and types of complications after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and determine proper prevention and treatment methods. Materials and Methods A total of 1,576 UKAs were performed for osteoarthritis of the knee from January 2002 to December 2014 at one institution. We analyzed complications after UKA retrospectively and investigated proper methods of treatment. Results A total of 89 complications (5.6%) occurred after UKA. Regarding the type of complications after UKA, there were 42 cases of dislocation of the mobile bearing, 23 cases of loosening of the prosthesis, 6 cases of periprosthetic fracture, 3 cases of polyethylene wear, 3 cases of progression of arthritis in the contralateral compartment, 2 cases of medial collateral ligament injury, 2 cases of impingement, 5 cases of infection, 1 case of arthrofibrosis, and 2 cases of failure due to unexplained pain. The most common complication after UKA was mobile bearing dislocation in the mobile-bearing knees and loosening of the prosthesis in the fixed-bearing knees, but polyethylene wear and progression of arthritis were relatively rare. The complications were treated with conversion to total knee arthroplasty in 58 cases and simple bearing change in 21 cases. Conclusions The most common complication after UKA was dislocation of the mobile bearing. When a complication occurs after UKA, appropriate treatment should be performed after accurate analysis of the cause of complication. PMID:26952551

  10. Innovations in design and technology. The story of hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amstutz, H C

    2000-09-01

    The current study reviews the early history of surgeon-initiated trial and error development in hip joint arthroplasty and the subsequent methodological evolution to proper criteria for hypothesis testing using bioengineers and other research scientists. The interplay and relationships to industry, universities, scientific organizations, and the Food and Drug Administration with respect to device development in hip arthroplasty are reviewed. The ethics of and responsibilities to involved parties are outlined, citing the history of many contemporary developments. Examples are provided from the evolution and introduction of unsuccessful innovations, and the problems inherent in the current methodology of the approval process from the Food and Drug Administration using the 5-10K, Investigative Device Exemption, and the Pre-Market Approval protocols. The pros and cons of randomized trials for devices are outlined with the conclusion that they are not appropriate for device introduction. The proper, rational methodology for introduction of new devices is a phased-in clinical trial process after pertinent bench testing. Finally, the ethical dilemmas created by managed care are addressed. Industry involvements of the surgeon-spokesmen are cited. PMID:10986970

  11. Heterotopic Ossification Causing Radiculopathy after Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Keith L; Hire, Justin M; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Key, Charles C; DeVine, John G

    2015-06-01

    To date, no reports have presented radiculopathy secondary to heterotopic ossification following lumbar total disc arthroplasty. The authors present a previously unpublished complication of lumbar total disk arthroplasty (TDA) secondary to heterotopic ossification (HO) in the spinal canal, and they propose a modification to the McAfee classification of HO. The patient had undergone an L5/S1 lumbar TDA two years prior due to discogenic back pain. His preoperative back pain was significantly relieved, but he developed new, atraumatic onset radiculopathy. Radiographs and a computed tomography myelogram revealed an implant malposition posteriorly with heterotopic bone formation in the canal, causing an impingement of the traversing nerve root. Revision surgery was performed with implant extraction, L5/S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion, supplemental posterior decompression, and pedicle screw fixation. The patient tolerated the procedure well, with complete resolution of the radicular leg pain. At a two-year follow up, the patient had a solid fusion without subsidence or recurrence of heterotopic bone. This case represents a novel pattern of heterotopic ossification, and it describes a previously unreported cause for implant failure in lumbar disc replacement surgery-reinforcing the importance of proper intraoperative component positioning. We propose a modification to the existing McAfee classification of HO after TDA with the addition of Class V and VI HO. PMID:26097664

  12. Early recovery after fast-track Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose After total knee arthroplasty with conventional surgical approach, more than half of the quadriceps extension strength is lost in the first postoperative month. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) operated with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) results in less operative trauma. We investigated changes in leg-extension power (LEP) in the first month after MIS Oxford UKA and its relation to pain, knee motion, functional performance, and knee function. Patients and methods In 35 consecutive Oxford UKA patients, LEP was measured 1 week before and 1 month after surgery together with knee motion, knee swelling, the 30-second chair-stand test, and Oxford knee score. Assessment of knee pain at rest and walking was done using a visual analog scale. Results 30 patients were discharged on the day after surgery, and 5 on the second day after surgery. LEP and functional performance reached the preoperative level after 1 month. Only slight postoperative knee swelling was observed with rapid restoration of knee flexion and function. A high level of pain during the first postoperative night and day fell considerably thereafter. None of the patients needed physiotherapy supervision in the first month after discharge. Interpretation Fast-track MIS Oxford UKA with discharge on the day after surgery is safe and leads to early recovery of knee motion and strength even when no physiotherapy is used. PMID:22313368

  13. Hip arthroplasty after failed fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients. Methods All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5–11 years. Results The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0–13; p = 0.06). Interpretation The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation. PMID:22574819

  14. Shoulder arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: correlation between function and radiographic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Duarte, Fernando Aires; Toffoli, Rogerio Padovani; Burnato, Joo Henrique; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters and functional assessments of patients with osteoarthritis of the shoulder who underwent shoulder arthroplasty and to describe the functional outcomes of this procedure in our institution. METHODS: We evaluated 21 patients (22 shoulders) who underwent shoulder arthroplasty between 1998 and 2010 and with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Constant-Murley scale, UCLA, EVA and by measuring the active motion. We analysed preoperative (distance between the top of the head and the humerus and the acromion, superior migration, neck angulation, medial "offset", subluxation, glenoid erosion) and postoperative radiographic parameters (rod inclination, migration of components and loosening). RESULTS: Patients showed significant improvement in all parameters: flexion (p = 0.0083), abduction (p = 0.0266), external rotation (p = 0.0062), Constant-Murley (p = 0.0001 ), UCLA (p <0.0001) and VAS (p = 0.0002). The superior migration of the humerus showed a significant correlation with UCLA and Constant-Murley scores (p = 0.0480 and p = 0.0110, respectively). The other radiographic parameters showed no correlation with the clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The superior migration of the humerus is related to worse clinical scores. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453651

  15. Cancer risk is not increased after conventional hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, Pekka; Paavolainen, Pekka; Pukkala, Eero

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear debris from conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) induces chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage, which may promote cancerogenesis. A long latent period is required for solid tumors. We therefore re-analyzed a large THA cohort for cancer. Patients and methods We updated a cohort of 24,636 patients with primary osteoarthritis and metal-on-polyethylene THA who had been entered in the Finnish Arthroplasty Register between 1980 and 1995, and linked it to the Finnish Cancer Registry for cancer risk assessment up to 2005. The mean follow-up time was 13 years. The numbers of cancer cases observed were compared with expected rates based on incidence in the general population. Results The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for the whole follow-up period was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.920.97). After 10 years of follow-up, the SIR was equal to that in the normal population (SIR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.941.03). Incidence of lung cancer was low throughout the follow-up time and that of prostate cancer was slightly elevated. The incidence rates for all other forms of cancer did not deviate significantly from those in the normal population. Interpretation We found no increased cancer risk in patients with conventional THA after an average of 13 years and up to 25 years of follow-up. PMID:20178446

  16. Heterotopic Ossification Causing Radiculopathy after Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Keith L.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Key, Charles C.; DeVine, John G.

    2015-01-01

    To date, no reports have presented radiculopathy secondary to heterotopic ossification following lumbar total disc arthroplasty. The authors present a previously unpublished complication of lumbar total disk arthroplasty (TDA) secondary to heterotopic ossification (HO) in the spinal canal, and they propose a modification to the McAfee classification of HO. The patient had undergone an L5/S1 lumbar TDA two years prior due to discogenic back pain. His preoperative back pain was significantly relieved, but he developed new, atraumatic onset radiculopathy. Radiographs and a computed tomography myelogram revealed an implant malposition posteriorly with heterotopic bone formation in the canal, causing an impingement of the traversing nerve root. Revision surgery was performed with implant extraction, L5/S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion, supplemental posterior decompression, and pedicle screw fixation. The patient tolerated the procedure well, with complete resolution of the radicular leg pain. At a two-year follow up, the patient had a solid fusion without subsidence or recurrence of heterotopic bone. This case represents a novel pattern of heterotopic ossification, and it describes a previously unreported cause for implant failure in lumbar disc replacement surgery-reinforcing the importance of proper intraoperative component positioning. We propose a modification to the existing McAfee classification of HO after TDA with the addition of Class V and VI HO. PMID:26097664

  17. Postoperative radiograph of the hip arthroplasty: what the radiologist should know.

    PubMed

    Vanrusselt, Jan; Vansevenant, Milan; Vanderschueren, Geert; Vanhoenacker, Filip

    2015-12-01

    This pictorial review aims to provide the radiologist with simple and systematic guidelines for the radiographic evaluation of a hip prosthesis. Currently, there is a plethora of commercially available arthroplasties, making postoperative analysis not always straightforward. Knowledge of the different types of hip arthroplasty and fixating techniques is a prerequisite for correct imaging interpretation. After identification of the type of arthroplasty, meticulous and systematic analysis of the following parameters on an anteroposterior standing pelvic radiograph should be undertaken: leg length, vertical and horizontal centre of rotation, lateral acetabular inclination, and femoral stem positioning. Additional orthogonal views may be useful to evaluate acetabular anteversion. Complications can be classified in three major groups: periprosthetic lucencies, sclerosis or bone proliferation, and component failure or fracture. Teaching Points To give an overview of the different types of currently used hip arthroplasties. To provide a simple framework for a systematic approach to postoperative radiographs. To discuss radiographic findings of the most common complications. PMID:26487647

  18. Safety and efficacy of arthroscopy in the setting of shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Sebastian; de Sa, Darren; Duong, Andrew; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-03-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty has become a reliable and reproducible method of treating a range of shoulder pathologies including fractures, osteoarthritis, and rotator cuff arthropathy. Although most patients experience favorable outcomes from shoulder arthroplasty, some patients suffer from persistent symptoms post-arthroplasty and it is these patients who present a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The role of arthroscopy in assessing and treating patients with symptomatic prosthetic joints elsewhere in the body has been established in recent literature. However, the range of pathology that can affect a prosthetic shoulder is distinct from the knee or the hip and requires careful and considered assessment if an accurate diagnosis is to be made. When used alongside other investigations in a comprehensive assessment protocol, arthroscopy can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of the problematic shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:26810062

  19. The risk of revision in total knee arthroplasty is not affected by previous high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M; Indrekvam, Kari; Havelin, Leif I; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Previous studies have found different outcomes after revision of knee arthroplasties performed after high tibial osteotomy (HTO). We evaluated the risk of revision of total knee arthroplasty with or without previous HTO in a large registry material. Patients and methods 31,077 primary TKAs were compared with 1,399 TKAs after HTO, using Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival percentages and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results The adjusted survival analyses showed similar survival in the 2 groups. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival was 93.8% in the primary TKA group and 92.6% in the TKA-post-HTO group. Adjusted RR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.771.21; p = 0.8). Interpretation In this registry-based study, previous high tibial osteotomy did not appear to compromise the results regarding risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty compared to primary knee arthroplasty. PMID:26058747

  20. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  1. Management bone loss of the proximal femur in revision hip arthroplasty: Update on reconstructive options

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Babis, George C

    2014-01-01

    The number of revision total hip arthroplasties is expected to rise as the indications for arthroplasty will expand due to the aging population. The prevalence of extensive proximal femoral bone loss is expected to increase subsequently. The etiology of bone loss from the proximal femur after total hip arthroplasty is multifactorial. Stress shielding, massive osteolysis, extensive loosening and history of multiple surgeries consist the most common etiologies. Reconstruction of extensive bone loss of the proximal femur during a revision hip arthroplasty is a major challenge for even the most experienced orthopaedic surgeon. The amount of femoral bone loss and the bone quality of the remaining metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone dictate the selection of appropriate reconstructive option. These include the use of impaction allografting, distal press-fit fixation, allograft-prosthesis composites and tumor megaprostheses. This review article is a concise review of the current literature and provides an algorithmic approach for reconstruction of different types of proximal femoral bone defects. PMID:25405090

  2. Bridging a cultural gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-09-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

  3. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  4. Bridging NCL research gaps.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Frank; van der Putten, Herman

    2015-10-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively called NCLs, are rare and fatal lysosomal storage diseases that mainly affect children. Due to the fact that NCLs are both rare and heterogeneous (mutations in thirteen different genes) significant gaps exist in both preclinical and clinical research. Altogether, these gaps are major hurdles to bring therapies to patients while the need for new therapies is urgent to help them and their families. To define gaps and discuss solutions, a round table discussion involving teams and different stake holders took place during the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease) in Cordóba, Argentina. Topics covered by the teams and their leaders (in parentheses) included basic and translational research gaps with regard to large animal models (I. Tammen, D.N. Palmer), human NCL pathology and access to human tissue (J.D. Cooper, H.H. Goebel), rare NCLs (S. Hofman, I. Noher), links of NCLs to other diseases (F.M. Platt), gaps between clinic and clinical trials (H. Adams, A. Schulz), international collaborative efforts working towards a cure (S.E. Mole, H. Band) perspectives on palliative care from patient organizations (M. Frazier, A. West), and issues NCL researchers face when progressing to independent career in academia (M. Bond). Thoughts presented by the team leaders include previously unpublished opinions and information on the lack of understanding of disease pathomechanisms, gene function, assays for drug discovery and target validation, natural history of disease, and biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and treatment effects. This article is not intended to review the NCL literature. It includes personal opinions of the authors and it provides the reader with a summary of gaps discussed and solutions proposed by the teams. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease). PMID:26056946

  5. Bilateral Simultaneous Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Patient-Matched Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim; Mehta, Vikas; Mbubaegbu, Chima; Qamar, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral total knee arthroplasty can be performed either as a staged or simultaneous procedure. We conducted a retrospective comparative study to compare the need for transfusion, the length of procedure, the length of stay, and complications of bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasty with those of unilateral knee arthroplasty. Sixty-nine patients who underwent bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasty procedures were compared with a matched control group of 69 patients who underwent unilateral knee arthroplasty. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine optimum cut-off values. Both groups of patients had a similar age and gender distribution, preoperative haemoglobin and ASA scores. Cumulative transfusion episodes were lower in the bilateral group than twice that of the unilateral group. In multivariate analysis the preoperative haemoglobin level and bilateral procedures were independent factors predicting the need for transfusion. The average length of procedure and length of hospital stay in the bilateral group was less than twice than that of the unilateral group. Advanced age and bilateral procedures were independent predictors of prolonged length of stay. A haemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and age of 70 were most suitable cut-off points to predict need for transfusion and occurrence of medical complications respectively. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasties are safe and cost effective in appropriately selected patients. We recommend avoiding bilateral simultaneous procedures in patients over the age of 70 years and with significant comorbidities. PMID:26587069

  6. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap

  7. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what

  8. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  9. Bridging the Race Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etindi, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how easily children accept racial differences, looking at ways that adults can work to bridge the racial gap and promote understanding (e.g., utilize natural opportunities to speak to others in order to break down natural hesitancies, join a relevant discussion group, expand one's reading material, and listen to the hearts of others, not

  10. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  11. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  12. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this

  13. Crossing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In a nation where education is funded largely by local property taxes, schools in wealthy communities have plenty of funds to spend on programs that get their kids ready for college. Schools in poor communities scrimp and save to get the job done--or hope that funding from the state will help fill in the gap. This article describes how students

  14. Confronting the Autonomy Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamowski, Steven; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    "The Autonomy Gap," a recent study by the American Institute for Research and the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, found that many public elementary school principals feel constrained by a bureaucracy that impedes their ability to raise student achievement. Unfortunately, those principals are still held accountable for their school's results--even…

  15. The Teaching Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive studies to highlight the achievement gap between students in the United States and those in many other countries is the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). TIMSS showed that a handful of countries (with Japan near the top) consistently outperformed the others studied (including the United

  16. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to

  17. Bridging the Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Kardos, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The lack of instructional continuity in schools negates every effort of principals to provide an environment where all students would be successful. One solution could be to bridge the gap between the professional knowledge and skills of experienced teachers and the energy and fresh ideas of new recruits so that the latter are provided support

  18. Rho GAPs and GEFs

    PubMed Central

    van Buul, Jaap D; Geerts, Dirk; Huveneers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Within blood vessels, endothelial cellcell and cellmatrix adhesions are crucial to preserve barrier function, and these adhesions are tightly controlled during vascular development, angiogenesis, and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cells. Endothelial cellular signaling that occurs via the family of Rho GTPases coordinates these cell adhesion structures through cytoskeletal remodelling. In turn, Rho GTPases are regulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). To understand how endothelial cells initiate changes in the activity of Rho GTPases, and thereby regulate cell adhesion, we will discuss the role of Rho GAPs and GEFs in vascular biology. Many potentially important Rho regulators have not been studied in detail in endothelial cells. We therefore will first overview which GAPs and GEFs are highly expressed in endothelium, based on comparative gene expression analysis of human endothelial cells compared with other tissue cell types. Subsequently, we discuss the relevance of Rho GAPs and GEFs for endothelial cell adhesion in vascular homeostasis and disease. PMID:24622613

  19. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  20. Bridging the Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Kardos, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The lack of instructional continuity in schools negates every effort of principals to provide an environment where all students would be successful. One solution could be to bridge the gap between the professional knowledge and skills of experienced teachers and the energy and fresh ideas of new recruits so that the latter are provided support…

  1. Overcoming the Income Gap. The Achievement Gap: Overcoming the Income Gap. Info Brief. Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    One of the most complex aspects of the achievement gap--one that, by and large, is out of the direct control of educational leaders--is the income gap. Broadly defined, the income gap is the standard of living difference between rich and poor, but in the education system, the gap permeates deeply into many dimensions of a student's progression

  2. Variations in hospital billing for total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Louis S; Odum, Susan M; Fehring, Thomas K

    2014-09-01

    Although regional variations in Medicare spending are known, it is not clear whether regional variations exist in hospital charges for total joint arthroplasty. Data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) on Diagnosis Related Groups 469 and 470 (Major Joint with and without Major Complicating or Comorbid Condition) from 2011 were analyzed for variation by region. Drastic variations in charges between institutions were apparent with significant differences between regions for hospital charges and payments. The median hospital charge nationwide was $71,601 and $46,219 for Diagnosis Related Groups 469 and 470, respectively, with corresponding median payments of $21,231 and $13,743. Weak to no correlation was found between hospital charges and payments despite adjustments for wage index, cost of living, low-income care and teaching institution status. PMID:24973930

  3. Profunda Femoris Pseudoaneurysm following Total Hip Arthroplasty Revision

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Katharine; Iorio, Justin; Balasubramanian, Easwaran

    2015-01-01

    Vascular injuries following total hip arthroplasty (THA) are very rare, with pseudoaneurysm being a small subset. We report a case of profunda femoris artery (PFA) pseudoaneurysm in a 61-year-old male following a posterior approach revision left THA. Presentation involved continued blood transfusion requirements several weeks postoperatively. Diagnosis of the pseduoaneurysm was made by contrast CT of the lower extremity, with confirmation via IR angiography. Successful embolization was achieved with selective coiling and Gelfoam. Presenting complaints of such complications are often vague and therefore lead to delayed diagnosis. Causes of such complications are not completely understood, particularly with PFA injuries in THA. Possible mechanisms are discussed in this paper. Vascular complications following THA can be difficult to diagnose. High suspicion in the setting of continued postoperative pain or bleeding may allow prompt diagnosis and avoidance of serious limb-threatening complications. PMID:26347839

  4. Prospective Evaluation of Sleep Disturbances After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antonia F; Orozco, Fabio R; Austin, Luke S; Post, Zachary D; Deirmengian, Carl A; Ong, Alvin C

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not been studied 6 months after surgery. A prospective study was conducted on 34 primary, unilateral TKA patients preoperatively until 6 months postoperatively. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Pain was measured on a visual analog scale. Sleep quality worsened from baseline during the first 6 weeks postoperatively (P = .03), but improved at 3 and 6 months (P = .003). Pain scores decreased from baseline over all time points, and there was no correlation between sleep quality and pain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale did not change over time. This study can be used to counsel TKA patients to expect initial sleep disturbances that improve by 3 months. PMID:26455403

  5. Surgical management of recurrent dislocation after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Charissoux, J-L; Asloum, Y; Marcheix, P-S

    2014-02-01

    Dislocation is a major complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA), whose frequency has been unaffected by improvements in surgical techniques and implants. The dislocation rate depends on multiple factors related to the patient, hip disease, and surgical procedure and is therefore also dependent on the surgeon. The many published studies on THA dislocation, its causes, and its treatment have produced conflicting results. The objective of this work is to review the management of THA dislocation, which is a severe event for both the patient and the surgeon. This lecture starts with a brief review of data on THA dislocation rates and the many factors that influence them. Emphasis is then put on the evaluation for a cause and, more specifically, on the challenges raised by detecting suboptimal cup position. Next, reported techniques for treating THA dislocation and the outcomes of each are discussed. Finally, a management strategy for patients selected for revision surgery is suggested. PMID:24434366

  6. Predicting postoperative urinary retention after lower limb arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, W K M; Kane, T P C

    2012-07-01

    A simple scoring system that enables surgeons to make an estimation of the likelihood of postoperative urinary retention (POUR) in patients undergoing lower limb total joint replacement would be a useful one. This would enable selection of high risk patients who merit pre-operative catheterisation in a clean theatre environment rather than risking urinary retention and its associated complications late at night on the ward by junior, inexperienced staff. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is such a scoring system and we assessed its reliability in predicting those male patients likely to go into POUR. We selected all male patients undergoing lower limb total joint arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia and calculated their IPSS. We found a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of POUR as IPSS rises (p = 0.0002). We concluded that the IPSS is a quick and easy method of predicting those at risk of POUR, allowing them to be catheterised prophylactically, preventing possible complications. PMID:22943234

  7. Current surgical strategies for total arthroplasty in valgus knee

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Michos, Ioannis; Safos, George; Safos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The majority of orthopaedic surgeons even currently agree that primary total arthroplasty in valgus knees with a deformity of more than ten degrees may prove challenging. The unique sets of bone and soft tissue abnormalities that must be addressed at the time of the operation make accurate axis restoration, component orientation and joint stability attainment a difficult task. Understanding the specific pathologic anatomic changes associated with the valgus knee is a prerequisite so as to select the proper surgical method, to optimize component position and restore soft-tissue balance. The purpose of this article is to review the valgus knee anatomical variations, to assess the best pre-operative planning and to evaluate how to choose the grade of constraint of the implant. It will also be underlying the up-to-date main approaches and surgical techniques be proposed in the English literature both for bone cuts and soft tissue management of valgus knees. PMID:26191494

  8. Metallosis following full thickness wear in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Nicholas; El-Daly, Ibraheim; Ibraheim, Hajir; Mbubaegbu, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Extreme wear through the metal-backed acetabular cup following total hip arthroplasty is rare, as symptoms such as pain and disability will usually manifest earlier. We present the second reported case of extreme wear in a 78-year-old male patient, who presented 20 years following an uncemented total hip replacement with a 3-year history of hip pain, clicking on ambulation and worsening mobility. Radiographs demonstrated that the femoral head had migrated superolaterally through the polyethylene liner and the acetabular cup, and was articulating with the superior wall of the acetabulum causing bony destruction. Metallic fragments were also evident. A review of the current literature on metallosis suggests that should there be any clinical suspicion, blood metal ion levels are monitored and an MARS-MRI scan performed if indicated. If metallosis is detected, then revision surgery can be attempted at an earlier date, where the procedure is not as technically difficult. PMID:26395872

  9. Porous metals and alternate bearing surfaces in shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shannon R; Urits, Ivan; Murthi, Anand M

    2016-03-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) provides an effective solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. However, long-term outcomes have been limited by glenoid component aseptic loosening and polyethylene (PE) wear. Previous attempts to improve glenoid fixation with metal-backed glenoids resulted in inferior results. Newer component designs that contain porous metal allow for biological ingrowth of the prosthesis, potentially improving longevity and overall outcomes. Porous metal can also improve humeral component fixation, obviating the need for cement and simplifying revision surgery. Advances such as highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE), vitaminE-doped HXLPE, and alternate bearing surfaces like ceramics and pyrolytic carbon have proven to provide superior wear characteristics in other joint replacements and may prove beneficial in the shoulder as well. PMID:26797775

  10. Bundled Payments for Elective Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Bundled payments have been proposed as a mechanism for restraining health care spending for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but empirical data are limited. We used Medicare data to examine variation in payments for TKA during a window extending 30 days before to 90 days after TKA for 167 186 patients who underwent elective primary TKA in 2009. Mean Medicare payment was US$23 656. We found that 2.5% of patients incurred payments of >US$50 000 (0.2% >US$100 000). Payments were lower for men and for non-Hispanic whites but higher for patients with greater comorbidity. Episode-of-care payment for primary TKA varies substantially depending upon patient demographics and comorbidity. To the extent that similar patients tend to be clustered within hospitals, bundled payments could inadvertently cause financial harm to certain health systems while rewarding others. PMID:26246946

  11. The difficult primary total knee arthroplasty: a review.

    PubMed

    Baldini, A; Castellani, L; Traverso, F; Balatri, A; Balato, G; Franceschini, V

    2015-10-01

    Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a reliable procedure with reproducible long-term results. Nevertheless, there are conditions related to the type of patient or local conditions of the knee that can make it a difficult procedure. The most common scenarios that make it difficult are discussed in this review. These include patients with many previous operations and incisions, and those with severe coronal deformities, genu recurvatum, a stiff knee, extra-articular deformities and those who have previously undergone osteotomy around the knee and those with chronic dislocation of the patella. Each condition is analysed according to the characteristics of the patient, the pre-operative planning and the reported outcomes. When approaching the difficult primary TKA surgeons should use a systematic approach, which begins with the review of the existing literature for each specific clinical situation. PMID:26430084

  12. Current Strategies in Anesthesia and Analgesia for Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Calin Stefan; Weiser, Mitchell C; Levin, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with substantial postoperative pain that may impair mobility, reduce the ability to participate in rehabilitation, lead to chronic pain, and reduce patient satisfaction. Traditional general anesthesia with postoperative epidural and patient-controlled opioid analgesia is associated with an undesirable adverse-effect profile, including postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension, urinary retention, respiratory depression, delirium, and an increased infection rate. Multimodal anesthesia-incorporating elements of preemptive analgesia, neuraxial perioperative anesthesia, peripheral nerve blockade, periarticular injections, and multimodal oral opioid and nonopioid medications during the perioperative and postoperative periods-can provide superior pain control while minimizing opioid-related adverse effects, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing the risk of postoperative complications. PMID:26803543

  13. Total knee arthroplasty using a hybrid navigation technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of computer navigation is becoming a well-recognized technical alternative to conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, computer navigation has a substantial learning curve and the use of commercially available navigation systems increases surgical time. In addition, the potential risks associated with the navigation TKA, such as, registration errors, notching of the anterior femoral cortex, oversizing of the femoral component, and overresection must be taken into consideration. On the other hand, conventional techniques are familiar and intuitive to most practicing surgeons, and thus, are easier to perform and are less prone to anterior notching and femoral component oversizing. However, conventional techniques have greater risks of inaccurate and inconsistent component alignment than computer navigation. This paper describes a novel technique that combines computer navigation and conventional TKA. PMID:21612670

  14. Does Smoking Affect Implant Survivorship in Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Russell D; Wurtz, L Daniel; Feinberg, Judy R; Capello, William N

    2005-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to explore the effects of smoking on hip implant survivorship. The study included 147 patients (165 hips) from 1985 to 1991 who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a particular uncemented cup, and either a cemented or uncemented femoral component of the same design. Thirty-one patients (34 hips, 21 percent of study group) smoked at the time of surgery. Of 13 components (seven cups, five cemented and one cementless stem) revised for aseptic loosening, eight (8/68, 11.8 percent) were revised in six smokers, and five (5/262, 1.9 percent) were revised in four nonsmokers (p=0.0012). Multivariate covariate analysis revealed a 4.5 times greater risk of implant loosening in smokers (p=0.0662). Based on this preliminary study, further larger studies should be performed to determine the extent that smoking may contribute to THA survivorship. PMID:16089066

  15. The surgical approach for revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Abdel, M P; Della Valle, C J

    2016-01-01

    A key to the success of revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a safe surgical approach using an exposure that minimises complications. In most patients, a medial parapatellar arthrotomy with complete synovectomy is sufficient. If additional exposure is needed, a quadriceps snip performed through the quadriceps tendon often provides the additional exposure required. It is simple to perform and does not alter the post-operative rehabilitative protocol. In rare cases, in which additional exposure is needed, or when removal of a cemented long-stemmed tibial component is required, a tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) may be used. Given the risk of post-operative extensor lag, a V-Y quadricepsplasty is rarely indicated and usually considered only if TTO is not possible. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):113-15. PMID:26733655

  16. Total hip arthroplasty: areview of advances, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of Osteoarthritis (OA) has been unsatisfactory and often surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) is required. THA is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage arthritic hip conditions. Cemented THA has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with OA. An improvement in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) before surgery might contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of DVT after THA, though post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a chronic condition in the lower extremity does not appear to be a major complication after DVT in patients undergoing THA. For OA, four domains to be evaluated: pain, physical function, joint imaging, and patient global assessment. Thus, THA can be cost saving or, at least cost- effective in improving quality-adjusted life expectancy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances as well as advantages and limitations of THA. PMID:25784971

  17. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Graceffa, Angelo; Marcucci, Massimiliano; Baldini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical techniques, correlated to different anatomical landmarks, have been proposed to allow a satisfactory rotational alignment of the tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Unfortunately, an accurate landmark has not yet been established although many computer models using CT reconstructions and standard radiologic studies have been performed. In this review article, the authors propose a new anatomical rotational reference for a correct positioning of the tibial component during primary TKA; the authors compared the results of their studies with the current literature on rotational alignment references and previously proposed surgical techniques. The authors also analyzed the correlation between classic and newer tibial baseplate designs and different tibial rotational landmarks. PMID:26855939

  18. Bilateral hip arthroplasty: is 1-week staging the optimum strategy?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-nine patients underwent bilateral hip arthroplasty staged either at 1 week (Group 1) or after greater intervals (as suggested by the patients, mean 44 weeks, range 16-88 weeks) (Group 2), over a five year period at one Institution. Sixty-eight patients (29 bilateral hip resurfacings and 39 total hip replacements) completed questionnaires regarding their post-operative recovery, complications and overall satisfaction with the staging of their surgery. There was no significant age or ASA grade difference between the patient groups. Complication rates in the two groups were similar and overall satisfaction rates were 84% in Group 1 (n = 32) and 89% in Group 2 (n = 36). Cumulative hospital lengths of stay were significantly longer in Group 1 patients (11.9 days vs 9.1 days)(p < 0.01); this was true for both hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty patients, however resurfacing patients stays were significantly shorter in both groups (p < 0.01). Postoperative pain resolved earlier in Group 1 patients at a mean of 20.9 weeks compared with a cumulative 28.9 weeks (15.8 and 13.1 weeks) for Group 2 patients (p = 0.03). The mean time to return to part-time work was 16.4 weeks for Group 1, and a cumulative 17.2 weeks (8.8 and 8.4 weeks) for Group 2. The time to return to full-time work was significantly shorter for Group 1 patients (21.0 weeks, compared with a cumulative 29.7 weeks for Group 2)(p < 0.05). The time to return to both full and part-time work was significantly shorter in total hip replacement patients with 1-week staging compared with delayed staging (22.0 vs 35.8 weeks (p = 0.02), and 13.8 vs 19.3 weeks (p = 0.03) respectively). Hip resurfacing patients in Group 2 had significantly shorter durations of postoperative pain and were able to return to part-time and full time work sooner than total hip arthroplasty patients. There was a general trend towards a faster recovery and resumption of normal activities following the second operation in Group 2 patients, compared with the first operation. Bilateral hip arthroplasty staged at a 1-week interval resulted in an earlier resolution of hip pain, and an earlier return to full-time work (particularly following total hip replacement surgery), with high levels of patient satisfaction and no increased risk in complications; however the hospital length of stay was significantly longer. The decision for the timing of staged bilateral surgery should be made in conjunction with the patient, making adjustments to accommodate their occupational needs and functional demands. PMID:21054889

  19. An Unexpected Complication of Hip Arthroplasty: Knee Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Cankaya, Deniz; Deveci, Alper; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with hip fracture have been seen with osteoporosis associated with osteoarthritis. Although knee dislocation is related to high-energy trauma, low-grade injuries can also lead to knee dislocation which is defined as ultra-low velocity dislocation. The case reported here is of an 82-year-old patient who presented with a left intertrochanteric hip fracture. Partial arthroplasty was planned because of osteoporosis. In the course of surgery, degenerative arthritic knee was dislocated during the hip reduction maneuver with the application of long traction. The neurovascular examination was intact, but the knee was grossly unstable and was dislocated even in a brace; thus a hinged knee prosthesis was applied nine days after surgery. The patient was mobilized with crutches after the knee prosthesis but exercise tolerance was diminished. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that overtraction must be avoided during the hip reduction maneuver in patients with advanced osteoarthritic knee. PMID:26347838

  20. Fulminant Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia Just after Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Alkmin-Teixeira, Gil Cezar; Feres, Omar; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Basile-Filho, Anibal

    2010-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is not a rare clinical entity in intensive medicine, and it can be a consequence of several clinical or surgical situations. This pathology results from reduced intestinal microvascular blood supply associated with an acute inflammatory process, culminating with bowel necrosis. This is a case on a female patient who developed immediate postsurgical NOMI following hip arthroplasty and died. Since diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a dilemma, NOMI should always be considered an eventual postoperative complication in high-risk surgical patients such as elderly individuals with previous history of nicotine abuse, congestive heart failure, and essential hypertension. The present paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt adequate treatment of NOMI in subjects with diminished cardiac output and severe abdominal pain. PMID:20300426

  1. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Graceffa, Angelo; Marcucci, Massimiliano; Baldini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical techniques, correlated to different anatomical landmarks, have been proposed to allow a satisfactory rotational alignment of the tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Unfortunately, an accurate landmark has not yet been established although many computer models using CT reconstructions and standard radiologic studies have been performed. In this review article, the authors propose a new anatomical rotational reference for a correct positioning of the tibial component during primary TKA; the authors compared the results of their studies with the current literature on rotational alignment references and previously proposed surgical techniques. The authors also analyzed the correlation between classic and newer tibial baseplate designs and different tibial rotational landmarks. PMID:26855939

  2. "Created" patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after prior patellectomy.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Palaniappan; Wilson, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Currently, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful orthopaedic surgeries. However, the results are inferior in patients with previous patellectomy because of anteroposterior instability, residual pain, and loss of the mechanical advantage of the patella. The moment arm of the quadriceps can be restored by bone grafting the patellar tendon, and thus regaining the benefits of an intact patella that results in a better outcome after TKA. Usually it requires an additional procedure with its associated co-morbidities to harvest the bone graft. As the bone graft has to articulate with the femoral prosthesis, it has to be smooth at least on one side. The authors have described a new technique in this Chapter by which bone grafting of the patellar tendon can be achieved with use of the tibial plateau obtained from the routine tibial cut during TKA. Tibial eminence can be used as the interfacetal ridge of the "created" patella. PMID:16525983

  3. Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture after Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Seung Joon; Pham, The Hien

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a catastrophic complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Though revision TKA has been suspected of being a predisposing factor for the occurrence of patellar tendon rupture, there are few reports on patellar tendon rupture after revision TKA. Here, we present a case of acute patellar tendon rupture that occurred after TKA revision. In the patient, the patellar tendon was so thin and could not be repaired, and accordingly was sutured end to end. We used the anterior tibialis tendon allograft to augment the poor quality patellar tendon tissue. Fixation of the allograft was done by using the bone tunnel created through tibial tuberosity and suturing the allograft to the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. The patient was instructed to wear a full extension knee splint and was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks after operation. Full knee extension could be achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26060612

  4. Predicting postoperative urinary retention after lower limb arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, WKM; Kane, TPC

    2012-01-01

    A simple scoring system that enables surgeons to make an estimation of the likelihood of postoperative urinary retention (POUR) in patients undergoing lower limb total joint replacement would be a useful one. This would enable selection of high risk patients who merit pre-operative catheterisation in a clean theatre environment rather than risking urinary retention and its associated complications late at night on the ward by junior, inexperienced staff. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is such a scoring system and we assessed its reliability in predicting those male patients likely to go into POUR. We selected all male patients undergoing lower limb total joint arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia and calculated their IPSS. We found a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of POUR as IPSS rises (p=0.0002). We concluded that the IPSS is a quick and easy method of predicting those at risk of POUR, allowing them to be catheterised prophylactically, preventing possible complications. PMID:22943234

  5. Primary total knee arthroplasty infected with Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Samer S S; Odak, Saurabh; Qazzafi, Zaman; McNicholas, M J

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a Serratia marcescens infection of total knee arthroplasty 4 weeks after the procedure following aspiration carried out on the ward (contrary to local protocol). This was successfully treated with thorough wound debridement, irrigation, change of the polyethylene liner and systemic antibiotics using intravenous meropenem for 3 weeks followed by oral ciprofloxacin for another 3 weeks. Our patient made an uneventful recovery and there was no reported recurrence of infection at 8 months of follow-up. We are unsure as to whether the infection was introduced at the time of the joint aspiration or was a complication of the initial procedure despite all the standard aseptic measures taken at the time of surgery. PMID:22987901

  6. Mechanical thromboembolic prophylaxis with risk stratification in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William G; Reeves, James D; Fricka, Kevin B; Goyal, Nitin; Engh, Gerard A; Parks, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of thromboembolic and bleeding complications when using mechanical prophylaxis with preoperative risk stratification following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between 1994 and 2007, 4037 TKAs were performed on 3144 patients at our institution. Mechanical VTE prophylaxis was used for standard risk patients, which included AV impulse foot pumps, thigh high stockings, and early mobilization. Chemoprophylaxis was only given to patients who were at increased thromboembolic risk. The incidence of DVT identified by ultrasound following TKA was 2.1%. A retrospective review showed 1 patient had a fatal pulmonary embolism, and 5 patients had bleeding complications in the knee. We conclude that mechanical thromboembolic prophylaxis using risk stratification is safe and effective following TKA. PMID:25224874

  7. Metallosis following full thickness wear in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Nicholas; El-Daly, Ibraheim; Ibraheim, Hajir; Mbubaegbu, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Extreme wear through the metal-backed acetabular cup following total hip arthroplasty is rare, as symptoms such as pain and disability will usually manifest earlier. We present the second reported case of extreme wear in a 78-year-old male patient, who presented 20 years following an uncemented total hip replacement with a 3-year history of hip pain, clicking on ambulation and worsening mobility. Radiographs demonstrated that the femoral head had migrated superolaterally through the polyethylene liner and the acetabular cup, and was articulating with the superior wall of the acetabulum causing bony destruction. Metallic fragments were also evident. A review of the current literature on metallosis suggests that should there be any clinical suspicion, blood metal ion levels are monitored and an MARS-MRI scan performed if indicated. If metallosis is detected, then revision surgery can be attempted at an earlier date, where the procedure is not as technically difficult. PMID:26395872

  8. Management of femoral bone loss in revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Abdel, Matthew P; Lewallen, David G

    2015-01-01

    Femoral bone loss is frequently encountered during revision total hip arthroplasty. The quality and quantity of remaining bone helps determine the best method for reconstruction. Extensively porous-coated cylindrical stems or titanium fluted tapered devices that achieve fixation in the diaphysis have both demonstrated excellent long-term survivorship. Titanium fluted tapered stems with a modular proximal body allow for more accurate leg length, offset, and version adjustments independent of the distal stem which may optimise hip biomechanics. Intraoperative fractures are more common with cylindrical stems and subsidence with tapered stems, particularly monoblock designs and in both dislocation continues to be one of the most common postoperative complications. In salvage situations in which an ectatic femoral canal is unable to support an uncemented device, impaction bone grafting, allograft-prosthetic composite, or a segmental proximal femoral replacement may be required. PMID:26351121

  9. Head-Neck Taper Corrosion in Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hussenbocus, S.; Kosuge, D.; Solomon, L. B.; Howie, D. W.; Oskouei, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Modularity at the head-neck junction of the femoral component in THA became popular as a design feature with advantages of decreasing implant inventory and allowing adjustment of leg length, offset, and soft tissue balancing through different head options. The introduction of a new modular interface to femoral stems that were previously monoblock, or nonmodular, comes with the potential for corrosion at the taper junction through mechanically assisted crevice corrosion. The incidence of revision hip arthroplasty is on the rise and along with improved wear properties of polyethylene and ceramic, use of larger femoral head sizes is becoming increasingly popular. Taper corrosion appears to be related to all of its geometric parameters, material combinations, and femoral head size. This review article discusses the pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical assessment, and management of taper corrosion at the head-neck junction. PMID:25954757

  10. Femoral lengthening during hip resurfacing arthroplasty: a new surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, L; Ayoub, B; Mesnil, P; Pasquier, G; Migaud, H; Girard, J

    2015-04-01

    Correction of leg length discrepancy during hip arthroplasty is a technical challenge. Although resurfacing proposed to young subjects presents a number of advantages (stability, bone stock, etc.), it does not correct leg length discrepancy. We propose an original femoral lengthening technique concomitant to resurfacing performed through the same approach, consisting in a Z-shaped subtrochanteric osteotomy. Resurfacing was performed first and the femoral and acetabular reaming material was used for autografting. The series comprised five cases followed for a mean 42.2 months (range, 33-64 months). The mean surgical time was 100 min (range, 76-124 min). Weightbearing was authorized in all cases at the 8th week. The mean lengthening was 32 mm (range, 25-40 mm). Healing was observed in all cases. This surgical technique, reserved for very young subjects who accept an 8-week postoperative period without weightbearing, can be proposed in cases with substantial preoperative leg length discrepancy. PMID:25755066

  11. The fundamentals of biotribology and its application to spine arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Megan L.; Dooris, Andrew; Paré, Philippe E.

    2009-01-01

    The biological effect of wear of articulating surfaces is a continued concern with large joint replacements and, likewise, of interest for total disc replacements. There are a number of important biotribological testing parameters that can greatly affect the outcome of a wear study in addition to the implant design and material selection. The current ASTM and ISO wear testing standards/guides for spine arthroplasty leave many choices as testing parameters. These factors include but are not limited to the sequence of kinematics and load, phasing, type of lubricant, and specimen preparation (sterilization and artificial aging). The spinal community should critically assess wear studies and be cognizant of the influence of the selected parameters on the test results. PMID:25802638

  12. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied during total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Joo Paulo Fernandes; Danieli, Marcus Vinicius; Queiroz, Alexandre Oliveira; Deffune, Elenice; Ferreira, Rosana Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma regarding healing, pain and hemostasis after total knee arthroplasty, by means of a blinded randomized controlled and blinded clinical study. Methods Forty patients who were going to undergo implantation of a total knee prosthesis were selected and randomized. In 20 of these patients, platelet-rich plasma was applied before the joint capsule was closed. The hemoglobin (mg/dL) and hematocrit (%) levels were assayed before the operation and 24 and 48h afterwards. The Womac questionnaire and a verbal pain scale were applied and knee range of motion measurements were made up to the second postoperative month. The statistical analysis compared the results with the aim of determining whether there were any differences between the groups at each of the evaluation times. Results The hemoglobin (mg/dL) and hematocrit (%) measurements made before the operation and 24 and 48h afterwards did not show any significant differences between the groups (p>0.05). The Womac questionnaire and the range of motion measured before the operation and up to the first two months also did not show any statistical differences between the groups (p>0.05). The pain evaluation using the verbal scale showed that there was an advantage for the group that received platelet-rich plasma, 24h, 48h, one week, three weeks and two months after the operation (p<0.05). Conclusions In the manner in which the platelet-rich plasma was used, it was not shown to be effective for reducing bleeding or improving knee function after arthroplasty, in comparison with the controls. There was an advantage on the postoperative verbal pain scale. PMID:26229915

  14. Does rural residence impact total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandaran, Rekha

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) utilization and outcomes by patient residence. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2003 to 2011 to compare utilization and outcomes (post-arthroplasty discharge disposition, length of hospitalization, and mortality) by rural vs. urban residence. Ten thousand eight hundred thirty-three patients in urban and 3,324 patients in rural area underwent TAA. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had: lower mean age, 62.4 vs. 61.8 years (p?

  15. Readmission rates for cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Issa, Kimona; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Robinson, Kristin; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the readmission rates for patients treated with cruciate-retaining (CR) prostheses have not been widely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to report on readmission rates after CR total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and to evaluate the potential contributing factors for these events. We reviewed a prospectively collected database of 412 patients (441 TKAs) at 11 institutions. This included 170 men and 242 women who had a mean age of 66 years. Overall, there were 15 unplanned readmissions (3.4%) in 15 patients during the first 90 days following discharge after the index arthroplasty procedure. This included a readmission rate of 2% at 30 days and 3.2% at 60 days after discharge. Of the 15 readmissions, nine were due to general medical-related causes, while the other six events were as a result of operative site or surgery-related complications. However, readmitted patients had a 29.8% higher incidence of cardiovascular disorders at baseline compared with the patients who were not readmitted. The 30- and 90-day readmission rates for patients treated with cruciate-retaining (CR) TKAs are encouraging since these are comparable to previously reported readmission rates of other prostheses. Unplanned hospital readmissions are expensive and an undesired outcome for the patient, physician, and health care system. The authors believe that the positive mid-term clinical performance of this CR prosthesis may have contributed to the lower readmission rates, and believe that this is a stepping stone for further larger prospective studies and is necessary to better evaluate these findings. PMID:24875942

  16. Distal humerus cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Craik, Johnathan D; Laffer, Caroline H L; Richards, Simon W; Walsh, Sean P; Evans, Sam L

    2013-02-01

    The aseptic loosening of total elbow replacements is a serious complication resulting in significant patient morbidity. It is thought to occur secondary to stress shielding of the distal humeral cortex by the stiff stem of the implant. Some total elbow prostheses incorporate an anterior flange intended to improve implant stability and peri-articular load transfer in an attempt to reduce this effect However, few studies have directly assessed the changes in cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty or the biomechanical advantage of the anterior flange design. A regular and a long flange Coonrad-Morrey total elbow prosthesis were implanted into six Sawbone synthetic humeri. The constructs were subjected to physiological loads in axial compression (500 N), antero-posterior bending (50 N) and antero-posterior compression with condylar supports (300 N). Digital image correlation was used to measure the distal antero-lateral cortical strains and the results compared with those of whole Sawbones that had been tested in the same way. Significant stress shielding was demonstrated over the distal humeral cortex following prosthesis implantation during axial compression. In contrast, cortical strains increased following prosthesis implantation during antero-posterior compression with condylar supports. The increase in cortical strains following total elbow arthroplasty may help to maintain the integrity of the anterior cortex offering additional stability for implants with an anterior flange. These results are important for the development of future total elbow prosthesis designs and indicate that simulating the action of the forearm muscles is essential when evaluating changes in strain about the distal humerus in vitro. PMID:23513983

  17. Patient Perceived Outcomes After Primary Hip Arthroplasty: Does Gender Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Alcerro, Jose C.; Contreras, Juan S.; Rossi, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Total hip arthroplasty (THA) provides high functional scores and long-term survivorship. However, differences in function and disability between men and women before and after arthroplasty are not well understood. Questions/purposes We determined if there was a gender difference in patient-perceived functional measures and range of motion in primary THA. Methods We retrospectively studied 532 patients (658 hips) undergoing primary THA. A total of 59% were women and 41% were men. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at minimum 2years using Quality of Well-being, SF-36, WOMAC, and Harris hip score. We determined if differences existed between genders before and at followup for all dependent measures. Independent t-tests were also used to determine differences between genders concerning the change (?) scores and hip range of motion. The time course of perceived functional recovery was also documented. Results Males were on average 5years (58) younger than females (63). Before surgery, females scored worse than males on the Harris hip score, WOMAC function, WOMAC pain, and WOMAC total scores. All scores improved at followup in both groups. Regardless of time, females had lower scores than males. However, females had greater improvement over males for WOMAC function (39 versus 35), WOMAC pain (11 versus 10), and WOMAC total (53 versus 48). Conclusions Substantial gender functional differences exist before treatment. However, women reported greater improvement as a result of the intervention when compared with men. Level of Evidence Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:20700673

  18. Alternative bearing surface options for revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepan; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the overall success of total hip arthroplasty (THA), there has been an increase in the rate of revision hip surgeries performed each year in the United States. These revision surgeries result in several billion dollars in health care costs. Bearing surface wear can result in the need for revision surgery through a variety of mechanisms. Many implant failures necessitating the need for revision surgeries occur secondary to dislocations, which are often related to prothesis wear and eventual loosening of the components. Wear also can lead to osteolysis and may play a role in aseptic loosening. Specific concerns regarding the wear rates of metal-on-polyethylene (the most common bearing surface) have encouraged the manufacture of newer polyethylene implants with improved wear properties, as well as alternative bearing surfaces. The goal is to improve the durability of revision implants and/or reduce the incidence of revision THAs. Revision arthroplasty involves using alternative surfaces, such as replacing the metal femoral head with a ceramic component or changing the entire prosthesis to a metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. It is important to review the characteristics of these alternative bearing surface options and their contributions to improved THA tribology and prolonged prosthesis longevity. The choice of a bearing surface for a revision THA should consider factors such as the patient's age and activity level, the cost of the implant, and both the surgeons' and patients' preferences. Although laboratory studies and small clinical trials have generated optimistic results for these alternative implants in vitro and in vivo, much still needs to be learned about the long-term performance of these materials in patients after total hip revision surgery. PMID:21553778

  19. Traditions and myths in hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Husted, Henrik; Gromov, Kirill; Malchau, Henrik; Freiberg, Andrew; Gebuhr, Peter; Troelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Traditions are passed on from experienced surgeons to younger fellows and become the right way to do it. Traditions associated with arthroplasty surgery may, however, not be evidence-based and may be potentially deleterious to both patients and society, increasing morbidity and mortality, slowing early functional recovery, and increasing cost. Methods We identified selected traditions and performed a literature search using relevant search criteria (June 2014). We present a narrative review grading the studies according to evidence, and we suggest some lines of future research. Results We present traditions and evaluate them against the published evidence. Preoperative removal of hair, urine testing for bacteria, use of plastic adhesive drapes intraoperatively, and prewarming of the operation room should be abandonedas should use of a tourniquet, a space suit, a urinary catheter, and closure of the knee in extension. The safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid is supported by meta-analyses. Postoperatively, there is no evidence to support postponement of showering or postponement of changing of dressings to after 48 h. There is no evidence to recommend routine dental antibiotic prophylaxis, continuous passive motion (CPM), the use of compression stockings, cooling for pain control or reduction of swelling, flexion of at least 90 degrees as a discharge criterion following TKA, or having restrictions after THA. We present evidence supporting the use of NSAIDs, early mobilization, allowing early travel, and a low hemoglobin trigger for transfusion. Interpretation Revision of traditions and myths surrounding hip and knee arthroplasty towards more contemporary evidence-based principles can be expected to improve early functional recovery, thus reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs. PMID:25285615

  20. Predicting early clinical function after hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Poitras, S.; Wood, K. S.; Savard, J.; Dervin, G. F.; Beaule, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient function after arthroplasty should ideally quickly improve. It is not known which peri-operative function assessments predict length of stay (LOS) and short-term functional recovery. The objective of this study was to identify peri-operative functions assessments predictive of hospital LOS and short-term function after hospital discharge in hip or knee arthroplasty patients. Methods In total, 108 patients were assessed peri-operatively with the timed-up-and-go (TUG), Iowa level of assistance scale, post-operative quality of recovery scale, readiness for hospital discharge scale, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The older Americans resources and services activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire (OARS) was used to assess function two weeks after discharge. Results Following multiple regressions, the pre- and post-operative day two TUG was significantly associated with LOS and OARS score, while the pre-operative WOMAC function subscale was associated with the OARS score. Pre-operatively, a cut-off TUG time of 11.7 seconds for LOS and 10.3 seconds for short-term recovery yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity, while a cut-off WOMAC function score of 48.5/100 yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity. Post-operatively, a cut-off day two TUG time of 31.5 seconds for LOS and 30.9 seconds for short-term function yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions The pre- and post-operative day two TUG can indicate hospital LOS and short-term functional capacities, while the pre-operative WOMAC function subscale can indicate short-term functional capacities. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:145151. PMID:26336897

  1. The association between metal allergy, total hip arthroplasty, and revision

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been speculated that the prevalence of metal allergy may be higher in patients with implant failure. We compared the prevalence and cause of revisions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dermatitis patients suspected to have contact allergy and in patients in general with THA. Furthermore, we compared the prevalence of metal allergy in dermatitis patients with and without THA. Materials and methods The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry (DHAR) contained detailed information on 90,697 operations. The Gentofte patch-test database contained test results for patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis (n = 18,794). Cases (n = 356) were defined as patch-tested dermatitis patients who also had primary THA performed. Two age- and sex-matched controls (n = 712) from the patch-test database were sought for each case. Results The prevalence of revision was similar in cases (12%) and in patients from the DHAR (13%). The prevalence of metal allergy was similar in cases and controls. However, the prevalence of metal allergy was lower in cases who were patch-tested after operation (6%) than in those who were patch-tested before operation (16%) (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 18). Interpretation We found that the risk of surgical revision was not increased in patients with metal allergies and that the risk of metal allergy was not increased in cases who were operated, in comparison to controls. Despite some important study limitations, our observations add to the evidence that the risk of complications in metal allergic patients seems limited. PMID:19995314

  2. MINIMALLY INVASIVE ANTEROLATERAL ACCESS ROUTE FOR TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Sawaia, Rogério Naim; Galvão, Antonio Felipe Martensen; Oliveira, Fernando Machado; Secunho, Guilherme Rondinelli; Filho, Geraldo Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to present a minimally invasive anterolateral access route and to ascertain whether this enables total hip replacement without compromising the quality of the implant positioning, while maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles. Method: A retrospective study was conducted on 260 patients (186 females and 74 males) with an average age of 62 years. There were 18 bilateral cases, totaling 278 hips. All the patients had osteoarthritis and had undergone non-cemented total hip arthroplasty (metal-metal or metal-polyethylene) between October 2004 and December 2007. A minimally invasive anterolateral access route was used, measuring 7 to 10 cm in length, according to body weight and the size of the femoral head. The patients were assessed clinically regarding age, sex and presence of the Trendelenburg sign, and radiologically regarding acetabular and femoral positioning. Results: The acetabular inclination was between 30° and 40° in 78 patients, between 41° and 50° in 189 patients, and 51° or over in 11 patients. On anteroposterior radiographs to study femoral positioning, the positioning was central in 209 cases, 41 presented valgus deviation and 28 presented varus deviation. On lateral views, 173 were central, 67 anterior and 38 posterior. The mean duration of the procedure was 63 minutes. Regarding complications, there were five cases of infection, three of deep vein thrombosis, two of hip dislocation, 80 of lengthening of the lower limbs and five of shortening of the operated limb. The Trendelenburg sign was present in four cases, of which one showed superior gluteal nerve injury. Conclusion: The minimally invasive anterolateral access route made it possible to perform total hip arthroplasty without compromising the positioning of the implants, thereby maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles.

  3. Systematic review of periprosthetic tibia fracture after total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Ebraheim, Nabil A; Ray, Joseph R; Wandtke, Meghan E; Buchanan, Grant S; Sanford, Chris G; Liu, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the known incidences, treatment options, and related outcomes of periprosthetic tibia fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A literature search was done to identify studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The database search yielded 185 results, which were further reduced by the exclusion criteria to 13 papers, totaling 157 patients that met these criteria. Incidence rates of the different types of periprosthetic tibia fractures were determined and their treatments were subsequently analyzed based on the fractures subclass, with patient outcomes being overall favorable. RESULTS: Of the 144 documented patients, 54 (37.5%) had a subclass C fracture, which are frequently seen in revision arthroplasties or when using cement intraoperatively. The fractures of subclasses A and B occur postoperatively. There were 90 subclass A and B fractures with incidences of 18.75% and 43.75% respectively. When broken down by type, 62 (55.36%) were type 1, 24 (21.4%) were type 2, 24 (21.4%) were type 3, and 2 (1.8%) were type 4. Furthermore, from the studies that included origin of injury, the types were further classified as having non-traumatic or traumatic origins. Type 1 had 78% (40/51) non-traumatic origin and 22% (11/51) traumatic origin. Fifteen fractures were type 2, but 5 were falls and 1 through a motor vehicle accident, giving a trauma causation of 40% (6/15). Of the 24 type 3 fractures, 12 were falls and 2 vehicular accidents, leading to a trauma causation of 58% (14/24). CONCLUSION: Type 1 fractures were the most common. Subclass A was treated with locking plates, B required a revision TKA, and C was treated intraoperatively or nonoperatively. PMID:26396942

  4. Intrathecal ketorolac enhances intrathecal morphine analgesia following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, Gabriela R; Righeti, Claudia C F; Mattos, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Total knee arthroplasty represents one of the most painful surgeries. The aim of the study was to compare analgesia and adverse effects of intrathecal (IT) ketorolac versus IT morphine, versus the combination of IT ketorolac and morphine. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval and patient consent, 80 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of 4 groups. All groups received 15 mg IT bupivacaine plus IT test drug (2 ml). The control group (CG) received saline as IT test drug. The morphine group (MG) received IT 200 g morphine, the ketorolac group (KG) IT 2 mg ketorolac and the morphine-ketorolac group (MKG) 200 g morphine + 2 mg ketorolac as test drugs. Pain and adverse effects were evaluated. P > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The MG and KG were similar in their times to time to first rescue analgesic (440 38 min and 381 44 min, respectively). Both groups were longer when compared to the CG (170 13 min) (P > 0.01). The MG and KG had lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to the CG (P > 0.05). The time to first rescue analgesic was longer to the MKG (926 222 min) (15 h) compared to CG (P > 0.001) and to the MG and the KG (P > 0.01). MKG displayed lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to MG and KG (P > 0.05) and to the CG (P > 0.02). Conclusions: The data suggest a role for spinal ketorolac and morphine in orthopaedic surgery because this combination of agents provided 15 h of analgesia compared to 7 h after each drug alone, with no significant side-effects. PMID:24249988

  5. Influence of bilateral sequential total knee arthroplasty on functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, Rajesh N; Baviskar, Jayesh V; Singhi, Tushar; Maniar, Parul; Nayak, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Main concerns of patients undergoing bilateral surgery is the quantum of pain and the progress of functional recovery. We studied functional recovery in terms of pain, range of motion (ROM), SF12, WOMAC scores and a unique TUG (timed up and go) test for patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (U/L-TKA) and sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty (B/L-TKA). Materials and Methods: Three groups of 77 consecutive patients (91 knees) were retrospectively compared. They were B/L TKA group (28 knees: 14 patients), Unilateral TKA group with contralateral knee nonoperated i.e., U/L-TKA group (42 knees) and Unilateral TKA with contralateral TKA already done i.e., U/L + C/L TKA group (21 knees). Patients were assessed preoperatively and on postoperative days 3, 5, 14, 42, 90 and 1 year. Results: The WOMAC score was statistically better preoperatively in the U/L + C/L TKA group, and SF12 MCS score was statistically better preoperatively in the B/L-TKA group. The TUG test time in the B/L-TKA group was statistically longer on days 3 and 5 as compared to other groups and became comparable by day 14. The TUG score became better than the preoperative value by day 42 in the B/L-TKA group, which took 90 days in other groups. Conclusion: The early functional recovery of bilateral TKA patient lags behind that of unilateral TKA patient for the first 5 days, becomes equal by the 14th day and remains equal till 1 year after surgery. Bilateral TKA patients regain their preoperative functional status by 6 weeks against 3 months for unilateral TKA. The operative status of the contralateral knee makes no difference to early functional recovery after unilateral TKA. With bilateral TKA, there is no difference in pain and ROM parameters. PMID:23532139

  6. Does intraoperative fluoroscopy improve component positioning in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Tischler, Eric H; Orozco, Fabio; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Pacheco, Haroldo; Post, Zachary; Ong, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Accurate placement of components is imperative for successful outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although technology-assisted techniques offer the potential for greater accuracy in prosthesis positioning, the need for additional resources prevents their widespread use. The goal of this study was to compare primary THA procedures performed with and without intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance with regard to accuracy of prosthesis placement, operative time, and postoperative complications. The authors reviewed 341 consecutive cases (330 patients) undergoing primary THA at the authors' institution from September 2007 to January 2010. Postoperative anteroposterior radiographs were used to measure acetabular inclination angle, leg length discrepancy, and femoral offset discrepancy. Operative time and postoperative complications related to implant positioning were recorded. Mean acetabular inclination angle, leg length discrepancy, and offset discrepancy for control vs study groups were 43.0° (range, 32.2°-61.4°) vs 43.8° (range, 29.0°-55.1°), 4.75 mm (range, 0-25) vs 4.24 mm (range, 0-27), and 8.47 mm (range, 0-9.7) vs 7.70 mm (range, 0-31), respectively. Complication rates were not significantly different between the control (8.1%) and study (5.3%) groups. Mean operative time was significantly higher in the study group compared with the control group (59.8 vs 52.8 minutes) (P<.0001). The findings showed that intraoperative fluoroscopy may not improve prosthesis accuracy or decrease postoperative complication rates compared with a freehand technique. Because of significantly increased operative time and cost associated with fluoroscopic guidance, the authors discourage the use of this technique in uncomplicated primary THA performed at high-volume arthroplasty institutions. PMID:25611413

  7. Gender gaps within management.

    PubMed

    Ronk, L L

    1993-05-01

    Traditional roles need not become self-fulfilling prophecies if managers can bridge the gender gap. Feminine, as well as masculine, characteristics can be incorporated into managerial styles to enhance effective leadership. Autonomy, decision-making and assertiveness are as important as nurturing and caring. What are little girls made of? Little girls are made of sugar and spice and everything nice. What are little boys made of? Little boys are made of rats and snails and puppy dog tails. PMID:8265083

  8. Air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Schmidt, M.; Schwaiger, S.; Stemmann, A.; Mendach, S.; Hansen, W.

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate the fabrication of thin GaAs layers which quasi hover above the underlying GaAs substrate. The hovering layers have a perfect epitaxial relationship to the substrate crystal lattice and are connected to the substrate surface only by lattice matched nanopillars of low density. These air-gap heterostructures are created by combining in situ molecular beam epitaxy compatible self-assembled droplet-etching and ex situ selective wet-chemical etching.

  9. Comparison of cruciate retaining and PCL sacrificing TKA with respect to medial and lateral gap differences in varus knees after medial release.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Sung-Won; Seo, Jai-Gon; Lee, Sung-Sahn; Moon, Young-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to clarify whether the increase in medial gap after medial release is influenced by the retention or sacrifice of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty. After matched pairs were done according to the equality of preoperative varus deformity and medial collateral laxity, 54 knees of each type were available for this study. In the PCL sacrificing group, the mediolateral gap difference significantly increased in both flexion and extension as the preoperative mechanical axis angle increased whereas in the cruciate retaining group, the mediolateral gap difference did not show this tendency. When preoperative mechanical axis angles were over 10.4 in extension and over 7.7 in flexion, the medial gap showed greater increases in PCL sacrificing groups than in cruciate retaining groups. PMID:25262439

  10. Quantification of the Effect of Vertical Bone Resection of the Medial Proximal Tibia for Achieving Soft Tissue Balancing in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kang, Ho Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee usually shows arthritic change in the medial tibiofemoral joint with severe varus deformity. In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the medial release technique is often used for achieving mediolateral balancing. But, in a more severe varus knee, there are more difficult technical problems. Bony resection of the medial proximal tibia (MPT) as an alternative technique for achieving soft tissue balancing was assessed in terms of its effectiveness and possibility of quantification. Methods TKAs were performed in 78 knees (60 patients) with vertical bone resection of the MPT for soft tissue balancing from September 2011 to March 2013. During operation, the medial and lateral gaps were measured before and after the bony resection technique. First, the correlation between the measured thickness of the resected bone and the change in medial and lateral gaps was analyzed. Second, the possibility of quantification of each parameter was evaluated by linear regression and the coefficient ratio was obtained. Results A significant correlation was identified between alteration in the medial gap change in extension and the measured thickness of the vertically resected MPT (r = 0.695, p = 0.000). In the medial gap change in flexion, there was no statistical significance (r = 0.214, p = 0.059). When the MPT was resected at an average thickness of 8.25 1.92 mm, the medial gap in extension was increased by 2.94 0.87 mm. In simple linear regression, it was predictable that MPT resection at a thickness of 2.80 mm was required to increase the medial gap by 1.00 mm in knee extension. Conclusions The method of bone resection of the MPT can be considered effective with a predictable result for achieving soft tissue balancing in terms of quantification during TKA. PMID:26929799

  11. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty, but not of total knee arthroplasty, is related to the preoperative radiographic severity of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Claire; Holtslag, Maarten J; Tordoir, Rutger L; Leichtenberg, Claudia S; Verdegaal, Suzan H M; Kroon, Herman M; Fiocco, Marta; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M

    2016-02-01

    Background and purpose - There is no consensus on the impact of radiographic severity of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) on the clinical outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We assessed whether preoperative radiographic severity of OA is related to improvements in functioning, pain, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 1 year after THA or TKA. Patients and methods - This prospective cohort study included 302 THA patients and 271 TKA patients with hip or knee OA. In the THA patients, preoperatively 26% had mild OA and 74% had severe OA; in the TKA patients, preoperatively 27% had mild OA and 73% had severe OA. Radiographic severity was determined according to the Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) classification. Clinical assessments preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively included: sociodemographic characteristics and patient-reported outcomes (PROMs): Oxford hip/knee score, hip/knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS/KOOS), SF36, and EQ5D. Change scores of PROMs were compared with mild OA (KL 0-2) and severe OA (KL 3-4) using a multivariate linear regression model. Results - Adjusted for sex, age, preoperative scores, BMI, and Charnley score, radiographic severity of OA in THA was associated with improvement in HOOS "Activities of daily living", "Pain", and "Symptoms", and SF36 physical component summary ("PCS") scale. In TKA, we found no such associations. Interpretation - The decrease in pain and improvement in function in THA patients, but not in TKA patients, was positively associated with the preoperative radiographic severity of OA. PMID:26484651

  12. Effect of body mass index on functional outcomes following arthroplasty procedures

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Gokhan; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Sayar, Safak; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the body mass index (BMI) change in arthroplasty patients and its impact on the patients functional results. METHODS: Between October 2010 and May 2013, 606 patients who were operated due to gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, aseptic loosening of the total knee and hip prosthesis were evaluated prospectively. Patients were operated by three surgeons in three medical centers. Patients who were between 30-90 years of age and who were underwent total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, revision knee arthroplasty, or revision hip arthroplasty were included in the study. We excluded the patients who cannot tolerate our standard postoperative rehabilitation program. Additionally, patients who had systemic inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, or endochrinopathies were excluded from the study. The remaining 513 patients comprised our study group. Preoperative functional joint scores, height, weight and BMI of all patients were recorded. We used the Knee Society Score (KSS) for knee and Harris Hip Score (HHS) for hip patients. Postoperative functional scores were measured at 1st, 6th and 12th months and recorded separately at outpatient visits. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 64.7 (range: 30-90) years (207 males/306 females) and the mean follow-up duration was 14.3 (range: 12-26) mo. We found that arthroplasty patients had weight gain and had an increase in BMI at the postoperative 1st, 6th and 12th months. The mean BMI of the patients was 27.7 preoperatively, 27.8 at the postoperative 1st month, 28.1 at the 6th month and 28.6 at the 12th month (P < 0.01). At the last visit, the mean postoperative HHS of the hip arthroplasty patients was 82.2 7.12 (preoperatively, 52.3; 1st month, 78.2; 6th month, 81.1; 12th month, 82.2), and the mean KSS of the knee arthroplasty patients was 79.3 4.31 (preoperatively, 35.8; 1st month, 75.2; 6th month, 79.1; 12th month, 79.3). Worse functional results were noted in the patients who had a BMI increase, however, this correlation was statistically significant only at the postoperative 6th month (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: To prevent the negative functional effects of this weight gain during the postoperative period, arthroplasty patients should be advised for weight control and risky patients should consult with a dietician. PMID:26716096

  13. Can tranexamic acid change preoperative anemia management during total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Duy L; Rinehart, Joseph B; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the postoperative transfusion and complication rates of anemic and nonanemic total joint arthroplasty patients given tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted of primary hip and knee arthroplasty cases performed from 11/2012 to 6/2014. Exclusion criteria included revision arthroplasty, bilateral arthroplasty, acute arthroplasty after fracture, and contraindication to TXA. Patients were screened prior to surgery, with anemia was defined as hemoglobin of less than 12 g/dL for females and of less than 13 g/dL for males. Patients were divided into four different groups, based on the type of arthroplasty (total hip or total knee) and hemoglobin status (anemic or nonanemic). Intraoperatively, all patients received 2 g of intravenous TXA during surgery. Postoperatively, allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) was directed by both clinical symptoms and relative hemoglobin change. Complications were recorded within the first two weeks after surgery and included thromboembolism, infection, and wound breakdown. The differences in transfusion and complication rates, as well as the relative hemoglobin change, were compared between anemic and nonanemic groups. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients undergoing primary joint arthroplasty were included in the study. For the total hip arthroplasty cohort, 21% (18/84) of patients presented with preoperative anemia. Two patients in the anemic group and two patients in the nonanemic group needed ABTs; this was not significantly different (P = 0.20). One patient in the anemic group presented with a deep venous thromboembolism while no patients in the nonanemic group had an acute complication; this was not significantly different (P = 0.21). For nonanemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.73 1.17 g/dL. For anemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 2.28 0.96 g/dL. Between the two groups, the hemoglobin difference of 0.45 g/dL was not significant (P = 0.13). For the total knee arthroplasty cohort, 18% (26/148) of patients presented with preoperative anemia. No patients in either group required a blood transfusion or had an acute postoperative complication. For nonanemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 1.85 0.79 g/dL. For anemic patients, the average change in hemoglobin was 1.09 0.58 g/dL. Between the two groups, the hemoglobin difference of 0.76 g/dL was significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: TXA administration results in low transfusion and complication rates and may be a useful adjunct for TJA patients with preoperative anemia. PMID:26301181

  14. Cemented versus Uncemented Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Karaguven, Dogac; Guclu, Berk; Kaya, Alper; Armangil, Mehmet; Cetin, Ilker

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The use of uncemented unicompartmental knee prostheses has recently increased. However, few studies on the outcomes of uncemented unicompartmental knee prostheses have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of cemented and uncemented Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. This retrospective observational study evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of 263 medial Oxford unicompartmental prostheses (141 cemented, 122 uncemented) implanted in 235 patients. The mean follow-up was 42 months in the cemented group and 30 months in the uncemented group. Results. At the last follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical results or survival rates between the two groups. However, the operation time in the uncemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group was shorter than that in the cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group. In addition, the cost of uncemented arthroplasty was greater. Conclusion. Despite the successful midterm results in the uncemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty group, a longer follow-up period is required to determine the best fixation mode. PMID:24383006

  15. Retrospective Clinical and Radiological Outcomes after Robotic Assisted Bicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tamam, Cuneyt; Plate, Johannes F.; Augart, Marco; Poehling, Gary G.; Jinnah, Riyaz H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BiKA) is a favorable alternative to total knee arthroplasty for degenerative disease limited to two knee compartments. Recently developed robotic-assisted systems improved the clinical efficacy of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty by providing enhanced component positioning with dynamic ligament balancing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of patients, undergoing bicompartmental knee arthroplasty at a single institution by a single surgeon using a robotic-assisted system. It was hypothesized that robotic assisted BiKA is a prevailing choice for degenerative disease limited to two knee compartments with good functional results. Methods. A search of the institution's joint registry was conducted to identify patients that underwent robotic-assisted BiKA of the patellofemoral compartment and the medial or lateral compartment. Results. A total number of 29 patients (30 BiKA) with a mean age of 63.6 years were identified who received a patellofemoral resurfacing in combination with medial or lateral compartment resurfacing. Twenty-four out of 29 patients had good to excellent outcome. Conclusion. Robotic assisted bicompartmental arthroplasty using broad indications and only excluding patients with severe deformity and those that have less than 4 mm of joint space in the surviving compartment demonstrated 83% good to excellent results. PMID:26421193

  16. Treatment of infected total knee arthroplasty. Irrigation and debridement versus two-stage reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Teeny, S M; Dorr, L; Murata, G; Conaty, P

    1990-03-01

    The results of 24 cases of deep wound infection after total knee arthroplasty were reviewed. Twenty-one knees were initially treated with irrigation and debridement. Infection recurred in 15 knees. An increased infection rate occurred after irrigation and debridement in patients in whom the index prosthesis was in place more than 2 weeks. Nine knees (including 7 that had removal after irrigation and debridement) were treated with removal of the infected prosthesis, intravenous antibiotics, and delayed reimplantation. Immediate exchange was done in one knee. There were no recurrences in this group (P less than .001). The final status of the patients included 8 with fusions or resection arthroplasties and 16 with a prosthesis. The average Hospital for Special Surgery knee rating was 41 in patients without a prosthesis and 75 in patients with a prosthesis (P less than .001). The authors conclude that irrigation and debridement is not likely to be successful for treatment of infections when used more than 2 weeks after the initial arthroplasty. Also, two-stage reimplantation for the treatment of infected total knee arthroplasties gives a reliably low recurrence rate and provides a superior clinical result, compared to arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty. PMID:2319246

  17. Failed Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Caused by Recurrent Candida glabrata Infection with Prior Serratia marcescens Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Keenan, Kendra E.; Updike, Wanda S.; Oliver, Marquam R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 58-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic male patient who initially sustained a proximal humerus fracture from a fall. The fracture fixation failed and then was converted to a humeral hemiarthroplasty, which became infected with Candida glabrata and Serratia marcescens. After these infections were believed to be cured with antibacterial and antifungal treatments and two-stage irrigation and debridement, he underwent conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the C. glabrata infection recurred and, nearly 1.5 years after implantation of the reverse total shoulder, he had a resection arthroplasty (removal of all implants and cement). His surgical and pharmacologic treatment concluded with (1) placement of a tobramycin-impregnated cement spacer also loaded with amphotericin B, with no plan for revision arthroplasty (i.e., the spacer was chronically retained), and (2) chronic use of daily oral fluconazole. We located only three reported cases of Candida species causing infection in shoulder arthroplasties (two C. albicans, one C. parapsilosis). To our knowledge, a total shoulder arthroplasty infected with C. glabrata has not been reported, nor has a case of a C. glabrata and S. marcescens periprosthetic coinfection in any joint. In addition, it is well known that S. marcescens infections are uncommon in periprosthetic joint infections. PMID:25431708

  18. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution

    of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land

    stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  19. [Closing evidence gaps].

    PubMed

    Lange, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) is the paramount decision-making panel of the self-government body of service providers and health insurance funds. The G-BA commissions the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) to conduct benefit assessments as one of the Institute's main tasks. Both organisations are regularly faced with "evidence gaps." These are situations where, on the one hand, a new medical technology is being propagated and pushed into the health care system, and on the other hand, no sufficiently reliable proof of benefit exists based on the methods of evidence-based medicine. It is possible to encourage closure of such evidence gaps by making "negative decisions" (meaning, for example, rejection of coverage for a certain intervention) but also by "conditional coverage decisions," whereby fluent transition is conceivable. Innovative ideas, such as a multilaterally financed research funds, are called for to sponsor clinical trials in those areas which are of little commercial interest. PMID:22152422

  20. Should We Use Preoperative Epoetin-? in the Mildly Anemic Patient Undergoing Simultaneous Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Delasotta, Lawrence A; Orozco, Fabio; Jafari, S. Mehdi; Blair, Jamie L; Ong, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous knee arthroplasty is associated with significant blood loss. To prevent transfusion, three preoperative doses of epoetin-? were offered to mildly anemic simultaneous knee arthroplasty patients. A retrospective review, using ICD-9 codes, identified twenty patients from 2007-2009. Epoetin-? increased hemoglobin levels preoperatively (12.6 to 13.9, p<0.01). Twenty patients who did not receive epoetin-? were matched to study patients. Study patients were transfused less (55% vs 95%, p=0.012) and had similar inpatient length of stay. The average blood loss without transfusion was 4.6g/dL. The mildly anemic patient is at high-risk for packed red cell transfusion during simultaneous knee arthroplasty. Three preoperative doses of epoetin-? in the mildly anemic patient decreased total transfusions; however, it did not affect inpatient length of stay. PMID:23526659

  1. The effect of obesity on mechanical failure after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fessy, Michel-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Increased aseptic tibial failures in patients with a BMI ?35 and well-aligned total knee arthroplasties published in The Journal of Arthroplasty on July 2, 2015 draws the conclusion that the risk of revision total knee arthroplasties (TKA) due to aseptic tibial component loosening is two times greater in patients with a BMI ?35 kg/m2, independent of age or limb alignment. This result confirms that obese patients are at a higher risk of mechanical complications after performing TKA, independently from the risk of infection. This study suggests that the management of obese patients for TKA must be meticulous, careful, and should inspire from great bone deformations in valgus of varus when choosing implants. PMID:26697470

  2. Tranexamic Acid Decreases Incidence of Blood Transfusion in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bagsby, Deren T; Samujh, Christopher A; Vissing, Jacqueline L; Empson, Janene A; Pomeroy, Donald L; Malkani, Arthur L

    2015-12-01

    Blood management for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is more challenging than in unilateral arthroplasty. We examined if administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA would reduce blood loss and decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. A retrospective review of 103 patients, 57 in the control and 46 in the TXA group, was performed. There was higher postoperative day 1 hemoglobin in patients receiving TXA (2.951.33 versus 4.331.19, P<0.0001). There was also a decrease in the transfusion incidence with administration of TXA (17.4% versus 57.9%, P<0.0001). In conclusion, we have shown that TXA is an effective tool in reducing the transfusion rates by almost 70% in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26235522

  3. Is There a Benefit to Head Size Greater Than 36 mm in Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Haughom, Bryan D; Plummer, Darren R; Moric, Mario; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the rate of dislocation and revision for instability between 36-mm and anatomic femoral heads (large diameter metal-on-metal THA, dual-mobility bearings, and hip resurfacing arthroplasty) in patients at high risk for dislocation. A total of 501 high-risk patients, over a 10-year period, were identified (282 36-mm THA, 24 dual-mobility bearings, 83 metal-on-metal arthroplasty, and 112 hip resurfacing arthroplasty). There were 13 dislocations in the 36-mm group compared to 1 in the anatomic group (4.6% vs 0.5%; P = .005). Four patients dislocated more than once in the 36-mm group (1.4% vs 0%; P = .04), and 2 patients in the 36-mm group required a revision for instability (0.7% vs 0%; P = .11). These results suggest that anatomic head sizes significantly lower the risk of dislocation in high-risk patients. PMID:26360768

  4. A Literature Review of Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Perioperative Considerations and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Putnis, S.E; Wartemberg, G.K; Khan, W.S; Agarwal, S

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a spondyloarthropathy affecting the sacro-iliac joints with subsequent progression to the spine and the hip joints. The hip joints are affected by synovitis, enthesial inflammation, involvement of medullary bone, progressive degeneration and secondary osteoarthritis. Clinical presentation is usually in the form of pain and stiffness progressing to disabling fixed flexion contractures and in some instances, complete ankylosis. Hip arthroplasty should be considered for hip pain, postural and functional disability, or pain in adjacent joints due to hip stiffness. We conducted a literature review to determine peri-operative considerations and outcome in ankylosing spondylitis patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. In this review, we have discussed pre-operative surgical planning, thromboprophylaxis, anaesthetic considerations and heterotopic ossification. Outcomes of arthroplasty include range of movement, pain relief, survivorship and complications. PMID:26587066

  5. Current Evidence for the Use of Laminar Flow in Reducing Infection Rates in Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    James, M; Khan, W.S; Nannaparaju, M.R; Bhamra, J.S; Morgan-Jones, R

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of laminar air flow in orthopaedic theatres by Sir John Charnley, it has widely become accepted as the standard during orthopaedic procedures such as joint arthroplasty. We present a review of available current literature for the use of laminar flow operating theatre ventilation during total joint arthroplasty and examines the effectiveness of laminar flow ventilated operating theatres in preventing post-operative wound infection. Results of our findings suggest that while bacterial and air particulate is reduced by laminar air flow systems, there is no conclusive effect on the reduction of post-operative wound infections following total joint arthroplasty. We conclude that a combination of strict aseptic technique, prophylactic antibiotics and good anaesthetic control during surgery remains crucial to reduce post-operative surgical infections. PMID:26587068

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATELLAR HEIGHT AND RANGE OF MOTION AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques; Pereira, Marcelo Lobo; Lessa, Rodrigo Rosa; Costa, Lincoln Paiva

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether, after total knee arthroplasty, there is any correlation between patellar height and range of motion (ROM) achieved by patients six months after the operation. Methods: Forty-five patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were assessed at least 12 months after the operation (total of 54 knees). The maximum and minimum ROM of all the knees was recorded under fluoroscopy, along with patellar height according to the Blackburne and Peel ratio. Two possible correlations were evaluated: patellar height and ROM; and patellar height and ROM variation from before to after the operation. Results: A correlation was found between patellar height and postoperative ROM (p = 0.04). There was no correlation between patellar height and ROM variation (p = 0.182). Conclusion: After total knee arthroplasty, the lower the patella is, the worse the ROM is.

  7. Hypoalbuminemia Independently Predicts Surgical Site Infection, Pneumonia, Length of Stay, and Readmission After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Shen, Mary R; Kayupov, Erdan; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the association between preoperative hypoalbuminemia, a marker for malnutrition, and complications during the 30 days after total joint arthroplasty. Patients who underwent elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasty as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified. Outcomes were compared between patients with and without hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin concentration <3.5 g/dL) with adjustment for patient and procedural factors. A total of 49603 patients were included. In comparison to patients with normal albumin concentration, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher risk for surgical site infection, pneumonia, extended length of stay, and readmission. Future efforts should investigate methods of correcting nutritional deficiencies prior to total joint arthroplasty. If successful, such efforts could lead to improvements in short-term outcomes for patients. PMID:26427941

  8. [Effects of hip arthroplasty followed by by inpatient rehabilitation on physical function and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Rogenmoser, M; Klaghofer, R; Meyer, R P; Kappeler, U; Burki, H; Hausner, P; Buddeberg, C; Büchi, St; Stoll, Th

    2003-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hip arthroplasty followed by an inpatient rehabilitation. Moreover, the relationships among functional status, quality of life and satisfaction with life or health status were examined. Patients were assessed before hip arthroplasty, at the start and at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation. Functional status was measured by using the WOMAC questionnaire and quality of life with the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36). Satisfaction was determined with a specific questionnaire (FLZ). Hip arthroplasty followed by an inpatient rehabilitation resulted in significant and clinically highly important improvements of functional status, quality of life and satisfaction with health and life. PMID:14528725

  9. Posterior single-incision approach to minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced surgical techniques and instrumentation enable surgeons to perform total hip arthroplasties through minimally invasive approaches. Using incisions typically less than 10 cm in length, surgeons can achieve adequate visualization of the surgical site while minimizing trauma to deep soft tissues. Associated reductions in morbidity should allow for improved rehabilitation and recovery. Although these techniques have been met with some controversy, a number of recent studies appear to attest to their safety and efficacy. Many of these studies have concentrated on a posterior single-incision technique for total hip arthroplasty. Favorable results for such outcomes as operative times, complication rates, pain, functional recovery, and blood loss have been reported, and patient satisfaction has been high. If surgeons and their patients are to achieve maximum benefit from minimally invasive total hip arthroplasties, it will be necessary to design effective educational tools that address the learning curve associated with these approaches. PMID:17653544

  10. Does shortened length of hospital stay affect total knee arthroplasty rehabilitation outcomes?

    PubMed

    Teeny, Steven M; York, Sally C; Benson, Cindy; Perdue, Sondra T

    2005-10-01

    Rehabilitation outcomes were compared after primary total knee arthroplasty between patients who participated in a hospital joint arthroplasty program implemented to decrease length of stay and patients who did not. Once inclusion criteria were met, purposive sampling was used to select subjects for retrospective medical records review. Range of motion and Knee Society scores at preoperative and 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative intervals were then compared. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between groups. Program implementation reduced length of hospital stay by a mean of 1.3 days, which resulted in a decreased range of motion at discharge. No significant differences were found between groups postoperatively at all intervals. Primary total knee arthroplasty rehabilitation outcomes were not compromised by reduced length of hospital stay. PMID:16214001

  11. Gapped domain walls, gapped boundaries, and topological degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Juven C; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-02-20

    Gapped domain walls, as topological line defects between (2+1)D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which (2+1)D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely, which (1+1)D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix W, whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions W(ia), to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries. PMID:25763965

  12. Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Max; Rysinska, Agata; Garland, Anne; Rolfson, Ola; Aspberg, Sara; Eisler, Thomas; Garellick, Gran; Stark, Andr; Hailer, Nils P; Skldenberg, Olof

    2016-02-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery.A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n?=?270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21).The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events.During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11).Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls. PMID:26871792

  13. Assessment of asymmetric leg loading before and after total hip arthroplasty using instrumented shoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Total hip arthroplasty is a successful surgical treatment in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. Different questionnaires are used by the clinicians to assess functional capacity and the patient's pain, despite these questionnaires are known to be subjective. Furthermore, many studies agree that kinematic and kinetic parameters are crucial to evaluate and to provide useful information about the patient’s evolution for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists. However, these quantities can currently only be obtained in a fully equipped gait laboratory. Instrumented shoes can quantify gait velocity, kinetic, kinematic and symmetry parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the instrumented shoes is a sufficiently sensitive instrument to show differences in mobility performance before and after total hip arthroplasty. Methods In this study, patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were measured before and 6–8 months after total hip arthroplasty. Both measurement sessions include 2 functional mobility tasks while the subject was wearing instrumented shoes. Before each measurement the Harris Hip Score and the Traditional Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index were administered as well. Results The stance time and the average vertical ground reaction force measured with the instrumented shoes during walking, and their symmetry index, showed significant differences before and after total hip arthroplasty. However, the data obtained with the sit to stand test did not reveal this improvement after surgery. Conclusions Our results show that inter-limb asymmetry during a walking activity can be evaluated with the instrumented shoes before and after total hip arthroplasty in an outpatient clinical setting. PMID:24581227

  14. Ileal interposition reduces blood glucose levels and decreases insulin resistance in a type 2 diabetes mellitus animal model by up-regulating glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; Zheng, Meizhu; Song, Maomin; Bai, Rixing; Cheng, Shi; Xing, Ying; Yuan, Huisheng; Wang, Pilin

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the possible mechanism of ileal interposition (IT) treatment of glycemic control of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by establishing an IT animal model. Twelve T2DM rats (GK rats) of 8-week old were divided into GK IT surgery group (GK-IT) and GK sham group (GK-Sham). Six Wistar rats were used as the non-T2DM sham group (WS-Sham). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect plasma insulin concentration and fasting pancreas glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration changes. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used to quantitatively measure insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression was detected by Western blotting. IT significantly decreased fasting blood glucose level and the oral glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin resistance of GK rats by increasing GLP-1 concentration and GLP-1R levels. The postoperative pancreatic β-cell apoptosis rate of GK-Sham group was significantly higher than those in the GK-IT group and the WS-Sham group. IT significantly reduces blood glucose and decreases insulin resistance by up-regulating GLP-1 concentrations and GLP-1R levels, which may contribute to insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells and decreases apoptosis of pancreatic β-cell. PMID:25120793

  15. Narrowing the "method" gap.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H E

    1987-01-01

    Many teachers who have been trained to teach reading do not seem to transfer these skills to the other areas of the curriculum. It is suggested that teachers should approach the content areas using a total lesson approach. This approach adapts the directed reading activity method to content area instruction. This article includes a brief discussion of the adaptation of the directed reading activity method. Included is an explanation of each of the six steps as they might apply to the content area. The goals of the directed reading activity and those of the content areas have much in common. These include vocabulary building, various levels of comprehension, as well as "skimming and scanning." Encouraging teachers to apply this method can help to "close the gap" in methodology. PMID:3591488

  16. The Gap-Tpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  17. Filling the launch gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeser, S.

    1986-05-01

    Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

  18. Outcomes following the single-incision anterior approach to total hip arthroplasty: a multicenter observational study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Matta, Joel M; Dodgin, Dave; Clark, Charles; Kregor, Phil; Bradley, Gary; Little, Lester

    2009-07-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of 1,152 patients across nine clinical sites across the United States, evaluating complications and function associated with the anterior approach to total hip arthroplasty using an orthopedic table. Eligible patients included those with primary diagnosis of hip arthritis. Outcomes included hospital stay, use of assistive devices, complications, and function. In the cohort of 1,152 patients treated with the anterior approach to total hip arthroplasty, the authors found (i) an acceptable complication profile with a very low dislocation rate, (ii) an early return to function, and (iii) a decline in complications in surgeons with greater than 100 case experiences. PMID:19576400

  19. Makoplasty and the accuracy and efficacy of robotic-assisted arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Werner, Steven D; Stonestreet, Matthew; Jacofsky, David J

    2014-03-01

    In comparison with standard surgical techniques robotic-assisted surgery has the advantages of increased surgical accuracy, reproducibility, optimization of component position, and improved patient outcomes in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total hip arthoplasty (THA) procedures. The MAKO Tactile Guidance System (TGS; MAKO Surgical Corp, Fort Lauderdale, FL) facilitates robotic-assisted arthroplasty procedures currently implemented in many operating rooms. The benefits of this technology are evident, but have not been shown to improve patient outcomes and justify the added financial burden imposed. Further research is needed to determine if this technological advancement will translate into improvements in longevity and clinical outcomes. PMID:24574012

  20. Iliopsoas Irritation as Presentation of Head-Neck Corrosion After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Matsen Ko, Laura; Coleman, Jacob J; Stas, Venessa; Duwelius, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    Corrosion of modular components at the femoral neck remains a complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). The authors have found the iliopsoas sign (pain on resisted flexion of the hip) to be suggestive of femoral component corrosion. These cases represented 8 of 120 revision hip arthroplasties (7%) performed at the authors' institution. After the revisions, all iliopsoas tendonitis symptoms resolved. Based on the authors' experience and the recent literature, they recommend that the iliopsoas sign or presentation of a sterile iliopsoas abscess in a previously well-functioning THA be concern for corrosion of the femoral component of the total hip. PMID:26410635

  1. Anterior dislocation in a total knee arthroplasty: Acase report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Conti, Antonella; Camarda, Lawrence; Mannino, Salvatore; Milici, Liliana; D'Arienzo, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Dislocations of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are an uncommon injury and only few cases of anterior dislocations have been reported. We report a rare case of anterior dislocation of a 10-year-old posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty in a 74-year-old woman. The patient was successfully treated by close reduction of the dislocation followed by immobilization in full extension with a long leg cast. Because of a high risk of neurovascular complications, a high index of suspicion for vascular injury must be maintained. For this reason, a proper diagnosis is required and immediate reduction is recommended. PMID:26719606

  2. EVALUATION OF HEPATIC FUNCTION AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY USING ENOXAPARIN

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Felipe Vitiello; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate hepatic changes resulting from the use of enoxaparin for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis among patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Thirty-two patients underwent elective total hip arthroplasty, using enoxaparin, and were followed up for 65 days with serial hepatic enzyme assays. Results: Changes in laboratory parameters were found in up to 75% of the patients during the study, but the parameters normalized after suspension of the treatment. No clinical evidence of hepatic lesions was found. Conclusion: The hepatic enzyme levels increase in most patients using enoxaparin, but without clinical correlation, and the levels normalize after suspension of the treatment.

  3. Does Pre-Operative Physiotherapy Improve Outcomes in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty? - A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Iris H Y; Paton, Bruce; Haddad, Fares S

    2015-09-01

    We undertook a systematic review of 11 randomised controlled trials comparing patient outcomes in total knee arthroplasty in those who had undergone pre-operative physiotherapy-based interventions against control groups. Results show that there is little evidence that pre-operative physiotherapy brings about significant improvements in patient outcome scores, lower limb strength, pain, range of movement and hospital length of stay following total knee arthroplasty. The overall quality of the studies was moderate to poor, mostly due to the small sample sizes. PMID:25913232

  4. Robotically Assisted Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty with a Handheld Image-Free Sculpting Tool.

    PubMed

    Lonner, Jess H

    2016-01-01

    Although unicompartmental knee arthroplasty may pose a lower risk of perioperative complications and achieve better functional outcomes than total knee arthroplasty, a high degree of accuracy of implant positioning and soft tissue balance are required to optimize durability and implant survivorship. First-generation robotic technology improved implant position compared with conventional methods. This article reviews the next-generation robotic technology, an image-free handheld robotic sculpting tool, which offers an alternative method for optimizing implant positioning and soft tissue balance without the need for preoperative computed tomography scans and with price points that make it suitable for use in outpatient surgery centers. PMID:26614918

  5. An Insight into Methods and Practices in Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh-shirazi, Mohammad Saeed; Ibrahim, Mazin; Pastides, Philip; Khan, Wasim; Rahman, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has improved the quality of life of patients with hip arthritis. Orthopedic community is striving for excellence to improve surgical techniques and postoperative care. Despite these efforts, patients continue facing postoperative complications. In particular, patients with rheumatoid arthritis display a higher risk of certain complications such as dislocation, periprosthetic infection, and shorter prosthesis durability. In this review we present the current knowledge of hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with more insight into common practices and interventions directed at enhancing recovery of these patients and current shortfalls. PMID:26236339

  6. Three-step sequential management for knee arthroplasty after severe ballistic injury: Two cases.

    PubMed

    Herry, Y; Boucher, F; Neyret, P; Ferry, T; Lustig, S

    2016-02-01

    Management of knee bone loss after gunshot trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach. Two cases of knee arthroplasty after devastating ballistic trauma are reported. Treatment comprised several steps: sampling, bone resection, reinforced cement spacer, latent sepsis control, and prosthetic reconstruction. The patients showed no neurovascular disorder and had a functioning extensor mechanism. At follow-up of at least 2years, results were satisfactory, with return to unaided walking and mean International Knee Society (IKS) score improved from 18 to 59 points. In light of these observations, knee reconstruction arthroplasty using a sequential strategy can provide satisfactory functional outcome after severe ballistic trauma. PMID:26774900

  7. Diagnosis of adverse local tissue reactions following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Brian P; Perry, Kevin I; Taunton, Michael J; Mabry, Tad M; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing surfaces in hip arthroplasty have distinct advantages that led to the increase in popularity in North America in the early 2000s. However, with their increased use, concerns such as local cytotoxicity and hypersensitivity reactions leading to soft tissue damage and cystic mass formation (known collectively as adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR)) became apparent. The clinical presentation of ALTR is highly variable. The diagnosis of ALTR in MOM articulations in hip arthroplasty can be challenging and a combination of clinical presentation, physical examination, implant track record, component positioning, serum metal ion levels, cross-sectional imaging, histopathologic analysis, and consideration of alternative diagnoses are essential. PMID:26816329

  8. Successful LCL reconstruction and PCL repair for LCL tear and PCL avulsion following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Michael A; Bravman, Jonathan T; Eckhoff, Donald G

    2014-11-01

    Total knee arthroplasty represents a well-established and successful procedure; however, ligament incompetence is known to negatively affect surgical outcomes. Here we present an unusual case of early total knee arthroplasty failure secondary to femoral posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion and associated lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tear, treated successfully with primary PCL repair and LCL reconstruction. For LCL reconstruction, a peroneus longus allograft was passed through an anterior to posterior bony tunnel in the fibular head and docked into a horizontal femoral tunnel. Level of evidence Case report, Level IV. PMID:23756851

  9. Liposomal Bupivacaine: A Comparative Study of More Than 1000 Total Joint Arthroplasty Cases.

    PubMed

    Barrington, John W; Olugbode, Oluseun; Lovald, Scott; Ong, Kevin; Watson, Heather; Emerson, Roger H

    2015-10-01

    Pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) can be severe and difficult to control. A single-dose local analgesic delivers bupivacaine in a liposomal time-release platform. In 2248 consecutive patients with hip and knee arthroplasty, half (Pre) were treated using a well-established multimodal analgesia, including periarticular injection (PAI), and half had the PAI substituted for a liposomal bupivacaine injection technique (Post). Pain scores were significantly lower for patients in the Post group for both hip and knee procedures. A large series of patients who had TJA experienced pain relief after the introduction of liposomal bupivacaine as part of an established multimodal protocol. PMID:26410636

  10. Analgesic Techniques in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: From the Daily Practice to Evidence-Based Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anastase, Denisa Madalina; Cionac Florescu, Simona; Munteanu, Ana Maria; Ursu, Traian; Stoica, Cristian Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are major orthopedic surgery models, addressing mainly ageing populations with multiple comorbidities and treatments, ASA II–IV, which may complicate the perioperative period. Therefore effective management of postoperative pain should allow rapid mobilization of the patient with shortening of hospitalization and social reintegration. In our review we propose an evaluation of the main analgesics models used today in the postoperative period. Their comparative analysis shows the benefits and side effects of each of these methods and guides us to how to use evidence-based medicine in our daily practice. PMID:25484894

  11. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium in a complex modular total hip arthroplasty system.

    PubMed

    Harding, I; Bonomo, A; Crawford, R; Psychoyios, V; Delves, T; Murray, D; McLardy-Smith, P

    2002-10-01

    There is concern that modularity in a total hip arthroplasty system increases serum cobalt and chromium ion levels. This study measures the serum cobalt and chromium levels in patients with an Oxford Universal Hip (Corin, Cirencester, United Kingdom), which has a modular sliding mechanism; patients with a similarly manufactured hip with no sliding mechanism; and a control group. Loosening was excluded clinically and radiologically. Arthroplasty patients had statistically higher levels of serum cobalt and chromium than controls, but there was no significant difference in levels between the implanted groups. PMID:12375249

  12. Undecidability of the spectral gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubitt, Toby S.; Perez-Garcia, David; Wolf, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    The spectral gapthe energy difference between the ground state and first excited state of a systemis central to quantum many-body physics. Many challenging open problems, such as the Haldane conjecture, the question of the existence of gapped topological spin liquid phases, and the YangMills gap conjecture, concern spectral gaps. These and other problems are particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: given the Hamiltonian of a quantum many-body system, is it gapped or gapless? Here we prove that this is an undecidable problem. Specifically, we construct families of quantum spin systems on a two-dimensional lattice with translationally invariant, nearest-neighbour interactions, for which the spectral gap problem is undecidable. This result extends to undecidability of other low-energy properties, such as the existence of algebraically decaying ground-state correlations. The proof combines Hamiltonian complexity techniques with aperiodic tilings, to construct a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the evolution of a quantum phase-estimation algorithm followed by a universal Turing machine. The spectral gap depends on the outcome of the corresponding halting problem. Our result implies that there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary model is gapped or gapless, and that there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics.

  13. Undecidability of the spectral gap.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Toby S; Perez-Garcia, David; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-12-10

    The spectral gap--the energy difference between the ground state and first excited state of a system--is central to quantum many-body physics. Many challenging open problems, such as the Haldane conjecture, the question of the existence of gapped topological spin liquid phases, and the Yang-Mills gap conjecture, concern spectral gaps. These and other problems are particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: given the Hamiltonian of a quantum many-body system, is it gapped or gapless? Here we prove that this is an undecidable problem. Specifically, we construct families of quantum spin systems on a two-dimensional lattice with translationally invariant, nearest-neighbour interactions, for which the spectral gap problem is undecidable. This result extends to undecidability of other low-energy properties, such as the existence of algebraically decaying ground-state correlations. The proof combines Hamiltonian complexity techniques with aperiodic tilings, to construct a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the evolution of a quantum phase-estimation algorithm followed by a universal Turing machine. The spectral gap depends on the outcome of the corresponding 'halting problem'. Our result implies that there exists no algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary model is gapped or gapless, and that there exist models for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of the axioms of mathematics. PMID:26659181

  14. Clinical Outcomes Assessment of Three Similar Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christopher; Batson, Ryan; Reighard, Shane; Tanner, Stephanie; Snider, Becky; Pace, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    This report examines the clinical performance of three very similar total hip arthroplasty designs with distinctly different bearing surfaces used over the course 10-17 years. Clinical outcomes assessments for each group are compared in the context of varying implant related costs related to the latest technology at the time of surgery. Eighty-one surgeries were studied and differ by bearing surface. In this study, 36 hips are ceramic on polyethylene, 27 are metal on polyethylene and 18 are metal on metal. All polyethylene components are nonhighly cross-linked. The ceramic on polyethylene group has younger patients, on average, and higher percentage of patients with significant polyethylene wear. These groups have an average follow-up time of 8.6 years when assessing functional hip scores, thigh pain, groin pain, revision surgeries and radiographic osteolysis. The implant purchasing cost at the time of surgery was assessed to determine if a correlation exists between outcomes and the more technologically advanced implants use at the time of surgery. Based on midterm clinical outcome assessment, no correlation between initial hospital cost and clinical outcomes of one bearing surface over another can be found. PMID:25002938

  15. Psychological determinants of problematic outcomes following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael; Tanzer, Michael; Stanish, William; Fallaha, Michel; Keefe, Francis J; Simmonds, Maureen; Dunbar, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to examine the role of pain-related psychological factors in predicting pain and disability following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). The study sample consisted of 75 (46 women, 29 men) individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee who were scheduled for TKA. Measures of pain severity, pain catastrophizing, depression, and pain-related fears of movement were completed prior to surgery. Participants completed measures of pain severity and self-reported disability 6 weeks following surgery. Consistent with previous research, cross-sectional analyses revealed significant correlations among measures of pre-surgical pain severity, pain catastrophizing, depression and pain-related fears of movement. Prospective analyses revealed that pre-surgical pain severity and pain catastrophizing were unique predictors of post-surgical pain severity (6-week follow-up). Pain-related fears of movement were predictors of post-surgical functional difficulties in univariate analyses, but not when controlling for pre-surgical co-morbidities (e.g. back pain). The results of this study add to a growing literature highlighting the prognostic value of psychological variables in the prediction of post-surgical health outcomes. The results support the view that the psychological determinants of post-surgical pain severity differ from the psychological determinants of post-surgical disability. The results suggest that interventions designed to specifically target pain-related psychological risk factors might improve post-surgical outcomes. PMID:19304392

  16. CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER INFECTED TOTAL KNEE AND TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Falk; Leichtle, Carmen Ina; Schlumberger, Michael; Leichtle, Ulf Gunther; Wünschel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Infection after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a serious complication which typically leads to a long lasting and intensive surgical and medicamentous treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence outcome after revision surgery caused by prosthetic infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 64 patients who had revision surgery between 1989 and 2009 due to periprosthetic infection. We examined a total of 69 joints (TKA: 36%, THA: 64%), follow-up 5.1 years (0.5-21 years) after the initial surgical intervention. The mean patient age at time of surgery was 67 years old (43-79 years old). Clinical data and scores including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC)-Index, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS) were surveyed. Results: There was no difference in clinical scores regarding treatment between a single and a multiple stage treatment regime. Infections with multiple microorganisms and Enterococcus spp. lead to a significantly higher number of interventions. Using a modified Tsukayama system we classified 24% as type I, 34% type II and 42% type III- infections, with no differences in clinical outcome. Overweight patients had a significantly lower HHS and WOMAC-score. Immunosuppression leads to a worse WOMAC and HSS-Score. An increased number of procedures was associated to a limping gait. Conclusion: Thorough surgical technique leads to good clinical results independent of infection-type and treatment philosophy. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study.

  17. Rotation flaps for coverage after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pozzobon, Leonardo Rafael; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Guimarães, Tales Mollica; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results obtained using local myocutaneous rotation flaps in cases of wound dehiscence after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Patients undergoing these surgical procedures were selected in the 2000-2012 period. The nine selected cases during this period were subjected to flap coverage due to skin dehiscence associated with infection. In eight cases we used rotation flaps of the medial gastrocnemius, and in one case we used advancing skin. RESULTS: Eighty nine percent of the cases were successful in the coverage of the prosthesis and the viability of the flaps. In four cases it was possible to maintain or review the prosthesis. Four other cases progressed to amputation due to failure on treatment of infections, and one case remained without the prosthesis. The functional evaluation showed an unsatisfactory outcome in 89% of cases. CONCLUSION: Coverage flaps are a good option for the treatment of cases of dehiscence with exposure of the prosthesis and the functional failure was associated with the inability to control the infection and the damage it caused. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453672

  18. Outcomes of Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries during Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Haller, Kathryn; Mulder, Andrew; Goldblum, Andrew S; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative medial collateral ligament (MCL) disruption during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often managed with either primary repair or use of a constrained implant. A total of 23 patients with an MCL injury during TKA between 2003 and 2009 were compared with 92 matched controls. Of the 23 patients, 10 were treated with an unconstrained implant and primary MCL repair, 8 with constrained implants, 3 with constrained implants and MCL repair, and 2 with unconstrained implants and no MCL repair. After an average 5-year follow-up, patients had lower Knee Society Scores (KSS), 79 versus 87 (p?=?0.03), but similar Knee Function Scores (KFS), 68 versus 72 (p?=?0.35). The improvement between preoperative and postoperative KSS and KFS did not vary among the two groups (p?=?0.88 and p?=?0.77, respectively). Postoperative scores did not vary significantly among the four treatment modalities. Conservative treatment can provide satisfactory outcomes and avoid potential complications of increased constraint. PMID:25322461

  19. TOTAL ANKLE ARTHROPLASTY: BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE WITH THE HINTEGRA PROSTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Caio; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz; Réssio, Cibele; Fuchs, Mauro Luiz; Godoy Santos, Alexandre Leme de; Ortiz, Rafael Trevisan

    2015-01-01

    Ankle arthrosis is becoming more and more common. The search for solutions that preserve joint function has led to a new generation of prosthesis with three components and more degrees of freedom. This paper presents the results achieved for ten patients treated with the HINTEGRA Prosthesis (Integra, New Deal), through collaborative action between the Foot and Ankle Groups of the Orthopedics and Traumatology divisions of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Unifesp, and the School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (USP). The ten patients (six women and four men, aged between 29 and 66 years), underwent a surgical procedure consisting of Hintermann's technique, between January and June 2005. They were evaluated at prearranged intervals, and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The surgery led to a significant improvement in ankle mobility. Radiological evaluation showed no signs of loosening or failure in the prosthetic components in any of the patients studied. Although the complication rate in our sample was high, it was equivalent to the rates found by other authors, and directly represents the learning curve associate with this kind of procedure. Four years after the procedure, it was found that the patients pain levels had significantly decreased, and that their functional patterns had significantly improved, with AOFAS and Hintermann scores indicating results that were excellent for 20%, good for 70% and poor for 10%. Treatment of ankle arthritis by means of total arthroplasty using the HINTEGRA prosthesis was capable of providing good results over an average observation period of four years.

  20. Intraoperative passive knee kinematics during total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Young, Kathryn L; Dunbar, Michael J; Richardson, Glen; Astephen Wilson, Janie L

    2015-11-01

    Surgical navigation systems for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery are capable of capturing passive three-dimensional (3D) angular joint movement patterns intraoperatively. Improved understanding of patient-specific knee kinematic changes between pre and post-implant states and their relationship with post-operative function may be important in optimizing TKA outcomes. However, a comprehensive characterization of the variability among patients has yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variability within frontal plane joint movement patterns intraoperatively during a passive knee flexion exercise. Three hundred and forty patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) received a primary TKA using a navigation system. Passive kinematics were captured prior to (pre-implant), and after prosthesis insertion (post-implant). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to capture characteristic patterns of knee angle kinematics among patients, to identify potential patient subgroups based on these patterns, and to examine the subgroup-specific changes in these patterns between pre- and post-implant states. The first four extracted patterns explained 99.9% of the diversity within the frontal plane angle patterns among the patients. Post-implant, the magnitude of the frontal plane angle shifted toward a neutral mechanical axis in all phenotypes, yet subtle pattern (shape of curvature) features of the pre-implant state persisted. PMID:25990930

  1. Do patients lose weight after total hip arthroplasty????

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Ledur, Felipe Ribeiro; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Germani, Bruno Lorandos; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonalves, Ramiro Zilles; Ypez, Anthony Kerbes; Ferreira, Marco Tonding; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of total hip arthroplasty (THA) on body mass index (BMI), from before to after the operation. Methods 100 patients who underwent THA were retrospectively analyzed. They were stratified according to BMI, as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results There were 48 male patients and 52 female patients. Their mean age was 63.813.5 years. The mean follow-up was 24.60.6 months. The men had a mean preoperative BMI of 28.43.6kg/m2 and the women, 27.55.0kg/m2. The mean postoperative BMI was 28.90.7kg/m2 for the men and 27.80.7kg/m2 for the women. There was a general mean increase in BMI of 0.4kg/m2. The BMI increased both in patients with normal weight and in those who were overweight, but it decreased slightly in patients who were obese. BMI remained unchanged in the majority of the patients (73%). Conclusion The improvement in mobility achieved through THA did not promote any reduction in anthropometric measurements in the majority of the patients. PMID:26229847

  2. Simple method for confirming tibial osteotomy during total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving precise implant alignment is crucial for producing good outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We introduce a simple method for confirming the accuracy of tibial osteotomy during TKA. Findings Two metallic markers were placed on the skin 20 cm apart, one on the tibial tuberosity and other on the tibial crest, points that are easily identified and palpated intraoperatively. Anteroposterior radiographs of the legs were obtained. We defined the line along the markers as the tuberosity line. The osteotomy line is perpendicular to the anatomical axis of the tibia. We then calculated the angle between these two lines and designated it the osteotomy angle. We set the osteotomy angle of the protractor, and cut the bone parallel to the osteotomy line of the protractor. Postoperatively, we analyzed the varus angle of the tibial osteotomy in 35 TKAs using the protractor. The average of the varus angle of the tibial osteotomy was 89.4° ± 1.6° (95% confidence interval of −1.0976, 0.0119). There was no significant difference from the target angle of 90° (p = 0.055). The varus angles of 90° and 90° ± 2° for the tibial osteotomy were 42.9% and 82.9%, respectively. Conclusions We determined the accuracy of the tibial osteotomy in the coronal plane using the protractor to be satisfactory. PMID:23153271

  3. Primary posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty: analysis of different instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intercondylar femoral bone removal during posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) makes many cruciate substituting implant designs less appealing than cruciate retaining implants. Bone stock conservation is considered fundamental in the prevision of future revision surgeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantity of intercondylar bone removable during PS housing preparation using three contemporary PS TKA instrumentations. Method We compared different box cutting jigs which were utilized for the PS housing of three popular PS knee prostheses. The bone removal area from every PS box cutting jig was three-dimensionally measured. Results Independently from the implant size, the cutting jig for a specific PS TKA always resected significantly less bone than the others: this difference was statistically significant, especially for small- to medium-sized total knee femoral components. Conclusion This study does not establish a clinical relevance of removing more or less bone at primary TKA, but suggests that if a PS design is indicated, it is preferable to select a model which possibly resects less distal femoral bone. PMID:25037275

  4. Classifying failed hip arthroplasty: generalizability of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aileen M; Schemitsch, Emil H; Gollish, Jeffrey D; Saleh, Khaled J; Davey, Rodderick; Kreder, Hans J; Mahomed, Nizar N; Waddell, James P; Szalai, John Paul; Gross, Allan E

    2003-10-01

    Interrater reliability and validity of a radiographic severity classification was evaluated in 81 patients having revision hip arthroplasty. Severity was rated separately on the femoral and acetabular sides using a five-level scale ranging from no significant loss of bone stock to uncontained loss of bone stock and discontinuity. Three academic orthopaedic surgeons rated preoperative anteroposterior radiographs taken within 6 weeks of surgery. Interrater reliability was 0.54 (weighted kappa) with 57% agreement on the acetabular side and 0.56 with 52% agreement on the femoral side. Rater to intraoperative findings agreed 45% of the time and weighted kappa was 0.41 on the acetabular side and agreed 38% of the time with weighted kappa of 0.39 on the femoral side. When radiographic and intraoperative ratings disagreed, 30% of the time no bony defect was found on the acetabular side. Fifty-eight percent of femoral radiographic ratings were upgraded intraoperatively. These results differ from previously reported results of high reliability from one institution with trained raters. A reliable and valid severity classification that is generalizable to multiple raters from different institutions is required to stratify patients for intervention studies, and to aid preoperative planning. Training in the classification system may improve generalizability. PMID:14612644

  5. Short-Term Results of Novel Constrained Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Thomas; Finley, Stephen; Snider, Rebecca; Looper, Jayme; Tanner, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Constrained acetabular components have only been recommended as a salvage option for the persistently unstable total hip arthroplasty (THA), due to limited range of motion and less than satisfactory component failure rates. This is a retrospective review of 137 patients with 154 consecutive primary constrained THAs performed between November 2003 and August 2007. We reviewed serial radiographs, postoperative complications, groin/thigh pain, and compared preoperative and postoperative Harris Hip Scores. With a mean follow-up of 6 years, there was 1.9% dislocation rate, 0% component failure rate, and 2.6% infection rate. Seven patients reported continued groin pain, and three had continued thigh pain. One patient showed radiographic evidence of 1 mm polyethylene wear. Radiographic review showed no evidence of osteolysis or stem subsidence. Harris Hip Scores improved from a mean of 68.8 (range 58-87) preoperatively to 98.9 (range 65-100) at final clinical assessment. This constrained acetabular prosthesis had a dislocation rate of less than 2%, with 0% component failure rate at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up suggesting this prosthesis may be a viable alternative for patients at risk for instability or those known to have recurrent instability. PMID:26330992

  6. Low manipulation prevalence following fast-track total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Husted, Henrik; Jrgensen, Christoffer C; Gromov, Kirill; Troelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which may have influenced the prevalence of joint stiffness and subsequent manipulation. We investigated the prevalence of manipulation following fast-track TKA and identified patients at risk of needing manipulation. Patients and methods 3,145 consecutive unselected elective primary unilateral TKA patients operated in 6 departments with well-defined fast-track settings were included in the study. Demographic data, prevalence, type and timing of manipulation, and preoperative and postoperative ROM were recorded prospectively, ensuring complete 1-year follow-up. Results 70 manipulations were performed within 1 year (2.2%) at a mean of 4 months after index surgery. Younger age and not using walking aids preoperatively were associated with a higher risk of manipulation. LOS ? 4 days (as opposed to a longer LOS) was not associated with an increased risk of manipulation. Interpretation The prevalence of manipulation was lower or comparable to that in most published studies following more conventional pathways. Inherent patient demographics were identified as risk factors for manipulation whereas LOS ? 4 days was not. Thus, fast-track TKA does not result in increased risk of manipulationdespite a shorter LOS. Optimized pain treatment and early mobilization may contribute to these favorable results that support the use of fast-track. PMID:25267501

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Mobility following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Ava S.T.; Myrah, Ainslie M.; Bauck, Robyn A.; Brinkman, Danielle M.; Friess, Shawn N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the relationship between indoor and outdoor mobility capacity in older adults with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and, secondarily, to determine walking intensity in the same population and to compare all outcomes to a control group of older adults without knee pathology. Method: In this cross-sectional study, participants (TKA=16, mean 22.9 (SD 9.7) mo post TKA; control=22) completed indoor walking tests and a 580 m outdoor course that included varying terrain (e.g., curbs, grass, sidewalk) and frequent changes in direction. Walking capacity was assessed using stopwatches, global positioning system watches and accelerometers. Results: Outdoor walking time was moderately correlated (p<0.05) with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test (r=0.65), stair-climb test (SCT) (r=0.67 ascending, r=0.79 descending), 10m walk test (10 mWT) (r=0.73), and 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) (r=?0.75). Based on activity counts, walking intensity levels for participants in both groups were moderate (outdoor walk and 6 MWT). There was no significant difference in walking capacity between groups (TUG, SCT, 10 mWT, 6 MWT, outdoor walk). Conclusions: Common clinical walking tests are moderately correlated with outdoor mobility. Mobility capacity of individuals post TKA was similar to controls in both indoor and outdoor environments, and participants in both groups achieved moderate physical activity levels with walking. PMID:24403699

  8. Prosthesis design and placement in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ackland, David C; Patel, Minoo; Knox, David

    2015-01-01

    The management of irreparable rotator cuff tears associated with osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint has long been challenging. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) was designed to provide pain relief and improve shoulder function in patients with severe rotator cuff tear arthropathy. While this procedure has been known to reduce pain, improve strength and increase range of motion in shoulder elevation, scapular notching, rotation deficiency, early implant loosening and dislocation have attributed to complication rates as high as 62%. Patient selection, surgical approach and post-operative management are factors vital to successful outcome of RSA, with implant design and component positioning having a significant influence on the ability of the shoulder muscles to elevate, axially rotate and stabilise the humerus. Clinical and biomechanical studies have revealed that component design and placement affects the location of the joint centre of rotation and therefore the force-generating capacity of the muscles and overall joint mobility and stability. Furthermore, surgical technique has also been shown to have an important influence on clinical outcome of RSA, as it can affect intra-operative joint exposure as well as post-operative muscle function. This review discusses the behaviour of the shoulder after RSA and the influence of implant design, component positioning and surgical technique on post-operative joint function and clinical outcome. PMID:26135298

  9. Physical activity after total knee arthroplasty: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Roger J; Melanson, Edward L; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Christiansen, Cory L

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most commonly performed elective surgery in the United States. TKA typically improves functional performance and reduces pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. Little is known about the influence of TKA on overall physical activity levels. Physical activity, defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure, confers many health benefits but typically decreases with endstage osteoarthritis. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential benefits (metabolic, functional, and orthopedic) of physical activity to patients undergoing TKA, present results from recent studies aimed to determine the effect of TKA on physical activity, and discuss potential sources of variability and conflicting results for physical activity outcomes. Several studies utilizing self-reported outcomes indicate that patients perceive themselves to be more physically active after TKA than they were before surgery. Accelerometry-based outcomes indicate that physical activity for patients after TKA remains at or below pre-surgical levels. Several different factors likely contributed to these variable results, including the use of different instruments, duration of follow-up, and characteristics of the subjects studied. Comparison to norms, however, suggests that daily physical activity for patients following TKA may fall short of healthy age-matched controls. We propose that further study of the relationship between TKA and physical activity needs to be performed using accelerometry-based outcome measures at multiple post-surgical time points. PMID:26396937

  10. Physical activity after total knee arthroplasty: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Roger J; Melanson, Edward L; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Christiansen, Cory L

    2015-09-18

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most commonly performed elective surgery in the United States. TKA typically improves functional performance and reduces pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. Little is known about the influence of TKA on overall physical activity levels. Physical activity, defined as "any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure", confers many health benefits but typically decreases with endstage osteoarthritis. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential benefits (metabolic, functional, and orthopedic) of physical activity to patients undergoing TKA, present results from recent studies aimed to determine the effect of TKA on physical activity, and discuss potential sources of variability and conflicting results for physical activity outcomes. Several studies utilizing self-reported outcomes indicate that patients perceive themselves to be more physically active after TKA than they were before surgery. Accelerometry-based outcomes indicate that physical activity for patients after TKA remains at or below pre-surgical levels. Several different factors likely contributed to these variable results, including the use of different instruments, duration of follow-up, and characteristics of the subjects studied. Comparison to norms, however, suggests that daily physical activity for patients following TKA may fall short of healthy age-matched controls. We propose that further study of the relationship between TKA and physical activity needs to be performed using accelerometry-based outcome measures at multiple post-surgical time points. PMID:26396937

  11. Acromion-fixation of glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Linda A; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2005-08-01

    Successful design of components for total shoulder arthroplasty has proven to be challenging. This is because of the difficulties in maintaining fixation of the component that inserts into the scapula; i.e., the glenoid component. Glenoid components that are fixated to both the glenoid and acromion (a long process extending medially on the dorsal aspect of the scapula) have the possible advantage of greater stability over those that are fixated to the glenoid alone. In this study, a finite element analysis is used to investigate whether or not acromion fixation is advantageous for glenoid components. Full muscle loading and joint reaction forces are included in the finite element model. Reflective photoelasticity of five scapulae is used to obtain experimental data to compare with results from the finite element analysis, and it confirms the structural behaviour of the finite element model. When implanted with an acromion-fixated prosthesis, it is found that high unphysiological stresses occur in the scapula bone, and that stresses in the fixation are not reduced. Very high stresses are predicted in that part of the prosthesis which connects the acromion to the glenoid. It is found that the very high stresses are partly in response to the muscle and joint reaction forces acting at the acromion. It is concluded that, because of the relatively high forces acting at the acromion, fixation to it may not be the way forward in glenoid component design. PMID:15958228

  12. Wound dressings for primary and revision total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing post-surgical complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is of great importance, and application of an appropriate wound dressing is necessary. Since no dressing encompasses all the parameters required for ideal wound healing, a comparison of the available dressing types can assist the surgeon to choose the best dressing after TJA. Methods Studies evaluating postoperative wound dressings after TJA were reviewed in order to assess the outcomes, complications and costs associated with dressing types. Results Traditional cotton dressings have a high ability to absorb exudate. However, they dry out sooner and there is a risk of pain and additional trauma during dressing changes. Although vapor permeable dressings allow transmission of moisture, but they have low absorptive capacity and require frequent changes even with moderately exudating wounds. On the other hand, hydrofiber and hydrocolloid dressings have high absorptive capacity and permeability, and can cope with exudate production. They are changed less often and have low blistering rates, which may reduce surgical site infection (SSI). Although the unit cost associated with advanced dressings is much higher than the traditional dressings, the decreased rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the cost associated with treating PJI more than compensate for it. Conclusions Choice of dressing type after TJA should depend upon permeability, absorptive capacity, documented rate of SSI and cost effectiveness with its use, apart from a surgeons past clinical experience and familiarity. PMID:26605314

  13. Patient-reported outcome measures after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, P. N.; Harris, J. D.; Noble, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A lack of connection between surgeons and patients in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has led to the search for the ideal patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate these procedures. We hypothesised that the desired psychometric properties of the ideal outcome tool have not been uniformly addressed in studies describing TKA PROMS. Methods A systematic review was conducted investigating one or more facets of patient-reported scores for measuring primary TKA outcome. Studies were analysed by study design, subject demographics, surgical technique, and follow-up adequacy, with the gold standard of psychometric properties being systematic development, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Results A total of 38 articles reported outcomes from 47 different PROMS to 85 541 subjects at 26.3 months (standard deviation 30.8) post-operatively. Of the 38, eight developed new scores, 20 evaluated existing scores, and ten were cross-cultural adaptation of existing scores. Only six of 38 surveyed studies acknowledged all gold standard psychometric properties. The most commonly studied PROMS were the Oxford Knee Score, New Knee Society Score, Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Conclusions A single, validated, reliable, and responsive PROM addressing TKA patients priorities has not yet been identified. Moreover, a clear definition of a successful procedure remains elusive. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:120127 PMID:26220999

  14. BLEEDING OF FEMORAL HEAD DURING TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY FOR OSTEOARTHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Sotomayor, Marco Yánez; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the bleeding of the femoral head on hip osteoarthritis in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred and three hips affected by primary hip osteoarthritis were evaluated. After surgical dislocation, the femoral head was divided into four quadrants, and micro perforations were made in order to observe and assess the presence of bleeding, as early type (EB), late type (LB) or without bleeding (WB). Results: We observed early bleeding (EB) in the upper quadrant in 16 hips (15.5%), late bleeding in 14 hips (13.6%) and no bleeding (WB) in 73 hips (70.9%). The anterior quadrant showed EB in 24 hips (23.3%), LB in 7 hips (6.8%) and WB in 72 hips (69.9%). The lower quadrant presented EB in 40 hips (38.8%), LB 14 hips (13.6%) and WB in 49 hips (47.6%). The posterior quadrant showed EB in 39 hips (37.9%), LB 19 hips (18.4%) and WB in 45 hips (43.7%). Comparing BMI and gender, we found no association between these parameters (p> 0.05). Conclusions: The inferior and posterior quadrant had the highest bleeding levels, following the path of the medial circumflex artery. Level of Evidence III, Therapeutic Study. PMID:26981036

  15. Revision in Cemented and Cementless Infected Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cherubino, Paolo; Puricelli, Marco; DAngelo, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Infection is a frequent cause of failure after joint replacement surgery. The infection rate after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reduced to 1-2% in the last years. However, it still represents a challenging problem for the orthopedic surgeon. Difficulty of therapeutic approach, and poor functional outcomes together with length of treatment and overall cost are the main burden of this issue. Even the diagnosis of an infected hip could be challenging although it is the first step of an accurate treatment. At the end, many cases require removing the implants. Afterwards, the treatment strategy varies according to authors with three different procedures: no re-implantation, immediate placement of new implants or a two-stage surgery re-implantation. Based on the most recently systematic review there is no suggestion that one- or two-stage revision methods have different re-infection outcomes. The two-stage implant-exchange protocol remains the gold standard. It is considered as the most efficacious clinical approach for the treatment of periprosthetic infection, especially in patients with sinus tracts, swelling, extended abscess formation in depth and infection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), and other multidrug-resistant bacteria as reported in recent consensus documents. PMID:23898351

  16. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Edward C.A.; Hanson, Emma K.; Saithna, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anatomical shoulder replacement for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is complicated by a high incidence of rotator cuff tears and glenoid erosion. This can lead to poor function and early failure. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has gained popularity as an alternative. This systematic review attempts to further define the role of RSA in RA. Methods: A systematic review identified seven studies reporting outcomes of RSA in RA patients. Studies were critically appraised, and data on outcomes, complications and technical considerations were extracted and analysed. Results: One hundred and twenty one shoulders were included (mean follow up 46.9 months). Consistent improvements in the main outcome measures were noted between studies. Ninety five percent of patients described excellent to satisfactory outcomes. The minimum mean forward elevation reported in each study was 115 degrees. Symptomatic glenoid loosening (1.7%), deep infection (3.3%) and revision surgery (5%) rates were no higher than for a population of mixed aetiologies. Discussion: Previous concerns regarding high pre- and peri-operative complication and revision rates in RA patients were not shown to be valid by the results of this review. Although associated cuff tears are common and glenoid bone loss can increase the technical complexity of surgery, RSA provides consistent and predictable improvements in key outcome measures and the revision and complication rates do not appear to be higher than reported in a large population of mixed aetiologies. Conclusion: The contemporary literature shows that RSA is a safe, effective and reliable treatment option in RA patients. PMID:26448802

  17. Readmission Rates in Patients Who Underwent Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elmallah, Randa K; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Amin, Hiral; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd P; Mont, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Readmission rates remain a concern following total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study: 1) evaluated 30-day, 90-day, and total readmission rates after THAs; 2) assessed causes of readmission; 3) determined differences in demographic factors between those who were and were not readmitted; and 4) compared readmission rates to other large-scale studies. We retrospectively reviewed 232 primary THAs (224 patients) using the same prosthesis at 7 institutions. This included 79 men and 145 women who had a mean age of 69 years (range, 44 to 88). Descriptive analyses were used to evaluate readmission, and rates were compared with those from large cohort studies. There were 11 unplanned readmissions (4.7%) in 10 patients during the first 90 days post-discharge. Seven (3%) readmissions were due to surgical and 4 (1.7%) were due to medical reasons. Surgical causes were found in 70% of early (0 to 30 days) readmissions but none of late (60 to 90 days) readmissions. No differences existed in mean age, gender, and body mass index between readmitted patients and the remainder of the population. We observed lower readmission rates when compared with large cohort studies. The positive performance of the prosthesis may have contributed to the lower readmission rates. PMID:26680400

  18. Two-Stage Total Knee Arthroplasty for Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Min Seok; Cho, Se Hyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Yoon, Hong Kwon; Cho, Ho Seung; Lee, Dong Yeong; Lee, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective review was conducted to identify prognostic factors for two-stage reimplantation for infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and the rate of reinfection following revision TKA. Materials and Methods Out of 88 patients diagnosed with post-TKA infection between 1998 and 2011, 76 underwent two-stage reimplantation and were reviewed in this study. The 76 patients were divided into two groups-those who experienced reinfection and those who did not. Comorbidities, culture results, and inflammation indices were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results Of the 76 patients who underwent a two-stage reimplantation, 18 (23.7%) experienced reinfection. Patients with more than three comorbidities had significantly higher reinfection rates than those with less than three comorbidities (47.1% vs. 4.8%, p=0.032). The reinfection rate between the culture positive prosthetic joint infection group and the culture negative prosthetic joint infection group was not significantly different (p=0.056). Inflammation indices (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR] and C-reactive protein [CRP]) showed a statistically significant difference between patients with reinfection and those without reinfection at 4 weeks after the first-stage surgery. Conclusions Reimplantation must be carefully performed when the risk of reinfection is high, particularly in patients with more than three systemic or local comorbidities and higher inflammation indices (ESR and CRP) prior to revision TKA. PMID:26060606

  19. Acute infection in total knee arthroplasty: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Pastor, Juan Carlos; Macul-Beneyto, Francisco; Suso-Vergara, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Infection is one of the most serious complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The current incidence of prosthetic knee infection is 1-3%, depending on the series(.) For treatment and control to be more cost effective, multidisciplinary groups made up of professionals from different specialities who can work together to eradicate these kinds of infections need to be assembled. About the microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were among the most frequent microorganisms involved (74%). Anamnesis and clinical examination are of primary importance in order to determine whether the problem may point to a possible acute septic complication. The first diagnosis may then be supported by increased CRP and ESR levels. The surgical treatment for a chronic prosthetic knee infection has been perfectly defined and standardized, and consists in a two-stage implant revision process. In contrast, the treatment for acute prosthetic knee infection is currently under debate. Considering the different surgical techniques that already exist, surgical debridement with conservation of the prosthesis and polythene revision appears to be an attractive option for both surgeon and patient, as it is less aggressive than the two-stage revision process and has lower initial costs. The different results obtained from this technique, along with prognosis factors and conclusions to keep in mind when it is indicated for an acute prosthetic infection, whether post-operative or haematogenous, will be analysed by the authors. PMID:23919094

  20. RESULTS FROM BI-CONTACT® TOTAL ELBOW ARTHROPLASTY: MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; de Sousa, Augusto Tadeu Barros; Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Neto, Arnaldo Amado Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the initial experience of four orthopedic clinics from using Bi-Contact® total elbow arthroplasty (TEA), reporting the results and complications of the procedure. Methods: This was a retrospective study, through analysis on the medical records of patients who underwent primary TEA using a prosthesis model developed in conjunction with IOT-HCFMUSP. Forty-six elbows (45 patients) that were operated at four orthopedic clinics between 2000 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: The majority of the patients were female (74%), and the median age was 62.5 years. The diagnoses encountered were trauma sequelae (47.83%), rheumatoid arthritis (32.61%), primary osteoarthrosis (8.7%), acute fractures (6.52%) and heterotopic ossification (2.17%). The median length of follow-up was 2.08 years (0.25-9). The procedure significantly alleviated pain and improved range of motion. It was observed that at least one complication was present in 69.57% of the cases, and the main ones were infection (28.26%), need for revision (28.26%), intraoperative fracture (15.22%) and aseptic loosening (15.22%). Conclusion: Bi-Contact® TEA provided significant alleviation of pain and improvement of range of motion in the present series. The complication rate was high, and the most frequently observed complications were infection, aseptic loosening and intraoperative fracture.

  1. No clinical benefit of gender-specific total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Jiaxing; Cheng, Mengqi; Peng, Xiaochun; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no consensus regarding the clinical relevance of gender-specific prostheses in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We summarize the current best evidence in a comparison of clinical and radiographic outcomes between gender-specific prostheses and standard unisex prostheses in female patients. Methods We used the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Science Citation Index, and Scopus databases. We included randomized controlled trials published up to January 2013 that compared gender-specific prostheses with standard unisex prostheses in female patients who underwent primary TKAs. Results 6 trials involving 423 patients with 846 knee joints met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 designs regarding pain, range of motion (ROM), knee scores, satisfaction, preference, complications, and radiographic results. The gender-specific design (Gender Solutions; Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Indiana) reduced the prevalence of overhang. However, it had less overall coverage of the femoral condyles compared to the unisex group. In fact, the femoral prosthesis in the standard unisex group matched better than that in the gender-specific group. Interpretation Gender-specific prostheses do not appear to confer any benefit in terms of clinician- and patient-reported outcomes for the female knee. PMID:24954488

  2. Pituitary apoplexy following shoulder arthroplasty: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pituitary apoplexy following a major surgical procedure is a catastrophic event and the diagnosis can be delayed in a previously asymptomatic patient. The decision on thromboprophylaxis in shoulder replacements in the absence of definite guidelines, rests on a careful clinical judgment. Case presentation A previously healthy 62-year-old Caucasian male patient who underwent shoulder arthroplasty developed hyponatremia resistant to correction with saline replacement. The patient had a positive family history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and heparin thromboprophylaxis was considered on clinical grounds. The patient developed hyponatremia resistant to conventional treatment and later developed ocular localizing signs with oculomotor nerve palsy. The diagnosis was delayed due to other confounding factors in the immediate post-operative period. Subsequent workup confirmed a pituitary adenoma with features of pituitary insufficiency. The patient was managed successfully on conservative lines with a multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions A high index of suspicion is required in the presence of isolated post-operative hyponatremia resistant to medical correction. A central cause, in particular pituitary adenoma, should be suspected early. Thromboprophylaxis in shoulder replacements needs careful consideration as it may be a contributory factor in precipitating this life-threatening condition. PMID:21729259

  3. Anterior knee pain following primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shervin, David; Pratt, Katelyn; Healey, Travis; Nguyen, Samantha; Mihalko, William M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in technique and technology for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anterior knee pain impacts patient outcomes and satisfaction. Addressing the prosthetic and surgical technique related causes of pain after TKA, specifically as it relates to anterior knee pain, can aid surgeons in addressing these issues with their patients. Design features of the femoral and patellar components which have been reported as pain generators include: Improper femoral as well as patellar component sizing or designs that result in patellofemoral stuffing; a shortened trochlear groove distance from the flange to the intercondylar box; and then surgical technique related issues resulting in: Lateral patellar facet syndrome; overstuffed patella/flange combination; asymmetric patellar resurfacing, improper transverse plane component rotation resulting in patellar subluxation/tilt. Any design consideration that allows impingement of extensor mechanism anatomical elements has the possibility of impacting outcome by becoming a pain generator. As the number of TKA procedures continues to increase, it is increasingly critical to develop improved, evidence based prostheses that maximize function and patient satisfaction while minimizing pain and other complications. PMID:26601061

  4. A Perspective on Robotic Assistance for Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Netravali, Nathan A.; Shen, Feimo; Park, Youngbae; Bargar, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Knee arthroplasty is used to treat patients with degenerative joint disease of the knee to reduce pain and restore the function of the joint. Although patient outcomes are generally quite good, there are still a number of patients that are dissatisfied with their procedures. Aside from implant design which has largely become standard, surgical technique is one of the main factors that determine clinical results. Therefore, a lot of effort has gone into improving surgical technique including the use of computer-aided surgery. The latest generation of orthopedic surgical tools involves the use of robotics to enhance the surgeons' abilities to install implants more precisely and consistently. This review presents an evolution of robot-assisted surgical systems for knee replacement with an emphasis on the clinical results available in the literature. Ever since various robotic-assistance systems were developed and used clinically worldwide, studies have demonstrated that these systems are as safe as and more accurate than conventional methods of manual implantation. Robotic surgical assistance will likely result in improved surgical technique and improved clinical results. PMID:23738083

  5. Accuracy considerations in navigated cup placement for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Langlotz, U; Grtzner, P A; Bernsmann, K; Kowal, J H; Tannast, M; Caversaccio, M; Nolte, L-P

    2007-10-01

    Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) technology has recently been introduced to overcome problems resulting from acetabular component malpositioning in total hip arthroplasty. Available navigation modules can conceptually be categorized as computer tomography (CT) based, fluoroscopy based, or image-free. The current study presents a comprehensive accuracy analysis on the computer assisted placement accuracy of acetabular cups. It combines analyses using mathematical approaches, in vitro testing environments, and an in vivo clinical trial. A hybrid navigation approach combining image-free with fluoroscopic technology was chosen as the best compromise to CT-based systems. It introduces pointer-based digitization for easily assessable points and bi-planar fluoroscopy for deep-seated landmarks. From the in vitro data maximum deviations were found to be 3.6 degrees for inclination and 3.8 degrees for anteversion relative to a pre-defined test position. The maximum difference between intraoperatively calculated cup inclination and anteversion with the postoperatively measured position was 4 degrees and 5 degrees, respectively. These data coincide with worst cases scenario predictions applying a statistical simulation model. The proper use of navigation technology can reduce variability of cup placement well within the surgical safe zone. Surgeons have to concentrate on a variety of error sources during the procedure, which may explain the reported strong learning curves for CAOS technologies. PMID:18019461

  6. Patellar resurfacing versus no resurfacing in Scorpio total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Garneti, N; Mahadeva, D; Khalil, A; McLaren, C A N

    2008-04-01

    This retrospective study compared the results of patellar resurfacing versus no resurfacing in 121 patients (142 knees) who underwent Scorpio total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between January 2002 and September 2004. Mean follow-up was 33 months in the nonresurfaced group and 18 months in the resurfaced group. The 2 groups were similar in age and gender. The incidence of anterior knee pain was 25% in the nonresurfaced group compared to 7% in the resurfaced group (P = 0.05), and the rate of revision was 10% in the nonresurfaced group compared to zero in the resurfaced group (P = 0.013). Mean Euroquol score was 91 in the nonresurfaced group compared to 95 in the resurfaced group (P = 0.26). Euroquol score, Knee Society score, knee instability, return to preoperative functional level, ability to kneel, use of a walking aid, and presence of limp were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The results of this study suggest a more consistent outcome can be achieved with patellar resurfacing in TKA with the Scorpio prosthesis. PMID:18500059

  7. Pseudotumor associated with metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scully, William F; Teeny, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    This case report details the presentation, imaging results, and operative findings of a pseudotumor associated with a press-fit metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (THA). An 80-year-old man presented approximately 7 years after undergoing THA with worsening right groin and lateral hip pain with an associated proximal thigh mass. Physical examination demonstrated a tender, large anterolateral thigh mass that was also evident on metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging.An exploratory operative procedure revealed extensive tissue necrosis involving nearly the entire hip capsule, short external rotators, and tendinous portion of the gluteus medius muscle. In addition, marked surface corrosion was discovered about the taper at the head-neck junction of the prosthetic femoral component and the trunnion within the femoral head. The press-fit THA components were solidly fixed. The metallic head was replaced with a ceramic component, and the polyethylene liner was exchanged. The patient had complete resolution of his preoperative symptoms but had persistent problems with dislocations.Although reports of pseudotumor and local soft tissue reactions associated with metal-on-metal THAs have become increasingly ubiquitous in the literature, similar reports involving metal-on-polyethylene THA implants are less common. PMID:23672921

  8. Acute hypotension after total knee arthroplasty and its nursing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; He, Jie; Zhou, Chang; Li, Yu; Yi, De-Kun; Zhang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors affecting postoperative acute hypotension after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and provide a basis for guiding the clinical prevention. Methods: Between May 2001 and May 2013, a total of 495 patients undergoing routine TKA were analyzed retrospectively. Independent risk factors related to postoperative acute hypotension after TKA were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 495 patients undergoing TKA, 61 (12.32%) developed postoperative acute hypotension after surgery. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative Neu, time of surgery, time of anesthesia, pressure of tourniquet, time of using tourniquet, preoperative hypertension, age and type of surgery were significant influencing factors, whereas by multivariate analysis, only age, pressure of tourniquet and type of surgery were significant influencing factors. Conclusion: Factors those were associated with a significantly increased postoperative acute hypotension after TKA included age, pressure of tourniquet and type of surgery. Achieving a good preoperative and postoperative evaluation and monitoring vital signs and disease change contribute to the detection, intervention and salvage for the acute hypotension. PMID:26550351

  9. Fibrosis is a common outcome following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Abdul, Nicole; Dixon, David; Walker, Andrew; Horabin, Joanna; Smith, Nick; Weir, David J.; Brewster, Nigel T.; Deehan, David J.; Mann, Derek A.; Borthwick, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful orthopaedic procedures that alleviates pain and restores function in patients with degenerative knee joint diseases. Arthrofibrosis, abnormal scarring in which dense fibrous tissue prevents normal range of motion, develops in ~3–10% of TKA patients. No prophylactic intervention is available and treatment is restricted to aggressive physiotherapy or revision surgery. Tissue was collected from patients undergoing primary (n = 30) or revision (n = 27) TKA. Revision patients were stratified as non-arthrofibrotic and arthrofibrotic. Tissue was macroscopically and histologically compared to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of arthrofibrosis. Macroscopically, tissue from primary TKA presents as homogenous, fatty tissue whereas tissue from revision TKA presents as dense, pigmented tissue. Histologically, there was dramatic tissue remodelling, increased collagen deposition and increased (myo)fibroblast staining in tissue from revision TKA. Significantly, tissue architecture was similar between revision patients regardless of clinically diagnosis. There are significant differences in architecture and composition of tissue from revision TKA over primary TKA. Surprisingly, whether revision TKA were clinically diagnosed as arthrofibrotic or non-arthrofibrotic there were still significant differences in fibrotic markers compared to primary TKA suggesting an ongoing fibrotic process in all revision knees. PMID:26553967

  10. Anterior knee pain following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shervin, David; Pratt, Katelyn; Healey, Travis; Nguyen, Samantha; Mihalko, William M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-11-18

    Despite improvements in technique and technology for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anterior knee pain impacts patient outcomes and satisfaction. Addressing the prosthetic and surgical technique related causes of pain after TKA, specifically as it relates to anterior knee pain, can aid surgeons in addressing these issues with their patients. Design features of the femoral and patellar components which have been reported as pain generators include: Improper femoral as well as patellar component sizing or designs that result in patellofemoral stuffing; a shortened trochlear groove distance from the flange to the intercondylar box; and then surgical technique related issues resulting in: Lateral patellar facet syndrome; overstuffed patella/flange combination; asymmetric patellar resurfacing, improper transverse plane component rotation resulting in patellar subluxation/tilt. Any design consideration that allows impingement of extensor mechanism anatomical elements has the possibility of impacting outcome by becoming a pain generator. As the number of TKA procedures continues to increase, it is increasingly critical to develop improved, evidence based prostheses that maximize function and patient satisfaction while minimizing pain and other complications. PMID:26601061

  11. Ceramic on ceramic hip arthroplasty in fused hips

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Soon; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Lee, Tae-Min; Ahn, Yeong-Seub

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most literature in the field of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for fused hips, until date has reported the results of using metal on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene bearings. Results of THA using ceramic on ceramic (CoC) bearings in fused hips have not been published in literature. This study reports the results of cementless THA using CoC articulation perfomed in fused hips. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients (25 hips) with fused hips underwent conversion to THA using CoC bearings and were followed up for a mean 5.4 years. The conventional posterolateral approach was used in 15 hips, a modified two incision technique in 7 hips and a direct lateral approach with greater trochanteric osteotomy in 3 hips. Postoperatively, range of motion exercises were encouraged after 2–3 days of bed rest and subsequent gradual weight bearing using crutches was begun. Results: Mean Harris hip score improved from 42.4 to 84.2 and mean leg lengthening of 36.6 mm was achieved. In the average 5.4 years (range 2.8-9.1 years) followup there were no cases with osteolysis around acetabular cup and femoral stem. In this study, there was no case of ceramic fracture. There was one case of squeaking. Conclusion: This study suggests that cementless THA performed for fused hips with CoC bearings can provide good early clinical results. PMID:26015635

  12. Thermal necrosis after simultaneous tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty using press-fit extension-stem.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazunari; Tsumura, Nobuhiro; Takayama, Koji; Fukase, Naomasa; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Chin, Takaaki; Iguchi, Tetsuhiro; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Seiji; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2011-01-01

    One-staged tibial corrective osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty is a challenging but effective treatment for arthritic knees with extra-articular deformity. Although osteocutaneous thermal necrosis is accepted as a complication of intramedullary reamed nailing following long bone fractures, only 15 cases have been reported in the English literature at present. This report illustrates a rare case of thermal necrosis in a patient undergoing tibial corrective osteotomy coincident with long-stemmed total knee arthroplasty. Excessive reaming with a machine reamer is hypothesized as the cause of this serious complication. In this report, we highlight this rare but serious complication after long-stemmed total knee arthroplasty. PMID:20532867

  13. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1986-08-19

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility is disclosed. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length. 4 figs.

  14. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan (Palo Alto, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device (10) for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions (11a, 11b) with an axial gap (12) therebetween. An outer pipe (14) cooperates with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips (23a-d) cooperate with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  15. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  16. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1984-02-16

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  17. Fracture of the ceramic head in total hip arthroplasty. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Peir, A; Pardo, J; Navarrete, R; Rodriguez-Alonso, L; Martos, F

    1991-12-01

    This article reports two cases of fracture of the ceramic head component in total cementless hip arthroplasty. There was no history of difficulty prior to the component fracture, neither during the operation nor during daily use, and in one of the patients, no history of trauma was observed. PMID:1770375

  18. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Literature review of variations in surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-01-01

    The direct anterior approach to the hip has been suggested to have several advantages compared to previously popular approaches through its use of an intra-muscular and intra-nervous interval between the tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles. Recent increased interest in tissue-sparing and minimally-invasive arthroplasty has given rise to a sharp increase in the utilization of direct anterior total hip arthroplasty. A number of variations of the procedure have been described and several authors have published their experiences and feedback to successfully accomplishing this procedure. Additionally, improved understanding of relevant soft tissue constraints and anatomic variants has provided improved margin of safety for patients. The procedure may be performed using specially-designed instruments and a fracture table, however many authors have also described equally efficacious performance using a regular table and standard arthroplasty tools. The capacity to utilize fluoroscopy intra-operatively for component positioning is a valuable asset to the approach and can be of particular benefit for surgeons gaining familiarity. Proper management of patient and limb positioning are vital to reducing risk of intra-operative complications. An understanding of its limitations and challenges are also critical to safe employment. This review summarizes the key features of the direct anterior approach for total hip arthroplasty as an aid to improving the understanding of this important and effective method for modern hip replacement surgeons. PMID:26807354

  19. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature. PMID:22915917

  20. Effect of postoperative use of nasal oxygen catheter supplementation in wound healing following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Gobbi, Ricardo Gomes; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Rezende, Marcia Uchoa; Tírico, Luis Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Healing is an event that is fundamental to the success of total knee arthroplasty. The aims of the present study were to compare the rates of complications related to wound healing between two groups of volunteers submitted to total knee arthroplasty and to evaluate the effects of postoperative oxygen supplementation by means of a nasal catheter. METHOD: A total of 109 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized into two groups, namely, groups that did and did not receive postoperative oxygen supplementation via a nasal catheter. The surgical wound was monitored every day during the hospital stay and on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th and 42nd postoperative days. Characteristics related to healing were observed, including hyperemia, dehiscence, necrosis, phlyctenules and deep and superficial infection. RESULTS: There were no cases of deep infection. Hyperemia was statistically correlated with the total number of complications in the groups, with oxygen demonstrated to be a protective factor against hyperemia. Approximately 30% of the patients who exhibited hyperemia had other complications, independent of oxygen supplementation. CONCLUSION: Oxygen supplementation following total knee arthroplasty was shown to be effective in diminishing hyperemia around the operative wound. The development of hyperemia was a precursor to other complications, irrespective of whether oxygen supplementation was used. PMID:25518030