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Sample records for interpretation conductivite thermique

  1. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  2. Conductivite dans le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel a faible couplage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic

    Le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel (2D) est souvent considere comme le modele minimal pour les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique a base d'oxyde de cuivre (SCHT). Sur un reseau carre, ce modele possede les phases qui sont communes a tous les SCHT, la phase antiferromagnetique, la phase supraconductrice et la phase dite du pseudogap. Il n'a pas de solution exacte, toutefois, plusieurs methodes approximatives permettent d'etudier ses proprietes de facon numerique. Les proprietes optiques et de transport sont bien connues dans les SCHT et sont donc de bonne candidates pour valider un modele theorique et aider a comprendre mieux la physique de ces materiaux. La presente these porte sur le calcul de ces proprietes pour le modele de Hubbard 2D a couplage faible ou intermediaire. La methode de calcul utilisee est l'approche auto-coherente a deux particules (ACDP), qui est non-perturbative et inclue l'effet des fluctuations de spin et de charge a toutes les longueurs d'onde. La derivation complete de l'expression de la conductivite dans l'approche ACDP est presentee. Cette expression contient ce qu'on appelle les corrections de vertex, qui tiennent compte des correlations entre quasi-particules. Pour rendre possible le calcul numerique de ces corrections, des algorithmes utilisant, entre autres, des transformees de Fourier rapides et des splines cubiques sont developpes. Les calculs sont faits pour le reseau carre avec sauts aux plus proches voisins autour du point critique antiferromagnetique. Aux dopages plus faibles que le point critique, la conductivite optique presente une bosse dans l'infrarouge moyen a basse temperature, tel qu'observe dans plusieurs SCHT. Dans la resistivite en fonction de la temperature, on trouve un comportement isolant dans le pseudogap lorsque les corrections de vertex sont negligees et metallique lorsqu'elles sont prises en compte. Pres du point critique, la resistivite est lineaire en T a basse temperature et devient

  3. Caracterisation thermique de modules de refroidissement pour la photovoltaique concentree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Louis-Michel

    Pour rentabiliser la technologie des cellules solaires, une reduction du cout d'exploitation et de fabrication est necessaire. L'utilisation de materiaux photovoltaiques a un impact appreciable sur le prix final par quantite d'energie produite. Une technologie en developpement consiste a concentrer la lumiere sur les cellules solaires afin de reduire cette quantite de materiaux. Or, concentrer la lumiere augmente la temperature de la cellule et diminue ainsi son efficacite. Il faut donc assurer a la cellule un refroidissement efficace. La charge thermique a evacuer de la cellule passe au travers du recepteur, soit la composante soutenant physiquement la cellule. Le recepteur transmet le flux thermique de la cellule a un systeme de refroidissement. L'ensemble recepteur-systeme de refroidissement se nomme module de refroidissement. Habituellement, la surface du recepteur est plus grande que celle de la cellule. La chaleur se propage donc lateralement dans le recepteur au fur et a mesure qu'elle traverse le recepteur. Une telle propagation de la chaleur fournit une plus grande surface effective, reduisant la resistance thermique apparente des interfaces thermiques et du systeme de refroidissement en aval vers le module de refroidissement. Actuellement, aucune installation ni methode ne semble exister afin de caracteriser les performances thermiques des recepteurs. Ce projet traite d'une nouvelle technique de caracterisation pour definir la diffusion thermique du recepteur a l'interieur d'un module de refroidissement. Des indices de performance sont issus de resistances thermiques mesurees experimentalement sur les modules. Une plateforme de caracterisation est realisee afin de mesurer experimentalement les criteres de performance. Cette plateforme injecte un flux thermique controle sur une zone localisee de la surface superieure du recepteur. L'injection de chaleur remplace le flux thermique normalement fourni par la cellule. Un systeme de refroidissement est installe

  4. Simulation du comportement thermique en régime permanent d'un moteur asynchrone à refroidissement extérieur. Etude par éléments finis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glises, R.; Hostache, G.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    1994-09-01

    The steady state thermal modelling of an 4kW asynchronous motor is realized. A design has been made thanks to the Flux2D finite element magnetic calculus software converted into a resolution tool of the heat equation. This last is used to simulate the heat flux in fluid and solid areas. A 3D study is effected thanks to two 2D studies. The first concerns a radial view (perpendicular to the mechanical axis) whereas the second is effected for an axial view (parallel to the mechanical axis). Thermal conductivities of the materials and thermal contact resistances of the motor are determined through two different tests creating different overheatings. The first is made with a sinewave supply and pre-determine the thermophysical parameters. The second effected with direct current supplies at the rotor and the stator is used to validate these last parameters. On réalise l'étude du comportement thermique en régime permanent d'un moteur asynchrone de 4kW. Le logiciel de calculs magnétiques par éléments finis flux2D est converti en un outil de résolution de l'équation de la chaleur. Cette dernière équation sert à simuler les transferts thermiques tant dans les domaines fluides que solides. Une pseudo-étude tridimensionnelle est réalisée par le biais de deux études bidimensionnelles : la première effectuée suivant un plan radial (plan perpendiculaire à l'axe du moteur) et la seconde suivant un plan axial (plan parallèle à l'axe). Les conductivités des matériaux et des résistances thermiques de contact composant le moteur sont déterminées à l'aide de deux types d'essais qui induisent des échauffements différents. Le premier est réalisé avec une alimentation sinusoïdale et sert à prédéterminer les paramètres thermophysiques. Le second est effectué avec des alimentations à courant continu tant au stator qu'au rotor et a pour rôle la validation de ces paramètres.

  5. Microgenerateurs electriques a base d'oscillateurs thermiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveille, Etienne

    Dans un contexte de developpement durable et d'automatisation de notre environnement, l'utilisation de capteurs sans-fil distribues est croissante. Hors l'usage et le remplacement de piles s'avere couteux. La consommation energetique de plus en plus faible de l'electronique rend l'extraction energetique de l'energie ambiante envisageable. La chaleur residuelle est une source d'energie interessante puisqu'elle est la forme finale de la majeure partie de l'energie utilisee par l'humain. Cependant, a petite echelle, seuls les elements thermoelectriques sont disponibles. Les presents travaux s'interessent donc a explorer et comparer des mecanismes de generation alternatifs. Puisque la majorite des mecanismes de transduction alternatifs sont dynamiques, leur utilisation requiert une transformation de l'energie thermique continue en oscillations. Les mecanismes etudies ont donc tous en commun de posseder un oscillateur thermique en plus d'un mecanisme de transduction vers la forme d'energie electrique. Parmi les divers mecanismes identifies, deux sont etudies en details pour comprendre leurs comportements ainsi que connaitre leur efficacite et leur puissance potentielle. Le premier generateur etudie theoriquement est base sur le changement de ferromagnetisme d'une masse suspendue par des ressorts au-dessus d'un aimant. Les comportements du modele developpe correspondent aux comportements reportes dans la litterature. Deux parametres de conception principaux ont ete identifies, permettant un controle de la frequence, de la plage de temperatures d'operation. De plus le mecanisme peut operer avec de faibles differences de temperature et des temperatures proches de l'ambiant, ouvrant la porte a des applications utilisant la chaleur du corps humain. L'utilisation de materiau pyroelectrique comme mecanisme de transduction pourrait offrir des densites de puissance electrique envisageables de l'ordre de 1mW/cm3. Le second generateur etudie experimentalement est base sur l

  6. Dérives thermiques du capteur de pression capacitif microélectronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettouhami, A.; Essaid, A.; Ouakrim, N.; Michel, L.; Limouri, M.

    1997-07-01

    The thermal drifts of microelectronic capacitive pressure sensor have been analysed by finite-element method. Various boundary conditions representing a wide gamut of support of sensor have been considered: sensor with free base, sensor with fixed base and sensor attached to a support of alumina. For every case, the thermal response of sensor have been determined as a function of sensor dimensions in order to push far the buckling temperature and hence reduce the thermal sensitivity. For some sensors very sensitive to pressure, this temperature is small and the thermal drifts are important. A sensor with fixed base having a diaphragm of 1000 μm of radius and 12 μm of thickness and having a 3.5 μm of plate separation presents a thermal sensitivity of -200 Pa °C^{-1} above 80 ^circC. A sensor attached to a support of alumina, having a more wide diaphragm (1800 μm of radius) presents a thermal sensitivity of 3.1 Pa °C^{-1} below -100 ^circC. Les dérives thermiques du capteur de pression capacitif microélectronique sont analysées par la méthode des éléments finis. Différentes conditions aux limites représentant une large gamme de support de capteur ont été envisagées : capteur à base libre, capteur à base fixe et capteur collé à un support d'alumine. Dans chaque cas, la réponse thermique du capteur a été déterminée en fonction des dimensions du capteur afin de repousser la température de flambage et réduire en conséquence la sensibilité thermique. Pour certains capteurs très sensibles à la pression, cette température est très faible et les dérives thermiques sont importantes. Ainsi un capteur à base fixe (membrane de rayon 1000 μm, et épaisseur 12 μm, distance entre armatures 3,5 μm) présente une sensibilité thermique de -200 Pa °C^{-1} au-dessus de 80 ^circC. Un capteur collé à un support d'alumine, de membrane plus large (rayon 1800 μm) possède une sensibilité thermique de 3,1 Pa °C^{-1} au-dessous de -100 ^circC.

  7. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  8. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  9. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  10. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  11. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  12. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  13. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  14. Modélisation d'un choc thermique doux d'un verre S.S.C en utilisant l'approche thermomécanique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malou, Z.; Hamidouche, M.; Madjoubi, M. A.; Bousbaa, C.; Bouaouadja, N.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l'endommagement du verre silico-sodo-calcique (trois différentes épaisseurs : 2mm, 4mm, et 8mm) par choc thermique descendant. Nous avons utilisé l'approche thermomécanique en terme de facteur d'intensité de contrainte en se basant sur un calcul numérique. Le choc thermique descendant, est la mise en contact brutal d'un échantillon, préalablement chauffé à une température Ti, avec un milieu dont la température Tf est inférieure à Ti. Le gradient thermique engendré induit des contraintes de tension dans les couches superficielles du corps. Ces contraintes peuvent conduire à la rupture du matériau. Les hypothèses prises en compte lors de la simulation sont comme suit : Le refroidissement des échantillons en verre chauffés à différentes températures, inférieures à sa température de transition, est fait par jet d'air à 20° C pendant 6 secondes. Ce temps est suffisant pour que la température des échantillons atteigne l'ambiante. Le coefficient de transfert de chaleur est de 600 W/°C.m2. Les températures chaudes ont été variées entre 100° C et 450° C. Lors des calculs, nous avons intégré, l'évolutions en fonction de la température des propriétés thermoélastiques du verre. Dans un premier temps, nous avons déterminé les températures et les contraintes transitoires dans l'échantillon à tout instant du choc thermique. Ensuite, nous avons déterminé l'évolution du facteur d'intensité de contrainte (FIC) durant le refroidissement. Enfin, les FIC calculés sont comparés à la ténacité (K1c) du matériau. Cette dernière a été mesurée en utilisant la mécanique linéaire de la rupture. Nous avons vérifié que quand le facteur FIC atteint la valeur de la ténacité dans la zone des défauts critiques, ces derniers se propagent d'une manière brutale causant ainsi la dégradation de l'échantillon. Par cette technique, nous avons directement accès à l'écart de température critique

  15. SAIL-Thermique: a model for land surface spectral emissivity in the thermal infrared. Evaluation and reassesment of the temperature - emissivity separation (TES) algorithm in presence of vegetation canopies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olioso, A.; Jacob, F.; Lesaignoux, A.

    2014-12-01

    The SAIL-Thermique model was developed to simulate thermal infrared (TIR) radiative transfers inside vegetation canopies and land surface emissivity. It is based on the SAIL model developed by Verhoef (1984) for simulating spectral reflectances in the solar domain. Due to the difficulty to measure land surface emissivity, no emissivity model was validated against ground measurements. In this study, several datasets extracted from the literature and from recent databases were used for evaluating emissivity simulations. Model simulations were performed from the knowledge of leaf area index, leaf inclination distribution, direction of viewing, and leaf and soil optical properties. As data on leaf inclination and leaf optical properties were usually not available, stochastic simulations were performed from a priori knowledges on their distribution (extracted from the literature and recent databases). Simulated 8-14 μm emissivities were favorably compared to measurements with a root mean square difference (RMSD) around 0.006 (0.004 when considering only herbaceous species). The model was then used for simulating emissivity spectra for providing information for the interpretation of TIR multispectral data from the ASTER sensor. We used the land surface emissivity simulations for re-assessing the TES algorithm used to separate emissivity and land surface temperature. We showed that the inclusion of vegetated land surfaces significantly modified the relationship between minimum emissivity and minimum maximum difference (ɛmin- MMD) which is at the heart of the TES algorithm. This relationship was originally established on the ASTER spectral library which did not include vegetated land surface (Schmugge et al. 1998). On a synthetic database, estimations of spectral emissivities and surface temperature were significantly improved when using the new ɛmin- MMD relationship in comparison to the classical one: RMSD dropped from ~0.012 to ~0.006 for spectral emissivity and from

  16. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  17. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  18. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  19. Using medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dionne; Bowen, Juan; DeJesus, Ramona; Maldonado, Alejandro; Jiwa, Fatima

    2010-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that appropriate use of interpreters in clinical encounters improves outcomes and decreases adverse events. This article reviews both the medical reasons for working with trained medical interpreters and the related laws, and offers practical tips for working effectively with interpreters. PMID:20481167

  20. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  1. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  2. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  3. Centralised interpretation of electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, P W; Watts, M P; Lawrie, T D; Walker, R S

    1977-01-01

    A system was devised so that a peripheral hospital could transmit electrocardiograms (ECGs) to a central computer for interpretation. The link that transmits both ECGs and reports is provided by the telephone network. Initial results showed that telephone transmission did not significantly affect the accuracy of the ECG interpretation. The centralised computer programme could be much more widely used to provide ECG interpretations. A telephone link would not be justified in health centres, where the demand for ECGs is fairly small, but ECGs recorded at a health centre can be sent to the computer for interpretation and returned the next day. The most cost-effective method of providing computer interpretation for several health centres in a large city would be to have a portable electrocardiograph and transmission facilities, which could be moved from centre to centre. PMID:319866

  4. Rôle de l'hydrogène dans le procédé de purification du silicium par plasma thermique inductif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, J.; Morvan, D.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-03-01

    The use of the thermal process for purification of silicon led to a material with the chemical purity required for phototovoltaic applications. In this paper, the various properties of ArH2 plasma mixtures are briefly reviewed and the effect of hydrogen percentage in an argon plasma used for melting and purifying silicon is pointed out. Physico-chemical analysis of the purified silicon showed that hydrogen diffused in the material and could passivate crystal defects by formation of stable chemical bonds such as Si-H. La technique de purification du silicium sous plasma thermique permet d'aboutir à un matériau de pureté chimique requise pour l'industrie photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous soulignerons le rôle de l'hydrogène intervenant dans les propriétés du plasma en rappelant les caractéristiques des plasmas Ar-H2 utilisés pour fondre et purifier le silicium. Les caractéristiques physico-chimiques du silicium purifié montrent que l'hydrogène diffuse dans le matériau et est en mesure de cicatriser les défauts cristallins par formation de liaisons chimiques stables de type Si-H.

  5. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  6. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  7. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  8. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  9. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  10. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  11. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  12. Copenhagen and Transactional Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görnitz, Th.; von Weizsäcker, C. F.

    1988-02-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation (CI) never received an authoritative codification. It was a “minimum semantics” of quantum mechanics. We assume that it expresses a theory identical with the Transactional Interpretation (TI) when the observer is included into the system described by the theory. A theory consists of a mathematical structure with a physical semantics. Now, CI rests on an implicit description of the modes of time which is also presupposed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Essential is the futuric meaning of probability as a prediction of a relative frequency. CI can be shown to be fully consistent on this basis. The TI and CI can be translated into each other by a simple “dictionary.” The TI describes all events as CI describes past events; CI calls future events possibilities, which TI treats like facts. All predictions of both interpretations agree; we suppose the difference to be linguistic.

  13. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  14. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  15. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

  16. Explaining the Interpretive Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

  17. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  18. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  19. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  20. Interpretations of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced into schools in England in 1998 with the aim of raising the literacy attainments of primary-aged children. The Framework for Teaching the Literacy Hour, a key component of the NLS, proposes an interpretation of literacy that emphasises reading, writing and spelling skills. An investigation of the…

  1. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  2. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  3. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  4. Interpretation Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  5. Interpretation of the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The superposition of the first satellite geoid determined by Iszak upon Ootilla's geoid was based on surface gravity determinations. Good agreement was observed except over the Pacific area of the globe. The poor agreement over the Pacific was interpreted as the result of inadequate observations there. Many geoids were determined from satellite observations, including Doppler measurements. It is found that the geoid is the result of density differences in the mantle maintained since the primeval Earth by its finite strength. Various models based on this assumption are developed.

  6. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  7. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  8. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  9. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  10. The flow of interpretation. The collateral interpretation, force and flow.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D

    1989-01-01

    This paper was presented to a Conference on the theme 'The Formulation of Interpretations in Clinical Practice'. It suggests that, impressionistically in line with the identification of psychoanalysis with natural science, an unconscious metaphor which sees interpretation as something like a force inserted on a physical particle has been more influential conceptually than the unconscious metaphor naturally complementary to it, that of interpretation as something like a liquid in flow. The concept of 'the collateral interpretation' is introduced. Loosely speaking, this is what an analyst thinks he would interpret at any given moment. It is tentative, unformed, and changes kaleidoscopically. It accommodates psychoanalytic concepts. It is suggested that examination of the mode of operation of 'the collateral interpretation' is important in understanding the formulation of interpretations. A single session is used for clinical illustration. PMID:2606603

  11. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  12. Appropriate use of medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

    2014-10-01

    More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

  13. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  14. Fundamentals of interpretation in echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, P.; Lee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This illustrated book provides familiarity with the many clinical, physical, and electronic factors that bear on echocardiographic interpretation. Physical and clinical principles are integrated with considerations of anatomy and physiology to address interpretive problems. This approach yields, for example, sections on the physics and electronics of M-mode, cross sectional, and Doppler systems which are informal, full of echocardiagrams, virtually devoid of mathematics, and rigorously related to common issues faced by echocardiograph interpreters.

  15. A Question of Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 22, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    It is often difficult to determine if wind eroded surface represent the youngest activity in a region. Wind eroded landforms can be covered by later materials and the exhumed long after they were initially formed. This image illustrates how difficult it can be to interpret the surface of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7, Longitude 174.7 East (185.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  16. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  17. Interpretation Tasks for Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to grammar teaching provides learners with opportunities to produce specific grammatical structures. This article explores an alternative approach, one based on interpreting input. The rationale for the approach is discussed, as are the principles for designing interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. (Contains 35…

  18. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  19. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  20. Oral Interpretation as Performing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Eric E.

    A three-step process of description, reduction, and interpretation is employed in this paper in disentangling the complex of relationships involved in oral interpretation. In the description, contributions from various disciplines are synthesized; among the topics discussed are the communication process model usually employed in descriptions of…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  2. Interpreting Results from Multiscore Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of information on score reliabilities, significance of score differences, intercorrelations of scores, and differential validity of score patterns on the interpretation of results from multiscore batteries. (Author)

  3. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  4. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory causal indicators are controversial and little-understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning intended by a researcher. This article questions the validity of evidence used to claim that causal indicators are inherently susceptible to interpretational confounding. Further, a simulation study demonstrates that causal indicator coefficients are stable across correctly-specified models. Determining the suitability of causal indicators has implications for the way we conceptualize measurement and build and evaluate measurement models. PMID:25530730

  5. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  6. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory, causal indicators are controversial and little understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning…

  7. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  8. Vicarious posttraumatic growth among interpreters.

    PubMed

    Splevins, Katie A; Cohen, Keren; Joseph, Stephen; Murray, Craig; Bowley, Jake

    2010-12-01

    An emerging evidence base indicates that posttraumatic growth might be experienced vicariously by those working alongside trauma survivors. In this study we explored the vicarious experiences of eight interpreters working in a therapeutic setting with asylum seekers and refugees. We adopted a qualitative approach, using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged from the findings: feeling what your client feels, beyond belief, finding your own way to deal with it, and a different person. Although all participants experienced distress, they also perceived themselves to have grown in some way. The implications for a theory of vicarious posttraumatic growth are discussed, along with clinical applications. PMID:20663936

  9. Integrative Interpretation of Vocational Interest Inventory Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Malcolm R.

    1978-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of interpretation of vocational interest inventory results. Data provide limited support for the hypotheses that integrative interpretation is most effective. Significant interactions exist between counselors and interpretation procedures. Failure to find significant differences between traditional-individual and…

  10. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with…

  11. IT1: An Interpretive Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, T. R.

    A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…

  12. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  13. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for…

  14. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  15. Interpretation of the Weyl tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2013-09-01

    According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

  16. Art Lessons: Learning To Interpret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    1999-01-01

    When required to interpret works of art, students arrive at a broad-based, well-grounded understanding of the nature, value, and meaning of art in their lives. Teachers should offer art works, like those of Amalia Mesa-Bains, Joseph Stella, and Beverly Buchanan, whose narratives are complex and challenging, but not conceptually dense or…

  17. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  18. EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

  19. Interpreting Hymns for Deaf Worshippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Madeline M.; Boster, Shirley

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special problems of interpreting hymns written in archaic English and then matching words of a translation to music. Addresses the question of whether competence in ASL and knowledge of signs for religious terms are sufficient for hymns to be of value to deaf worshippers. (EKN)

  20. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  1. Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

  2. Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Chloe

    1974-01-01

    The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

  3. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  4. Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a “clinical pathologist” monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a “statistician” knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a “bone specialist” providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors. PMID:16715219

  5. Clinical Interpretation of Genomic Variations.

    PubMed

    Sayitoğlu, Müge

    2016-09-01

    Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies generate large-scale genomic data and are used extensively for disease mapping of monogenic and/or complex disorders, personalized treatment, and pharmacogenomics. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming routine tool for diagnosis and molecular monitoring of patients to evaluate therapeutic efficiency. The next-generation sequencing platforms generate huge amounts of genetic variation data and it remains a challenge to interpret the variations that are identified. Such data interpretation needs close collaboration among bioinformaticians, clinicians, and geneticists. There are several problems that must be addressed, such as the generation of new algorithms for mapping and annotation, harmonization of the terminology, correct use of nomenclature, reference genomes for different populations, rare disease variant databases, and clinical reports. PMID:27507302

  6. Paleomicrobiology Data: Authentification and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections. Indeed, the exploration of ancient microbiota and pathogens is best done by such laboratory teams, with research directed toward the discovery and implementation of new techniques and the interpretation of data. PMID:27337456

  7. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.

    1985-07-01

    We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omnès, Roland

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  9. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  10. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  11. Computer Interpretations of ECGs in Rural Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-assisted interpretation of electrocardiograms offers theoretical benefits to rural physicians. This study compared computer-assisted interpretations by a rural physician certified to read ECGs with interpretations by the computer alone. The computer interpretation alone could have led to major errors in patient management, but was correct sufficiently often to warrant purchase by small rural hospitals. PMID:21221365

  12. Interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østvang, Dag

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that for Robertson-Walker models with flat or closed space sections, all of the cosmological spectral shift can be attributed to the non-flat connection (and thus indirectly to space-time curvature). For Robertson-Walker models with hyperbolic space sections, it is shown that cosmological spectral shifts uniquely split up into "kinematic" and "gravitational" parts provided that distances are small. For large distances no such unique split-up exists in general. A number of common, but incorrect assertions found in the literature regarding interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts, is pointed out.

  13. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  14. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  15. Dynamical interpretation of conditional patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, R. J.; Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.

    1988-01-01

    While great progress is being made in characterizing the 3-D structure of organized turbulent motions using conditional averaging analysis, there is a lack of theoretical guidance regarding the interpretation and utilization of such information. Questions concerning the significance of the structures, their contributions to various transport properties, and their dynamics cannot be answered without recourse to appropriate dynamical governing equations. One approach which addresses some of these questions uses the conditional fields as initial conditions and calculates their evolution from the Navier-Stokes equations, yielding valuable information about stability, growth, and longevity of the mean structure. To interpret statistical aspects of the structures, a different type of theory which deals with the structures in the context of their contributions to the statistics of the flow is needed. As a first step toward this end, an effort was made to integrate the structural information from the study of organized structures with a suitable statistical theory. This is done by stochastically estimating the two-point conditional averages that appear in the equation for the one-point probability density function, and relating the structures to the conditional stresses. Salient features of the estimates are identified, and the structure of the one-point estimates in channel flow is defined.

  16. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  17. Interpreting in the Spirit of ADA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Amanda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses work on a pilot project to develop guidelines for accessible interpretation that integrates disabled and mainstream visitors. Discusses program and facility designs and suggests ways to make existing interpretive programs more accessible to visitors with disabilities. (LZ)

  18. CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

  19. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

  20. Interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F. . Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Glendenning, N.K. )

    1992-08-05

    The minimum possible rotational period of pulsars, which are interpreted as rotating neutron stars, is determined by applying a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. It is found that none of the selected equations of state allows for neutron star rotation at periods below 0.8--0.9 ms. Thus, this work strongly supports the suggestion that if pulsars with shorter rotational periods were found, these are likely to be strange-quark-matter stars. The conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would then be almost inescapable, and the plausible ground-state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter.

  1. The interpretation of biological surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Biological surveys provide the raw material for assembling ecological patterns. These include the properties of parameters such as range, abundance, dispersion, evenness and diversity; the relationships between these parameters; the relationship between geographical distributions and landscape structure; and the co-occurrence of species. These patterns have often been used in the past to evaluate the role of ecological processes in structuring natural communities. In this paper, I investigate the patterns produced by simple neutral community models (NCMs) and compare them with the output of systematic biological surveys. The NCM generates qualitatively, and in some cases quantitatively, the same patterns as the survey data. It therefore provides a satisfactory general theory of diversity and distribution, although what patterns can be used to distinguish neutral from adaptationist interpretations of communities, or even whether such patterns exist, remains unclear. PMID:14728774

  2. Proverb interpretation changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-06-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three age groups were assessed on a proverb comprehension task and a range of executive function tasks. The older group showed impairment in selecting correct interpretations from alternatives. They also showed executive function deficits, as reflected by reduced working memory and deficient set shifting and inhibition abilities. The findings of the present investigation showed proverb comprehension deficits in normal aging which appeared to be related to reduced executive skills. PMID:18164527

  3. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  4. 10 CFR 1016.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 1016.7 Section 1016.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 1016.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of Energy in writing, no interpretation of...

  5. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  6. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  7. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  8. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  9. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  10. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of...

  12. 10 CFR 73.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 73.3 Section 73.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretations of the...

  13. 10 CFR 73.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 73.3 Section 73.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretations of the...

  14. 10 CFR 73.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 73.3 Section 73.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretations of the...

  15. 10 CFR 73.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 73.3 Section 73.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretations of the...

  16. 10 CFR 73.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 73.3 Section 73.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretations of the meaning of the regulations in this part by...

  17. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  18. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  19. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  20. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  1. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  2. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, John G.

    1986-07-01

    The interpretational problems of quantum mechanics are considered. The way in which the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics deals with these problems is reviewed. A new interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, the transactional interpretation, is presented. The basic element of this interpretation is the transaction describing a quantum event as an exchange of advanced and retarded waves, as implied by the work of Wheeler and Feynman, Dirac, and others. The transactional interpretation is explicitly nonlocal and thereby consistent with recent tests of the Bell inequality, yet is relativistically invariant and fully causal. A detailed comparison of the transactional and Copenhagen interpretations is made in the context of well-known quantum-mechanical Gedankenexperimente and "paradoxes." The transactional interpretation permits quantum-mechanical wave functions to be interpreted as real waves physically present in space rather than as "mathematical representations of knowledge" as in the Copenhagen interpretation. The transactional interpretation is shown to provide insight into the complex character of the quantum-mechanical state vector and the mechanism associated with its "collapse." It also leads in a natural way to justification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Born probability law (P=ψψ*), basic elements of the Copenhagen interpretation.

  3. The Role of Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antia, Shirin D.; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative 3-year case study followed three deaf interpreters in an inclusive school. Results of interviews indicated that, in addition to sign interpreting, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress.…

  4. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  5. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  6. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  7. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  8. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  9. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  10. Children's Theory of Mind: An Experiential Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Plesa, Daniela; Henseler, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    Reconsiders interpretive and theory versions of children's theory of mind. Shows that many college students provide interpretive explanations on theory of mind tasks and that young children rely on background experientially-based knowledge to interpret such tasks. Argues that a logical-causal theory of human action based on mental states is a…

  11. An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

  12. SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

  13. Fitting and interpreting occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Alan H; Lindenmayer, David B; Donnelly, Christine F

    2013-01-01

    We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance) and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates), asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is) and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it. PMID:23326323

  14. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

  15. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation.

    PubMed

    Basch, M F

    1981-01-01

    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail. PMID:7275491

  16. Guide to Magellan image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

  17. Image Interpretation of Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features - particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents - oceans, states - large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta). The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation - digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  18. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  19. Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

  20. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  1. An Information Gap in DNA Evidence Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, Mark W.; Sinelnikov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg), but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg), computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity. PMID:20020039

  2. Concurrent behavior: Are the interpretations mutually exclusive?

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, David O.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental literature is replete with examples of behavior which occur concurrently with a schedule of reinforcement. These concurrent behaviors, often with similar topographies and occurring under like circumstances, may be interpreted as functionally autonomous, collateral, adjunctive, superstitious or mediating behavior. The degree to which the interaction of concurrent and schedule controlled behavior is used in the interpretation of behavior illustrated the importance of distinguishing among these interpretations by experimental procedure. The present paper reviews the characteristics of these interpretations, and discusses the experimental procedures necessary to distinguish among them. The paper concludes that the interpretations are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct behaviors, but that the distinction between any two of the interpretations requires more than one experimental procedure. PMID:22478568

  3. The interpretation of quantum mechanics through1935

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, J. T.

    2000-11-01

    I first define what I mean by the term interpretation, then trace some of the major developments in attempts to fashion an interpretation of quantum mechanics from its early mathematical formulation (ca. 1925) up through the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper, Bohr's response to it, and Schrödinger's insights on entanglement, in 1935. In the process, I question some of the conventional wisdom about how a unified interpretation emerged.

  4. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    SciTech Connect

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-03-15

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  5. Two interpretations of thin-shell instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-07-01

    For O (4 ) -symmetric instantons, there are two complementary interpretations for their analytic continuations. One is the nothing-to-something interpretation, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are disconnected by Euclidean manifolds. The other is the something-to-something interpretation, introduced by Brown and Weinberg, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by the Euclidean manifold. These interpretations have their own pros and cons and hence they are complementary. In this paper, we consider analytic continuations of thin-shell instantons that have less symmetry, i.e., the spherical symmetry. When we consider the Farhi-Guth-Guven/Fischler-Morgan-Polchinski tunneling, the something-to-something interpretation has been used in the usual literature. On the other hand, we can apply the nothing-to-something interpretation with some limited conditions. We argue that for both interpretations, we can give the consistent decay rate. As we apply and interpret what follows the nothing-to-something interpretation, a stationary black hole can emit an expanding shell that results in a spacetime without a singularity or event horizon.

  6. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  7. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  8. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  9. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  10. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  11. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  12. Freud and the Teaching of Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Patricia; Quandahl, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of psychoanalytic techniques to probe written works for their inherent biases of interpretation. Uses the authors' experience of teaching basic writers to analyze Freud's "Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria," in order to expose Freud's biases in interpreting Dora's experiences. (JC)

  13. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  14. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  15. 10 CFR 37.9 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 37.9 Section 37.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Provisions § 37.9 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  16. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  17. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  18. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  19. Just Do It: Resources for Interpretive Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepler, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Now that you have finished reading this journal issue and understand what interpretive planning is and when to apply it, how can you get started and just "do" it? This article provides an annotated list of practical handbooks and internet resources that provide guidelines for museum practitioners to engage in interpretive planning at institutions…

  20. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  1. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  2. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  3. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  4. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.5 Section 1240.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS.... Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall...

  6. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  7. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . ] You can also get a copy... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY: Federal... proposes to interpret the application of 14 CFR 135.263 and the rest requirements of Sec. 135.267(d)...

  8. Interpreting Nelson-Denny Reading Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Reading test results and their interpretation are stressed because of their importance in student achievement. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test used at Harcum Junior College is a useful measuring instrument for predicting academic achievement, screening students, and diagnosing reading and learning problems. General hints for interpretation of the…

  9. Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)

  10. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  11. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  12. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  13. A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuit, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

  14. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  15. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  16. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  17. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  18. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  19. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  20. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  1. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  2. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  3. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  4. Basic Interpretation of EKG's. N203.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura T.

    A description is provided of an associate degree in nursing science course, "Rapid Interpretation of Electrocardiograms (EKG's)," designed to emphasize the nurse's role in the interpretation of the basic EKG and the medical interventions necessary to treat arrythmias. The first section of the course description provides information on curricular…

  5. Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Douglas M.; Cable, Ted T.; Beck, Larry

    This postsecondary-level textbook prepares the student for a career in interpretation, defined as the translation of historic, cultural, or natural phenomena to increase audience understanding and enjoyment. The mission of interpretation consists of developing an informed and experienced citizenry in our natural and cultural heritage. The term…

  6. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  7. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  8. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  9. 77 FR 39654 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... proposed legal interpretation published at 77 FR 32441 will be moved to the correct docket, FAA-2012- 0670... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Proposed interpretation; correction. SUMMARY: On June 1, 2012 at 77 FR 32441...: 202-267- 3073. Correction In the Federal Register of June 1, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-13290, on...

  10. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  11. Medical Interpreting: Improving Communication with Your Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebble, Helen

    The guide is designed for physicians and other medical practitioners who need to work with medical interpreters to improve communication with patients. Special attention is given to the Australian context. An introductory section discusses the need for medical interpreters and explains the guide's organization. Subsequent sections address these…

  12. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  13. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  14. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  15. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  16. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  17. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  18. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  19. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  20. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  1. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  2. 10 CFR 95.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 95.7 Section 95.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  3. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  4. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  5. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  6. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  7. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  8. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  9. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  10. Interpretability, validity, and the minimum important difference.

    PubMed

    McClimans, Leah

    2011-12-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used as dependent variables in studies regarding the effectiveness of clinical interventions. But patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) do not provide intuitively meaningful data. For instance, it is not clear what a five point increase or decrease on a particular scale signifies. Establishing 'interpretability' involves making changes in outcomes meaningful. Attempts to interpret PROMs have led to the development of methods for identifying a minimum important difference (MID). In this paper, however, I draw on Charles Taylor's distinction between weak and strong evaluations to suggest that identifying a MID, specifically, a MID that uses a patient-reported reference group, may not provide an adequate interpretation of these measures. Moreover, I argue that the difficulty with interpreting these measures is tied to a larger problem concerning their validity. If researchers wish to interpret PROMs, they may first need to know more about the constructs they attempt to measure, namely, quality of life. PMID:21792659

  11. Women's interpretation of cervical smear test results.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2004-06-01

    Screening for cervical cancer using the Papanicolaou smear test has been available in England since the 1960s, yet very little is known about how women interpret their test results. This questionnaire study required women to explain, in their own words, the meaning of normal and abnormal test results. It was discovered that the use of the word cell as a description of findings was extremely common, and that a proportion of subjects equated abnormal results with technical inadequacy. The frequency of circularity in the interpretations, i.e. interpreting 'normal' as 'not abnormal' and vice versa, was striking. Contrary to previous research, we find that, whilst many women interpret normal results as indicating the current absence of cancer, few appear to believe that future cancer is thereby definitively ruled out. By the same token, only a very small minority interpret abnormal results as definitive of cancer. PMID:15165270

  12. Interpretation of data from uphole refraction surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, A. G.

    1980-06-01

    The conventional interpretation of the data from an uphole refraction survey is based on the similarity between a plot of contours drawn on uphole arrival times and a wave-front diagram, which shows successive positions of the wave front produced by a single shot location at the ground surface. However, the two are alike only when the ground consists solely of homogeneous strata, oriented either horizontally or vertically. In this report, the term 'Meissner diagram' is used for the plot of arrival times from the uphole refraction survey in order to maintain the distinction between it and a true wave-front diagram. Where departures from the case of homogeneous, horizontal strata exist, the interpretation of the Meissner diagram is not straightforward, although a partial interpretation in terms of a horizontally stratified system is usually possible. A systematic approach to the interpretation problem, making use of such a partial interpretation, is proposed.

  13. Détermination expérimentale de la résistance thermique d'interface d'un dépôt métallique submicronique sur son substrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmina, N.; Scudeller, Y.

    1995-06-01

    Mechanisms of deposition and adhesion of a solid film are closely related to the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Experimental measurement of thermal contact resistance gives new informations by characterizing the presence of impurities, fissures and cracks due to the elaboration process. An original method of thermal contact resistance measurement of a submicronic film on a dielectric substrate is presented. The measurement consists in analysing the very beginning of the cooling phase of the film, which follow the heating by a short laser pulse (≈ 20 ns). Temperature detection is obtained by electrical resistance measurement of the film. Detection with a high bandwidth (25 MHz) ensure a good restitution of the signal, which is numerically filtered in order to be analyzed. A very small thermal contact resistance compromise between 10^{-8} and 10^{-6} m^2K/W is measured if the temperature detection is operated before one microsecond. The principle of the method and the experimental arrangement are described. The sensitivity is analyzed. Experimental results are obtained on thin film of 200 to 600 nm thickness (pulverized copper) on glass substrate. The thermal contact resistance of about 10^{-7} m^2K/W have been identified with an uncertainty of about 30%. Les mécanismes de croissance et l'adhésion d'un dépôt sont étroitement liés aux propriétés physiques et chimiques superficielles du substrat. La détermination de la résistance thermique d'interface peut mettre en lumière certains aspects de ce couplage en caractérisant la présence d'impuretés, de fissures ou de décollements liés au procédé d'élaboration. Une méthode de mesure originale de la résistance d'interface entre un dépôt submicronique et un substrat diélectrique est présentée. Elle est fondée sur l'analyse des premiers instants de refroidissement du dépôt consécutif à l'échauffement produit par une impulsion laser. L'échauffement est obtenu par la mesure

  14. Interpreting in the UK Community: Some Reflections on Public Service Interpreting in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the question "why do we need professional public service interpreters?" this paper offers an overview of the present situation regarding the provision of public service interpreters (PSIs) in the UK to public service clients and touches on the main obstacles to the professionalisation of public service interpreting so far…

  15. Discourse Genre and Linguistic Mode: Interpreter Influences in Visual and Tactile Interpreted Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Melanie; Fleetwood, Earl; Collins, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate visual and tactile ASL-English interpreters' influences on interactive discourse through an interactional sociolinguistic analysis of videotaped, interpreted interactions. They examine the participation framework of each of the interactions to determine whether the interpreters' utterances influence the…

  16. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  17. A multi-session interpretation modification program: changes in interpretation and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2008-10-01

    Previous research suggests that socially anxious individuals interpret ambiguous social information in a more threatening manner compared to non-anxious individuals. Recently, studies have experimentally modified interpretation and shown that this subsequently affected anxiety in non-anxious individuals. If similar procedures can modify interpretation biases in socially anxious individuals, they may lead to a reduction in social anxiety symptoms. In the current study, we examined the effect of a computerized Interpretation Modification Program (IMP) on interpretation bias and social anxiety symptoms. Twenty-seven socially anxious individuals were randomly assigned to the IMP or a control condition. Participants completed eight computer sessions over four weeks. The IMP modified interpretation by providing positive feedback when participants made benign interpretations and negative feedback in response to threat interpretations. The IMP successfully decreased threat interpretations, increased benign interpretations, and decreased social anxiety symptoms compared to the control condition. Moreover, changes in benign interpretation mediated IMP's effect on social anxiety. This initial trial suggests that interpretation modification may have clinical utility when applied as a multi-session intervention. PMID:18675400

  18. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  19. VCG Interpretation through Artificial Learning (VITAL)

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D.E.; Womble, M.E.; Lancaster, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    A system for automated VCG interpretation using tools of artificial intelligence and statistical signal processing is presently under development. The system differs substantially from current programs in the extraction of features to be used for rhythm and morphology interpretation. These are found based on ideas of statistical data compression and sufficient statistics rather than the commonly-used waveform measurements. A relatively large data base is being collected to train and evaluate the statistical pattern recognition algorithms used for interpretation. Representative results are presented to illustrate the approach and system performance.

  20. Approach to breast magnetic resonance imaging interpretation.

    PubMed

    Palestrant, Sarah; Comstock, Christopher E; Moy, Linda

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing use of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging comes the expectation that the breast radiologist is as fluent in its interpretation as in that of mammography and breast ultrasonography. Knowledge of who should be included for imaging and how to perform the imaging are as essential as interpreting the images. When reading the examination, the radiologist should approach the images from both a global and focused perspective, synthesizing findings into a report that includes a management plan. This article reviews a systematic and organized approach to breast MR imaging interpretation. PMID:24792657

  1. Interpretation of the ankle in UHECR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin

    Ankle is a flattening in CR spectrum observed first in Volcano Ranch experiment in 1963 at E _{a} ˜ 10 EeV, and it was interpreted as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs. Since that time the ankle was observed in all large UHECR detectors and most recently in HiRes, TA and Auger detectors at E _{a} ˜ 4 - 5 EeV. At present there are two interpretations of the ankle: as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs (the conventional interpretation) and as a part of the dip, produced by extragalactic protons interacting with the CMB photons. These two interpretations will be discussed in the light of recent observations and models of UHECR origin.

  2. Interpreters Talk a Lot, Among Other Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri C.

    1972-01-01

    Exploratory study designed to provide a general overview of the simultaneous interpretation process. Based on an unpublished doctoral dissertation supported by a Public Health Service Research Grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. (VM)

  3. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  4. URINARY BIOMARKER INTERPRETATION USING PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The issues involved with applying PBPK models in urinary biomarker interpretation were presented. Example scenarios were modeled, and absorbed doses were estimated for selected participants from a field study to illustrate the applicability and limitations of the methods.

  5. The Status of Interpreters for Deaf Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Jerome D.; Yarwood, Sara

    1990-01-01

    A national survey of 170 interpreters for deaf Canadians examined demographic characteristics; knowledge of sign; education; experience; employment; voluntary service; clients served; settings; earnings and fees; and opinions regarding their work, compensation, working conditions, ethics, and education. (JDD)

  6. The interpretation of logical connectives in Turkish.

    PubMed

    Geçkin, Vasfiye; Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated how Turkish-speaking children and adults interpret negative sentences with disjunction (English or) and ones with conjunction (English and). The goal was to see whether Turkish-speaking children and adults assigned the same interpretation to both kinds of sentences and, if not, to determine the source of the differences. Turkish-speaking children and adults were found to assign different interpretations to negative sentences with disjunction just in case the nouns in the disjunction phrase were marked with accusative case. For children, negation took scope over disjunction regardless of case marking, whereas, for adults, disjunction took scope over negation if the disjunctive phrases were case marked. Both groups assigned the same interpretation to negative sentences with conjunction; both case-marked and non-case-marked conjunction phrases took scope over negation. The findings are taken as evidence for a 'subset' principle of language learnability that dictates children's initial scope assignments. PMID:26118654

  7. Ground photography for improvved image interpretation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lougeay, R.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic sets of ground based color and color infrared photography were presented to students in remote sensing classes to enhance their ability to interpret satellite images. Features readily apparent on computer enhanced LANDSAT images were presented simultaneously with ground based photography in the format of slide triplicates. It was hypothesized that this instructional approach would improve the students' abilities to recognize, understand and interpret ground phenomena present on remotely sensed imagery. Tests conducted in undergraduate remote sensing classes substantially upheld this hypothesis. Student image interpretive abilities were tested before and after being exposed to the ground level photography. In general, image interpretive skills of the class improved by 25%. Also, the performance of students having different academic majors varied greatly for differing types of image subjects.

  8. Launching International Collaboration for Interpretation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Sherry

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of interpretation research projects across national boundaries contributes to improved personal, professional, and intellectual outcomes for researchers and practitioners. Establishing and maintaining these collaborative teams may be especially beneficial to strengthening the research agenda of new researchers. Conducting…

  9. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  10. 77 FR 32441 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Interpretation 1986-12 (stating that if a mechanic employee of an air carrier is assigned duty during flight time, then the mechanic is a ``crewmember'' and may ride in the jumpseat pursuant to Sec. 121.547(a)(1))....

  11. Translational disease interpretation with molecular networks

    PubMed Central

    Baudot, Anaïs; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Valencia, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Molecular networks are being used to reconcile genotypes and phenotypes by integrating medical information. In this context, networks will be instrumental for the interpretation of disease at the personalized medicine level. PMID:19591646

  12. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  13. Crime scene interpretation: back to basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    This presentation is a review of the basics involved in the interpretation of the crime scene based on facts derived from the physical and testimonial evidence obtained from the scene. This presentation will demonstrate the need to thoroughly document the scene to prove the interpretation. Part of this documentation is based on photography and crime scene sketches. While the methodology is simple and well demonstrated in this presentation this aspect is one of the tasks least completed by most law enforcement agencies.

  14. Streamlining semantic interpretation for medical narratives.

    PubMed Central

    Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce two abstraction mechanisms by which the process of semantic interpretation of medical narratives can be simplified and further optimized. One relates to generalized triggering conditions, the other to inheritance-based specifications of semantic rules. The proposed methodology leads to a parsimonious inventory of abstract, simple and domain-independent semantic interpretation schemata whose effectiveness has been evaluated on a medical text corpus. PMID:10566496

  15. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment. PMID:26471331

  16. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very smal

  17. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Expectations and Interpretations During Causal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2012-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A–1C, participants’ interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings. PMID:21534705

  19. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  20. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  1. Autoadaptivity and optimization in distributed ECG interpretation.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr

    2010-03-01

    This paper addresses principal issues of the ECG interpretation adaptivity in a distributed surveillance network. In the age of pervasive access to wireless digital communication, distributed biosignal interpretation networks may not only optimally solve difficult medical cases, but also adapt the data acquisition, interpretation, and transmission to the variable patient's status and availability of technical resources. The background of such adaptivity is the innovative use of results from the automatic ECG analysis to the seamless remote modification of the interpreting software. Since the medical relevance of issued diagnostic data depends on the patient's status, the interpretation adaptivity implies the flexibility of report content and frequency. Proposed solutions are based on the research on human experts behavior, procedures reliability, and usage statistics. Despite the limited scale of our prototype client-server application, the tests yielded very promising results: the transmission channel occupation was reduced by 2.6 to 5.6 times comparing to the rigid reporting mode and the improvement of the remotely computed diagnostic outcome was achieved in case of over 80% of software adaptation attempts. PMID:20064764

  2. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

  3. Computerized interpretation of solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Mitani, Masanobu; Natori, Hiroshi

    1998-04-01

    In physicians' interpretation, morphologic characteristics of pulmonary nodules are not only important signs for the discrimination, but also important features for the diagnosis with a reasonable degree of confidence. This paper describes about the computerized interpretation system which is developed to analyze the relation between the measuring values and the morphologic characteristics, and to make clear the logic of physicians' diagnosis. We think that the four basic morphologic characteristics of the discriminative diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules exist which are: (1) the density; (2) the homogeneity; (3) the definition; and (4) the convergence. To obtain each grade of the parameters, we developed an interpretation system. On the other hand, to obtain digital feature values, we used our computer aided diagnosis system. Interpretation experiments were performed by using 15 benign and 19 malignant cases of chest x-ray CT images. As the result of a statistical analysis, some digital features have the significant differences between benign and malignant nodules, and the morphological characteristics have also differences. Therefore the computerized system is feasible to help physicians' interpretation to distinct between malignant and benign nodules by showing digital feature values as some references.

  4. Interpretation of symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dendy, C; Cooper, M; Sharpe, M

    2001-11-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterised by fatigue and other symptoms. Both psychological and biological aetiological factors have been proposed, but the disorder is of uncertain origin. The aetiology of the symptoms is therefore ambiguous. It has been suggested (a) that patients with CFS tend to interpret their symptoms as indicating physical illness and (b) they tend not to interpret these symptoms in terms of negative emotion. In order to test these hypotheses we developed a self-report questionnaire to assess the interpretation of symptoms in patients with CFS. It was administered to patients with CFS, patients with depression, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and normal controls. Preliminary results suggest that the measure has acceptable psychometric properties. Patients with CFS were more likely than either depressed patients or normal controls to interpret symptoms (characteristic of CFS) in terms of physical illness, but did not differ in this from the MS patients. When compared with all three other groups (including the MS patients), the patients with CFS were least likely to interpret symptoms in terms of negative emotional states. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:11686271

  5. A plug-and-play approach to automated data interpretation: the data interpretation module (DIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, B.K.D.; Elling, J.W.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Project`s automated analysis laboratory provides a ``plug-and-play`` reusable infrastructure for many types of environmental assays. As a sample progresses through sample preparation to sample analysis and finally to data interpretation, increasing expertise and judgment are needed at each step. The Data Interpretation Module (DIM) echoes the automation`s plug-and-play philosophy as a reusable engine and architecture for handling both the uncertainty and knowledge required for interpreting contaminant sample data. This presentation describes the implementation and performance of the DIM in interpreting polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gas chromatogram and shows the DIM architecture`s reusability for other applications.

  6. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  7. Interpretive monitoring in the caudate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yanike, Marianna; Ferrera, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    In a dynamic environment an organism has to constantly adjust ongoing behavior to adapt to a given context. This process requires continuous monitoring of ongoing behavior to provide its meaningful interpretation. The caudate nucleus is known to have a role in behavioral monitoring, but the nature of these signals during dynamic behavior is still unclear. We recorded neuronal activity in the caudate nucleus in monkeys during categorization behavior that changed rapidly across contexts. We found that neuronal activity maintained representation of the identity and context of a recently categorized stimulus, as well as interpreted the behavioral meaningfulness of the maintained trace. The accuracy of this cognitive monitoring signal was highest for behavior for which subjects were prone to make errors. Thus, the caudate nucleus provides interpretive monitoring of ongoing behavior, which is necessary for contextually specific decisions to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03727.001 PMID:25415238

  8. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  9. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  10. Experimental approach toward holographic interferometric fringe interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    Current literature concerning the measurement of small displacements by the laser holographic technique was reviewed. It was found that existing theories are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to apply to any realistic nondestructive testing conditions in which the geometries of the objects are complex and the three-dimensional displacements are irregular. An experimental approach was adopted for interpreting correlation between real time holographic fringe patterns and small displacements. Preliminary results show that the present method is feasible for the quantitative interpretation of the fringes as well as the calibration of the mobile HNDT system.

  11. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  12. Interpretation in Group Counseling: Theoretical and Operational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines theoretical and practical considerations for interpretation in group counseling. Application issues discussed include interpretation process, providers, recipients, content, depth, timing, and form. Explores theoretical issues and clarifies operational considerations for effective utilization of interpretation in group counseling.…

  13. The Optimum Text in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Approach to Interpreters' Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexieva, Bistra

    A discussion of text translatability in simultaneous interpreting (SI) looks at semantic redundancy, the repetition of semantic components essential to creating an utterance, and offers some classroom techniques for teaching interpreting skills. It is proposed that the translatability of a text in SI should be studied in terms of the experiential…

  14. Making Sense of Divergent Interpretations of Conflict and Developing an Interpretive Understanding of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hildy S.; Recchia, Holly E.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2005-01-01

    Our goals in this study were to develop a measure of children's understanding of divergent interpretations of conflict and relate that measure to children's more general interpretive understanding of mind (Carpendale & Chandler, 1996). Eighty-nine children between 4 and 9 years of age heard 4 conflict stories in which fault was ambiguous. Children…

  15. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  16. Classroom Interpreting Games with an Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

    2006-01-01

    Classroom communication has been recognized as a process in which ideas become objects of reflection, discussion, and amendments affording the construction of private mathematical meanings that in the process become public and exposed to justification and validation. This paper describes an explanatory model named "interpreting games", based on…

  17. Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

  18. Conceptualizing Interpretive Authority in Practical Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan Jean

    2009-01-01

    While educational theorists have long debated the pedagogical value of granting students the authority to construct certain of their own understandings in collaboration with their peers, a lack of empirical markers of student "interpretive authority" has constrained comparative study of the pedagogical tradeoffs at stake. Yet the thoughtful…

  19. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  20. An Interpretive Argument for Blended Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    As courses that once regularly met face-to-face are increasingly offered in blended or fully online formats, questions have been raised about the comparability of instruction, teacher and student roles, and overall quality of the learning experience. The present study offers a five-inference interpretive argument (Chapelle, Enright & Jamieson,…

  1. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  2. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  3. Finnish ECEC Policy: Interpretations, Implementations and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnismaa, Eeva-Leena; Kalliala, Marjatta

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex development and contradictory current state of affairs of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Finland. Rather than presenting a harmonious picture of the Finnish ECEC system, the authors have chosen to look at the problematic way in which national policies concerning ECEC have been interpreted and…

  4. Developing Symbolic Interpretation through Literary Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa; Hall, Allison H.; Goldman, Susan R.; Lee, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Literature can be a powerful resource for adolescents' psychosocial development, as it provides opportunities to experience the world through the perspectives of others and juxtapose these with one's own experiences. However, gaining access to these perspectives requires going beyond literal words on the page to explore interpretive meanings. This…

  5. Inquiry and Developing Interpretations from Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternadel, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes an inquiry-based project in order to examine students' efforts to build interpretations from evidence. This project fits within the Standards definition of scientific inquiry in several ways: (1) Students used previously learned biological concepts and principles to guide their inquiries; (2) Students relied on…

  6. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature satisfies any provision of the Act or its implementing regulations...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost...

  8. Principles of Designing Interpretable Optogenetic Behavior Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brian D.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the use of optogenetic tools to test whether specific cells, regions, and projection pathways are necessary or sufficient for initiating, sustaining, or altering behavior. However, the use of such tools can result in side effects that can complicate experimental design or interpretation.…

  9. TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Radia

    TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System) is a device which can be used to study or nurture the cognitive development of preschool children. The device consists of a "turtle" which the child can control by use of buttons on a control panel. The "turtle" can be made to move in prescribed directions, to take a given number of paces,…

  10. The Copenhagen interpretation as an emergent phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2013-08-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed by Schrödinger’s equation without the need for observers or their brains. In order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas. Firstly, we adopt a relational approach and use the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix of a quantum sub-system, or equivalently the Schmidt decomposition, to define the ‘internal state’ of a sub-system. Previous work has identified serious objections to such an interpretation because it apparently leads to macroscopic superpositions and physically unacceptable instabilities near degeneracies. We show that both these problems are solved if the sub-system consists of a large number of coarse-grained degrees of freedom as one expects in order to make contact with the classical world. We further argue that coarse graining is a necessary ingredient because measuring devices have both finite spatial and temporal resolutions. What results is an interpretation in which both decoherence and coarse graining play key roles and from which the rules of the Copenhagen interpretation are seen to emerge in realistic situations that include the measurement of the position of a particle and a decay process.

  11. Students' Interpretations of Mathematical Statements Involving Quantification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical statements involving both universal and existential quantifiers occur frequently in advanced mathematics. Despite their prevalence, mathematics students often have difficulties interpreting and proving quantified statements. Through task-based interviews, this study took a qualitative look at undergraduate mathematics students'…

  12. On geometric interpretation of the berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanaev, M. O.

    2012-03-01

    A geometric interpretation of the Berry phase and its Wilczek-Zee non-Abelian generalization are given in terms of connections on principal fiber bundles. It is demonstrated that a principal fiber bundle can be trivial in all cases, while the connection and its holonomy group are nontrivial. Therefore, the main role is played by geometric rather than topological effects.

  13. 7 CFR 201.56 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56 Interpretation. (a) A seed shall be considered to have germinated when it has developed those essential structures which, for the kind of...

  14. 7 CFR 201.56 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56 Interpretation. (a) A seed shall be considered to have germinated when it has developed those essential structures which, for the kind of...

  15. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... December 23, 2010, at 75 FR 80746 is withdrawn as of November 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization...

  16. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  17. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Federal Requirements § 602.11...

  18. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  19. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  20. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  1. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  2. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  3. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Federal Requirements § 602.11...

  4. A novel interpretation of the integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockham, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents what the author hopes will be a novel interpretation of the integrator, and draws unique comparisons between two types of integrator: the microlens array based imaging beam integrator and the integrating tube, or light pipe, for which a quality factor has been derived.

  5. Computing & Interpreting Effect Sizes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on using effect sizes in research. A small heuristic data set is used in order to make the discussion concrete. Additionally, various admonitions for best practice in reporting and interpreting effect sizes are presented. Among these is the admonition to not use Cohen's benchmarks for "small," "medium," and…

  6. Cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Darrell L.; Bakir, Tariq

    2011-06-01

    Processing framework for cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability is discussed. Architecture consists of spatiotemporal video preprocessing, metric computation, metric normalization, pooling of like metric groups with masking adjustments, multinomial logistic pooling of Minkowski pooled groups of similar quality metrics, and estimation of confidence interval of final result.

  7. Interpretive Performance of the Internal Narrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Pamela M.

    Internal narration is a "direct quotation of the mind" without authorial intervention, in which the reader overhears characters thinking silently. Dramatic interpretation and internal narration share the characteristics of primarily auditory expression and symbolic use of images. One of the most widely read and taught examples of this method,…

  8. Generating Alternatives: Interpreting Focus in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christina S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates a class of context-dependent expressions--focus-sensitive particles--as a way of addressing how language users draw on contextual information to interpret expressions whose meanings are underdetermined by their forms. While the problem of context dependence has been widely studied, the question of precisely what…

  9. On Measuring Quantitative Interpretations of Reasonable Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhami, Mandeep K.

    2008-01-01

    Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and…

  10. Children's Interpretation of Sentence-Internal Anaphora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Werner; Koster, Jan

    The acquisition of two types of anaphora, reflexive and non-reflexive personal pronouns, was investigated. It was hypothesized that the two types of anaphora are acquired at different developmental stages. The three experiments involved Dutch children of age 6 and 7 and adults. Interpretations of sentences containing third person reflexive…

  11. 16 CFR 1.73 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.73 Interpretations. (a) Nature and purpose. (1... provisions of the Fair Credit Reporting Act on its own initiative or pursuant to the application of any... statutory provisions. They are guidelines intended as clarification of the Fair Credit Reporting Act,...

  12. 78 FR 67983 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... qualification. See 35 FR 84, 87 (Jan. 3, 1970); Legal Interpretation 1978-27. Rather, it covers broad PIC qualification requirements, inclusive of PIC proficiency checks. See 30 FR 6725, 6725 (May 18, 1965) (requiring... proficiency checks as the pilot in command); 34 FR 6112, 6113 (April 4, 1969) (proposing 121.432(c),...

  13. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  14. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  15. A Theoretical Foundation for Tilden's Interpretive Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammitt, William E.

    1981-01-01

    Draws from perceptual and cognitive psychology to present a theoretical basis for the principles of interpretation developed by Freeman Tilden. Emphasized is cognitive map theory which holds that information units people receive, code and store are structured into cognitive models intended to represent the environment. (Author/WB)

  16. PBS: An Economical Natural Language Query Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samstag-Schnock, Uwe; Meadow, Charles T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the design and implementation of PBS (Parsing, Boolean Recognition, Stemming), a software module used in conjunction with an intermediary program to interpret natural language queries used for online database searching. Results of a test of the initial version, which is designed for use with bibliographic files, are reported. (13…

  17. 76 FR 11176 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... of flight time limitations and rest requirements in 14 CFR 121.481 and 121.483 for pilots operating...; telephone: 202-267- 3073. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA provides flight time and rest requirements for... duties and may be provided an opportunity for rest. See Legal Interpretation from Donald P. Byrne...

  18. 46 CFR 281.6 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation. 281.6 Section 281.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INFORMATION AND PROCEDURE REQUIRED UNDER LINER OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY AGREEMENTS § 281.6...

  19. 46 CFR 281.6 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation. 281.6 Section 281.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INFORMATION AND PROCEDURE REQUIRED UNDER LINER OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY AGREEMENTS § 281.6...

  20. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  1. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The cost accounting practices used by the contractor, however, must be followed consistently and the...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost...

  2. 48 CFR 9905.502-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., as indirect costs, of costs incurred in preparing all proposals. The cost accounting practices used...-61 Section 9905.502-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502-61 Interpretation....

  3. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting.... The cost accounting practices used by the contractor, however, must be followed consistently and...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... applicable), and (3) The cost accounting practices by which such costs shall be allocated to cost...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting... accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting costs.” (b) In estimating the cost of direct...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting.... The cost accounting practices used by the contractor, however, must be followed consistently and...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... applicable), and (3) The cost accounting practices by which such costs shall be allocated to cost...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting... accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting costs.” (b) In estimating the cost of direct...

  12. 7 CFR 2901.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 2901.4 Section 2901.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY §...

  13. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  14. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  15. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  16. The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Stuart Murray

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

  17. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  18. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  19. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  20. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  1. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  2. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  3. JEAB and The Skinnerian Interpretation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wixted, John

    2008-01-01

    At one time, JEAB editorial policy was perceived by some to consist mainly of dogmatically enforcing a Skinnerian interpretation of all findings reported in the journal. Partly in response to that undeserved reputation, the journal explicitly defined itself as the place to publish research on the behavior of individual organisms, and not as a place that encourages any particular theoretical orientation. My own view is that this should not be the journal's identity; instead, JEAB should be the one journal that seriously considers Skinnerian (and related environment based) interpretations of empirical results, whether or not the study involved an analysis of individual subject behavior and whether or not the Skinnerian analysis is ultimately endorsed by the author. PMID:18338682

  4. Statistical mechanics and the ontological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, D.; Hiley, B. J.

    1996-06-01

    To complete our ontological interpretation of quantum theory we have to conclude a treatment of quantum statistical mechanics. The basic concepts in the ontological approach are the particle and the wave function. The density matrix cannot play a fundamental role here. Therefore quantum statistical mechanics will require a further statistical distribution over wave functions in addition to the distribution of particles that have a specified wave function. Ultimately the wave function of the universe will he required, but we show that if the universe in not in thermodynamic equilibrium then it can he treated in terms of weakly interacting large scale constituents that are very nearly independent of each other. In this way we obtain the same results as those of the usual approach within the framework of the ontological interpretation.

  5. Computational theory of line drawing interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkin, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    The recovery of the three dimensional structure of visible surfaces depicted in an image by emphasizing the role of geometric cues present in line drawings, was studied. Three key components are line classification, line interpretation, and surface interpolation. A model for three dimensional line interpretation and surface orientation was refined and a theory for the recovery of surface shape from surface marking geometry was developed. A new approach to the classification of edges was developed and implemented signatures were deduced for each of several edge types, expressed in terms of correlational properties of the image intensities in the vicinity of the edge. A computer program was developed that evaluates image edges as compared with these prototype signatures.

  6. Mechanistic interpretation of nondestructive pavement testing deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. S.

    1980-06-01

    A method is proposed for the backcalculation of material properties in flexible pavements based on the interpretation of surface deflection measurements. ILLI-PAVE, a stress dependent finite element pavement model, was used to generate data for developing algorithms and nomographs for deflection basin interpretation. Over 11,000 deflection measurements for 24 different flexible pavement sections were collected and analyzed. Deflections were measured using the Benkelman Beam, the IDOT Road Rater, the Falling Weight Deflectometer, and an accelerometer to measure deflections under moving trucks. Loading mode effects on pavement response were investigated using dynamic and viscous pavement models. The factors controlling the pavement response to different loading modes were explained and identified. Correlations between different devices were developed. The proposed evaluation procedure is illustrated for three different flexible pavements using deflection data collected on several testing dates.

  7. A physical interpretation of hydrologic model complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayeri, MohamadMehdi; Pande, Saket

    2015-04-01

    It is intuitive that instability of hydrological system representation, in the sense of how perturbations in input forcings translate into perturbation in a hydrologic response, may depend on its hydrological characteristics. Responses of unstable systems are thus complex to model. We interpret complexity in this context and define complexity as a measure of instability in hydrological system representation. We provide algorithms to quantify model complexity in this context. We use Sacramento soil moisture accounting model (SAC-SMA) parameterized for MOPEX basins and quantify complexities of corresponding models. Relationships between hydrologic characteristics of MOPEX basins such as location, precipitation seasonality index, slope, hydrologic ratios, saturated hydraulic conductivity and NDVI and respective model complexities are then investigated. We hypothesize that complexities of basin specific SAC-SMA models correspond to aforementioned hydrologic characteristics, thereby suggesting that model complexity, in the context presented here, may have a physical interpretation.

  8. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

  9. Pharmacy Students’ Interpretation of Academic Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore pharmacy students’ recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. Methods. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Results. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents’ year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. Conclusion. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students’ perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties. PMID:25147391

  10. Implementation and performance of parallel Prolog interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Kale, L.V.; Balkrishna, R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the implementation of a parallel Prolog interpreter on different parallel machines. The implementation is based on the REDUCE--OR process model which exploits both AND and OR parallelism in logic programs. It is machine independent as it runs on top of the chare-kernel--a machine-independent parallel programming system. The authors also give the performance of the interpreter running a diverse set of benchmark pargrams on parallel machines including shared memory systems: an Alliant FX/8, Sequent and a MultiMax, and a non-shared memory systems: Intel iPSC/32 hypercube, in addition to its performance on a multiprocessor simulation system.

  11. Hepatitis C testing: interpretation, implications, and counseling.

    PubMed

    Becherer, P R; Bacon, B

    1993-01-01

    New molecular biology techniques recently identified hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the major cause of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Serologic assays for HCV specific antibodies are a significant advance, but they require cautious interpretation due to problems with the tests' sensitivity and specificity. Patients with suspected HCV infection should be thoroughly evaluated to verify the presence of infection, to exclude other forms of chronic liver disease, and to determine the extent of liver damage prior to considering treatment. PMID:8421452

  12. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2009-02-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  13. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2011-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  14. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  15. Unpacking the Division Interpretation of a Fraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Priscilla Eide

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in learning fractions is understanding how and why a fraction can have multiple interpretations. As presented in one textbook, a fraction is "a symbol, such as 2/3, 5/1, or 8/5, used to name a part of a whole, a part of a set, a location on a number line, or a division of whole numbers" (Charles et al. 2012, p.…

  16. [Diabolus, disease, and Nietzsche: considerations and interpretations].

    PubMed

    Barański, J

    2001-01-01

    Disease shows its dual nature: it carries suffering and pain, but also means trespassing the sluggish limits of healthy life. This trespassing confirms the distance separating man from nature and, at the same time, confirms man's spirituality. Nietzsche's disease and work support this interpretation, so precisely expressed by Thomas Mann in his novel Doctor Faustus: disease contains the diabolus of human biology and human spirituality. PMID:12138911

  17. Regional interpretation of Kansas aeromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Yarger, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The aeromagnetic mapping techniques used in a regional aeromagnetic survey of the state are documented and a qualitative regional interpretation of the magnetic basement is presented. Geothermal gradients measured and data from oil well records indicate that geothermal resources in Kansas are of a low-grade nature. However, considerable variation in the gradient is noted statewide within the upper 500 meters of the sedimentary section; this suggests the feasibility of using groundwater for space heating by means of heat pumps.

  18. Interpreting genomic data via entropic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Rajeev K.; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of high-throughput genome sequencing platforms and more recently the next-generation platforms, the genome databases are growing at an astronomical rate. Tremendous efforts have been invested in recent years in understanding intriguing complexities beneath the vast ocean of genomic data. This is apparent in the spurt of computational methods for interpreting these data in the past few years. Genomic data interpretation is notoriously difficult, partly owing to the inherent heterogeneities appearing at different scales. Methods developed to interpret these data often suffer from their inability to adequately measure the underlying heterogeneities and thus lead to confounding results. Here, we present an information entropy-based approach that unravels the distinctive patterns underlying genomic data efficiently and thus is applicable in addressing a variety of biological problems. We show the robustness and consistency of the proposed methodology in addressing three different biological problems of significance—identification of alien DNAs in bacterial genomes, detection of structural variants in cancer cell lines and alignment-free genome comparison. PMID:23036836

  19. Unique interpretations of potentiodynamic polarization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Durr, C.L.; Thompson, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    Development of the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique and interpretation of the resulting curves was based primarily upon the stainless steel-aqueous chloride system. This paper presents and interprets CPP curves for this and other alloy-environment systems. It was concluded from the analysis of CPP curves for these systems that both a forward and a reverse scan should be performed in order to maximize the information on localized corrosion obtainable from the test technique. The pitting potential, which is one parameter obtained from a CPP curve, is a non-conservative parameter for assessing susceptibility of a metal to pitting corrosion while the protection potential is a much more conservative parameter. While conducting CPP tests, attempts to eliminate preferred initiation sites on a metal surface will generally increase the variability in the CPP test results. For some alloy-environment systems, it may be necessary to produce consistent preferred sites for pit initiation, such as the specimen holder-specimen interface, in order to maximize reproducibility of the CPP test results. Hysteresis in CPP curves is not always associated with pitting or crevice corrosion and thus, all specimens should be examined following testing to establish the morphology of attack. Cathodic loops can complicate interpretation of CPP curves, and in some cases, they can be minimized or eliminated by removing oxidants from the test solution.

  20. Changing interpretations of the human cortical pattern.

    PubMed

    Maudgil, D D

    1997-06-01

    There has been a long historical succession of scientific description of the cerebral cortex, usually accompanied by conflicting speculations on its function. It was noted by Thomas S. Kuhn that scientific descriptions are phrased in terms of the prevailing scientific paradigm and that disagreement about the interpretation of observed phenomena is what drives scientists to formulate new theories. The objectives of this study were to examine how the observation of Kuhn can help to gain insight into historical concepts of brain functioning from contemporary descriptions of the cortical gyrations, to examine how these historical concepts are relevant to neurology today, and to demonstrate how subjective these concepts are because they are based on interpretations that may be wrong. The method used here is examination of historical sources that give descriptions and illustrations of the cerebral cortex and contemporary theories of brain function. I have found that the emphases on cortical description have varied according to the prevailing contemporary paradigm. Debates about and between different paradigms mirror some themes in current neuroscience. In conclusion, the observations of Kuhn help to interpret descriptions to shed light on theories of cerebral cortical functioning, and they demonstrate that a scientific description is necessarily highly subjective (since it is phrased in terms of the current paradigm). The insights that can be gained are relevant to modern neurology and neuroscience research. PMID:9193213

  1. Data Interpretation in the Digital Age

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The consultation of internet databases and the related use of computer software to retrieve, visualise and model data have become key components of many areas of scientific research. This paper focuses on the relation of these developments to understanding the biology of organisms, and examines the conditions under which the evidential value of data posted online is assessed and interpreted by the researchers who access them, in ways that underpin and guide the use of those data to foster discovery. I consider the types of knowledge required to interpret data as evidence for claims about organisms, and in particular the relevance of knowledge acquired through physical interaction with actual organisms to assessing the evidential value of data found online. I conclude that familiarity with research in vivo is crucial to assessing the quality and significance of data visualised in silico; and that studying how biological data are disseminated, visualised, assessed and interpreted in the digital age provides a strong rationale for viewing scientific understanding as a social and distributed, rather than individual and localised, achievement. PMID:25729262

  2. Analysis and Interpretation of the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ashton, James J; Beattie, R Mark; Ennis, Sarah; Cleary, David W

    2016-07-01

    Microbiome research has experienced an unprecedented level of growth over the last decade. This is largely due to revolutionary developments in, and accessibility to, DNA sequencing technologies that have enabled laboratories with even modest budgets to undertake projects. Study of the human microbiome in particular has seen a surge in interest, and although a lot of time and money has been focused on health and disease, the clinical interpretation of these data and the ability of clinicians to understand these studies in the context of disease are less straightforward. Conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cancer have seen a huge increase in research focused on the role of microbiome in disease pathogenesis, but the ability of clinicians to appraise and use these data is largely lacking. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction for clinicians and nonclinicians wishing to learn about and engage in microbiome research. It details the background of microbiome research and discusses the process of generating 16S rRNA sequencing data, the most commonly used method for microbiome analysis. We discuss the interpretation of results in a clinical context, commonly used metrics for analysis and discuss future impact and direction for microbiome research. The meteoric rise of genomic medicine to the brink of routine clinical use should be seen as a blueprint for the microbiome; the ability for physicians to understand and interpret these data is vital to this growth and aiding clinicians (and researchers) to participate in further microbiome research. PMID:27243592

  3. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  4. The Loud, Clear, and Transporting Voice of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartabedian, Robert A.

    This essay examines the art of oral interpretation from a "vocal" perspective--that is, it focuses on the crucial nature of vocal dimensions in oral interpretation. Moreover, the essay argues for an interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs (modeled after Abraham Maslow's 1970 theory). The interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs involves basic…

  5. Three Interpretations of the Matrix Equation Ax = b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Christine; Zandieh, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Many of the central ideas in an introductory undergraduate linear algebra course are closely tied to a set of interpretations of the matrix equation Ax = b (A is a matrix, x and b are vectors): linear combination interpretations, systems interpretations, and transformation interpretations. We consider graphic and symbolic representations for each,…

  6. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  7. Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W J

    2001-07-19

    An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or

  8. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  9. Interpretation of IR Spectra of Indolinospirobenzothiopyran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, L. L.; Khamchukov, Yu. D.; Sychev, I. Yu.; Lyubimov, A. V.; Gladkova, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    The structures of four stereomers (enantiomers) of photochromic indolinospirobenzothiopyran (ISTP) in the closed form were studied by the DFT method. The most stable structure was found. IR spectra of ISTP in KBr pellets and as a film on single-crystalline KBr plates (in the region 400-4000 cm -1 ) and as a powder between polyethylene plates (100-400 cm -1 ) were measured. An interpretation of the obtained IR spectra was proposed. Specific features of normal modes of ISTP caused by the presence of the spiro center were revealed.

  10. A programmed labeling approach to image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pore, M. D.; Abotteen, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Manual labeling techniques require the analyst-interpreter to use not only production film converter products but also agricultural and meteorological data and spectral aids in an integrated, judgmental fashion. To control an anticipated high variance in these techniques, a semiautomatic labeling technology was developed. The product of this technology is label identification from statistical tabulation (LIST) which operates from a discriminant basis and has the ability to measure the reliability of the label and to introduce an arbitrary bias. The development of LIST and its properties are described. Numerical results of an application are included and the evaluation of LIST is discussed.

  11. The partonic interpretation of reggeon theory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreskov, K. G.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Khoze, V. A.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    We review the physical content of the two simplest models of reggeon field theory: namely the eikonal and the Schwimmer models. The AGK cutting rules are used to obtain the inclusive, the inelastic and the diffractive cross sections. The system of non-linear equations for these cross sections is written down and analytic expressions for its solution are obtained. We derive the rapidity gap dependence of the differential cross sections for diffractive dissociation in the Schwimmer model and in its eikonalized extension. The results are interpreted from the partonic viewpoint of the interaction at high energies.

  12. Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, Reality S.

    The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing

  13. Interpretation of elasticity of liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Liquid marbles are non-stick droplets covered with micro-scaled particles. Liquid marbles demonstrate quasi-elastic properties when pressed. The interpretation of the phenomenon of elasticity of liquid marbles is proposed. The model considering the growth in the marble surface in the course of deformation under the conservation of marble's volume explains semi-quantitatively the elastic properties of marbles in satisfactory agreement with the reported experimental data. The estimation of the effective Young modulus of marbles and its dependence on the marble volume are reported. PMID:26164246

  14. Interpretation of Quantitative Shotgun Proteomic Data.

    PubMed

    Aasebø, Elise; Berven, Frode S; Selheim, Frode; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In quantitative proteomics, large lists of identified and quantified proteins are used to answer biological questions in a systemic approach. However, working with such extensive datasets can be challenging, especially when complex experimental designs are involved. Here, we demonstrate how to post-process large quantitative datasets, detect proteins of interest, and annotate the data with biological knowledge. The protocol presented can be achieved without advanced computational knowledge thanks to the user-friendly Perseus interface (available from the MaxQuant website, www.maxquant.org ). Various visualization techniques facilitating the interpretation of quantitative results in complex biological systems are also highlighted. PMID:26700055

  15. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T].

    PubMed

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result. PMID:25620025

  16. Techniques for interpretation of geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    For purposes of geological interpretation, techniques are developed to compute directly the geoid anomaly over models of density within the earth. Ideal bodies such as line segments, vertical sheets, and rectangles are first used to calculate the geoid anomaly. Realistic bodies are modeled with formulas for two-dimensional polygons and three-dimensional polyhedra. By using Fourier transform methods the two-dimensional geoid is seen to be a filtered version of the gravity field, in which the long-wavelength components are magnified and the short-wavelength components diminished.

  17. Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

  18. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

  19. The Ecosystem Approach: Perspectives, Heuristics and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kang, M.; Malla Thakuri, B.; Yun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Based on the perspective of self-organization and complexity, we employed the ecosystem approach to translate the observed forest water and carbon dynamics into narratives. Multi-years' time series of the eddy covariance flux measurements from 2007 to 2010 are used to examine the ecohydrology in two adjacent deciduous and coniferous forest ecosystems in central Korea. Traditional descriptive analysis revealed contrasting interannual variability in net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration between the two forests, consistent with the interpretation on the basis of resilience framework. In a thermodynamic sense, net entropy production of the two forests was different in magnitude but their seasonal and interannual variability was consistent. The analysis of information entropy using the same data enabled to delineate the systems' state in terms of process network with an indication of self-organization through hierarchical aggregations of the subsystems. Finally, the ecosystem approach not only provided us with new perspectives, heuristics and interpretation, but also shed a light to prediction through parsimonious parameterization based on the maximum entropy production principle, for instance. (This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER2012-3030. The flux data were provided by KoFlux and CarboEastAsia - A3 Foresight Program.)

  20. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William E.

    Galileo's understanding of the relationship between science and the Bible has frequently been celebrated as anticipating a modern distinction between the essentially religious nature of scripture and the claims of the natural sciences. Galileo's reference to the remarks of Cardinal Baronius, that the Bible teaches one how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go, has been seem as emblematic of his commitment to the distinction between the Book of Nature and the Book of Scripture. This essay argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo shares with the theologians of the Inquisition the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation: principles which include traditional scriptural hermeneutics enunciated by Augustine and Aquinas, as well as those characteristic of Counter-Reformation Catholicism. Although Galileo argues that one should not begin with biblical passages in order to discover truths about nature, he does think that the Bible contains scientific truths and that it is the function of wise interpreters to discover these truths. The dispute with the theologians of the Inquisition occurred because they thought that it was obviously true scientifically that the earth did not move and, on the basis of this view, they read the Bible as revealing the same thing. They reached this conclusion because, like Galileo, they thought that the Bible contained truths about nature. Of course, what these theologians accepted as scientifically true, Galileo denied.

  1. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze. PMID:26521052

  2. Interpretation module for screening normal ECG.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, C; Hasseldieck, U; Rosselot, E; Estévez, P; Andrade, A; Acuña, G

    1990-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a module for automatic recognition of normal ECGs, i.e. those whose waves morphology do not suggest physiopathological or structural heart alterations. Such a unit constitutes the central part of an administrative system under development which will aid in the management of ECG testing in the primary care delivery level in Chile. This system greatly contributes to the optimal allocation of resources in order to increase the test delivery coverage and to reduce the social and private costs involved. A main feature of the system is that it operates through the screening of normal ECG. This process is performed in a computerized unit whose core is the interpretation module. The design of such a module uses concepts and methods previously developed for the general problem of medical diagnosis, based on fuzzy set theory. The interpretation module parameters were adjusted considering hypothetical and real data covering a wide variety of normal and pathological cases. Then its performance was tested using more than one hundred patients' records chosen at random. Results of this test are given and a discussion, including a comparison with similar commercial equipment, is provided. PMID:2146480

  3. Pattern-fluid interpretation of chemical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Christian; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The spontaneous formation of heterogeneous patterns is a hallmark of many nonlinear systems, from biological tissue to evolutionary population dynamics. The standard model for pattern formation in general, and for Turing patterns in chemical reaction-diffusion systems in particular, are deterministic nonlinear partial differential equations where an unstable homogeneous solution gives way to a stable heterogeneous pattern. However, these models fail to fully explain the experimental observation of turbulent patterns with spatio-temporal disorder in chemical systems. Here we introduce a pattern-fluid model as a general concept where turbulence is interpreted as a weakly interacting ensemble obtained by random superposition of stationary solutions to the underlying reaction-diffusion system. The transition from turbulent to stationary patterns is then interpreted as a condensation phenomenon, where the nonlinearity forces one single mode to dominate the ensemble. This model leads to better reproduction of the experimental concentration profiles for the "stationary phases" and reproduces the turbulent chemical patterns observed by Q. Ouyang and H. L. Swinney [Chaos 1, 411 (1991), 10.1063/1.165851].

  4. Pattern-fluid interpretation of chemical turbulence.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Christian; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Mecke, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The spontaneous formation of heterogeneous patterns is a hallmark of many nonlinear systems, from biological tissue to evolutionary population dynamics. The standard model for pattern formation in general, and for Turing patterns in chemical reaction-diffusion systems in particular, are deterministic nonlinear partial differential equations where an unstable homogeneous solution gives way to a stable heterogeneous pattern. However, these models fail to fully explain the experimental observation of turbulent patterns with spatio-temporal disorder in chemical systems. Here we introduce a pattern-fluid model as a general concept where turbulence is interpreted as a weakly interacting ensemble obtained by random superposition of stationary solutions to the underlying reaction-diffusion system. The transition from turbulent to stationary patterns is then interpreted as a condensation phenomenon, where the nonlinearity forces one single mode to dominate the ensemble. This model leads to better reproduction of the experimental concentration profiles for the "stationary phases" and reproduces the turbulent chemical patterns observed by Q. Ouyang and H. L. Swinney [Chaos 1, 411 (1991)]. PMID:25974562

  5. Interpreting prosodic cues in discourse context

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments investigated whether and how quickly discourse-based expectations about the prosodic realization of spoken words modulate interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues. Experiment 1 replicated effects of segmental lengthening on activation of onset-embedded words (e.g. pumpkin) using resynthetic manipulation of duration and fundamental frequency (F0). In Experiment 2, the same materials were preceded by instructions establishing information-structural differences between competing lexical alternatives (i.e. repeated vs. newly-assigned thematic roles) in critical instructions. Eye-movements generated upon hearing the critical target word revealed a significant interaction between information structure and target-word realization: Segmental lengthening and pitch excursion elicited more fixations to the onset-embedded competitor when the target word remained in the same thematic role, but not when its thematic role changed. These results suggest that information structure modulates the interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues by influencing expectations about fine-grained acoustic-phonetic properties of the unfolding utterance. PMID:25599081

  6. Image Interpretation Session: Sunday, November 27, 2005.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Bradley, William G; Foley, W Dennis; Herold, Christian J; Jaramillo, Diego; Seeger, Leanne L

    2005-01-01

    The Sunday afternoon Image Interpretation Session has been a high point of the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America for over 65 years. A panel of five experts has been selected, representing the very best from the fields of neurologic, abdominal, thoracic, pediatric, and musculoskeletal radiology. Each panelist will dazzle us with an insightful analysis of two difficult cases in their area of expertise. The panelists are to be lauded for their bravery in subjecting their diagnostic acumen to the scrutiny of the thousands of radiologists in the audience. The cases, representing a diverse spectrum of diseases and disease manifestations, were selected from recent clinical imaging studies performed at the Stanford University Medical Center or the Lucille Salter Packard Children's Hospital. This session celebrates the skills of diagnostic radiologists worldwide, who are called on daily to amalgamate disparate clinical information with complex imaging data into focused differential diagnoses and effective treatment planning. We hope that these cases will serve to illustrate the central role that expert image interpretation plays in the care of patients. We welcome our audience of RSNA attendees, readers of RadioGraphics, and cyberspace denizens to join with our experts in solving these medical puzzles and to enjoy the excitement of unraveling the unknown. PMID:16163794

  7. General-purpose abductive algorithm for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard K.; Hartigan, Julie

    1996-11-01

    Abduction, inference to the best explanation, is an information-processing task that is useful for solving interpretation problems such as diagnosis, medical test analysis, legal reasoning, theory evaluation, and perception. The task is a generative one in which an explanation comprising of domain hypotheses is assembled and used to account for given findings. The explanation is taken to be an interpretation as to why the findings have arisen within the given situation. Research in abduction has led to the development of a general-purpose computational strategy which has been demonstrated on all of the above types of problems. This abduction strategy can be performed in layers so that different types of knowledge can come together in deriving an explanation at different levels of description. Further, the abduction strategy is tractable and offers a very useful tradeoff between confidence in the explanation and completeness of the explanation. This paper will describe this computational strategy for abduction and demonstrate its usefulness towards perceptual problems by examining problem-solving systems in speech recognition and natural language understanding.

  8. Interpreting ambiguous social cues in unpredictable contexts.

    PubMed

    Davis, F Caroline; Neta, Maital; Kim, M Justin; Moran, Joseph M; Whalen, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    Unpredictable environments can be anxiety-provoking and elicit exaggerated emotional responses to aversive stimuli. Even neutral stimuli, when presented in an unpredictable fashion, prime anxiety-like behavior and elicit heightened amygdala activity. The amygdala plays a key role in initiating responses to biologically relevant information, such as facial expressions of emotion. While some expressions clearly signal negative (anger) or positive (happy) events, other expressions (e.g. surprise) are more ambiguous in that they can predict either valence, depending on the context. Here, we sought to determine whether unpredictable presentations of ambiguous facial expressions would bias participants to interpret them more negatively. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and facial electromyography (EMG) to characterize responses to predictable vs unpredictable presentations of surprised faces. We observed moderate but sustained increases in amygdala reactivity to predictable presentations of surprised faces, and relatively increased amygdala responses to unpredictable faces that then habituated, similar to previously observed responses to clearly negative (e.g. fearful) faces. We also observed decreased corrugator EMG responses to predictable surprised face presentations, similar to happy faces, and increased responses to unpredictable surprised face presentations, similar to angry faces. Taken together, these data suggest that unpredictability biases people to interpret ambiguous social cues negatively. PMID:26926605

  9. The interpretation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Sheida; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Buckleton, John

    2012-12-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences [1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5]. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. Five hundred shoeprints taken from student volunteers in Auckland, New Zealand were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences. Comparisons were undertaken of the full outsole and of smaller portions of the more common patterns. Of the 500 shoe impressions collected 488 (97.6%) were ultimately represented only once in the survey. The greatest number of corresponding patterns was for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 3 of 500 observations. No instances of an imitation brand matching the authentic brand were found. Smaller sections of the common patterns showed a greater number of corresponding prints. However, the greatest number of matching partial patterns was again for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 29 of 500 observations. We conclude that pattern match alone is of considerable evidential value even when the print is partial. PMID:23068775

  10. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  11. A Local Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    A local interpretation of quantum mechanics is presented. Its main ingredients are: first, a label attached to one of the "virtual" paths in the path integral formalism, determining the output for measurement of position or momentum; second, a mathematical model for spin states, equivalent to the path integral formalism for point particles in space time, with the corresponding label. The mathematical machinery of orthodox quantum mechanics is maintained, in particular amplitudes of probability and Born's rule; therefore, Bell's type inequalities theorems do not apply. It is shown that statistical correlations for pairs of particles with entangled spins have a description completely equivalent to the two slit experiment, that is, interference (wave like behaviour) instead of non locality gives account of the process. The interpretation is grounded in the experimental evidence of a point like character of electrons, and in the hypothetical existence of a wave like, the de Broglie, companion system. A correspondence between the extended Hilbert spaces of hidden physical states and the orthodox quantum mechanical Hilbert space shows the mathematical equivalence of both theories. Paradoxical behaviour with respect to the action reaction principle is analysed, and an experimental set up, modified two slit experiment, proposed to look for the companion system.

  12. Learning Interpretable SVMs for Biological Sequence Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rätsch, Gunnar; Sonnenburg, Sören; Schäfer, Christin

    2006-01-01

    Background Support Vector Machines (SVMs) – using a variety of string kernels – have been successfully applied to biological sequence classification problems. While SVMs achieve high classification accuracy they lack interpretability. In many applications, it does not suffice that an algorithm just detects a biological signal in the sequence, but it should also provide means to interpret its solution in order to gain biological insight. Results We propose novel and efficient algorithms for solving the so-called Support Vector Multiple Kernel Learning problem. The developed techniques can be used to understand the obtained support vector decision function in order to extract biologically relevant knowledge about the sequence analysis problem at hand. We apply the proposed methods to the task of acceptor splice site prediction and to the problem of recognizing alternatively spliced exons. Our algorithms compute sparse weightings of substring locations, highlighting which parts of the sequence are important for discrimination. Conclusion The proposed method is able to deal with thousands of examples while combining hundreds of kernels within reasonable time, and reliably identifies a few statistically significant positions. PMID:16723012

  13. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    PubMed

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair. PMID:8543437

  14. Statistical weld process monitoring with expert interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Strauss, A.M.; Thompson, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data of voltage, current, wire feed speed, gas flow rate, travel speed, and elapsed arc time collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. For purposes of quality control, the control limits required for acceptance are specified in the weld procedure acceptance specifications. The control charts then provide quality assurance documentation for each weld. The statistical data trending analysis performed by the SPC program is not only valuable as a quality assurance monitoring and documentation system, it is also valuable in providing diagnostic assistance in troubleshooting equipment and material problems. Possible equipment/process problems are identified and matched with features of the SPC control charts. To aid in interpreting the voluminous statistical output generated by the SPC system, a large number of If-Then rules have been devised for providing computer-based expert advice for pinpointing problems based on out-of-limit variations of the control charts. The paper describes the SPC monitoring tool and the rule-based expert interpreter that has been developed for relating control chart trends to equipment/process problems.

  15. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  16. The Art Of Interpretation - Chances And Risks On Interpretation In The Field Of Mobile Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatini, Kerstin; Zischner, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Carrying out a usability test is a demanding process per se. Mobile tests raise this claim because they are subject to real usage conditions and therefore unforeseeable factors. On the one hand there are the technical factors like tools, software and laboratory equipment, but on the other hand there are the human beeings with their knowledge and decision-making. They are taking the selection of tools, methods and data, and they decide in every situation of the process of testing. Using a mobile eye-tracking test, the authors will explain where the sources for interpretation are and when misinterpretation become an error. Technology philosophical considerations on interpretation and hermeneutics have to support the recognition of the potential of interpretation. As a result, misinterpretation can be minimized.

  17. Tools for interpretation of multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckert, Glen; Carpenter, Loren C.; Russell, Mike; Bradstreet, John; Waite, Tom; Conklin, Charlie

    1990-08-01

    The large size and multiple bands of todays satellite data require increasingly powerful tools in order to display and interpret the acquired imagery in a timely fashion. Pixar has developed two major tools for use in this data interpretation. These tools are the Electronic Light Table (ELT), and an extensive image processing package, ChapiP. These tools operate on images limited only by disk volume size, currently 3 Gbytes. The Electronic Light Table package provides a fully windowed interface to these large 12 bit monochrome and multiband images, passing images through a software defined image interpretation pipeline in real time during an interactive roam. A virtual image software framework allows interactive modification of the visible image. The roam software pipeline consists of a seventh order polynomial warp, bicubic resampling, a user registration affine, histogram drop sampling, a 5x5 unsharp mask, and per window contrast controls. It is important to note that these functions are done in software, and various performance tradeoffs can be made for different applications within a family of hardware configurations. Special high spped zoom, rotate, sharpness, and contrast operators provide interactive region of interest manipulation. Double window operators provide for flicker, fade, shade, and difference of two parent windows in a chained fashion. Overlay graphics capability is provided in a PostScfipt* windowed environment (NeWS**). The image is stored on disk as a multi resolution image pyramid. This allows resampling and other image operations independent of the zoom level. A set of tools layered upon ChapIP allow manipulation of the entire pyramid file. Arbitrary combinations of bands can be computed for arbitrary sized images, as well as other image processing operations. ChapIP can also be used in conjunction with ELT to dynamically operate on the current roaming window to append the image processing function onto the roam pipeline. Multiple Chapi

  18. 42 CFR 37.52 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Roentgenograms § 37.52 Method of obtaining definitive interpretations. (a) All chest roentgenograms which...

  19. 42 CFR 37.53 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.53 Method of obtaining definitive interpretations. (a) All chest radiographs which are first classified...

  20. 42 CFR 37.52 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Roentgenograms § 37.52 Method of obtaining definitive interpretations. (a) All chest roentgenograms which...

  1. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  2. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  3. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  4. 42 CFR 37.53 - Method of obtaining definitive interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.53 Method of obtaining definitive interpretations. (a) All chest radiographs which are...

  5. Developing the Interpretive Niche for Protected Area Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Donald A.; Wallace, George N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of park guards in the Galapagos National Park in Ecuador, in interpretation and visitor management. Presents strategies for involving the park guards, who function more as rangers, in interpretative activities with local people and national visitors. (LZ)

  6. On "Interpreting" Public Discourse in Post-Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Argues that interpretation is not only an essential mode for understanding the construction of rhetorical texts, but that interpretation is itself an important source of invention and, therefore, of social critique in postmodern culture. (KEH)

  7. Teaching the Revisionist Interpretation of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    1986-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan, complete with readings and teaching procedures, for teaching students about the revisionist interpretations of Cold War history. Students are challenged to think critically about the differences in the traditional and revisionist interpretations. (JDH)

  8. Interpreting Weather for 3 to 8 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren-Scaffidi, Lynette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of weather for children and shares program ideas to interpret the water cycle, thunderstorms (including fear of thunderstorms), and rainbows (including the colors of the rainbow). (MKR)

  9. Description and interpretation of DVCS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumerički, Krešimir; Müller, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Having in mind the well-known limitations of certain models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs), we show that the allegedly universal GPDs, describing both deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and deeply virtual meson production (DVMP) data, fail to describe measurements of deep inelastic scattering. We present a new global DVCS fit that describes reasonably the world data set, which includes now also new measurements from Hall A and CLAS collaborations. We also explicitly illustrate that Compton form factors (CFFs) cannot be unambiguously extracted from photon electroproduction measurements off unpolarized proton alone and we argue that it is more reliable to interpret such measurements in terms of certain CFF combinations, where still some care is needed in order to estimate the propagated error. Joint proceedings contribution, based on two talks given by the authors at the 6th International conference on Physics Opportunities at Electron-Ion colliders (POETIC6)

  10. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Follette, William C

    2014-04-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking "inside" for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals' physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  11. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Follette, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking “inside” for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals’ physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  12. Interpreting and evaluating meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Rosenthal, R

    1995-12-01

    This article offers some guidelines for interpreting and evaluating meta-analytic reviews of research. The fundamental goals of meta-analysis are to combine results across studies to yield an overall estimate of effect and to compare effects between studies in order to understand moderating factors. Suggestions are made for what readers should look for in a meta-analysis, and a discussion is provided of several issues that are not often explicitly addressed: choice of unit of analysis, fixed versus random effects, the meaning of heterogeneity, determination of when contrasts are appropriate, and the choice of measure of central tendency. We recommend that readers adopt a skeptical attitude about the results of meta-analysis, particularly when only complex analyses are reported. PMID:10153164

  13. Dynamic functional connectivity: Promise, issues, and interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, R. Matthew; Womelsdorf, Thilo; Allen, Elena A.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Penna, Stefania Della; Duyn, Jeff H.; Glover, Gary H.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Keilholz, Shella; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Leopold, David A.; de Pasquale, Francesco; Sporns, Olaf; Walter, Martin; Chang, Catie

    2013-01-01

    The brain must dynamically integrate, coordinate, and respond to internal and external stimuli across multiple time scales. Non-invasive measurements of brain activity with fMRI have greatly advanced our understanding of the large-scale functional organization supporting these fundamental features of brain function. Conclusions from previous resting-state fMRI investigations were based upon static descriptions of functional connectivity (FC), and only recently studies have begun to capitalize on the wealth of information contained within the temporal features of spontaneous BOLD FC. Emerging evidence suggests that dynamic FC metrics may index changes in macroscopic neural activity patterns underlying critical aspects of cognition and behavior, though limitations with regard to analysis and interpretation remain. Here, we review recent findings, methodological considerations, neural and behavioral correlates, and future directions in the emerging field of dynamic FC investigations. PMID:23707587

  14. Facade Interpretation Using a Marked Point Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Susanne; Förstner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Our objective is the interpretation of facade images in a top-down manner, using a Markov marked point process formulated as a Gibbs process. Given single rectified facade images, we aim at the accurate detection of relevant facade objects as windows and entrances, using prior knowledge about their possible configurations within facade images. We represent facade objects by a simplified rectangular object model and present an energy model, which evaluates the agreement of a proposed configuration with the given image and the statistics about typical configurations, which we learned from training data. We show promising results on different datasets and provide a qualitative evaluation, which demonstrates the capability of complete and accurate detection of facade objects.

  15. Well testing and interpretation for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, F.J. )

    1995-01-01

    The use of transient well testing for determining reservoir parameters and productivity of horizontal wells has become common because of the upsurge in horizontal drilling. Initially, horizontal well tests were analyzed with the conventional techniques designed for vertical wells. During the last decade, analytic solutions have been presented for the pressure behavior of horizontal wells. New flow regimes have been identified, and simple equations and flow regime existence criteria have been presented for them. The flow regimes are now used frequently to estimate horizontal and vertical permeabilities of the reservoir, wellbore skin, and reservoir pressure. Although the existing tools and interpretation techniques may be sufficient for simple systems, innovation and improvement of the present technology are still essential for well testing of horizontal wells in many reservoirs with different geological environments and different well-completion requirements.

  16. Interpretation of the Jupiter red spot. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The LPL research programs on Jupiter include continuing photographic coverage of the planet in color and in several wavelength bands; IR image scans especially around 5 microns; medium and high-resolution spectral studies in the photographic and the lead-sulfide regions, with laboratory comparisons; photometric and polarimetric studies; far-IR measurements at high altitudes; chemical studies designed to match formation of Jovian cloud particles; and participation in the NASA Pioneer missions. Some preliminary interpretative remarks are given which are in part suggested by the remarkable IR spectra and IR images of the earth and Mars obtained at NASA-Goddard. This leads to a discussion of the Red Spot and the White Ovals.

  17. A phenomenological interpretation of stellar chromospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzadian, G. A.

    1986-06-01

    An attempt is made to develop a phenomenological interpretation of stellar chromospheres. The following problems are examined: observed emission powers of 'magnesium' chromospheres on stars based on the ultraviolet doublet, 2800 Mg II, observations; dependence of chromosphere emission on spectral and luminosity classes; stellar chromospheres as an accidental event; chromospheres of stars-components of binary systems; stars with the chromospheres of solar type (S) and nonsolar (NS) type; distribution of stars by means of the type of their chromosphere on luminosity class; stars with superpower magnesium emission; emission measures for both the 'magnesium' and 'calcium' chromospheres' interrelation between chromosphere, transition zone and corona; chromospheric activity and rotation of stars; possibility of the existence of chromospheres on hot stars; phenomenological picture of stellar chromospheres; stars without the line 2800 Mg II, in emission or in absorption; syndrome of red giant HD 4174. At the end, the problem of heating of stellar chromospheres is discussed.

  18. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  19. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.

  20. The Public's Changing Interpretation of the Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2005-11-01

    At the end of medieval times and the beginning of modern times, people in northern Germany and the rest of europe were frequently terrified by mysterious optical phenomena in the sky [cf. Brekke, 1995; Schröder, 1984]. These included meteorites, unusual rings around the Sun and Moon, and colorful phenomena, all of which astonished them and often caused anxiety. These phenomena and their common interpretation took place against the political chaos of the Reformation, which added to the fears of the average person. As the sky was previously considered everlasting and unchangeable, these phenomena- when ``frightening faces'' and ``awful signs of miracles'' appeared that were as diverse as they were unexplainable-seemed to forecast something terrible. Any deviation from the pre-determined, divine, cosmic order deeply shocked people during that time.

  1. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  2. Interpreting magnetic data by integral moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tontini, F. Caratori; Pedersen, L. B.

    2008-09-01

    The use of the integral moments for interpreting magnetic data is based on a very elegant property of potential fields, but in the past it has not been completely exploited due to problems concerning real data. We describe a new 3-D development of previous 2-D results aimed at determining the magnetization direction, extending the calculation to second-order moments to recover the centre of mass of the magnetization distribution. The method is enhanced to reduce the effects of the regional field that often alters the first-order solutions. Moreover, we introduce an iterative correction to properly assess the errors coming from finite-size surveys or interaction with neighbouring anomalies, which are the most important causes of the failing of the method for real data. We test the method on some synthetic examples, and finally, we show the results obtained by analysing the aeromagnetic anomaly of the Monte Vulture volcano in Southern Italy.

  3. A Control Model: Interpretation of Fitts' Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical results for several models are given: a first order model where it is assumed that the hand velocity can be directly controlled, and a second order model where it is assumed that the hand acceleration can be directly controlled. Two different types of control-laws are investigated. One is linear function of the hand error and error rate; the other is the time-optimal control law. Results show that the first and second order models with the linear control-law produce a movement time (MT) function with the exact form of the Fitts' Law. The control-law interpretation implies that the effect of target width on MT must be a result of the vertical motion which elevates the hand from the starting point and drops it on the target at the target edge. The time optimal control law did not produce a movement-time formula simular to Fitt's Law.

  4. Aerosol backscatter lidar calibration and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment of the various factors involved in lidar data acquisition and analysis is presented. This treatment highlights sources of fundamental, systematic, modeling, and calibration errors that may affect the accurate interpretation and calibration of lidar aerosol backscatter data. The discussion primarily pertains to ground based, pulsed CO2 lidars that probe the troposphere and are calibrated using large, hard calibration targets. However, a large part of the analysis is relevant to other types of lidar systems such as lidars operating at other wavelengths; continuous wave (CW) lidars; lidars operating in other regions of the atmosphere; lidars measuring nonaerosol elastic or inelastic backscatter; airborne or Earth-orbiting lidar platforms; and lidars employing combinations of the above characteristics.

  5. Postgwas: Advanced GWAS Interpretation in R

    PubMed Central

    Hiersche, Milan; Rühle, Frank; Stoll, Monika

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive toolkit for post-processing, visualization and advanced analysis of GWAS results. In the spirit of comparable tools for gene-expression analysis, we attempt to unify and simplify several procedures that are essential for the interpretation of GWAS results. This includes the generation of advanced Manhattan and regional association plots including rare variant display as well as novel interaction network analysis tools for the investigation of systems-biology aspects. Our package supports virtually all model organisms and represents the first cohesive implementation of such tools for the popular language R. Previous software of that range is dispersed over a wide range of platforms and mostly not adaptable for custom work pipelines. We demonstrate the utility of this package by providing an example workflow on a publicly available dataset. PMID:23977141

  6. Accurate interpretation of the Lachman test.

    PubMed

    Frank, C

    1986-12-01

    In a consecutive series of patients with knee complaints, tibial rotation consistently affected the interpretation of the Lachman test (passive anterior tibial translation in slight knee flexion). To perform the Lachman test correctly, the anterior tibial force must be applied posteromedially on the proximal tibia. This is best achieved by having the leg under examination on the same side of the bed as the examiner, and with slight external tibial rotation. Reaching across the bed to examine either leg can create either false positive or false negative Lachman results due to inadvertent tibial rotation (internal tibial rotation decreases translation) and inaccurate comparisons of the injured and normal legs. The importance of tibial rotation must be recognized if the Lachman test is to be used reliably and with maximum sensitivity. PMID:3780086

  7. Interpretation of cosmological information on radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, G.

    1977-01-01

    The question of whether any cosmological information can be obtained from radio astronomy is considered. Specific attention is given to the discovery and cosmological interpretation of the microwave background radiation, attempts to derive a Hubble relation for the optical objects identified with radio sources, searches for relations between the angular diameters of radio sources and the redshifts of their optically identified counterparts as well as between angular diameter and radio flux, construction of log N - log S curves, and luminosity volume tests. A brief outline is given of the situation that might prevail if a significant population of radio sources is not at great distances and is associated with QSOs that have been ejected from relatively nearby galaxies. It is concluded that: (1) some types of cosmological investigations have been premature; (2) much of the discussion in this area still depends on the distances of QSOs; and (3) there is no conclusive proof that the population of radio sources is changing with epoch.

  8. Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David W J; Solomon, Susan

    2002-05-01

    Climate variability in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large-scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias toward the high-index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly flow encircling the polar cap. It is argued that the largest and most significant tropospheric trends can be traced to recent trends in the lower stratospheric polar vortex, which are due largely to photochemical ozone losses. During the summer-fall season, the trend toward stronger circumpolar flow has contributed substantially to the observed warming over the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia and to the cooling over eastern Antarctica and the Antarctic plateau. PMID:11988571

  9. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  10. Volumetric interpretation of protein adsorption kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnthip, Naris

    Protein adsorption is believed to be a very important factor ultimately leading to a predictive basis for biomaterials design and improving biocompatibility. Standard adsorption theories are modified to accommodate experimental observations. Adsorption from single-protein solutions and competitive adsorption from binary solutions are mainly considered. The standard solution-depletion method of measuring protein adsorption is implemented with SDS-gel electrophoresis as a multiplexing, separation-and-quantification tool to measure protein adsorption to hydrophobic octyl sepharose (OS) adsorbent particles. Standard radiometric methods have also been used as a further check on the electrophoresis method mentioned above for purified-protein cases. Experimental results are interpreted in terms of an alternative kinetic model called volumetric interpretation of protein adsorption. A partitioning process between bulk solution and a three-dimensional interphase region that separates bulk solution from the physical adsorbent surface is the concept of the model. Protein molecules rapidly diffuse into an inflating interphase that is spontaneously formed by bringing a protein solution into contact with a physical surface, then follows by rearrangement of proteins within this interphase to achieve the maximum interphase concentration (dictated by energetics of interphase dehydration) within the thinnest (lowest volume) interphase possible. An important role of water in protein adsorption is emphasized and supported by this model. The fundamental aspects including the reversibility/irreversibility of protein adsorption, the multilayer adsorption, the applicability of thermodynamic/computational models, the capacity of protein adsorption, and the mechanism of so called Vroman effect are discussed and compared to the conventional theories. Superhydrophobic effect on the adsorption of human serum albumin is also examined.

  11. Tracer Interpretation Using Temporal Moments on a Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    G. Michael Shook; J. Hope Forsmann

    2005-06-01

    This report presents a method for interpreting geothermal tracer tests. The method is based on the first temporal moment (mean residence time) of the tracer in the subsurface. The individual steps required to interpret a tracer test are reviewed and discussed. And an example tracer test directs the user through the interpretation method. An Excel spreadsheet application of the interpretation method is a companion document to this report.

  12. Interpreting Television for Hearing Impaired Viewers: A Guidebook for Producers and Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Inst. for the Deaf, Rochester, NY.

    This manual presents production guidelines and suggestions for use by commercial, public, and educational broadcast facilities that seek to provide television interpreting for the hearing impaired. Topics covered include a brief overview of the need for television services for this audience and the use of closed captioning and sign language to…

  13. Review on China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Min; Wu, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Since its first pilot study was launched in 2003, China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI) has developed into the most authoritative translation and interpretation proficiency qualification accreditation test in China and played an important role in assessing and cultivating translators and interpreters. Based on the…

  14. The Georgia State Program in Translation and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Josette M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two certificate programs, one in translation, the other in conference interpretation, offered at Georgia State University. The translation program includes courses in Comparative Stylistics, Advanced General Translation, and Advanced Technical Translation. The interpretation program includes courses in Consecutive Interpretation and…

  15. The role of interpreters in high performance computing

    SciTech Connect

    Naumann, Axel; Canal, Philippe; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Compiled code is fast, interpreted code is slow. There is not much we can do about it, and it's the reason why interpreters use in high performance computing is usually restricted to job submission. We show where interpreters make sense even in the context of analysis code, and what aspects have to be taken into account to make this combination a success.

  16. Participatory Interpretive Training for Tikal National Park, Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Jurado, Magali

    1996-01-01

    Describes an interpretive training course for Tikal National Park, Guatemala to promote environmentally sound management of the region. Goals were to ensure that local knowledge and cultural norms were included in the design of interpretive materials, to introduce resource managers to park interpretation through course participation, and to train…

  17. Brief History of Canadian ASL-English Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermid, Campbell

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript provides a synopsis of the written history of American Sign Language-English interpreters in Canada and adds to the limited resources available to interpreter educators, to students, and to the field of visual language interpreting. Within a qualitative framework, this review of the literature identified major themes in sign…

  18. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  19. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  20. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  1. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  2. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  3. Building Balance: Integrating Interpretive Planning in a Research Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Jim S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Ideally, the process and product of interpretive planning is a living document that serves to guide a museum's interpretation proactively. This case study details the development and resulting benefits of the first institution-wide interpretive plan at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History. Stimulated by internal growth and change,…

  4. Creative Interpretations of Novel Conceptual Combinations in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Coblentz, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual combinations may be interpreted by 3 main strategies: by attributing a feature of the modifying (head) noun into the modified noun (property interpretation); by establishing a relation between the 2 concepts (relational interpretation); or by combining properties of both nouns into a concept with new identity (hybridization). There…

  5. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  6. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  7. Challenges with Graph Interpretation: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nirit

    2011-01-01

    With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today's world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph…

  8. On the Desirability of an Interpretive Science of Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Phillip K.

    Concerned with imprecision in researchers' use of the word, "interpretive," this report draws from the work of Max Weber to describe the characteristics of an interpretive science of organizational communication and then briefly lists some advantages of following the interpretive approach. First examining the role of subjective meaning in…

  9. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  10. Parallel and Divergent Interpreting in an Elementary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dimling, Lisa M.; Lawson, Heather R.; Golos, Debbie B.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for…

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 12 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 12... TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 12 Supplement No. 12 to Part 760—Interpretation The.... person, no reporting obligation under § 760.5 of this part would arise. This interpretation, like...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 12 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 12... TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 12 Supplement No. 12 to Part 760—Interpretation The.... person, no reporting obligation under § 760.5 of this part would arise. This interpretation, like...

  13. Psychology as an Interpretive Activity. Informal Series/18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Edmund V.

    Too often in American psychology, researchers have sought mastery (explanation) of phenomena through prediction and control, thereby eliminating the problems of interpretation by simply eliminating interpretation. This tactic is in contrast to the interpretive works of psychologists, such as Freud, who expect symbols to have double meanings…

  14. 75 FR 63067 - Interpretation of “Children's Product”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Interpretative Rule and Changes to the Final Interpretative Rule In the Federal Register of April 20, 2010 (75 FR... language in the preamble of this rule and the preamble of the proposed rule (75 FR at 20533) (to the extent... FR at 20535). (Comment 3)--A few commenters state that the proposed interpretative rule affects...

  15. 29 CFR 1608.2 - Written interpretation and opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (29 CFR 1601.30; 42 FR 55,394 (October 14, 1977)). Section 713(b... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written interpretation and opinion. 1608.2 Section 1608.2... interpretation and opinion. These Guidelines constitute “a written interpretation and opinion” of the...

  16. Hypothesis Formulation, Model Interpretation, and Model Equivalence: Implications of a Mereological Causal Interpretation of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    One can distinguish statistical models used in causal modeling from the causal interpretations that align them with substantive hypotheses. Causal modeling typically assumes an efficient causal interpretation of the statistical model. Causal modeling can also make use of mereological causal interpretations in which the state of the parts…

  17. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  18. Recovery from anorexia nervosa: a Durkheimian interpretation.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C J

    1996-11-01

    Attempts to explain "eating disorders" in contemporary western society have concentrated on aetiology at the expense of resolution. Most "recovered" anorectics, however, question medical definitions of "anorexia nervosa" and clinical criteria for recovery. This article refers to a study of 32 people at different stages of the recovery process, to reconceptualize the problem in sociological terms. Durkheim's account of asceticism offers a fresh interpretive framework in which anorexia and recovery are understood as the negative and positive phases respectively of a ritual of self-transformation. In western culture, where appropriate myths and rituals of re-incorporation are not readily available following a period of symbolic fasting, it is not surprising that recovery from anorexia is not automatic. Participants in this study referred to anorexia as a spiritual quest and for them recovery involved a re-discovery (or creation) of a threefold connection: inner, with others and with "nature". These connections are, for them, the defining features of spirituality. The negative phase of the ritualistic quest (anorexia) involves a confrontation with the inevitability of death as a condition of the positive phase (recovery) in which people actively choose life. This new theoretical approach provides a non-medicalized understanding of anorexia and simultaneously enables a re-interpretation of the fasting of medieval women saints. Recent scholarship in this area is re-evaluated to demonstrate that the continuity between asceticism and anorexia lies in the use of food as a metaphorical attempt to confront the universal problem of one's own mortality. In certain historical situations, asceticism served a socially valuable symbolic purpose. In contemporary society, however, this meaning is no longer available. Instead, it is recovery which constitutes the active and metaphorical "rebellion" against forces of social control. Finally, the work of Van Gennep is used to explore

  19. ICYESS 2013: Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauser, F.; Niederdrenk, L.; Schemann, V.; Schmidt, A.; Suesser, D.; Sonntag, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will report the outcomes and highlights of the Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Earth System Scientists (ICYESS) on Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty in September 2013, Hamburg, Germany. This conference is aimed at early career scientists (Masters to Postdocs) from a large variety of scientific disciplines and backgrounds (natural, social and political sciences) and will enable 3 days of discussions on a variety of uncertainty-related aspects: 1) How do we deal with implicit and explicit uncertainty in our daily scientific work? What is uncertain for us, and for which reasons? 2) How can we communicate these uncertainties to other disciplines? E.g., is uncertainty in cloud parameterization and respectively equilibrium climate sensitivity a concept that is understood equally well in natural and social sciences that deal with Earth System questions? Or vice versa, is, e.g., normative uncertainty as in choosing a discount rate relevant for natural scientists? How can those uncertainties be reconciled? 3) How can science communicate this uncertainty to the public? Is it useful at all? How are the different possible measures of uncertainty understood in different realms of public discourse? Basically, we want to learn from all disciplines that work together in the broad Earth System Science community how to understand and interpret uncertainty - and then transfer this understanding to the problem of how to communicate with the public, or its different layers / agents. ICYESS is structured in a way that participation is only possible via presentation, so every participant will give their own professional input into how the respective disciplines deal with uncertainty. Additionally, a large focus is put onto communication techniques; there are no 'standard presentations' in ICYESS. Keynote lectures by renowned scientists and discussions will lead to a deeper interdisciplinary understanding of what we do not really know, and how to deal with it. Many

  20. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  1. Data interpretation in the Automated Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.; Elling, J.W.; Mniszewski, S.

    1995-12-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation project envisions the analytical chemistry laboratory of the future being assembled from automation submodules that can be integrated into complete analysis system through a plug-and-play strategy. In this automated system the reduction of instrumental data to knowledge required by the laboratory customer must also be accomplished in an automated way. This paper presents the concept of an automated Data Interpretation Module (DIM) within the context of the plug-and-play automation strategy. The DIM is an expert system driven software module. The DIM functions as a standard laboratory module controlled by the system task sequence controller. The DIM consists of knowledge base(s) that accomplish the data assessment, quality control, and data analysis tasks. The expert system knowledge base(s) encapsulate the training and experience of the analytical chemist. Analysis of instrumental data by the DIM requires the use of pattern recognition techniques. Laboratory data from the analysis of PCBs will be used to illustrate the DIM.

  2. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  3. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravlev, A. Yu.; Wood, R. A.; Penny, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635–541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera–Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550–541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  4. Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Keerthi; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Regular intensive participation in sport results in electrical and structural alterations within the heart that can manifest on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). In addition to the actual sporting discipline and the volume and intensity of exercise being performed, other factors play a role in the development of certain ECG patterns including sex, age, and ethnicity. In some instances, large male endurance athletes and those of African or Afro-Caribbean origin (black athletes), might exhibit ECG patterns that overlap with those seen in patients with cardiomyopathy and channelopathies, which are recognized causes of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. The ability to distinguish accurately between benign physiological electrical alterations and pathological ECG changes is crucial to prevent the unnecessary termination of an athlete's career and to minimize the risk of sudden death. Several recommendations currently exist to aid the physician in the interpretation of the athlete's ECG. In this review we discuss which ECG patterns can safely be considered benign as opposed to those that should prompt the physician to consider cardiac pathology. PMID:26860775

  5. NMSSM interpretations of the observed Higgs signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Florian; Weiglein, Georg

    2016-04-01

    While the properties of the signal that was discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC are consistent so far with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM), it is crucial to investigate to what extent other interpretations that may correspond to very different underlying physics are compatible with the current results. We use the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) as a well-motivated theoretical framework with a sufficiently rich Higgs phenomenology to address this question, making use of the public tools HiggsBounds and HiggsSignals in order to take into account comprehensive experimental information on both the observed signal and on the existing limits from Higgs searches at LEP, the TeVatron and the LHC. We find that besides the decoupling limit resulting in a single light state with SM-like properties, several other configurations involving states lighter or quasi-degenerate with the one at about 125 GeV turn out to give a competitive fit to the Higgs data and other existing constraints. We discuss the phenomenology and possible future experimental tests of those scenarios, and compare the features of specific scenarios chosen as examples with those arising from a more global fit.

  6. The realist interpretation of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anduaga, Aitor

    The discovery of a clearly stratified structure of layers in the upper atmosphere has been--and still is--invoked too often as the great paradigm of atmospheric sciences in the 20th century. Behind this vision, an emphasis--or better, an overstatement--on the reality of the concept of layer lies. One of the few historians of physics who have not ignored this phenomenon of reification, C. Stewart Gillmor, attributed it to--somewhat ambiguous-- cultural (or perhaps, more generally, contextual) factors, though he never specified their nature. In this essay, I aim to demonstrate that, in the interwar years, most radiophysicists and some atomic physicists, for reasons principally related to extrinsic influences and to a lesser extent to internal developments of their own science, fervidly embraced a realist interpretation of the ionosphere. We will focus on the historical circumstances in which a specific social and commercial environment came to exert a strong influence on upper atmospheric physicists, and in which realism as a product validating the "truth" of certain practices and beliefs arose. This realist commitment I attribute to the mutual reinforcement of atmospheric physics and commercial and imperial interests in long-distance communications.

  7. Does reader visual fatigue impact interpretation accuracy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2010-02-01

    To measure the impact of reader of reader visual fatigue by assessing symptoms, the ability to keep the eye focused on the display and diagnostic accuracy. Twenty radiology residents and 20 radiologists were given a diagnostic performance test containing 60 skeletal radiographic studies, half with fractures, before and after a day of clinical reading. Diagnostic accuracy was measured using area under the proper binormal curve (AUC). Error in visual accommodation was measured before and after each test session and subjects completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and the oculomotor strain subscale of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before each session. Average AUC was 0.89 for before work test and 0.85 for the after work test, (F(1,36) = 4.15, p = 0.049 < 0.05). There was significantly greater error in accommodation after the clinical workday (F(1,14829) = 7.81, p = 0.005 < 0.01), and after the reading test (F(1,14829) = 839.33, p < 0.0001). SOFI measures of lack of energy, physical discomfort and sleepiness were higher after a day of clinical reading (p < 0.05). The SSQ measure of oculomotor symptoms (i.e., difficulty focusing, blurred vision) was significantly higher after a day of clinical reading (F(1,75) = 20.38, p < 0.0001). Radiologists are visually fatigued by their clinical reading workday. This reduces their ability to focus on diagnostic images and to accurately interpret them.

  8. Interpretation of acoustic signals from fluidzed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Daw, C.S.; Finney, C.E.A.; Nguyen, K.

    1996-12-31

    Rhythmic {open_quotes}whooshing{close_quotes} sounds associated with rising bubbles are a characteristic feature of many fluidized beds. Although clearly distinguishable to the ear, these sounds are rather complicated in detail and seem to contain a large background of apparently irrelevant stochastic noise. While it is clear that these sounds contain some information about bed dynamics, it is not obvious how this information can be interpreted in a meaningful way. In this presentation we describe a technique for processing bed sounds that appears to work well for beds with large particles operating in a slugging or near-slugging mode. We find that our processing algorithm allows us to determine important bubble/slug features from sound measurements alone, including slug location at any point in time, the average bubble frequency and frequency variation, and corresponding dynamic pressure drops at different bed locations. We also have been able to correlate a portion of the acoustic signal with particle impacts on surfaces and particle motions near the grid. We conclude from our observations that relatively simple sound measurements can provide much diagnostic information and could be potentially used for bed control. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Interpreting and analyzing King Tide in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of sea-level rise has the potential to cause regional flooding in certain areas, and low-lying island countries are severely at risk. Tuvalu, an atoll country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, has been inundated by this regional flooding for decades. Tuvaluans call this regional flooding phenomenon King Tide, a term not clearly defined, blaming it for loss of life and property in announcing their intention to migrate. In this study, we clarified and interpreted King Tide, and analyzed the factors of King Tide in Tuvalu. Using tide gauge and topographical data, we estimated that 3.2 m could be considered the threshold of King Tide, which implied half of the island of Tuvalu was flooded with seawater. This threshold is consistent with the finding of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that King Tide events occur once or twice a year. We surveyed 28 King Tide events to analyze the factors of regional flooding. Tide gauge and satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2012 were cross-validated and indicated that the King Tide phenomenon is significantly related to the warm-water effect. Warm water contributed to the King Tide phenomenon by an average of 5.1% and a maximum of 7.8%. The height of King Tide is affected by the combined factors of spring tide, storm surge, climate variability, and, significantly, by the warm-water effect.

  10. Interpreting Borderline BeLPT Results

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D.C.; Mayer, A.S.; Lewin, M.D.; Mroz, M.M.; Maier, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) identifies persons sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD). BeLPT test results are abnormal (AB), borderline (BL), or normal (NL). This manuscript addresses the predictive value and interpretation of BL BeLPT results. Methods The various three-result combinations that meet or exceed a nominal referral criteria of 1 AB + 1 BL are assessed with probability modeling and compared. Results At 2% prevalence, the three-result combinations that meet or exceed this referral criteria and associated probabilities of BeS are: (a) 1 AB + 1 BL + 1 NL (72%); (b) 3 BL (91%); (c) 2 AB + 1 NL (95%); (d) 1 AB + 2 BL (99%); (e) 2 AB + 1 BL (100%); and (f) 3 AB (100%). Conclusion These results suggest that BL results are meaningful and that three BL results predict BeS across a broad range of population prevalences. An analysis of longitudinal BeLPT results and clinical findings from an actual surveillance program is warranted to confirm the model’s predictions. PMID:20957676

  11. IKONOS Spatial Resolution and Image Interpretability Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Baldridge, Braxton; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Choi, Taeyoung; Helder, Dennis L.; Blonski, Slawomir

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains research from five individual projects to characterize the spatial performance of the IKONOS commercial imaging sensor. The end result of the projects is determination of the spatial image quality of IKONOS data prodicts in terms of the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the system stability over the first year, the characteristics of the Space Imaging MTF Compensation (MTFC) procedure, and the application-specific capabilities of IKONOS imagery. Both panchromatic and multispectral imagery were evaluated. Major conclusions of this work are that the system was stable im imaging performance during the first year of operation, tha its MTF meets the specification for the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program, that the initial MTFC processing appears to be transposed in the in-track and the cross-track directions, that the MTFC results in a noise amplification of 2x to 4x in addition to sharpening the imagery, and that IKONOS panchromatic imagery achieves an average NIIRS rating of 4.5.

  12. Geometric interpretations for resonances of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Oulton, Rupert F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-01

    The field of plasmonics can be roughly categorized into two branches: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating in waveguides and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported by scattering particles. Investigations along these two directions usually employ different approaches, resulting in more or less a dogma that the two branches progress almost independently of each other, with few interactions. Here in this work we interpret LSPs from a Bohr model based geometric perspective relying on SPPs, thus establishing a connection between these two sub-fields. Besides the clear explanations of conventional scattering features of plasmonic nanoparticles, based on this geometric model we further demonstrate other anomalous scattering features (higher order modes supported at lower frequencies, and blueshift of the resonance with increasing particle sizes) and multiple electric resonances of the same order supported at different frequencies, which have been revealed to originate from backward SPP modes and multiple dispersion bands supported in the corresponding plasmonic waveguides, respectively. Inspired by this geometric model, it is also shown that, through solely geometric tuning, the absorption of each LSP resonance can be maximized to reach the single channel absorption limit, provided that the scattering and absorption rates are tuned to be equal.

  13. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Chang-Sun,

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  14. Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, J.I. )

    1990-04-01

    Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

  15. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  16. ESDAPT - APT PROGRAMMING EDITOR AND INTERPRETER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1994-01-01

    ESDAPT is a graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. ESDAPT has a graphical user interface that provides the user with an APT syntax sensitive text editor and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statement can also be created using menus and screen picks. ESDAPT interprets APT geometry statements and displays the results in its view windows. Tool paths are generated by batching the APT source to an APT processor (COSMIC P-APT recommended). The tool paths are then displayed in the view windows. Hardcopy output of the view windows is in color PostScript format. ESDAPT is written in C-language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS. ESDAPT requires 4Mb of disk space, 7Mb of RAM, and MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, or OpenWindows version 3 for execution. Program documentation in PostScript format and an executable for OpenWindows version 3 are provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ESDAPT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. This program was developed in 1992.

  17. On the Interpretation of Action as Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, John

    2015-03-01

    I present a governing hypothesize that self-information (in natural units) is equal to the integral of energy times time divided by the quantum of action. I solve for both the free particle case and for when the particle is in a potential and conclude that the principle of least action is a similitude of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. I show supporting examples including the two slit experiment, the minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave function, and the electron spin state and argue that a spin s particle is 2s +1 natural units of information. I share a history of these concepts and how thinking has evolved over the last 100 + years. Lastly I present how this hypothesis is able to reconcile the Bohemian and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics and shed light on the non-local debate. The inspiration for the hypothesis was found as an undergrad at Princeton and the initial development was done as a grad student at Stanford.

  18. Social anxiety and interpretation of ambiguous smiles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether social anxiety facilitates the discrimination between genuine and ambiguous smiles. Socially anxious (N=20) and nonanxious (N=20) participants categorized as "happy" or "not happy" faces with either (1) a truly happy expression (i.e., happy eyes and a smile), (2) truly nonhappy expressions (e.g., angry eyes and an angry mouth), or (3) blended expressions with a smiling mouth and nonhappy (e.g., angry, sad, etc.) eyes. Results indicated that, relative to nonanxious participants, those high in social anxiety were more likely to judge as "not happy" any blended expression with nonhappy eyes, and they were faster in judging as "not happy" the blended expressions with angry, fearful, or disgusted eyes (but not those with sad, surprised, or neutral eyes). These results suggest, respectively, that social anxiety inhibits a benign interpretation of all the ambiguous expressions with a smile, and speeds up the detection of threatening eyes in such expressions. Importantly, no differences appeared as a function of social anxiety for truly happy or nonhappy faces. This rules out a response-bias explanation, and also reveals that social anxiety does not affect sensitivity in the recognition of prototypical expressions. PMID:23662633

  19. Trimodal interpretation of constraints for planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, David; Brown, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Constraints are used in the CAMPS knowledge based planning system to represent those propositions that must be true for a plan to be acceptable. CAMPS introduces the make-mode for interpreting a constraint. Given an unsatisfied constraint, make evaluation mode suggests planning actions which, if taken, would result in a modified plan in which the constraint in question may be satisfied. These suggested planning actions, termed delta-tuples, are the raw material of intelligent plan repair. They are used both in debugging an almost-right plan and in replanning due to changing situations. Given a defective plan in which some set of constraints are violated, a problem solving strategy selects one or more constraints as a focus of attention. These selected constraints are evaluated in the make-mode to produce delta-tuples. The problem solving strategy then reviews the delta-tuples according to its application and problem-specific criteria to find the most acceptable change in terms of success likelihood and plan disruption. Finally, the problem solving strategy makes the suggested alteration to the plan and then rechecks constraints to find any unexpected consequences.

  20. Polarimetric radar data decomposition and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon

    1993-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made to decompose polarimetric radar data into several simple scattering components. The components which are selected because of their physical significance can be used to classify SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image data. If particular components can be related to forest parameters, inversion procedures may be developed to estimate these parameters from the scattering components. Several methods have been used to decompose an averaged Stoke's matrix or covariance matrix into three components representing odd (surface), even (double-bounce) and diffuse (volume) scatterings. With these decomposition techniques, phenomena, such as canopy-ground interactions, randomness of orientation, and size of scatters can be examined from SAR data. In this study we applied the method recently reported by van Zyl (1992) to decompose averaged backscattering covariance matrices extracted from JPL SAR images over forest stands in Maine, USA. These stands are mostly mixed stands of coniferous and deciduous trees. Biomass data have been derived from field measurements of DBH and tree density using allometric equations. The interpretation of the decompositions and relationships with measured stand biomass are presented in this paper.

  1. [Interpretation of hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hidesaku

    2011-10-01

    Blood dose not normally coagulate in the blood vessels covered with endothelial cells, because these cells contain some substances responsible for antithrombotic action such as thrombomodulin, heparin-like substance, prostacyclin, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Most important role of blood coagulation is hemostasis. Blood can coagulate in two ways: intrinsic coagulation pathway and extrinsic coagulation pathway that is activated by negatively charged substances and FVIIa-tissue-factor (TF) complex, respectively. Prothrombin time(PT) can represent extrinsic pathway, while activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) can represent intrinsic pathway. PT is prolonged in such diseases as vitamin K deficiency, hepatic failure and warfarin intake, while APTT is prolonged such diseases as hemophilia A & B, von Willebrand disease and lupus anticoagulant. Cross mixing test is very useful to assess prolonged clotting time. FDP means fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer is the smallest products of fibrin degradation. These markers are often used to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and plasmin-alpha2 plasmin inhibitor (PIC) can be used to evaluate the extent of coagulation and fibrinolysis activation, respectively. These two markers is essential for classify the pathophysiology of DIC: DIC with suppressed fibrinolysis, enhanced fibrinolysis or balanced fibrinolysis. In conclusion, exact interpretation of hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers is one of the most important abilities in clinical situation. PMID:22184880

  2. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments. PMID:16639536

  3. Geometric interpretations for resonances of plasmonic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Oulton, Rupert F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-01-01

    The field of plasmonics can be roughly categorized into two branches: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating in waveguides and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported by scattering particles. Investigations along these two directions usually employ different approaches, resulting in more or less a dogma that the two branches progress almost independently of each other, with few interactions. Here in this work we interpret LSPs from a Bohr model based geometric perspective relying on SPPs, thus establishing a connection between these two sub-fields. Besides the clear explanations of conventional scattering features of plasmonic nanoparticles, based on this geometric model we further demonstrate other anomalous scattering features (higher order modes supported at lower frequencies, and blueshift of the resonance with increasing particle sizes) and multiple electric resonances of the same order supported at different frequencies, which have been revealed to originate from backward SPP modes and multiple dispersion bands supported in the corresponding plasmonic waveguides, respectively. Inspired by this geometric model, it is also shown that, through solely geometric tuning, the absorption of each LSP resonance can be maximized to reach the single channel absorption limit, provided that the scattering and absorption rates are tuned to be equal. PMID:26173797

  4. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with

  5. The Interpretation of Enceladus Gravity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Iess, L.; Parisi, M.; Ducci, M.; Asmar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the gravity field by Cassini is challenging because of the small mass and short duration of the gravitational interaction, even with data from three encounters. E19 data have been successfully integrated into the multiarc analysis, providing a stable and consistent gravity field. This required inclusion of the effect of atmospheric drag due to Enceladus' plumes. This presentation will deal only with the interpretation of these data. The dominant features of the non-central gravity are large values for the harmonic coefficients J2 and C22 and a much smaller but statistically significant negative J3. The value of J2/C22=3.55×0.05 is moderately in excess of the value of 10/3 that applies to a synchronously rotating body with no lateral variation in material properties. Given the obvious latitudinal variation of Enceladus' physical characteristics, primarily expressed by the activity centered on the South Pole, it is plausible that the deviation from 10/3 arises primarily because of a positive anomaly in J2 rather than any anomaly in C22. However, applying Radau-Darwin to the value of C22/q (where q is the usual dimensionless measure of the centrifugal effect on gravity) implies that the moment of inertia is about 0.34MR^2. The high heat output and indirect inference for liquid water suggests a fully differentiated Enceladus. For the known mean density and any plausible mantle density, this would require an unreasonably low core density of 2.5 g/cc or less. A more realistic interpretation is that both J2 and C22 are modestly non-hydrostatic, but that J2 is affected more because of a negative mass anomaly in the Southern hemisphere, consistent with the observed negative J3. One non-unique way to reconcile the observed gravity with a realistic MOI of 0.32 to 0.33MR^2 is to assume that the rocky core of Enceladus has retained some memory of a previous faster rotational state. Even if the ice shell is perfectly relaxed, this reconciles the data for a

  6. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  7. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  8. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  9. The SEAMOD methodology of GIA interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, Larry; Amantov, Aleksey; Kachuck, Samuel; Fjeldskaar, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Interpretation of glacial isostatic adjustment is challenging because it requires the interaction of integrated models (ice history, earth rheology, and ocean temperature) with diverse data (emergence, tide gauge, GPS, eclipse). This poster briefly summarizes the approach taken under the Norwegian SEAMOD project. Briefly, changes in ice load during deglaciation are specified every 1000 years by the position of global ice margins. Voronoi analysis of them locates ice flow divides and flow paths in the glacier interiors. Ice thickness is determined from relative ice accumulation rates and basal shear stress (a function of subice surface lithology and whether the base is frozen). Sea level at "dip stick" islands constrains the total ice mass over time. The ice load during glacial growth equals that at deglaciation for the same dip stick sea levels. Redistribution of the ocean water load by GIA changes in seafloor elevation and the ocean geoid drives a second GIA calculation, the results of which are added to the first. Additional iterations are possible. The ice load is modified to preserve the dip stick island melt water constraints, and to improve agreement with emergence data. The earth rheology model is that of Cathles (1975). It differs most strongly from other current models in having an adiabatic ~10**21 Pa s upper and lower mantle. But it also contains an elastic lithosphere and asthenosphere whose properties, as those of the mantle, can be freely varied vertically but not horizontally. Steric changes in sea level are calculated from proscribed changes in the global radiative flux into a two-layer ocean model. Model predictions are stored in binary files which can be rapidly read for graphical comparison of model predictions and emergence data at 329 sites and relative sea level from the PSMSL data base at hundreds of sites. Higher resolution local GIA calculations tied to the sea level changes of the global model allow higher resolution analysis. The poster

  10. Phosphor thermometry signal analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. W.; Gillies, G. T.

    2013-09-01

    Since the last International Temperature Symposium, phosphor thermometry has continued to mature with considerable attention given to combustion and turbine engine applications. More recently the utility to problems on the micro-and nano-scales has appreciated, particularly in regard to biological and biomedical situations. The method is therefore used for a wide range of situations. Signal interpretation is important and experience teaches that without sufficient care phosphor signals can be misleading. In order to advance the method, signal analysis investigations should prove fruitful. The specific aspect addressed here is the question of waveform sampling. A simple phenomenological approach is described that explores how the number of points digitized per waveform affects the measurement repeatability and accuracy. This is demonstrated for single shot signals and the average of 512 sequential waveforms. A bright temperature-independent luminescence signal from YVO4:Eu is sampled every 800 ps (1.25 GS/s) for a highly sampled condition and every 8 microseconds (125 kS/s) for a low sampled condition. When the average of 512 waveforms are compared for the two sampling conditions, they differ by only 0.4%. For the highly sampled case, a noisy single shot waveform compared to the averaged waveform differed by 1.8%. Future efforts on this subject will address intermediate and lower sampling rates. Also, variable window techniques should be explored that are especially important for non-log-linear signals. Investigations, such as this, give the developer the requisite information for designing analysis systems appropriate for the intended application in terms of precision, accuracy, and response time.

  11. Palaeogeographic controls on climate and proxy interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, D. J.; Farnsworth, A.; Loptson, C.; Foster, G. L.; Markwick, P.; O'Brien, C. L.; Pancost, R. D.; Robinson, S. A.; Wrobel, N.

    2015-12-01

    During the period from approximately 150 to 35 million years ago, the Cretaceous-Paleocene-Eocene (CPE), the Earth was in a "greenhouse" state with little or no ice at either pole. It was also a period of considerable global change, from the warmest periods of the mid Cretaceous, to the threshold of icehouse conditions at the end of the Eocene. However, the relative contribution of palaeogeographic change, solar change, and carbon cycle change to these climatic variations is unknown. Here, making use of recent advances in computing power, and a set of unique palaeogeographic maps, we carry out an ensemble of 19 General Circulation Model simulations covering this period, one simulation per stratigraphic stage. By maintaining atmospheric CO2 concentration constant across the simulations, we are able to identify the contribution from palaeogeographic and solar forcing to global change across the CPE, and explore the underlying mechanisms. We find that global mean surface temperature is remarkably constant across the simulations, resulting from a cancellation of opposing trends from solar and paleogeographic change. However, there are significant modelled variations on a regional scale. The stratigraphic stage-stage transitions which exhibit greatest climatic change are associated with transitions in the mode of ocean circulation, themselves often associated with changes in ocean gateways, and amplified by feedbacks related to emissivity and albedo. Our results also have implications for the interpretation of single-site palaeo proxy records. In particular, our results allow the non-CO2 (i.e. palaeogeographic and solar constant) components of proxy records to be removed, leaving a more global component associated with carbon cycle change. This "adjustment factor" is illustrated for 7 key sites in the CPE, and applied to proxy data from Falkland Plateau, and we provide data so that similar adjustments can be made to any site and for any time period within the CPE.

  12. Phosphor Thermometry Signal Analysis and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Gillies, George T.

    2013-01-01

    Since the last International Temperature Symposium, phosphor thermometry has continued to mature with considerable attention given to combustion and turbine engine applications. More recently the utility to problems on the micro- and nano-scales has appreciated, particularly in regard to biological and biomedical situations. The method is therefore used for a wide range of situations. Signal interpretation is important and experience teaches that without sufficient care phosphor signals can be misleading. In order to advance the method, signal analysis investigations should prove fruitful. The specific aspect addressed here is the question of waveform sampling. A simple phenomenological approach is described that explores how the number of points digitized per waveform affects the measurement repeatability and accuracy. This is demonstrated for single shot signals and the average of 512 sequential waveforms. A bright temperature-independent luminescence signal from YVO4:Eu is sampled every 800 ps for a highly sampled condition and every 8 microseconds for a low sampled condition. When the average of 512 waveforms are compared for the two sampling conditions, they differ by only 0.4%. For the highly sampled case, a noisy single shot waveform compared to the averaged waveform differed by 1.8%. Future efforts on this subject will address intermediate and lower sampling rates. Also, variable window techniques should be explored that are especially important for non-log-linear signals. Investigations, such as this, give the developer the requisite information for designing analysis systems appropriate for the intended application in terms of precision, accuracy, and response time.

  13. Validation of an interpretation bias assessment for body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Mary K; Holzinger, Jayne B; Chasson, Gregory S

    2014-09-01

    Currently, research on interpretation bias and body dissatisfaction is limited. The few experimental paradigms that have been used to explore this phenomenon utilized a method that may not accurately capture the nature of interpretation bias as explained by cognitive theory. The present study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel computerized assessment of interpretation bias (WSAP) for body dissatisfaction, which may more accurately reflect the cognitive processing involved in such bias by implementing the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP), a previously established method of measuring interpretation bias in other clinical populations. Undergraduate females (n=214) completed the WSAP and other measures. Results indicate initial support for the WSAP as a valid, reliable measure of interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. Although preliminary, this study contributes to the minimal research in this area and serves as the first psychometric investigation of the WSAP to measure such interpretation bias for body dissatisfaction. PMID:25218691

  14. Training interpretation biases among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Sarfan, Laurel D; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-03-01

    The current study provided an initial test of a Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretations (CBM-I) training paradigm among a sample with elevated BDD symptoms (N=86). As expected, BDD-relevant interpretations were reduced among participants who completed a positive (vs. comparison) training program. Results also pointed to the intriguing possibility that modifying biased appearance-relevant interpretations is causally related to changes in biased, socially relevant interpretations. Further, providing support for cognitive behavioral models, residual change in interpretations was associated with some aspects of in vivo stressor responding. However, contrary to expectations there were no significant effects of condition on emotional vulnerability to a BDD stressor, potentially because participants in both training conditions experienced reductions in biased socially-threatening interpretations following training (suggesting that the "comparison" condition was not inert). These findings have meaningful theoretical and clinical implications, and fit with transdiagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathology. PMID:26705744

  15. Deaf Students, Teachers, and Interpreters in the Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Brenda C.; Wynne, Dorothy H.; MacDonald, Gina

    2002-02-01

    This report describes an undergraduate research program at James Madison University that includes deaf and hard-of-hearing students from Gallaudet University, deaf teachers from schools for the Deaf, and both professional interpreters and students engaged in sign language interpreter training. Methods used over a three-year period to maximize participation and expand research opportunities for the students, teachers, and interpreters are shared with the hope that similar projects might be encouraged and replicated in other programs.

  16. An Argument Against the Realistic Interpretation of the Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    Testable predictions of quantum mechanics are invariant under time reversal. But the evolution of the quantum state in time is not so, neither in the collapse nor in the no-collapse interpretations of the theory. This is a fact that challenges any realistic interpretation of the quantum state. On the other hand, this fact raises no difficulty if we interpret the quantum state as a mere calculation device, bookkeeping past real quantum events.

  17. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  18. Getting By: Underuse of Interpreters by Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Background Language barriers complicate physician–patient communication and adversely affect healthcare quality. Research suggests that physicians underuse interpreters despite evidence of benefits and even when services are readily available. The reasons underlying the underuse of interpreters are poorly understood. Objective To understand the decision-making process of resident physicians when communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants Internal medicine resident physicians ( = 20) from two urban teaching hospitals with excellent interpreter services. Approach An interview guide was used to explore decision making about interpreter use. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: 1) Resident physicians recognized that they underused professional interpreters, and described this phenomenon as “getting by;” 2) Resident physicians made decisions about interpreter use by weighing the perceived value of communication in clinical decision making against their own time constraints; 3) The decision to call an interpreter could be preempted by the convenience of using family members or the resident physician’s use of his/her own second language skills; 4) Resident physicians normalized the underuse of professional interpreters, despite recognition that patients with LEP are not receiving equal care. Conclusions Although previous research has identified time constraints and lack of availability of interpreters as reasons for their underuse, our data suggest that the reasons are far more complex. Residents at the study institutions with interpreters readily available found it easier to “get by” without an interpreter, despite misgivings about negative implications for quality of care. Findings suggest that increasing interpreter use will require interventions targeted at both individual physicians and the practice environment. PMID:19089503

  19. Interpretation and Evaluation of Stylus Profiling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man

    1991-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The object of this Ph.D work is to validate stylus profiling techniques for ultra-high precision measurement and positioning in engineering. Stylus methods have been used extensively and successfully in the past in the fields of manufacturing control and components function study, but some problems still exist. Now their role has considerably expanded with the appearance of scanning probe microscopes and the new emphasis on nanotechnology, which shortens the gap between engineering and physics. The profiling technique is interpreted and evaluated in terms of the mechanical aspects of data collection through a stylus surface instrument. This work contains: (a) 3D digital sampling techniques; (b) effects of the finite dimension of stylus and (c) forces contributing to measurement. A new plane sampling model--hexagonal model--has been developed to improve the surface 3D data collection to almost 99% of the continuous case for summit height distribution. The dimension effect has been divided into two aspects: the effects of size and the shape. The cut -off effect caused by the size of the stylus on the surface curvature is not correctable. The analysis of the trace formation suggests that the 'deconvolution' of the true profile from the trace is feasible. The simulation using the MAT-LAB computer package confirms this with only computational error. A new method of stylus shape/dimension measurement was proposed based on these principles. Alternatively, a practical method of measuring a stylus shape using a knife-edge was also constructed and further developed. Stylii tips of radii from 1 μm to 50 μm can be measured using this rig to an accuracy of only 5% of the movement of the knife-edge. The physical effect of a stylus is discussed theoretically and experimentally in terms of the static and dynamic stylus loading forces. The dynamic variation is only 2.7% of the static one and it is

  20. Palaeogeographic controls on climate and proxy interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Daniel J.; Farnsworth, Alex; Loptson, Claire; Foster, Gavin L.; Markwick, Paul; O'Brien, Charlotte L.; Pancost, Richard D.; Robinson, Stuart A.; Wrobel, Neil

    2016-05-01

    During the period from approximately 150 to 35 million years ago, the Cretaceous-Paleocene-Eocene (CPE), the Earth was in a "greenhouse" state with little or no ice at either pole. It was also a period of considerable global change, from the warmest periods of the mid-Cretaceous, to the threshold of icehouse conditions at the end of the Eocene. However, the relative contribution of palaeogeographic change, solar change, and carbon cycle change to these climatic variations is unknown. Here, making use of recent advances in computing power, and a set of unique palaeogeographic maps, we carry out an ensemble of 19 General Circulation Model simulations covering this period, one simulation per stratigraphic stage. By maintaining atmospheric CO2 concentration constant across the simulations, we are able to identify the contribution from palaeogeographic and solar forcing to global change across the CPE, and explore the underlying mechanisms. We find that global mean surface temperature is remarkably constant across the simulations, resulting from a cancellation of opposing trends from solar and palaeogeographic change. However, there are significant modelled variations on a regional scale. The stratigraphic stage-stage transitions which exhibit greatest climatic change are associated with transitions in the mode of ocean circulation, themselves often associated with changes in ocean gateways, and amplified by feedbacks related to emissivity and planetary albedo. We also find some control on global mean temperature from continental area and global mean orography. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of single-site palaeo proxy records. In particular, our results allow the non-CO2 (i.e. palaeogeographic and solar constant) components of proxy records to be removed, leaving a more global component associated with carbon cycle change. This "adjustment factor" is used to adjust sea surface temperatures, as the deep ocean is not fully equilibrated in

  1. Tectonic Interpretation of the Morphology of Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, W. I.

    1987-10-01

    The morphotectonics of Honduras have been studied using existing geologic and topographic maps and imaging done from satellites, and the following interpretations have been made. During the late Oligocene to early Miocene a wide strike-slip boundary existed in western Honduras and eastern Guatemala and produced east-west trending basins containing the coarse clastic rocks of the Subinal Formation. Marine geophysical studies of the continental shelf of Honduras show that during the rest of the Miocene and the early Pliocene the boundary was inactive, but motion resumed in the late Pliocene to Pleistocene and produced horsts on the north coast of Honduras. In northwestern Honduras the east-northeast trending alignment of the Jocotan, Copan, and Charnelecon river valleys may result from crustal flexuring rather than from faulting, as previously proposed, because the postulated fault (the Jocotan-Chamelecon fault) cannot be reconciled with available geologic maps. The northwest and northeast flowing rivers of central and eastern Honduras define domains of strike-slip faulting that have probably rotated 30° from an original set of conjugate fractures. Widespread deposition of conglomerates suggests that strike-slip movements began in the mid-Cretaceous and reoccurred at intervals, culminating in the development of pull-apart basins in western Honduras during the late Pliocene. At the present time, no further strike-slip movement is possible, as the faults defining each domain lie parallel and perpendicular to the Middle America trench. New conjugate fractures, however, cut Honduras along north-south and east-northeast trends and have also separated into domains. In the domain of north-south fractures, easterly directed, ductile extension of the lithosphere beneath western Honduras and Guatemala is opening up rifts, but the domain of east-northeast fractures is characterized by strike-slip motion that has produced left-lateral pull-aparts in central Honduras. Early

  2. Interpretation of tracer tests performed in fractured rock of the Lange Bramke basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Zuber, Andrzej

    maximale de 225m), l'influence des fractures adjacentes a été négligée. Ce modèle a fourni pour chaque traceur pratiquement les mêmes paramètres pour la roche et le transport, ce qui signifie que l'approximation de la fracture unique est acceptable et que la diffusion dans la matrice joue un rôle important. La conductivité hydraulique de la zone de faille fournie par les traçages est d'environ 1,5×10-2m/s, alors que la conductivité hydraulique régionale de la roche fracturée dans son ensemble est de l'ordre de 3×10-7m/s, selon l'estimation tirée des âges tritium et de la porosité de la matrice d'environ 2%. Ces valeurs montrent que la conductivité hydraulique le long de la faille est supérieure de plusieurs ordres de grandeur à celle de la partie fracturée restante de l'aquifère, ce qui confirme le rôle prédominant joué par les zones de failles comme drains de l'eau et comme axes d'écoulement rapide. Resumen Dos ensayos con múltiples trazadores realizados en una de las zonas más fracturadas de la cuenca de Lange Bramke (Montes Harz, Alemania) confirman el papel dominante de la zona de fractura en el flujo de agua subterránea y el transporte de solutos. Trazadores con distintos coeficientes de difusión molecular (deuterio, bromuro, uranina y eosina) dieron curvas de llegada que sólo pueden ser explicadas mediante un modelo que acople el transporte advectivo-dispersivo en las fracturas con la difusión en la matriz. Para la escala de los ensayos (distancia máxima de 225m), se usó como aproximación que la influencia de las fracturas adyacentes podía despreciarse. Este modelo dio lugar para cada trazador a valores muy similares de los parámetros de transporte, lo que supone que la aproximación de fractura única es aceptable y que la difusión en la matriz es un mecanismo importante. La conductividad hidráulica de la zona fracturada obtenida de los ensayos es de unos 1.5×10-2m/s, mientras que la conductividad hidráulica regional para la

  3. Interpretation of tracer tests performed in fractured rock of the Lange Bramke basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloszewski, Piotr; Herrmann, Andreas; Zuber, Andrzej

    maximale de 225m), l'influence des fractures adjacentes a été négligée. Ce modèle a fourni pour chaque traceur pratiquement les mêmes paramètres pour la roche et le transport, ce qui signifie que l'approximation de la fracture unique est acceptable et que la diffusion dans la matrice joue un rôle important. La conductivité hydraulique de la zone de faille fournie par les traçages est d'environ 1,5×10-2m/s, alors que la conductivité hydraulique régionale de la roche fracturée dans son ensemble est de l'ordre de 3×10-7m/s, selon l'estimation tirée des âges tritium et de la porosité de la matrice d'environ 2%. Ces valeurs montrent que la conductivité hydraulique le long de la faille est supérieure de plusieurs ordres de grandeur à celle de la partie fracturée restante de l'aquifère, ce qui confirme le rôle prédominant joué par les zones de failles comme drains de l'eau et comme axes d'écoulement rapide. Resumen Dos ensayos con múltiples trazadores realizados en una de las zonas más fracturadas de la cuenca de Lange Bramke (Montes Harz, Alemania) confirman el papel dominante de la zona de fractura en el flujo de agua subterránea y el transporte de solutos. Trazadores con distintos coeficientes de difusión molecular (deuterio, bromuro, uranina y eosina) dieron curvas de llegada que sólo pueden ser explicadas mediante un modelo que acople el transporte advectivo-dispersivo en las fracturas con la difusión en la matriz. Para la escala de los ensayos (distancia máxima de 225m), se usó como aproximación que la influencia de las fracturas adyacentes podía despreciarse. Este modelo dio lugar para cada trazador a valores muy similares de los parámetros de transporte, lo que supone que la aproximación de fractura única es aceptable y que la difusión en la matriz es un mecanismo importante. La conductividad hidráulica de la zona fracturada obtenida de los ensayos es de unos 1.5×10-2m/s, mientras que la conductividad hidráulica regional para la

  4. A statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory: Total statistical mechanical interpretation based on physical argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadaki, Kohtaro

    2010-12-01

    The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.

  5. Three-dimensional line interpretation via local processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentland, Alexander P.; Kuo, Jeff

    1990-10-01

    The interpretation of line drawings is known to be very difficult, and has a long history in vision research. However for certain restricted but important types of drawings we have been able to produce good 3-D interpretations quite efficiently using only local image-plane computations. The types of drawings we can handle are line drawings of 3-D space curves, for instance, a drawing of the 3-D path followed by a butterfly or a line drawing of a potato chip. Such line drawings are, of course, intrinsically ambiguous - there is simply not enough information in the 2-D image to arrive at a unique 3-D interpretation. Despite this difficulty, there remains the fact that for any given image all people see pretty much exactly the same 3-D interpretation (or sometimes a small number of interpretations). People, therefore, must be bringing additional knowledge or assumptions to the problem. In this paper we show that by picking the smoothest 3-D space curve that is consistent with the image data we can obtain a 3-D interpretation which is very similar to the people's interpretation. The teleological motivation for selecting the smoothest 3-D space curve is that it is the most stable 3-D interpretation, and thus in one sense the most likely 3-D interpretation. The process of computing the smoothest 3-D space curve is carried out by simple, local processing that can be implemented by a neural network.

  6. Laboratory test interpretations and algorithms in utilization management.

    PubMed

    Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate assimilation of laboratory test results into patient care is enhanced when pathologist interpretations of the laboratory tests are provided for clinicians, and when reflex algorithm testing is utilized. Benefits of algorithms and interpretations include avoidance of misdiagnoses, reducing the number of laboratory tests needed, reducing the number of procedures, transfusions and admissions, shortening the amount of time needed to reach a diagnosis, reducing errors in test ordering, and providing additional information about how the laboratory results might affect other aspects of a patient's care. Providing interpretations can be challenging for pathologists, therefore mechanisms to facilitate the successful implementation of an interpretation service are described. These include algorithm-based testing and interpretation, optimizing laboratory requisitions and/or order-entry systems, proficiency testing programs that assess interpretations and provide constructive feedback, utilization of a collection of interpretive sentences or paragraphs that can be building blocks ("coded comments") for constructing preliminary interpretations, middleware, and pathology resident participation and education. In conclusion, the combination of algorithms and interpretations for laboratory testing has multiple benefits for the medical care for the patient. PMID:24080245

  7. Social work with trauma survivors: collaboration with interpreters.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Fischman, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Scant attention has been given to the emotional plight, lack of training, and stressful working conditions of interpreters serving survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma from different parts of the world. This article addresses the critical need for effective collaboration between social workers and interpreters when the provider and survivor do not speak the same language. The careful selection of interpreters; the training, support, and promotion of self-care of interpreters; the training needs for social workers related to their work with interpreters; and the impact of secondary trauma and organizational support on the work of social workers and interpreters are explored. Proposed curriculum components for training interpreters and the importance of therapy and ongoing supervision for interpreters are highlighted. It is essential to prepare interpreters and social workers for the various challenges they will face in their collaborative efforts to serve survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma, and organizational support is vital to the success of this work. PMID:24855859

  8. Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sections are often constructed from data to create a visual impression of the geologist's interpretation of the sub-surface geology. However as with all interpretations, this vision of the sub-surface geology is uncertain. We have designed and carried out an experiment with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty in geological cross-sections created by experts interpreting borehole data. By analysing different attributes of the data and interpretations we reflect on the main controls on uncertainty. A group of ten expert modellers at the British Geological Survey were asked to interpret an 11.4 km long cross-section from south-east Glasgow, UK. The data provided consisted of map and borehole data of the superficial deposits and shallow bedrock. Each modeller had a unique set of 11 boreholes removed from their dataset, to which their interpretations of the top of the bedrock were compared. This methodology allowed quantification of how far from the 'correct answer' each interpretation is at 11 points along each interpreted cross-section line; through comparison of the interpreted and actual bedrock elevations in the boreholes. This resulted in the collection of 110 measurements of the error to use in further analysis. To determine the potential control on uncertainty various attributes relating to the modeller, the interpretation and the data were recorded. Modellers were asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information; such as how much 3D modelling experience they had, and how long it took them to complete the interpretation. They were also asked to record their confidence in their interpretations graphically, in the form of a confidence level drawn onto the cross-section. Initial analysis showed the majority of the experts' interpreted bedrock elevations within 5 metres of those recorded in the withheld boreholes. Their distribution is peaked and symmetrical about a mean of zero, indicating that there was no tendency for the experts to either under

  9. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  10. Medicare program; establishment of the Medicare Advantage Program; interpretation. Final rule; interpretation.

    PubMed

    2005-03-21

    This final rule clarifies our interpretation of the meaning of "entity" in the final rule titled "Medicare Program; Establishment of the Medicare Advantage Program" published in the Federal Register on January 28, 2005 (70 FR 4588). Subsequent to the publication of the Medicare Advantage (MA) final rule on January 28, 2005, we have received inquiries from parties interested in offering an MA Regional Plan concerning whether they could jointly enter into a contract with us to offer a single MA Regional Plan in a multistate region. The participating health plans wish to contract with each other to create a single "joint enterprise." They have asked us whether such a joint enterprise could be considered an "entity" under sections 1859(a)(1)and 1855(a)(1) of the Social Security Act, for purposes of offering an MA Regional Plan. The MA final rule is scheduled to take effect on March 22, 2005. Our interpretation of the word "entity" that follows in the "Supplementary Information" section of this final rule is deemed to be included in that final rule. PMID:15786589

  11. Eclogites and their geodynamic interpretation: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Gaston

    2001-09-01

    -to-eclogite transition could not coincide with a sharp Mohorovičić discontinuity. Before plate tectonics, high-pressure belts were interpreted as remnants of ophiolite-bearing "geosynclines", metamorphosed by loading during thrust faulting. After the acceptance of plate tectonics, around 1970, the same high-pressure Alpine-type belts came to be considered as former oceanic crust, transformed into eclogite within subduction zones, and subsequently incorporated into mountain belts. Surprisingly, formation of eclogite in "subsidence" zones (i.e. subduction zones) had already been envisaged as early as 1931 by Holmes, the inventor of a convection-current theory. In the 1980s, many authors tried to apply the model of Alpine-type high-pressure belts to eclogites enclosed within the gneisses of ancient orogens, but the question remains obscure nowadays. These eclogites have been involved in the "in situ versus foreign" controversy and in the unresolved enigma of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. The latter came under scrutiny in 1984 after the discovery of coesite and diamond in some eclogite-facies rocks. It has been a matter of considerable interest during the last two decades. Currently, the debate is focused on the geodynamic mechanisms responsible for the exhumation of these rocks, a question that will probably remain unresolved for part of the coming century.

  12. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  13. Philosophical perspectives on quantum chaos: Models and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Alisa Nicole

    2001-09-01

    The problem of quantum chaos is a special case of the larger problem of understanding how the classical world emerges from quantum mechanics. While we have learned that chaos is pervasive in classical systems, it appears to be almost entirely absent in quantum systems. The aim of this dissertation is to determine what implications the interpretation of quantum mechanics has for attempts to explain the emergence of classical chaos. There are three interpretations of quantum mechanics that have set out programs for solving the problem of quantum chaos: the standard interpretation, the statistical interpretation, and the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation. One of the main conclusions of this dissertation is that an interpretation alone is insufficient for solving the problem of quantum chaos and that the phenomenon of decoherence must be taken into account. Although a completely satisfactory solution of the problem of quantum chaos is still outstanding, I argue that the deBroglie-Bohm interpretation with the help of decoherence outlines the most promising research program to pursue. In addition to making a contribution to the debate in the philosophy of physics concerning the interpretation of quantum mechanics, this dissertation reveals two important methodological lessons for the philosophy of science. First, issues of reductionism and intertheoretic relations cannot be divorced from questions concerning the interpretation of the theories involved. Not only is the exploration of intertheoretic relations a central part of the articulation and interpretation of an individual theory, but the very terms used to discuss intertheoretic relations, such as `state' and `classical limit', are themselves defined by particular interpretations of the theory. The second lesson that emerges is that, when it comes to characterizing the relationship between classical chaos and quantum mechanics, the traditional approaches to intertheoretic relations, namely reductionism and

  14. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration

  15. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration

  16. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 202 - Official Staff Interpretations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interpretations Following is an official staff interpretation of Regulation B (12 CFR part 202) issued under... though it may not be a credit transaction covered by Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) (12 CFR part 226... notification is required under § 202.9. Paragraph 2(c)(2)(ii) 1. Default—exercise of due-on-sale clause. If...

  17. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 202 - Official Staff Interpretations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations Following is an official staff interpretation of Regulation B (12 CFR part 202) issued under... though it may not be a credit transaction covered by Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) (12 CFR part 226... notification is required under § 202.9. Paragraph 2(c)(2)(ii) 1. Default—exercise of due-on-sale clause. If...

  18. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 202 - Official Staff Interpretations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interpretations Following is an official staff interpretation of Regulation B (12 CFR part 202) issued under... though it may not be a credit transaction covered by Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) (12 CFR part 226... notification is required under § 202.9. Paragraph 2(c)(2)(ii) 1. Default—exercise of due-on-sale clause. If...

  19. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 202 - Official Staff Interpretations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interpretations Following is an official staff interpretation of Regulation B (12 CFR part 202) issued under... though it may not be a credit transaction covered by Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) (12 CFR part 226... notification is required under § 202.9. Paragraph 2(c)(2)(ii) 1. Default—exercise of due-on-sale clause. If...

  20. 43 CFR 9180.1 - Interpretation of survey records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of survey records. 9180.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) CADASTRAL SURVEY Cadastral Surveys; General § 9180.1 Interpretation of survey records....