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Sample records for interrogation field work

  1. Identifying work related injuries: comparison of methods for interrogating text fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries in Australia are estimated to cost around $57.5 billion annually, however there are currently insufficient surveillance data available to support an evidence-based public health response. Emergency departments (ED) in Australia are a potential source of information on work-related injuries though most ED's do not have an 'Activity Code' to identify work-related cases with information about the presenting problem recorded in a short free text field. This study compared methods for interrogating text fields for identifying work-related injuries presenting at emergency departments to inform approaches to surveillance of work-related injury. Methods Three approaches were used to interrogate an injury description text field to classify cases as work-related: keyword search, index search, and content analytic text mining. Sensitivity and specificity were examined by comparing cases flagged by each approach to cases coded with an Activity code during triage. Methods to improve the sensitivity and/or specificity of each approach were explored by adjusting the classification techniques within each broad approach. Results The basic keyword search detected 58% of cases (Specificity 0.99), an index search detected 62% of cases (Specificity 0.87), and the content analytic text mining (using adjusted probabilities) approach detected 77% of cases (Specificity 0.95). Conclusions The findings of this study provide strong support for continued development of text searching methods to obtain information from routine emergency department data, to improve the capacity for comprehensive injury surveillance. PMID:20374657

  2. L'Interrogation Indirecte (Indirect Interrogation). Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieger, Monique; Paradis, Monique

    This study is divided into two sections: the first examines Standard French indirect interrogation, noting several distinct verb classes which are discussed in terms of permutations of WH-words, reduction, multiple WH-words, cleavage, semantic compatibility, and the "que-" completive; the second part focuses on indirect interrogation and relatives…

  3. Optimization of coil design for near uniform interrogating field generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Efremov, A.; Safdarnejad, M.; Tamburrino, A.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The detection of a crack under fastener heads (CUF) in a multi-layered aircraft structure remains a challenge in non-destructive evaluation (NDE). An EC-GMR system using a linear eddy current (EC) coil with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors located on the axis of symmetry is proposed for detecting discontinuities in conducting materials. The signal received from sensors is greatly influenced by the interrogating field. This paper describes a detailed parametric study, using a finite element model predicted signals in conjunction with a multi-parameter optimization problem for coil design. The sensor performance is assessed using quantitative measures based on Probability of detection (POD) with respect to different crack geometries.

  4. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children's books. The activity helps students consider how children's books shape future workers' understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  5. Determination of optical probe interrogation field of near-infrared reflectance: phantom and Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Ali N.; Giller, Cole A.; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

    2007-08-01

    An optical probe used to localize human brain tissues in vivo has been reported previously. It was able to sense the underlying tissue structure with an optical interrogation field, termed as "look ahead distance" (LAD). A new side-firing probe has been designed with its optical window along its side. We have defined the optical interrogation field of the new side probe as "look aside distance" (LASD). The purpose of this study is to understand the dependence of the LAD and LASD on the optical properties of tissue, the light source intensity, and the integration time of the detector, using experimental and computational methods. The results show that a decrease in light intensity does decrease the LAD and LASD and that an increase in integration time of detection may not necessarily improve the depths of LAD and LASD. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that the LAD/LASD decreases with an increase in reduced scattering coefficient to a point, after which the LAD/LASD remains constant. We expect that an optical interrogation field of a tip or side probe is approximately 1-2 mm in white matter and 2-3.5 mm in gray matter. These conclusions will help us optimally manipulate the parameter settings during surgery and determine the spatial resolution of the probe.

  6. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  7. A Reflexive Interrogation: Talking Out Loud and Finding Spaces for Works of Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Satterfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Over a year, we engaged in an ongoing dialogue about what it means to be a professor and how we might do a better job of making the public contributions of our work more explicit. Throughout our dialogue, we continually discussed how we, as faculty members, must always work within the institutional constraints that allow the professoriate to exist…

  8. Walking on by Is Just the Beginning: Dialogically Interrogating Face-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herakova, Liliana L.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication Studies, Interpersonal Communication, Nonverbal Communication. Objectives: After completing this single-class activity, students should be able to (1) describe and interpret face-work as a communicative act that both reflects and constructs identity, (2) explain the concept of intersectionality in basic…

  9. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  10. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  12. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  13. Low temperature sensitive intensity-interrogated magnetic field sensor based on modal interference in thin-core fiber and magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jixuan; Miao, Yinping; Song, Binbin; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Kailiang; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-06-01

    A fiber-optic magnetic field sensor based on the thin-core modal interference and magnetic fluid (MF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic field sensor is spliced with a thin-core fiber (TCF) between two conventional single-mode fibers immersed into the MF. The transmission spectra of the proposed sensor under different magnetic field intensities have been measured and theoretically analyzed. The results show that the magnetic field sensitivity reaches up to -0.058 dB/Oe with the linear range from 75 Oe to 300 Oe. Due to the small thermal expansion of the TCF material, the attenuation wavelength and the transmission power remain almost unchanged as the temperature varies. The proposed magnetic field sensor has several advantages such as intensity-interrogation, low temperature sensitivity, low cost, compact size, and ease of fabrication. And particularly, the temperature cross-sensitivity could be effectively resolved, which makes it a promising candidate for strict temperature environments. Therefore, it would find potential applications in the magnetic field measurement.

  14. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  15. Modeling and Interrogative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Douglas R.

    Three studies to determine the effects of adult models on interrogative strategies of children (ages 6-11) are reviewed. Two issues are analyzed: (1) the comparative effectiveness of various types of modeling procedures for changing rule-governed behaviors, and (2) the interaction between observational learning and the developmental level of the…

  16. Working group on chromospheric fields - Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    Although there are many points of uncertainty and controversy, the working group on chromospheric fields focussed its discussion on the concept of canopies; i.e., no one disagreed that a central issue relating to magnetic fields and chromospheric models is to learn how the photospheric field spreads with height. However, it quickly became apparent that in the time available, there was little prospect of building new unified models of magnetic field phenomena in the chromosphere beyond the scope of the formal presentations. Thus, the discussion was devoted to formulating questions which seemed both possible to address in future work and important for advancing understanding of the chromosphere. It began by discussing unresolved physical issues (almost everything) and then proceeded to consider means, both observational and synthetic, to address them.

  17. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester

    2008-04-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL’s zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses.

  18. Far-field environment working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, E.C.; Cady, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  19. Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.; et al.,

    2013-10-22

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  20. The dynamic nature of interrogation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Christopher E; Miller, Jeaneé C; Redlich, Allison D

    2016-06-01

    Building on a substantial body of literature examining interrogation methods employed by police investigators and their relationship to suspect behaviors, we analyzed a sample of audio and video interrogation recordings of individuals suspected of serious violent crimes. Existing survey research has focused on the tactics reportedly used, at what rate, and under what conditions; observational studies detail which methods are actually employed. With a few notable exceptions, these foundational studies were static examinations of interrogation methods that documented the absence or presence of various approaches. In the present study, we cast interrogation as a dynamic phenomenon and code the recordings in 5-min intervals to examine how interrogation methods and suspect cooperation change over time. Employing the interrogation taxonomy framework, particularly 4 discrete domains-rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, presentation of evidence, and confrontation/competition-we found that the emphasis of the domains varied across interrogations and were significantly different when suspects confessed versus when they denied involvement. In regression models, suspect cooperation was positively influenced by the rapport and relationship building domain, though it was negatively impacted by presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition. Moreover, we found that the negative effects of confrontation/competition on suspect cooperation lasted for up to 15 min. The implications of the findings for practice and future research include the benefits of a rapport-based approach, the deleterious effects of accusatorial methods, and the importance of studying when, not just if, certain interrogation techniques are employed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651622

  1. Interrogating an insect society

    PubMed Central

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Insect societies such as those of ants, bees, and wasps consist of 1 or a small number of fertile queens and a large number of sterile or nearly sterile workers. While the queens engage in laying eggs, workers perform all other tasks such as nest building, acquisition and processing of food, and brood care. How do such societies function in a coordinated and efficient manner? What are the rules that individuals follow? How are these rules made and enforced? These questions are of obvious interest to us as fellow social animals but how do we interrogate an insect society and seek answers to these questions? In this article I will describe my research that was designed to seek answers from an insect society to a series of questions of obvious interest to us. I have chosen the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata for this purpose, a species that is abundantly distributed in peninsular India and serves as an excellent model system. An important feature of this species is that queens and workers are morphologically identical and physiologically nearly so. How then does an individual become a queen? How does the queen suppress worker reproduction? How does the queen regulate the nonreproductive activities of the workers? What is the function of aggression shown by different individuals? How and when is the queen's heir decided? I will show how such questions can indeed be investigated and will emphasize the need for a whole range of different techniques of observation and experimentation. PMID:19487678

  2. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  3. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  4. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  5. Meeting the Community in Hospital Field Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Margaret; Fuhrman, Ruth

    1976-01-01

    The department of home economics at California State University and the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center have developed an innovative medical/home economics apprenticeship program that serves community health care needs and eases the transition period for senior students before they begin professional work.…

  6. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  7. Monte Carlo Modeling of Photon Interrogation Methods for Characterization of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Sara A; Downar, Thomas J; Padovani, Enrico; Clarke, Shaun D

    2006-01-01

    This work illustrates a methodology based on photon interrogation and coincidence counting for determining the characteristics of fissile material. The feasibility of the proposed methods was demonstrated using a Monte Carlo code system to simulate the full statistics of the neutron and photon field generated by the photon interrogation of fissile and non-fissile materials. Time correlation functions between detectors were simulated for photon beam-on and photon beam-off operation. In the latter case, the correlation signal is obtained via delayed neutrons from photofission, which induce further fission chains in the nuclear material. An analysis methodology was demonstrated based on features selected from the simulated correlation functions and on the use of artificial neural networks. We show that the methodology can reliably differentiate between highly enriched uranium and plutonium. Furthermore, the mass of the material can be determined with a relative error of about 12%. Keywords: MCNP, MCNP-PoliMi, Artificial neural network, Correlation measurement, Photofission

  8. A Preliminary Field Test of an Employee Work Passion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigarmi, Drea; Nimon, Kim; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Four dimensions of a process model for the formulation of employee work passion, derived from Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, and Diehl (2009), were tested in a field setting. A total of 447 employees completed questionnaires that assessed the internal elements of the model in a corporate work environment. Data from the measurements of work affect,…

  9. Work in the Lives of Social Work Clients: Perspectives of Field Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Lawrence S.; Choi, Y. Joon

    2011-01-01

    Although employment is central to the lives of social work clients, it is seldom a focus in social work education. The authors conducted a survey of field instructors in a large MSW program to assess the importance of work-related issues in the lives of those they serve in their social service agencies. This experienced group of practitioners…

  10. Graduate Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod

    2014-01-01

    For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…

  11. Field Education as the Signature Pedagogy of Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Julianne; Bogo, Marion; Raskin, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    In its EPAS, CSWE (2008) identifies field education as the signature pedagogy (Shulman, 2005b) of social work education. This article analyzes the field education-signature pedagogy fit. It finds congruence in selected organizational arrangements that are pervasive and routine, and disparities with respect to expectations about public student…

  12. Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

  13. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Orientation in Social Work Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Peter A.; Bogo, Marion; Daley, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore field instructors' experiences and insights in working with lesbian and gay MSW students. In-depth 1- to 1.5-hour interviews were conducted with 8 field instructors selected using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using narrative thematic analysis and a constant comparative method. One set of themes…

  14. Prolonged Field Care Working Group Fluid Therapy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Baker, Benjamin L; Powell, Doug; Riesberg, Jamie; Keenan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The Prolonged Field Care Working Group concurs that fresh whole blood (FWB) is the fluid of choice for patients in hemorrhagic shock, and the capability to transfuse FWB should be a basic skill set for Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics. Prolonged field care (PFC) must also address resuscitative and maintenance fluid requirements in nonhemorrhagic conditions. PMID:27045508

  15. Extracting work from magnetic-field-coupled Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yu, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamics of the magnetic-field-coupled Brownian particles is studied. We show that in the presence of the magnetic field, work can be extracted from the reservoir even when the measurement operation and the potential change operation are applied in different spatial directions. In particular, we show that more work can be extracted if the measurements are applied in two different directions simultaneously. In all these cases, we show that the generalized second law involving the measurement information and potential change is satisfied. In addition, we show how the continuous potential change and measurement position affect the work extraction. PMID:25215683

  16. Teacher Epistemology and Collective Narratives: Interrogating Teaching and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Susan Matoba

    2011-01-01

    This action research study interrogates how one teacher educator analyzed her pedagogy and engaged her students in writing narratives about working with children, families, and co-workers who are racially and ethnically different from themselves. Data were collected from a special topic graduate course entitled, Epistemology, Diversity and…

  17. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  18. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  19. Supervisor Attachment, Supervisory Working Alliance, and Affect in Social Work Field Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susanne; Mohr, Jonathan; Deal, Kathleen Holtz; Hwang, Jeongha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on interrelationships among supervisor attachment, supervisory working alliance, and supervision-related affect, plus the moderating effect of a field instructor training. Method: The researchers employed a pretest-posttest follow-up design of 100 randomly assigned field instructors and 64 students in two…

  20. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82) and bench press (rs = -0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83) and bench press (rs = -0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  1. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  2. The significance of field work in monographic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this paper is to document the clear and obvious advantages of field work for monographic studies. These advantages include: 1) ability to understand published distributions better and greatly expand these data, 2) access to taxonomic data obscured on herbarium sheets (as colors, odors, ...

  3. Lies and coercion: why psychiatrists should not participate in police and intelligence interrogations.

    PubMed

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Police interrogators routinely use deceptive techniques to obtain confessions from criminal suspects. The United States Executive Branch has attempted to justify coercive interrogation techniques in which physical or mental pain and suffering may be used during intelligence interrogations of persons labeled unlawful combatants. It may be appropriate for law enforcement, military, or intelligence personnel who are not physicians to use such techniques. However, forensic psychiatry ethical practice requires honesty, striving for objectivity, and respect for persons. Deceptive and coercive interrogation techniques violate these moral values. When a psychiatrist directly uses, works with others who use, or trains others to use deceptive or coercive techniques to obtain information in police, military, or intelligence interrogations, the psychiatrist breaches basic principles of ethics. PMID:17185476

  4. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  5. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  6. 8 CFR 343b.3 - Interrogation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interrogation. 343b.3 Section 343b.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.3 Interrogation. When Form N-565 presents a prima...

  7. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  8. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. The impact of hospital restructuring on social work field education.

    PubMed

    Globerman, Judith; Bogo, Marion

    2002-02-01

    Hospital restructuring has had a dramatic impact on social work practice and field education. In a qualitative focus group study of nine educational coordinators responsible for educational programs in teaching hospitals with 25 to 100 social workers each, four main themes emerged: (1) difficulty managing field education when the actual change experienced in restructuring hospitals was far less progressive and systemic than the hospital missions espoused; (2) a struggle to maintain stable student programs when change was unpredictable; (3) the importance of support, reciprocity, and advocacy from the university; and (4) the need to be creative in delivering the educational program while undergoing organizational change. PMID:11926221

  10. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  11. Work function measurements using a field emission retarding potential technique.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, M H M O; Dall'Agnol, F F; Pimentel, V L; Mammana, V P; Tatsch, P J; den Engelsen, D

    2016-03-01

    Herein we describe the measurement of the work function of a metal with advanced equipment based on the field emission retarding potential (FERP) method using a carbon nanotube (CNT) as cathode. The accuracy of the FERP method using a CNT emitter is described and a comparison between measurements of the work functions of aluminum, barium, calcium, gold, and platinum with published data will be presented. Our FERP equipment could be optimized with the aid of particle tracing simulations. These simulations led us to insert a magnetic collimator to improve the collection efficiency at the anode. PMID:27036828

  12. Work function measurements using a field emission retarding potential technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, M. H. M. O.; Dall'Agnol, F. F.; Pimentel, V. L.; Mammana, V. P.; Tatsch, P. J.; den Engelsen, D.

    2016-03-01

    Herein we describe the measurement of the work function of a metal with advanced equipment based on the field emission retarding potential (FERP) method using a carbon nanotube (CNT) as cathode. The accuracy of the FERP method using a CNT emitter is described and a comparison between measurements of the work functions of aluminum, barium, calcium, gold, and platinum with published data will be presented. Our FERP equipment could be optimized with the aid of particle tracing simulations. These simulations led us to insert a magnetic collimator to improve the collection efficiency at the anode.

  13. Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Ojima, Jun; Sekino, Masaki; Hojo, Minoru; Saito, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the occupational electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding, which uses relatively high electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. In the present study, we measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders in the course of working. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's wrist in order to place the sensor probe at the closest position to the magnetic source (a cable from the current source). Data was acquired every 5 s from the beginning of the work time. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT (Mean ± SD: 1.55 ± 0.93 mT, N=17) and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT (Mean ± SD: 0.07 ± 0.02 mT, N=17). We also conducted a finite element method-based analysis of human hand tissue for the electromagnetic field dosimetry. In addition, the magnetic field associated with grinders, an air hammer, and a drill using electromagnetic anchorage were measured; however, the magnetic fields were much lower than those generated in the welding process. These results agreed well with the results of the electromagnetic field dosimetry (1.49 mT at the wrist position), and the calculated eddy current (4.28 mA/m(2)) was much lower than the well-known guideline thresholds for electrical nerve or muscular stimulation. PMID:21670555

  14. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W.; Swanson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the theoretical foundation of the field electron retarding potential method, and review of its experimental application to the measurement of single crystal face work functions. The results obtained from several substrates are discussed. An interesting and useful fallout from the experimental approach described is the ability to accurately measure the elastic and inelastic reflection coefficient for impinging electrons to near zero-volt energy.

  15. Near-field thermodynamics: Useful work, efficiency, and energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Latella, Ivan Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C.; Miguel Rubi, J.

    2014-03-28

    We show that the maximum work that can be obtained from the thermal radiation emitted between two planar sources in the near-field regime is much larger than that corresponding to the blackbody limit. This quantity, as well as an upper bound, for the efficiency of the process is computed from the formulation of thermodynamics in the near-field regime. The case when the difference of temperatures of the hot source and the environment is small, relevant for energy harvesting, is studied in detail. We also show that thermal radiation energy conversion can be more efficient in the near-field regime. These results open new possibilities for the design of energy converters that can be used to harvest energy from sources of moderate temperature at the nanoscale.

  16. Personnel Dose Assessment during Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Akkurt, Hatice; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    A leading candidate in the detection of special nuclear material (SNM) is active interrogation (AI). Unlike passive interrogation, AI uses a source to enhance or create a detectable signal from SNM (usually fission), particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. During the development of AI sources, significant effort is put into determining the source strength required to detect SNM in specific scenarios. Usually during this process, but not always, an evaluation of personnel dose is also completed. In this instance personnel dose could involve any of the following: (1) personnel performing the AI; (2) unknown stowaways who are inside the object being interrogated; or (3) in clandestine interrogations, personnel who are known to be inside the object being interrogated but are unaware of the interrogation. In most instances, dose to anyone found smuggling SNM will be a secondary issue. However, for the organizations performing the AI, legal if not moral considerations should make dose to the personnel performing the AI, unknown stowaways, or innocent bystanders in clandestine interrogations a serious concern.

  17. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  18. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  19. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  20. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  1. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  2. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  3. Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-05-01

    Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

  4. Work Related Injuries in an Oil field in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of occupational injuries in the Harweel oil field, Oman. Methods The study is based on data gathered from a computerized database maintained by Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO). All non-fatal work-related occupational injuries registered between April 2007 and December 2009 were gathered and analyzed. Results A total of 170 work-related injuries were reported during the study period. Foreign body to the eye was the most common type of injury (27.6%) encountered among all injuries, followed by man falls/slips (11.8%). Injury to the upper extremities accounted for the largest percentage (38.8%) among other body parts. While, a significant portion of the injuries (52%) affected workers aged less than 30 years. The average injury rate per 1000 exposed workers per year was 19.8. Conclusion The study outlines the types of injuries most commonly encountered in the oil field in Oman. Additional data is required in order to devise proper epidemiological analysis. Establishing a comprehensive surveillance system for injuries is essential to ascertain factors influencing such injuries. PMID:22125724

  5. Pulsed photoneutron interrogation: The GNT demonstration system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.; Hoggan, J.M.; McManus, G.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed and tested an active photon interrogation technique to support the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of National Security and Nonproliferation (NN) mission related to verification technologies development. The INEL concept, referred to as the Gamma-Neutron Threshold (GNT) technology, uses a transportable, field-deployable, selective-energy (2 to 10 MeV), pulsed, electron accelerator to produce energetic X-rays having a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The energetic X-rays induce neutrons in many proliferation-limited items via direct photoneutron/photofission interactions. The time-dependent neutron response, as a function of the electron beam energy, is measured with a tripod-mounted, detector assembly and a portable data acquisition system. The portable detector assembly has been specifically designed to operate in very intense, pulsed X-ray environments. The GNT technique measures both the prompt and delayed neutron emission after each accelerator pulse. This report fully describes each component of this system and presents various signature results based on these emissions.

  6. Working with Soil - Soil science in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Lacelles, Bruce; Owen, Jason; Thompson, Dick; Jones, Bob; Towers, Willie

    2015-04-01

    Working with Soil is the Professional Competency Scheme developed by the British Society of Soil Science's Professional Practice Committee, formerly the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists. Ten competency documents cover the required qualifications, skills and knowledge for different aspects of applied soil science. The Society is currently engaged in a five year plan to translate the competency documents into a comprehensive set of training courses. Foundation skills in field-based science are covered by three separate training courses - Exposing and describing a soil profile (Course 1), Soil classification (Course 2), and Soil survey techniques (Course 3). Course 1 has run successfully twice a year since 2013. The other two courses are under development and are scheduled to start in 2015. The primary objective of Foundation Skills Course 1 is to develop confidence and familiarity with field soil investigation and description, understanding the soil underfoot and putting soils into a wider landscape context. Delegates excavate a soil profile pit, and describe and sample the exposed soil to standard protocols. Delegates work in teams of 4 or 5 so that an element of shared learning is part of the process. This has been a very positive aspect of the courses we have run to date. The course has attracted professionals from agricultural and environmental consultancies but is also very popular with research students and has formed a part of an Advanced Training Programme in Soil Science for postgraduates. As there is only one soil science degree course remaining in the UK, many students on their admission do not have a background in field-based pedology and lack an understanding of soil in the context of landscape scale soil functions. Feedback to date has been very positive.

  7. [Watching, listening and sharing: field work for psychosocial autopsies].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Grubits, Sonia; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    The article describes the research realization phases of field work in ten municipalities in five regions entitled "Is it possible to prevent the anticipation of the end? Suicide among the elderly in Brazil and the possibilities for action by the Health Sector." The sample comprises 51 psychosocial autopsies of 5 elderly people who committed suicide in 9 locations and 6 in another. 84 family members were interviewed. Semi-structured psychosocial autopsies and contextual observations were used. Each interview lasted 60 minutes on average and in the majority of the cases there was more than one encounter with family members. The study consisted of a collective process that involved bibliographic review, discussion of the samples, approach strategies, field results and empirical analysis. This article highlights the theoretical, conceptual and practical preparation of researchers and production and standardization of instruments; information about existing data sources and those that are actually used; introduction of institutional credentials; assessment of the family context, difficulties and strategies for empirical study; entrance to and exit from the field; and the impact of the research on the investigators. PMID:22899144

  8. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  9. Report of the working group on far field accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Working Group on Far Field Accelerators. In addition to hearing presentations of current research, the group produced designs for 100 MeV demonstrations accelerators, 1 GeV conceptual accelerators, and a small electron beam source. Two of the 100 MeV designs, an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) and an Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (ICA), use the CO2 laser and the 50 MeV linac at the Advanced Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), requiring only the modest changes in the current experimental setups. By upgrading the laser, an ICA design demonstrated 1 GeV acceleration in a gas cell about 50 cm in length. For high average power accelerators, examples based on the IFEL concept were also produced utilizing accelerators driven by high average power FELs. The Working Group also designed a small electron beam source based on the inverse electron cyclotron resonance concept. Accelerators based on the IFEL and ICA may be the first to achieve 100 MeV and 1 GeV energy gain demonstration with high accelerating gradients.

  10. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  11. Polarization multiplexed interrogation technique for FBG sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Tiwari, Vinita; Soni, Anupam; Jaiswal, Ritesh; Bhanot, Surekha

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a polarization multiplexed interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array. The novelty of the proposed model is its ability to reduce interference and cross talk, thus allowing larger number of FBG sensors to be interrogated in an array. The calibration technique has been illustrated in this work for the FBG sensor array, where data from each sensor are linearly polarized and multiplexed before co-propagation, to find out the tapping points that enable identification of each sensor data uniquely. Simulation has been carried out for odd number and even number of sensors in an array. Even with interfering input, this proposed scheme can interrogate and distinctively identify each sensor data using appropriate tuning of polarization-splitter, polarization-rotator, and polarization-attenuator at the detector end during the calibration process. The significance of the proposed method is its compact size, which makes this calibration system ready to be deployed in real-time sensing applications and data acquisition from the FBG sensor array.

  12. Nimbus 4/IRLS Balloon Interrogation Package (BIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The balloon interrogation package (BIP), an integral part of the overall interrogation, recording, and location subsystems (IRLS) for the Nimbus 4 program, is described. The BIP is a self-contained, integrated transponder designed to be carried aloft by a constant altitude, superpressure balloon to an altitude of 67,000 or 78,000 feet. After launch the BIP senses high-altitude balloon overpressure and temperature, and upon receipt of an interrogated command from the IRLS aboard the Nimbus 4 satellite, the BIP enodes the data on a real-time basis into a pulse-code modulation (PCM) format and transmits this data to the satellite. A summary of the program activity to produce 30 BIP systems and to support balloon launches from Ascension Island is presented.

  13. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  14. Radiation Detection for Active Interrogation of HEU

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    2004-12-09

    This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted by active interrogation of HEU, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in Sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. All but one of the measurement methods detect radiation emitted by induced fission in the HEU; the exception utilizes nuclear resonance fluorescence. The brief descriptions are supplemented by references. This report presents some active interrogation possibilities but the status of understanding is not advanced enough to select particular methods. Additional research is needed to evaluate these possibilities.

  15. Why does the effective field theory of inflation work?

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ribeiro, Raquel H.; Holman, R. E-mail: raquelhribeiro@case.edu

    2014-06-01

    The effective field theory (EFT) of inflation has become the preferred method for computing cosmological correlation functions of the curvature fluctuation, ζ. It makes explicit use of the soft breaking of time diffeomorphisms by the inflationary background to organize the operators expansion in the action of the Goldstone mode π associated with this breaking. Despite its ascendancy, there is another method for calculating ζ correlators, involving the direct calculation of the so-called Horndeski action order by order in powers of ζ and its derivatives. The question we address in this work is whether or not the ζ correlators calculated in these seemingly different ways are in fact the same. The answer is that the actions to cubic order in either set of variables do indeed give rise to the same ζ bispectra, but that to make this equivalence manifest requires a careful understanding of the non-linear transformations relating π to ζ and how boundary terms in the actions are affected by imposing this relation. As a by product of our study we find that the calculations in the π language can be simplified considerably in a way that allows us to use only the linear part of the π−ζ relation simply by changing the coefficients of some of the operators in the EFT. We also note that a proper accounting of the boundary terms will be of the greatest importance when computing the bispectrum for more general initial states than the Bunch-Davies one.

  16. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  17. Student Movement: Pathways, Fields and Links to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredman, Nick

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of coherence between education, training and work in Australia indicated by low proportions of VET graduates who work in occupations related to their qualification and mismatches between qualifications, skills and work. This paper discusses how student flows through tertiary education can further illustrate this lack of coherence.…

  18. How to make offshore marginal fields work for everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal fields make positive impact on certain oil and gas companies` financial performances. These developments are integrated into the operator`s operational and philosophical mindset, so that they optimize return and establish a reasonable reserve base for the company. Having a portfolio of marginal field developments is definitely a part of the offshore business, and oil field suppliers and subcontractors will continue to develop technology and methods to ensure the fields are exploited. It goes without saying that the continued production of marginal fields helps a lot of consumers and the companies that make up the energy chain that gets it to them. There are marginal fields all over the world and the market can only grow as more and more of the resources decline and industrialization expands demand. The projections for 2020 state that fossil fuels will remain the major supply link to dependable and affordable energy, particularly as additional oil and gas infrastructures are built and installed. Likened to the commodity, oil and gas companies and the energy industry have slowly evolved to the point where they are making a difference for people worldwide. As long as there is product to produce, most companies and consumers do not really care what type of reservoir started it all. More often then not, it probably started out as a marginal prospect. The paper discusses the energy picture today, marginal field update, offshore marginal field geography, and independent and marginal field developments.

  19. Work, Learning and Satisfaction in Undergraduate Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Francis M., III

    Levels of student satisfaction with the Great Lakes Colleges Association - Philadelphia Urban Semester, a 16-week multidisciplinary urban field study program, were investigated. Several aspects of the program, including the four day per week field placement, weekly "city" seminar, elective seminar, and minimally structured living experience were…

  20. Enhancing Social Work Research Education through Research Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Jennifer A.; Walsh, Christine A.; Bradshaw, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The increased focus on the role of research in the social service sector, pressure for practitioners to engage in research and the demand for integration of research and practice challenges faculties about ways in which to engage social work students in research. This paper evaluates a research based practicum program within a social work faculty…

  1. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  2. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic. PMID:27270162

  3. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  4. Images of Imaging: Notes on Doing Longitudinal Field Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the processes involved in a field study of technological change in radiology and how researchers can design a qualitative study and then collect data in a systematic and explicit manner. Illustrates the social and human problems of gaining entry into a research site, constructing a research role, and managing relationships. (63…

  5. The Impact of Hospital Restructuring on Social Work Field Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Globerman, Judith; Bogo, Marion

    2002-01-01

    In a qualitative focus group study of educational coordinators in teaching hospitals with social workers, four main themes emerged: difficulty managing field education; a struggle to maintain stable student programs; the importance of support from the university and; the need to be creative in delivering the educational program while undergoing…

  6. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. PMID:26011040

  7. The Relation between Supervisor Self-Disclosure and the Working Alliance among Social Work Students in Field Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The author examined supervisor self-disclosure and the supervisory working alliance with the hope of adding to research-supported techniques in field work supervision. Students enrolled in an MSW program at a large urban university were asked to complete a survey on the frequency and content of their supervisor's self-disclosures and on their…

  8. Data Mining for Social Work Students: Teaching Practice-Based Research in Conjunction with a Field Work Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auslander, Gail K.; Rosenne, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Although research studies are important for social work students, the students rarely like research classes or see their value. At the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, one group of BSW students was encouraged to carry out the required research in their field work setting, the Hadassah University Medical Center. Students used data mining, that is,…

  9. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  10. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  11. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  12. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  13. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  14. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  15. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation.

  16. Thermally chargeable supercapacitor working in a homogeneous, changing temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyuck; Shi, Yang; Qiao, Yu

    2016-04-01

    A thermally chargeable supercapacitor (TCS) system is developed to harvest electrical energy from a uniform temperature field of a changing low-grade heat source. Without any temperature gradient, the TCS absorbs heat when temperature rises and releases electricity during discharging. As temperature decreases, the system configuration returns to the initial condition, so that the thermal-to-electrical energy conversion can be continuously conducted. With a nickel-coated carbon nanotube or nanoporous carbon-based electrode, the thermal sensitivity and the electrode surface area are enhanced simultaneously, leading to a high output voltage around 100-160 mV and a high specific energy of 600-1800 mJ per gram of electrode material in each thermal cycle, with a mild temperature range of ~50 °C.

  17. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  18. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  19. Design and characterisation of a pulsed neutron interrogation facility.

    PubMed

    Favalli, A; Pedersen, B

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre recently obtained a license to operate a new experimental device intended for research in the field of nuclear safeguards. The research projects currently being planned for the new device includes mass determination of fissile materials in matrices and detection of contraband non-nuclear materials. The device incorporates a commercial pulsed neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. In this configuration, a relatively high thermal neutron flux with a long lifetime is achieved inside the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator, a sample may be interrogated by a pure thermal neutron flux during repeated time periods. The paper reports on the design of the new device and the pulsed fast and thermal neutron source. The thermal neutron flux caused by the neutron generator and the graphite structure has been characterised by foil activation, fission chamber and (3)He proportional counter measurements. PMID:17496298

  20. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  1. The Effect of Educational Disequilibrium in Field Work on Graduate Social Work Students' Self-Concept and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The author used a mixed methods design to assess field work-related educational disequilibrium and its effect on the self-concept and mental health of MSW students. Twenty-eight advanced, fourth-semester MSW students were compared with 37 entering, first-semester MSW students in practice-related sense of accomplishment. Compared with first-year…

  2. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J.; Harmon, F.

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Validity of Selected Lab and Field Tests of Physical Working Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J.

    The validity of selected lab and field tests of physical working capacity was investigated. Forty-four male college students were administered a series of lab and field tests of physical working capacity. Lab tests include a test of maximum oxygen uptake, the PWC 170 test, the Harvard Step Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Margaria Test of…

  4. The Development of Guidelines for Feedback on Professional Behavior in Level I Field Work Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kautzmann, Lisette

    Guidelines for feedback on professional behavior during field work were developed for students during initial exposure to the clinical practice of occupational therapy. Using Likert's Method of Summed Ratings, brainstorming and a review of the American Occupational Therapy Association Field Work Performance Report resulted in the generation of a…

  5. Disrupted Social Work Field Placement: Factors That Contribute to Premature Termination of BSW Students' Field Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Janet

    2012-01-01

    According to R. Wayne ("Legal Guidelines for Dismissing Students Because of Poor Performance in the Field," 2004), there is a widely accepted assumption in social work education that field placement provides the best opportunity to evaluate students' goodness-of-fit with the profession and is therefore used to weed out unsuitable…

  6. Numerical modelling of interrogation systems for optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Daniel; Richardson, Steven; Wild, Graham

    2011-12-01

    There are a number of interrogation methods that can be used in optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing system. For very high frequency signals interrogating the sensor signal from an FBG is limited to two intensiometric methods, edge filter detection and power detection. In edge filter detection, a broadband light source illuminates an FBG, the reflected spectrum is then passed through a spectral filter. In power detection, a narrowband light source with a wavelength corresponding to the 3dB point of the FBG is filtered by the FBG itself. Both methods convert the spectral shift of the FBG into intensity signals. These two categories each have a number of variations, all with different performance characteristics. In this work we present a numerical model for all of these interrogation systems. The numerical model is based on previous analytical modelling, which could only be utilised for perfect Gaussian profiles. However, interrogation systems can make use of non Gaussian shaped filters, or sources. The numerical modelling enables the different variations to be compared using identical component performance, showing the relative strengths and weakness of the systems in terms of useful parameters, including, signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, and dynamic resolution. The two different detection methods can also be compared side-by-side using the same FBG. Since the model is numerical, it enables real spectral data to be used for the various components (FBG, light source, filters). This has the added advantage of increasing the accuracy and usefulness of the model, over previous analytical work.

  7. Social Work Field Instructors' Views and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a cross-sectional study of social work field instructors' views of and implementation of the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and compares their responses with non-field instructors. A total of 688 National Association of Social Workers/Texas members (107 of which were field instructors) anonymously…

  8. Interrogative suggestibility among adolescent boys and its relationship with intelligence, memory, and cognitive set.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Gudjonsson, G H

    1992-06-01

    This study investigates some of the hypotheses generated by the Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. The subjects were 40 adolescent boys (11-16 years), who completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and instruments measuring intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes towards persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with I.Q. and memory capacity, and positively with field-dependence. PMID:1527249

  9. Financial administration of work for nonfederal sponsors, DOE Field Office (AL), Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office, Albuquerque (AL) is responsible for managing and controlling nonfederally sponsored work done by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The audit objective was to determine whether the funding of, and accounting for, work done under a 1984 funds-in agreement and work for others in Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 complied with laws, regulations, and policies.

  10. Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.E. |; Pelkey, G.E.; Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-01

    A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

  11. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  12. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Antolak, A. J.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.

    2009-03-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,γ)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,γ)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 μs long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  13. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  14. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB{sub 6} tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 {mu}s long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  15. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  16. Specialized Field Work for International Health Education Students: A Survey of Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Joyce W.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented drawn from a questionnaire exploring field work programs at nearly 200 colleges and universities offering undergraduate and graduate degrees in health education as these relate to the needs of international students registered with those institutions. (MJB)

  17. Determining internal screening electric field of working polymer light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemoto, Katsuichi; Takahashi, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-07-01

    This study provides a method of determining the internal electric field of polymer light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the working condition. The method employs Stark signals induced by triangular shaped pulse biases and enables estimates of the internal field in a broad voltage region. The internal field under forward bias is shown to be determined by the screening effect caused by injected carriers. Spatial distribution calculated for the LED suggests the presence of strong electric field formed by accumulated carriers near the electrodes. The proposed method is applicable to a variety of devices and can promote understanding of veiled roles of internal fields on device operation.

  18. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed

  19. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim

    2013-10-01

    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain. PMID:24099165

  20. Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  1. Teachers Working in the Field of Environmental Education: Musings of a Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Eloiza Dias

    2005-01-01

    Over the last century, much was researched in the field of Education, be its educational policies or more effective learning strategies. It is only recently that studies have begun to focus on the teachers. This article describes an investigation about how the knowledge of teachers working in the field of Environmental Education is formed,…

  2. Measuring International Service Outcomes: Implications for International Social Work Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lough, Benjamin J.; McBride, Amanda Moore; Sherraden, Margaret S.

    2012-01-01

    International field placements are a unique educational opportunity for social work students to develop the skills they need for social work practice in a globalized world; however, outcomes of international placements have not been rigorously studied. This article reports on the International Volunteer Impacts Survey (IVIS), a 48-item survey…

  3. Opening Options: Making Field Education Work in a Private Practice Clinic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.; Knaggs, Constance; Hock, Robert; LaCharite, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of social work field placements in a private practice setting to prepare MSW students for clinical work. The authors used "autoethnography", which is personal narrative that explores the writer's experience of life, to describe interpersonal and contextual characteristics, as well as procedures implemented to conduct…

  4. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group AGENCY: Bureau... Pinedale Anticline Working Group (PAWG) charter, the U.S. Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Land... Advisory Committee Act group which develops recommendations and provides advice to the BLM on...

  5. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  6. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

  7. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  8. Electrical engineers' perceptions on education - electromagnetic field theory and its connection to working life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallén, H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n=99 and n=120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in general, but limited practical usefulness of the field theory courses in working life. However, both respondent groups mentioned that electromagnetic field theory should belong to the basic electrical engineering curriculum, which suggests a need to strengthen the connections between the different topics in the curriculum to enable a better holistic understanding of electrical engineering.

  9. Experiences in the internal inspections and maintenance works on gas insulated equipment in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, H.; Nitta, T.; Ogawa, A.; Sasamoto, S.; Tanabe, T.

    1983-04-01

    Data have been collected through the internal inspections and maintenance works on the gas insulated equipment working in the field. Wearing of contact of circuit breakers by repetitive interruptions of current is the determining factor for internal maintenance. Factors like the quality of sealings, conditions of absorbent, deteriorative influence of arc decomposition products etc. are not the factors that require internal inspections. Practical problems in the works inside the enclosure while the neighboring part of the substation is in operation are discussed basing on the experiences in the field.

  10. Chemical Mutagens, Transposons, and Transgenes to Interrogate Gene Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. PMID:24583113

  11. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of workers suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The main aim of the present investigation was to assess the prevalence of WMSDs among brick field workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 brick field workers. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied among them. In brick making industry, the workers adopt different unfavorable actions, such as frequent bending; bending and twisting of the body; and working above shoulder height, which may lead to severe pain in different parts of the body, especially lower back (brick carriers: 90%; moulders: 92%; fireman: 75%; stackers: 88%) and neck (brick carriers: 89%; moulders: 88%; fireman: 54%; stackers: 72%), It was concluded from the study that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in different awkward postures for long periods. PMID:24499251

  12. Design concept for the microwave interrogation structure in PARCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment.

  13. High performance FBG interrogation technology with scan fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanhong; Ma, Youchun; Yang, Minwei

    2010-11-01

    A Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) Interrogation scheme with scan fiber laser was demonstrated. The ring cavity scan fiber laser was investigated and the scan fiber laser module was made and test, the 200Hz scan frequency, ~0.02nm line width, more than 40nm scan range and more than 1 mW output power were obtained. A 12 channels, 20 FBGs per channel FBG interrogator was made with this laser module and the high speed signal process circuit base on FPGA. The centroid finding method which has advantage on interrogation speed and accurate was taken for finding the peak of the return FBG spectrum. The FBG interrogator was test and less than 3pm standard deviation with 200Hz scan frequency were obtained.

  14. The role of abusive states of being in interrogation.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Interrogation, the questioning of persons detained by police, military, or intelligence organizations, is designed to extract information that a subject may resist disclosing. Interrogation techniques are frequently predicated on inducing mental states of despair, dread, dependency, and debility that weaken an individual's resistance. Descriptions of techniques from 2 Central Intelligence Agency training manuals are illustrated by examples from interviews of and writings by Murat Kurnaz, who was held at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp for 5 years. Interrogation techniques are designed to create a destabilizing sense of shock; undermine an individual's grasp on reality; and provoke internal psychological division, self-conflict, and confusion. The long-term effects of interrogation often include posttraumatic stress disorder as well as states of anxiety, depression, and depersonalization. PMID:23406220

  15. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  16. Novel applications of fast neutron interrogation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1994-12-01

    The development of non-intrusive inspection methods for contraband consisting primarily of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen requires the use of fast neutrons. While most elements can be sufficiently well detected by the thermal neutron capture process, some important ones, e.g., carbon and in particular oxygen, cannot be detected by this process. Fortunately, fast neutrons, with energies above the threshold for inelastic scattering, stimulate relatively strong and specific gamma ray lines from these elements. The main lines are: 6.13 for O, 4.43 for C, and 5.11, 2.31 and 1.64 MeV for N. Accelerator-generated neutrons in the energy range of 7 to 15 MeV are being considered as interrogating radiations in a variety of non-intrusive inspection systems for contraband, from explosives to drugs and from coal to smuggled, dutiable goods. In some applications, mostly for inspection of small items such as luggage, the decision process involves a rudimentary imaging, akin to emission tomography, to obtain the localized concentration of various elements. This technique is called FNA — Fast Neutron Analysis. While this approach offers improvements over the TNA (Thermal Neutron Analysis), it is not applicable to large objects such as shipping containers and trucks. For these challenging applications, a collimated beam of neutrons is rastered along the height of the moving object. In addition, the neutrons are generated in very narrow nanosecond pulses. The point of their interaction inside the object is determined by the time of flight (TOF) method, that is measuring the time elapsed from the neutron generation to the time of detection of the stimulated gamma rays. This technique, called PFNA (Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis), thus directly provides the elemental, and by inference, the chemical composition of the material at every volume element (voxel) of the object. The various neutron-based techniques are briefly described below.

  17. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Doug L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Richland, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  18. Interrogation of an object for dimensional and topographical information

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Kennedy, Mike O.

    2004-03-09

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine one or more body measurements at least partially covered by the individual's clothing. The invention further includes techniques to interrogate an object with electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter and/or microwave range to provide a volumetric representation of the object. This representation can be used to display images and/or determine dimensional information concerning the object.

  19. A utilitarian argument against torture interrogation of terrorists.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Jean Maria

    2004-07-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710

  20. Interrogations, confessions, and guilty pleas among serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we examined (a) the prevalence and characteristics of youths' true and false admissions (confessions and guilty pleas), (b) youths' interrogation experiences with police and lawyers, and (c) whether youths' interrogation experiences serve as situational risk factors for true and false admissions. We interviewed 193 14- to 17-year-old males (M = 16.4) incarcerated for serious crimes. Over 1/3 of the sample (35.2%) claimed to have made a false admission to legal authorities (17.1% false confession; 18.1% false guilty plea), and 2/3 claimed to have made a true admission (28.5% true confession; 37.3% true guilty plea). The majority of youth said that they had experienced high-pressure interrogations (e.g., threats), especially with police officers. Youth who mentioned experiencing "police refusals" (e.g., of a break to rest) were more likely to report having made both true and false confessions to police, whereas only false confessions were associated with claims of long interrogations (>2 hr) and being questioned in the presence of a friend. The number of self-reported high-pressure lawyer tactics was associated with false, but not true, guilty pleas. Results suggest the importance of conducting specialized trainings for those who interrogate youth, recording interrogations, placing limits on lengthy and manipulative techniques, and exploring alternative procedures for questioning juvenile suspects. PMID:24127891

  1. The "Intercultural Field": Interrogating "Context" in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najar, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research on the intercultural is challenged by the contextuality of the object of the research. While theories on intercultural learning generally acknowledge that the "context" of the individual learning experience plays an important role for intercultural learning processes, a detailed understanding of what it is we call…

  2. Using GIS technology to integrate remote sensing and field work data with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, G. ); Ellis, J.M.; Davis, H.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Field work for major projects is becoming more dependent upon contractors who have a variety of training, experience and methodology Contractor gaps in data collected, inconsistent methodology and terminology and out-of-context observations are minimized by using digital templates and remote sensing support. The digital templates utilize off-the-shelf PC software and portable hardware. Some field data can be customized to easily correlate with well logs utilizing computer-aided drafting (CAD) technology. Processed satellite images are georeferenced to a specific map projection, utilizing ground control points determined with Global Positioning System (GPS). Geographical Information System (GIS) technology is being evaluated as an integration tool to make complex tables of field data, CAD base maps, interpretation maps, and images more useful to Earth Scientists. The GIS enables users to: (1) examine their field data, maps, and images in a PC-based environment. (2) better understand spatial relationships between field observations, images and geologic maps. (3) interactively query field data while viewing associated images and maps. (4) ultimately improve database usage, database quality, and geological interpretations. The geologic interpretation of georeferenced images and field work in the Rio Blanco license of Colombia resulted in (1) an improved geologic map with better definition of source-reservoir rock from the hangingwall to the footwall of the main thrust and (2) better surface controlled balanced crossed-sections that led to play definition and to improve seismic planning/field parameters design for refining seismic acquisition.

  3. Using GIS technology to integrate remote sensing and field work data with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, G.; Ellis, J.M.; Davis, H.H.

    1996-12-31

    Field work for major projects is becoming more dependent upon contractors who have a variety of training, experience and methodology Contractor gaps in data collected, inconsistent methodology and terminology and out-of-context observations are minimized by using digital templates and remote sensing support. The digital templates utilize off-the-shelf PC software and portable hardware. Some field data can be customized to easily correlate with well logs utilizing computer-aided drafting (CAD) technology. Processed satellite images are georeferenced to a specific map projection, utilizing ground control points determined with Global Positioning System (GPS). Geographical Information System (GIS) technology is being evaluated as an integration tool to make complex tables of field data, CAD base maps, interpretation maps, and images more useful to Earth Scientists. The GIS enables users to: (1) examine their field data, maps, and images in a PC-based environment. (2) better understand spatial relationships between field observations, images and geologic maps. (3) interactively query field data while viewing associated images and maps. (4) ultimately improve database usage, database quality, and geological interpretations. The geologic interpretation of georeferenced images and field work in the Rio Blanco license of Colombia resulted in (1) an improved geologic map with better definition of source-reservoir rock from the hangingwall to the footwall of the main thrust and (2) better surface controlled balanced crossed-sections that led to play definition and to improve seismic planning/field parameters design for refining seismic acquisition.

  4. Signal predictions for a proposed fast neutron interrogation method

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    We have applied the Monte Carlo radiation transport code COG) to assess the utility of a proposed explosives detection scheme based on neutron emission. In this scheme a pulsed neutron beam is generated by an approximately seven MeV deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target. A scintillation detector operating in the current mode measures the neutrons transmitted through the object as a function of time. The flight time of unscattered neutrons from the source to the detector is simply related to the neutron energy. This information along with neutron cross section excitation functions is used to infer the densities of H, C, N and O in the volume sampled. The code we have chosen to use enables us to create very detailed and realistic models of the geometrical configuration of the system, the neutron source and of the detector response. By calculating the signals that will be observed for several configurations and compositions of interrogated object we can investigate and begin to understand how a system that could actually be fielded will perform. Using this modeling capability many early on with substantial savings in time and cost and with improvements in performance. We will present our signal predictions for simple single element test cases and for explosive compositions. From these studies it is dear that the interpretation of the signals from such an explosives identification system will pose a substantial challenge.

  5. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  6. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  7. Work function, field emitted electron energy spectrum and surface composition of silicon covered molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamu Nishikawa; Haruhiko Koyama; Masahiko Tomitori

    1991-04-01

    The variation of work functions and electronic structures of Mo surfaces with Si coverages was studied using the atom-probe with a field emission electron spectrometer (AP/FEES). The field emission microscope images of a Si/Mo surface indicate that the deposited Si atoms form micro-clusters, the work function of which is found to be more than 10% larger than the Mo substrate. The FEES spectrum of the clusters implies that the Si/Mo surface is semiconductive even if the Si coverage is reduced to a fraction of a monolayer. The work functions of the Mo silicides formed by heating the Si/Mo tips are about 10% smaller than that of a clean Mo surface and the FEES analysis indicates that the silicide surface is metallic. At the Si-Mo and silicide-Mo interfaces, energy spectra, work functions and compositions vary abruptly in the range of one to a few atomic layers.

  8. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  9. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  10. Social Work and Criminal Justice: Are We Meeting in the Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; McCarter, Susan; Brigham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are needed but infrequently involved with criminal justice systems. One way to increase the number of social workers in the criminal justice system is by exposing students to work in these settings. This study examined the number, types, and utilization of criminal justice field placements in MSW programs by surveying field…

  11. Field Methods of the Project on Linguistic Change and Variation. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, William

    The field methods for data collection in a research project on linguistic change and variation in the Philadelphia speech community, their origins and use, are described. Five working principles of the project are detailed: (1) there are no single style speakers; (2) styles can be ranged along a single dimension, according to the attention paid to…

  12. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  13. Electrical Engineers' Perceptions on Education--Electromagnetic Field Theory and Its Connection to Working Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallen, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n = 99 and n = 120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in…

  14. The Biotic Indexing of Water Quality and Its Application to Field Work in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the biotic indexing of water quality and its application to A-level field work with reference to the Trent Biotic Index and Chandler Score system. These indices are related to the classification of water quality used by the Department of the Environment. Interpretations and limitations of the indices are discussed. (Author/DS)

  15. Andra Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Paula

    This report summarizes field work on Andra Island, Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). It opens with an introduction to the site, the school setting, and the community setting. Background on the IMP teacher and the size of classes…

  16. Research into lightning protection of distribution systems II - results from Florida Field work 1978 and 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Darveniza, M.; Uman, M.A.

    1984-04-01

    Experience in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 thunderstorms resulted in significant improvements in the field work carried out during 1979. This paper describes the changes to equipment and data sources, and presents overall results for the 1979 thunderstorm season. Where appropriate, these are linked to 1978 data and to data obtained from equipment which operated on a year-long basis.

  17. Differences of Teachers', Field Instructors', and Students' Views on Job Analysis of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Moshe; Peleg-Oren, Neta

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the assessment of 30 teachers, 120 field instructors, and 287 students with regard to what students of social work do during their fieldwork practice and the importance they attach to these activities. The study used a Job Analysis Questionnaire developed specifically for this study. Results indicated differences among the…

  18. Technology Acceptance in Social Work Education: Implications for the Field Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex Don; Bullock, Angela N.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth and sophistication of new information and computer technology (ICT) have greatly influenced human interactions and provided new metaphors for understanding the world. The acceptance and integration of ICT into social work field education are examined here using the technological acceptance model. This article also explores…

  19. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  20. To Be Transformed: Emotions in Cross-Cultural, Field-Based Learning in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah; Hodge, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Students undertaking field-based learning, in which they work with Indigenous people in Northern Australia, describe a profound learning experience redolent with emotion. Inspired, challenged and transformed, the students are compelled in ways that require them to interrogate their own selves and taken-for-granted beliefs. In this paper, we draw…

  1. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  2. Postcards from the Field: Using the Web to Bring Near-Real Time Field Work to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genyuk, J.; Johnson, R. M.; Gardiner, L.; Russell, R.; Bergman, J.; Lagrave, M.; Hatheway, B.; Foster, S.; Araujo-Pradere, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Field work is one of the aspects of a career in the geosciences that can make it so attractive to students and the public. The chance to go to exciting places, and to see amazing things, while making new discoveries is almost too good to be true. The "Postcards from the Field" capability, developed and implemented in the Windows to the Universe website project in 2006, is now providing a new ability to bring this excitement to a large and global audience online. Windows to the Universe is an extremely popular interdisciplinary Earth and space science educational website, with over 20 million visitors per year, including a large following of students and educators. The website is composed of over 7000 interlinked web pages spanning the geosciences, at three levels of sophistication, in English and Spanish. Our Postcards from the Field capability, which was originally developed in support of a major field campaign in Mexico City in 2006 (the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations campaign - MILAGRO), has now been generalized to support submissions from researchers engaged in multiple field campaigns. To date, in addition to postcards submitted during the MILAGRO campaign, we have hosted postcards from researchers and educators studying the life cycle of Adelie penguins in the Antarctic, the East Pacific Rise as a component of the RIDGE2000 program, and storm formation in Europe as a component of the Convective and Orographically- induced Precipitation Study (COPS). We are now expanding our postcard lines to include submissions from researchers engaged in the IPY and educators engaged with the ANDRILL (ANtarctic Geologic DRILLing) Research Immersion for Science Educators program. This presentation will present this new capability, its ease of use, and our vision for how it can be used to bring the excitement of field research to the public, students, and educators online.

  3. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities. PMID:24812101

  4. MoS2 Field Effect Transistors with different polarity: study of electrode work functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Isha; Boyd, Anthony K.; Fontana, Marcio; Gayduchenko, Igor; Fedorov, Georgy; Liu, Amy; Paranjape, Makarand; Barbara, Paola

    2013-03-01

    The transfer characteristics of Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) depend on the Schottky barrier formed between the metal electrode and the semiconducting MoS2. We obtained p-type behavior for Pd-contacted MoS2 FETs and n-type with both Au and Nb contacts. We study the work function of these electrode metals to understand their effect on the Schottky barrier and therefore the polarity of the MoS2 FETs. The work function of the above metals is measured using a non-contact Kelvin Probe technique under different ambient conditions. We will discuss the observed n-type and p-type behavior of MoS2 FETs in relation to the measured metal work functions. Work Funded by NSF, DMR 1008242

  5. Development of fast FBG interrogator with wavelength-swept laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yukitaka

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research is the construction of a structural health monitoring system that uses fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to determine the health of structures. We develop fast FBG interrogator for real-time measurement of the reflected wavelength of a multipoint FBG to monitor the broadband vibration of a structure. This FBG interrogator, which combines a wavelength-swept laser and a real-time measurement system is capable of measuring wavelength within a standard deviation of 2×10-3 nm or less. We have demonstrated that the FBG interrogator is able to measure vibration that has a resonance frequency of 440 Hz at intervals of 0.1 ms with a multipoint FBG.

  6. Micro-size optical fibre strain interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Nezih; Xiao, Gaozhi; Guo, Honglei

    2008-03-01

    Within several countries, the military is undergoing significant economic pressure to extend the use of its air fleet beyond its established design life. The availability of low weight, small size, reliable and cost-effective technologies to detect and monitor incipient damage and to alert prior to catastrophic failures is critical to sustain operational effectiveness. To enable the implementation of distributed and highly multiplexed optical fiber sensors networks to aerospace platforms, the data acquisition (interrogation) system has to meet small size and low weight requirements. This paper reports on our current development of micro-sized Echelle Diffractive Gratings (EDG) based interrogation system for strain monitoring of serially multiplexed fibre Bragg grating sensors. The operation principle of the interrogator and its suitability for strain measurements is demonstrated. Static load measurements obtained using this system are compared to those acquired using a optical multi-wavelength meter and are found to have strong correlation.

  7. Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers: a work physiology field study.

    PubMed

    Luttmann, A; Laurig, W; Jäger, M

    1992-09-01

    In a work physiology field study, the work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse (garbage) collection workers who transported and emptied 1.1 m3 refuse containers. The work rate (WR), indicated by the number of 1.1 m3 containers emptied per unit of time, and the work pulse rate (WPR) were determined in the data evaluation. The work pulse rate increases with the work rate. The functional relationship can be approximated by a linear regression function (WPR = 20.9 + 35.8.WR). The work pulse rate reaches such high values that it must be assumed that the work cannot be performed continuously throughout the whole working day. Consequently, regular breaks should be provided. When determining the necessary duration of the breaks, it was assumed that an equilibrium between fatigue and recovery should be maintained during the working day. The recovery breaks should be at least long enough for the heart rate to return to the resting level. The necessary duration of the breaks was determined on the basis of the present field study and the laboratory investigations described in the literature. A minimum duration of 10 min per working hour results from the calculations. The breaks should be taken regularly at about hourly intervals. A transportation-capacity model is provided for the planning of the deployment of refuse workers. It permits calculation of the number of 1.1 m3 containers a three-man crew, comprising the refuse collection truck driver and two loaders, can empty during one shift. Both the logistical and ergonomic transportation capacities can be determined using the model. The logistical transportation capacity (TCL) indicates the number of containers which can be emptied per shift by a crew when only criteria such as the optimal utilization of the working time are considered. The ergonomic transportation capacity (TCE) is understood as the number of containers which can be emptied per shift taking into

  8. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  9. Modeling of temperature fields in the working chamber of the process furnace for REE synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbel, B. M.; Yu, Ageev A.; Yu, Payusov A.; Katsnelson, L. M.; Tereshchenko, E. V.; Verkhoturova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The results of mathematical modeling of temperature fields in the working chamber of the process furnace for special purposes are shown. Studied laboratory furnace is test equipment, which is used for practicing the stages of the technological process of continuous solid-phase synthesis of nanopowders of various purpose, such as obtaining of luminophore powders with rare earth elements oxides in its composition. Mathematical model adequacy is tested empirically

  10. Acute effects of ELF electromagnetic fields: a field study of linesmen working with 400 kV power lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gamberale, F; Olson, B A; Eneroth, P; Lindh, T; Wennberg, A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible acute effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Twenty six experienced linesmen, aged 25 to 52, were studied during two working days while performing a simulated routine inspection of insulators on steel poles of a 400 kV power line. During one of the working days the inspection was performed on a power line in operation and on the other day the same procedure was performed on an identical power line, which was not in operation. The two days were found to be comparable with regard to the physical workload which, on the basis of heart rate measurements, was estimated to be high. Exposure to the electric and magnetic fields was measured using a device designed for on-worker sampling on each linesman. The mean exposure for the working day was estimated to be 2.8 kV/m (SD = 0.35) and 23.3 microT (SD = 4.2). The possible effects of exposure were studied using a battery of four automated performance tests, EEG, a mood scale, and a questionnaire to assess subjective symptoms. All workers were examined immediately before and after each workday. Furthermore, blood samples were collected for each subject on three different occasions during each workday. The battery of behavioural tests comprised a test of simple reaction time, a vigilance test, a test of short term memory (digit span), and a perceptual test (symbol digit). The four EEG recordings for each worker were judged blindly and sorted with regard to amount and stability of alpha activity. The blood samples were used for an analysis of possible changes during the workday with regard to the following hormones: thyroid stimulated hormone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, testosterone, and neopterin. Detailed analyses of the results using both parametric and nonparametric tests showed no statistically significant difference between the two conditions which could be attributed to exposure to electric and magnetic fields

  11. Interrogative suggestibility, confabulation, and acquiescence in people with mild learning disabilities (mental handicap): implications for reliability during police interrogations.

    PubMed

    Clare, I C; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-09-01

    In order to assess a criminal suspect's ability to make a reliable statement, performance on three measures--interrogative suggestibility, confabulation and acquiescence--may be used. This paper presents preliminary data on these measures for people with mild learning disabilities (Full Scale IQ [FSIQ]: 57-75). It was found that they were more suggestible than their average ability counterparts (FSIQ: 83-111) because they were much more susceptible to 'leading questions'. They also confabulated more and were more acquiescent. Overall, the data emphasized their potential vulnerability to giving erroneous testimony during interrogations. PMID:8251959

  12. Engagement with Language: Interrogating a Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta Marie-Louise

    2009-01-01

    In "Language awareness and language learning" (Svalberg, 2007) I concluded that the otherwise diverse and multidisciplinary field of language awareness (LA) is given coherence by its focus on engagement with language. I argued that LA is seen as active and not merely as a state of conscious awareness or sensitivity. This paper goes one step…

  13. Interrogating Our Practices of Integrating Spirituality into Workplace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…

  14. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  15. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  16. Interview and Interrogation Training using a Computer-Simulated Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Dale E.

    Interactive, multimedia software involving a simulated subject has been created to help trainees develop interview and interrogation techniques using personal computers, because practice interviews are not always realistic and are too expensive. New and experienced law enforcement agents, among others, need such extensive training in techniques…

  17. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  18. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…

  19. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    PubMed

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  20. Ask Systems: Interrogative Access to Multiple Ways of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize instructional designers and researchers with a useful design and research paradigm known as "Ask Systems." Ask Systems are interrogative interfaces to information and learning environments that model conversations with a skilled, reflective practitioner (Schon, The reflective practitioner, "1983") or…

  1. Some Remarks on Interrogative and Relative Pronouns in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowska, Barbara

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of three "wh" words -- what, which, and who -- which are most frequently used as interrogative and relative pronouns in English. An attempt is made to find some formal syntactic markers distinguishing these two uses and consequently to postulate distinct feature matrices for them. (Available from: See FL 508 214.) (Author/RM)

  2. Non-Markovian work fluctuation theorem in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    The validity of the transient work fluctuation theorem for a charged Brownian harmonic oscillator embedded in a non-Markovian heat bath and under the action of crossed electric and magnetic fields is investigated. The aforementioned theorem is verified to be valid within the context of the generalized Langevin equation with an arbitrary memory kernel and arbitrary dragging in the potential minimum. The fluctuation-dissipation relation of the second kind is assumed to be valid and shows that the non-Markovian stochastic dynamics associated with the particle, in the absence of the external time-dependent electric field, reaches an equilibrium state, as is precisely demanded by such a relation. The Jarzynski equality in this problem is also analyzed.

  3. Methods and systems using encapsulated tracers and chemicals for reservoir interrogation and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jeffery; Aines, Roger D; Duoss, Eric B; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2014-11-04

    An apparatus, method, and system of reservoir interrogation. A tracer is encapsulating in a receptacle. The receptacle containing the tracer is injected into the reservoir. The tracer is analyzed for reservoir interrogation.

  4. Accidents at work and costs analysis: a field study in a large Italian company.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Massimo; Frey, Marco; Passetti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  5. Accidents at Work and Costs Analysis: A Field Study in a Large Italian Company

    PubMed Central

    BATTAGLIA, Massimo; FREY, Marco; PASSETTI, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents at work are still a heavy burden in social and economic terms, and action to improve health and safety standards at work offers great potential gains not only to employers, but also to individuals and society as a whole. However, companies often are not interested to measure the costs of accidents even if cost information may facilitate preventive occupational health and safety management initiatives. The field study, carried out in a large Italian company, illustrates technical and organisational aspects associated with the implementation of an accident costs analysis tool. The results indicate that the implementation (and the use) of the tool requires a considerable commitment by the company, that accident costs analysis should serve to reinforce the importance of health and safety prevention and that the economic dimension of accidents is substantial. The study also suggests practical ways to facilitate the implementation and the moral acceptance of the accounting technology. PMID:24869894

  6. Performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to pesticides during open field treatment.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to five pesticides (azinphos-methyl, terbutylazine, alachlor, dimethoate, and dicamba) in field distribution by tractor equipped with boom sprayer. Performance was assessed by measuring the penetration factors of different types of work clothing. The results show that the protection offered by personal protective equipment (PPE) was always >97%, whereas the performance of cotton garments ranged from 84.1% to 92.5%. The different cotton garments differed significantly in their permeability, and the upper part of the body was the anatomical region showing the greatest values of the penetration factors. These results confirm the necessity of using PPE properly to minimise dermal exposure to pesticides. PMID:19424648

  7. Active interrogation of helicopter main rotor faults using trailing edge flap actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Patricia Lynn

    Over the past decade, the helicopter community has become increasingly interested in health monitoring. The rotor system, however, is not sufficiently covered in the current Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). This dissertation describes the development and evaluation of a new approach for detecting helicopter rotor faults in which active trailing edge flaps are used to interrogate the system. This work is based on the presumption that trailing edge flaps would be installed for the primary purpose of vibration and/or noise control; health monitoring is a secondary use. Using this approach, the blade is excited by an interrogation signal, which is a low amplitude oscillation at a few discrete frequencies. The blade response is measured and the health of the system is determined using a frequency domain damage identification algorithm. Damage detection and location are achieved via the residual force vector. The residual force vector, coupled with an understanding of the system physics, also provides nature characterization. Quantification of damage extent is achieved via a frequency domain adaptation of the Asymmetric Minimum Rank Perturbation Theory. The active interrogation system is evaluated using an aeroelastic finite element model of the rotor system in hover, including an advanced unsteady aerodynamic model to predict the trailing edge flap loads. Realistic damage models, including distributed bending stiffness damage, torsional stiffness damage, control system stiffness damage, cracks and ballistic damage, are seeded in the rotor system model. Results demonstrate detection, location and quantification of extent of all of the faults tested. The effects of noise and modeling errors are discussed and mitigation techniques are developed. Additionally, a measurability study is included. Benefits of this work include both improved health monitoring for rotorcraft as well as insights into the application of structural damage detection algorithms to a

  8. Radiological risks of neutron interrogation of food.

    PubMed

    Albright, S; Seviour, R

    2015-09-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of neutron scanning techniques for security. Neutron techniques with a range of energy spectra including thermal, white and fast neutrons have been shown to work in different scenarios. As international interest in neutron scanning increases the risk of activating cargo, especially foodstuffs must be considered. There has been a limited amount of research into the activation of foods by neutron beams and we have sought to improve the amount of information available. In this paper we show that for three important metrics; activity, ingestion dose and Time to Background there is a strong dependence on the food being irradiated and a weak dependence on the energy of irradiation. Previous studies into activation used results based on irradiation of pharmaceuticals as the basis for research into activation of food. The earlier work reports that (24)Na production is the dominant threat which motivated the search for (24)Na(n,γ)(24)Na in highly salted foods. We show that (42)K can be more significant than (24)Na in low sodium foods such as Bananas and Potatoes. PMID:26083976

  9. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  10. `Unthinkable' Selves: Identity boundary work in a summer field ecology enrichment program for diverse youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Huffling, Lacey D.; Tomasek, Terry; Hegedus, Tess A.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Allen, Melony H.; Ash, Mary C.

    2015-07-01

    The historical under-representation of diverse youth in environmental science education is inextricably connected to access and identity-related issues. Many diverse youth with limited previous experience to the outdoors as a source for learning and/or leisure may consider environmental science as 'unthinkable'. This is an ethnographic study of 16 diverse high school youths' participation, none of who initially fashioned themselves as 'outdoorsy' or 'animal people', in a four-week summer enrichment program focused on herpetology (study of reptiles and amphibians). To function as 'good' participants, youth acted in ways that placed them well outside their comfort zones, which we labeled as identity boundary work. Results highlight the following cultural tools, norms, and practices that enabled youths' identity boundary work: (1) boundary objects (tools regularly used in the program that facilitated youths' engagement with animals and nature and helped them work through fear or discomfort); (2) time and space (responsive, to enable adaptation to new environments, organisms, and scientific field techniques); (3) social support and collective agency; and (4) scientific and anecdotal knowledge and skills. Findings suggest challenges to commonly held beliefs about equitable pedagogy, which assumes that scientific practices must be thinkable and/or relevant before youth engage meaningfully. Further, findings illustrate the ways that fear, in small doses and handled with empathy, may become a resource for youths' connections to animals, nature, and science. Finally, we propose that youths' situated identity boundary work in the program may have the potential to spark more sustained identity work, given additional experiences and support.

  11. Field-Emission from Chemically Functionalized Diamond Surfaces: Does Electron Affinity Picture Work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Takehide; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Okushi, Hideyo; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2014-03-01

    By means of the time-dependent density functional electron dynamics, we have revisited the field-emission efficiency of chemically functionalized diamond (100) surfaces. In order to achieve high efficiency and high (chemical) stability, proper chemical species are needed to terminate diamond surfaces. Hydrogen (H) termination is well known to achieve the negative electron affinity (NEA) of diamond surface which indeed enhances field emission performance than that of clean surface with positive electron affinity (PEA). Yet, the durability of H-terminated diamond surface was concerned for long-time operation of the field-emission. Meantime, oxidation, or hydroxyl (OH) termination was considered to achieve chemical stability of the surface but presence of oxygen (O) atom should reduce the emission efficiency. Recently, H- OH-co-terminated surface is reported as NEA and was expected to achieve both emission efficiency and chemical stability. However, our simulation showed that emission efficiency of the H- OH- co-terminated surface is much lower than clean surface with PEA, thus we note that the electron affinity cannot be a unique measure to determine the emission efficiency. In this talk, we introduce necessity of new concept to understand the emission efficiency which needs to know detailed potential profile from bulk to vacuum through surface, which is strongly dependent on the surface chemical functionalization. This work was supported by ALCA project conducted by Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  12. Interrogating inclusive development in India's transition process.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Anjan; Dhar, Anup

    2012-12-01

    This paper makes two related contributions. First, the dual economic structure underlying development is shown as producing a distinct conception of other comprising of a devalued third world which is foregrounded and world of the third which is excluded. This dyad of inclusion-exclusion of other is produced in relation to the centers of capitalism and modernism. The category of third world helps to displace the language-experience-logic-ethos of the other a la world of the third such that development works over and transforms world of the third, but via the trope of a devalued third world. We then use this framework to explore the relation of global capitalism with world of the third in the Indian context, a relation that is shown to be two fold. There is on one hand an attempt to dismantle world of the third as part of the development trope of overcoming the third world. On the other, through inclusive development, an attempt is made to directly intervene in the economy of world of the third so as to address the problems of income inequality and social exclusion, again under the trope of uplifting the devalued third world. PMID:23390797

  13. Different developmental trajectories across feature types support a dynamic field model of visual working memory development

    PubMed Central

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Miller, Hilary E.; Bohache, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Research on visual working memory has focused on characterizing the nature of capacity limits as “slots” or “resources” based almost exclusively on adults’ performance with little consideration for developmental change. Here we argue that understanding how visual working memory develops can shed new light onto the nature of representations. We present an alternative model, the Dynamic Field Theory (DFT), which can capture effects that have been previously attributed either to “slot” or “resource” explanations. The DFT includes a specific developmental mechanism to account for improvements in both resolution and capacity of visual working memory throughout childhood. Here we show how development in the DFT can account for different capacity estimates across feature types (i.e., color and shape). The current paper tests this account by comparing children’s (3, 5, and 7 years of age) performance across different feature types. Results showed that capacity for colors increased faster over development than capacity for shapes. A second experiment confirmed this difference across feature types within subjects, but also showed that the difference can be attenuated by testing memory for less-familiar colors. Model simulations demonstrate how developmental changes in connectivity within the model—purportedly arising through experience—can capture differences across feature types. PMID:25737253

  14. Developing a health and safety plan for hazardous field work in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Volz, Conrad D; Burger, Joanna; Jewett, Stephen; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry

    2006-12-01

    Developing health and safety plans (HASPs) is a common feature of occupational safety and health for many workplaces. Formal HASPs are a requirement for hazardous waste work, requiring the anticipation and identification of hazards and embodying the training, equipping, and evaluation of workers. Aside from OSHA, there are relatively few manuals or examples and virtually no papers that provide practical guidance in what a HASP should cover or how to create and implement one. Moreover, existing guidance refers to spatially circumscribed worksites. This article details development of a HASP to cover field researchers and ship personnel conducting scientific research in a remote area of the world (Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians), hundreds of kilometers from the nearest emergency room. It required characterizing the kinds of work to be performed and anticipating the hazards that could be encountered. It illustrates the meshing of a general HASP with a ship safety plan, a dive safety plan, and specialized topics, including stop-work authority, rock climbing, firearms, vehicle safety, and communication strategy. Remote area operations are a growing challenge facing the profession. An expedition of this sort requires extensive planning and experienced safety personnel and cannot rely on luck to ensure the safe return of participants. PMID:17050349

  15. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Evans, Louise G; Lee, S Y

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  16. MSW Foundation Students in the Field: Reflections on the Nature and Quality of Group Work Assignments and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPorte, Heidi Heft; Sweifach, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Commentators find that education in social group work has diminished over the past three decades, creating a shortage in group work-trained field instructors. The role of instructing group work students may appear relatively easy; however, quality instruction requires careful planning, time, energy, and specialized knowledge. Without knowledge and…

  17. OFDR with double interrogation for dynamic quasi-distributed sensing.

    PubMed

    Am, Adva Bar; Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-02-10

    A method for phase sensitive quasi-distributed vibration and acoustical sensing is presented. The method is based on double optical frequency domain reflectometry interrogation of a sensing fiber with an array of discrete weak reflectors. Two replicas of the interrogation signal are launched into the sensing fiber. The time delay between the replicas is equal to the roundtrip time between two consecutive reflectors. Each peak in the spectrum of the returning signal is made from a coherent addition of the reflections of two consecutive reflectors. Its magnitude is highly sensitive to the optical phase in the fiber segment between the reflectors. The system was used to detect and locate the fall of a paperclip from height of 40 cm onto a sandbox where a 15 cm segment of the fiber was buried. In a different experiment the system successfully detected and located minute vibrations at 440 Hz that were induced by touching the fiber with a tuning fork. PMID:24663522

  18. All-Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There have been two recent revolutionary advances in neuroscience: First, genetically encoded activity sensors have brought the goal of optical detection of single action potentials in vivo within reach. Second, optogenetic actuators now allow the activity of neurons to be controlled with millisecond precision. These revolutions have now been combined, together with advanced microscopies, to allow “all-optical” readout and manipulation of activity in neural circuits with single-spike and single-neuron precision. This is a transformational advance that will open new frontiers in neuroscience research. Harnessing the power of light in the all-optical approach requires coexpression of genetically encoded activity sensors and optogenetic probes in the same neurons, as well as the ability to simultaneously target and record the light from the selected neurons. It has recently become possible to combine sensors and optical strategies that are sufficiently sensitive and cross talk free to enable single-action-potential sensitivity and precision for both readout and manipulation in the intact brain. The combination of simultaneous readout and manipulation from the same genetically defined cells will enable a wide range of new experiments as well as inspire new technologies for interacting with the brain. The advances described in this review herald a future where the traditional tools used for generations by physiologists to study and interact with the brain—stimulation and recording electrodes—can largely be replaced by light. We outline potential future developments in this field and discuss how the all-optical strategy can be applied to solve fundamental problems in neuroscience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This review describes the nexus of dramatic recent developments in optogenetic probes, genetically encoded activity sensors, and novel microscopies, which together allow the activity of neural circuits to be recorded and manipulated entirely using light. The

  19. Interrogating trees as archives of sulphur deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, P. M.; Loader, N. J.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    A principal driver of climatic variability over the past 1,000 years and essential forcing mechanism for climate, are the changes in atmospheric composition resulting from sulphur aerosols. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols released into the atmosphere disrupt the radiative balance through backscattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation and increase cloud albedo by acting as condensation nuclei. Understanding the impact of sulphur emissions upon climate beyond the last few hundred years however is not straightforward and natural archives of environmental information must be explored. Tree-rings represent one such archive as they are widely distributed and preserve environmental information within a precisely dateable, annually resolved timescale. Until recently the sulphur contained within tree-rings has largely remained beyond the reach of environmental scientists and climate modelers owing to difficulties associated with the extraction of a robust signal and uncertainties regarding post-depositional mobility. Our recent work using synchrotron radiation has established that the majority of non-labile sulphur in two conifer species is preserved within the cellular structure of the woody tissue after uptake and demonstrates an increasing trend in sulphur concentration during the 20th century and during known volcanic events. Due to the clear isotopic distinction between marine (+21), geological (+10 to +30), atmospheric pollution (-3 to +9 ) and volcanic sources of sulphur (0 to +5), isotopic ratios provide a diagnostic tool with which changes in the source of atmospheric sulphur can be detected in a more reliable fashion than concentration alone. Sulphur isotopes should thereby provide a fingerprint of short lived events including volcanic activity when extracted at high resolution and in conjunction with high resolution S concentrations defining the event. Here we present methodologies associated with extracting the sulphur isotopic signal from tree

  20. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

  1. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  2. Distributed audio recording using OFDR with double interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a phase sensitive, dynamic and long range fiber-optic sensing system with fully distributed audio recording capabilities. The proposed system implements a recently developed OFDR design, which is based on double interrogation of a sensing fiber with equally-spaced discrete reflectors. In this paper, the ability of each sensing segment to operate as an independent, purely optical audio recorder with little cross-talk artifacts is demonstrated.

  3. The Pulsed Interrogation Neutron and Gamma (PING) inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Hensley, D.C.; Coffey, D.E.; Chapman, J.A.; Caylor, B.A.; Bailey, R.D. ); Vourvopoulos, G. ); Kehayias, J. . USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts Univ.)

    1991-01-01

    Explosives and chemical warfare (CW) agents possess elements and characteristic elemental ratios not commonly found in significant quantities in other items. These elements include nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine. The research described herein discusses the results to date of the development of a pulsed-neutron interrogation and gamma ({gamma})-ray system for detecting concealed explosives and for discriminating munitions containing CW agents and conventional explosives. Preliminary experimental data has suggested that distinct classes of chemical agents could also be distinguished, for example, nerve agents and mustard gases. Based on there results, the system is currently being designed for the detection of explosives concealed, for example, in airline luggage. Nuclear and x-ray technologies possess unique characteristics to quickly and reliably search for explosives. Both oxygen and nitrogen, present in sufficient concentrations, when detected, uniquely determine the presence of explosives. Carbon would be a third element that is common in all explosives, although it does not correlate uniquely with all known explosives. A system which identifies and quantifies all three elements would provide more reliable information about the interrogated material. We have previously demonstrated that the technique described in this paper can identify certain elements through fast- and slow-neutron interrogation and subsequent prompt- and delayed-{gamma}-ray detection. The identification of CW agent elements such as chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and fluorine, is also accomplished through the detection of characteristic capture {gamma}-rays. The Pulsed Interrogation Neutron and Gamma (PING) inspection system is based upon technology developed over twelve years for the determination of fissile mass quantities in radioactive waste, for the determination of sulfur in coal, and for in-vivo body composition measurements.

  4. The Pulsed Interrogation Neutron and Gamma (PING) inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Hensley, D.C.; Coffey, D.E.; Chapman, J.A.; Caylor, B.A.; Bailey, R.D.; Vourvopoulos, G.; Kehayias, J.

    1991-12-31

    Explosives and chemical warfare (CW) agents possess elements and characteristic elemental ratios not commonly found in significant quantities in other items. These elements include nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine. The research described herein discusses the results to date of the development of a pulsed-neutron interrogation and gamma ({gamma})-ray system for detecting concealed explosives and for discriminating munitions containing CW agents and conventional explosives. Preliminary experimental data has suggested that distinct classes of chemical agents could also be distinguished, for example, nerve agents and mustard gases. Based on there results, the system is currently being designed for the detection of explosives concealed, for example, in airline luggage. Nuclear and x-ray technologies possess unique characteristics to quickly and reliably search for explosives. Both oxygen and nitrogen, present in sufficient concentrations, when detected, uniquely determine the presence of explosives. Carbon would be a third element that is common in all explosives, although it does not correlate uniquely with all known explosives. A system which identifies and quantifies all three elements would provide more reliable information about the interrogated material. We have previously demonstrated that the technique described in this paper can identify certain elements through fast- and slow-neutron interrogation and subsequent prompt- and delayed-{gamma}-ray detection. The identification of CW agent elements such as chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and fluorine, is also accomplished through the detection of characteristic capture {gamma}-rays. The Pulsed Interrogation Neutron and Gamma (PING) inspection system is based upon technology developed over twelve years for the determination of fissile mass quantities in radioactive waste, for the determination of sulfur in coal, and for in-vivo body composition measurements.

  5. Time dependent measurements of induced fission for SNM interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Israelashvili, I.; Wengrowicz, U.; Caspi, E. N.; Yaar, I.; Osovizki, A.; Ocherashvili, A.; Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.; Roesgen, E.

    2013-08-01

    Gammas from induced fissions were measured and separated into prompt and delayed particles. To this end, a dedicated detector was realized, based on a plastic scintillator, a wavelength shifter fiber and a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Results are presented from the interrogation of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), employing a pulsed neutron generator in the PUNITA graphite moderator incorporating the above detector assembly. The detector response is presented, as well as the sensitivities for prompt and delayed processes within the same experimental setup.

  6. Photonic Interrogation and Control of Nano Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassemnejad, Baha

    2003-01-01

    able to generate laser tweezers modes of different orbital angular momentum using a spatial light modulator incorporated into a laser tweezers system. The motivation for investigating these types of modes stems from being able to spin particles at high speeds and also to orient two particles in separate traps and then join them together. Also, there has been recent intense interest on fundamental physics research on orbital angular momentum of light. The fact that circularly polarized light may have associated with it angular momentum that relates to the spin of individual photons (spin 0 for the plane polarized light, spin +1 for the right-circularly polarized light and spin -1 for the left-circularly polarized light) was first demonstrated by Beth in 1936. Orbital angular momentum is, however, distinct from spin in that the spin angular momentum of light is intrinsically linked to the behavior of the electric field in the light whereas orbital angular momentum is a consequence of inclined wavefronts. In 1992 L. Allen, et al showed that the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes could possess well-defined orbital angular momentum that can exceed 1 planck's constant, i.e. l plancks constant per photon, where l is the azimuthal index of the mode.

  7. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelashvili, I.; Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A.; Pedersen, B.; Beck, A.; Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J. M.; Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I.

    2015-06-01

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  8. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  9. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  10. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  11. Thermodynamics of the interconversion of heat and work via plasma electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.

    2010-12-15

    Thermodynamics of a system where a group of cold charged particles locally confined in a volume V{sub P} within a warm plasma of temperature T and volume V (V{sub P}work via isothermal compression/expansion of plasma electric field (associated with charged particles) in a plasma heat pump and ES heat engine cycle is demonstrated. The efficiency of the plasma heat pump is discussed in terms of its power efficiency {eta}{sub P} and is shown to be close to unity

  12. Inter-conversion of Work and Heat With Plasma Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.

    2010-11-23

    Thermodynamics of a model system where a group of cold charged particles locally confined in a volume V{sub P} within a warm plasma of temperature T and fixed volume V (V{sub P}<work is demonstrated via a Striling like engine cycle involving ES isothermal compression of plasma electric fields.

  13. The effects of interruptions in work activity: field and laboratory results.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, H; Cellier, J M

    2000-10-01

    The effects of interruptions in work activity were investigated, first in a field study where the operators' task was to card-index data about customers' phone lines. The interruptions due to customers' calls resulted in an increase of the processing time of the current task and in the use of several management strategies. A laboratory study was then designed in order to study the effects of temporal strain, complexity and similarity on time-sharing efficiency and to clarify the psychological mechanisms underlying the switching from one task to the other. The results showed especially a significant effect of temporal strains on performance and a strong increase in mean error rate at the very beginning of the processing of the second task. In conclusion, advice is given for both technical and organisational design. PMID:11059468

  14. Depth distribution of radiocesium in Fukushima paddy fields and implications for ongoing decontamination works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Lefèvre, I.; Laceby, J. P.; Ayrault, S.

    2014-09-01

    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km2 area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of radiocesium in soil in the months following the accident, the potential migration of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields or transfer of radioactive contaminants from soils to rice. Radionuclide activity concentrations and organic content were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of radiocesium with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (< 5 cm). More than 30 months after the accident, 81.5 to 99.7% of the total 137Cs inventories was still found within the < 5 cm of the soil surface, despite cumulative rainfall totalling 3300 mm. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between radiocesium migration depth and total organic carbon content. We attributed the maximum depth penetration of 137Cs to maintenance (grass cutting - 97% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm) and farming operations (tilling - 83% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm). As this area is exposed to erosive events, ongoing decontamination works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost - contaminated - layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Remediation efforts should be concentrated on soils characterised by radiocesium activities > 10 000 Bq kg-1 to prevent the contamination of rice. Further analysis is required to clarify the redistribution of radiocesium eroded on river channels.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation for LINAC Standoff Interrogation of Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Shaun D; Flaska, Marek; Miller, Thomas Martin; Protopopescu, Vladimir A; Pozzi, Sara A

    2007-06-01

    The development of new techniques for the interrogation of shielded nuclear materials relies on the use of Monte Carlo codes to accurately simulate the entire system, including the interrogation source, the fissile target and the detection environment. The objective of this modeling effort is to develop analysis tools and methods-based on a relevant scenario-which may be applied to the design of future systems for active interrogation at a standoff. For the specific scenario considered here, the analysis will focus on providing the information needed to determine the type and optimum position of the detectors. This report describes the results of simulations for a detection system employing gamma rays to interrogate fissile and nonfissile targets. The simulations were performed using specialized versions of the codes MCNPX and MCNP-PoliMi. Both prompt neutron and gamma ray and delayed neutron fluxes have been mapped in three dimensions. The time dependence of the prompt neutrons in the system has also been characterized For this particular scenario, the flux maps generated with the Monte Carlo model indicate that the detectors should be placed approximately 50 cm behind the exit of the accelerator, 40 cm away from the vehicle, and 150 cm above the ground. This position minimizes the number of neutrons coming from the accelerator structure and also receives the maximum flux of prompt neutrons coming from the source. The lead shielding around the accelerator minimizes the gamma-ray background from the accelerator in this area. The number of delayed neutrons emitted from the target is approximately seven orders of magnitude less than the prompt neutrons emitted from the system. Therefore, in order to possibly detect the delayed neutrons, the detectors should be active only after all prompt neutrons have scattered out of the system. Preliminary results have shown this time to be greater than 5 ?s after the accelerator pulse. This type of system is illustrative of a

  16. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  17. Sensing, capturing, and interrogation of single virus particles with solid state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Kim, Minjun

    2015-05-01

    Solid-state nanopores have gained much attention as a bioanalytical platform. By virtue of their tunable nanoscale dimensions, nanopore sensors can a spatial resolution that spans a wide range of biological species from a single-molecule to a single virus or microorganism. Several groups have already used solid-state nanopores for tag-free detection of viruses. However, no one has reported use of nanopores to capture a single virus for further interrogation by the electric field inside nanopores. In this paper we will report detection of single HIV-1 particle with solid-state nanopores and demonstrate the ability to trap a single HIV-1 particle on top of a nanopore and force it to squeeze through the pore using an electric field.

  18. Outreach through archeo Astronomy field work : Experience from the Jantar Mantar observatories of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnasree, Nandivada

    2015-08-01

    Archeo astronomy heritage sites and related instruments, have tremendous potential for very effective Astronomy outreach. Very rewarding field work towards archeo astronomy compilation of instrument properties has been ongoing, parallel with effective outreach, and with each stream of work feeding into the other, in relation to the four extant Jantar Mantar observatories in India - located at Jaipur, Delhi, Varanasi and Ujjain.Jantar Mantar observatory instruments are tactile manifestaions of spherical trigonometry concepts, which are usually difficult to comprehend for a beginner, particulalrly from laminar pages of a text book. Thus, active observational and measurement work with different aspects of these instruments gives a very good grounding in basic Astronomy for any beginner and fosters a retention of this interest for a student who may go on to undertake research in Astronomy in a more modern setup later.In the specific context of the Jantar Mantar observatories, careful positonal Astronomy observations using different aspects of all the observatory instruments, can be used to characterise the errors and construction/instrumental properties of these instruments in their current state.While there have been alterations of the surface instrumental markings for many of these instruments over time, the base structures for most of the instruments are thought to have been unaltered since their construction. Thus, observations conducted using the base structures of the instruments give an archeo Astronomical picture of true accuracies which were achievable by these instruments, through actual observations. Work of this kind is beng done for the first time with the four extant Jantar Mantar observatories in India, since they fell into disuse following the death of their creator in 1743.In the particular case of the Jantar Mantar observatory situated inside the Manmandir complex at Varanasi, there are no records of any night time observations having been undertaken

  19. [INVITED] Cascade FBGs distributed sensors interrogation using microwave photonics filtering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia L.; Hervás, Javier; Sales, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    Systems to interrogate photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are illustrated and experimentally validated. The FBGs-based devices are used as quasi-distributed sensors and have demonstrated their ability to detect and measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The overall idea beyond this work has been borne out and demonstrated step by step starting from preliminary test that have led to the development of a very-long distributed sensor based on an array of 500 equal and weak FBGs. Firstly, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the MWP filtering technique to interrogate a 10 cm-long high reflectivity (≈99%) FBG. Then, a pair of low-reflectivity (<6%) FBGs has been employed as sensing device. The latter has laid the foundation for the development and implementation of a 5 m-long fiber optic sensor based on 500 very weak FBGs. Spot events have been detected with a good spatial accuracy of less than 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of only 500 MHz. The simple proposed schemes result cost effective, intrinsically robust against environmental changes and easy to reconfigure.

  20. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giacalone, Joseph C.; Wiley, Luke A.; Burnight, Erin R.; Songstad, Allison E.; Mullins, Robert F.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person’s cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed. PMID:26683869

  1. Experimental benchmark of MCNPX calculations against self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) fresh fuel measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T; La Fleur, Adrienne M; Charlton, William S; Lee, S Y; Tobin, S J

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to measure the {sup 235}U concentration in a PWR 15 x 15 fresh LEU fuel assembly in air. Different measurement configurations were simulated in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended transport code (MCNPX) and benchmarked against experimental results. The sensitivity of SINRD is based on using the same fissile materials in the fission chambers as are present in the fuel because the effect of resonance absorption lines in the transmitted flux is amplified by the corresponding (n,j) reaction peaks in fission chamber. Due to the low spontaneous fission rate of {sup 238}U (i.e. no curium in the fresh fuel), {sup 252}Cf sources were used to self-interrogate the fresh fuel pins. The resonance absorption of these neutrons in the fresh fuel pins can be measured using {sup 235}U fission chambers placed adjacent to the assembly. We used ratios of different fission chambers to reduce the number of unknowns we are trying measure because the neutron source strength and detector-fuel assembly coupling cancel in the ratios. The agreement between MCNPX results and experimental measurements confirms the accuracy of the MCNPX models used. The development of SINRD to measure the fissile content in spent fuel is important to the improvement of nuclear safeguards and material accountability. Future work includes the use of this technique to measure the fissile content in LWR spent fuel in water.

  2. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    PubMed

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  3. Concise Review: Patient-Specific Stem Cells to Interrogate Inherited Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Joseph C; Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; Songstad, Allison E; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2016-02-01

    Whether we are driving to work or spending time with loved ones, we depend on our sense of vision to interact with the world around us. Therefore, it is understandable why blindness for many is feared above death itself. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa, are major causes of blindness worldwide. The recent success of gene augmentation trials for the treatment of RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis has underscored the need for model systems that accurately recapitulate disease. With the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), researchers are now able to obtain disease-specific cell types that would otherwise be unavailable for molecular analysis. In the present review, we discuss how the iPSC technology is being used to confirm the pathogenesis of novel genetic variants, interrogate the pathophysiology of disease, and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments. Significance: Stem cell technology has created the opportunity to advance treatments for multiple forms of blindness. Researchers are now able to use a person's cells to generate tissues found in the eye. This technology can be used to elucidate the genetic causes of disease and develop treatment strategies. In the present review, how stem cell technology is being used to interrogate the pathophysiology of eye disease and accelerate the development of patient-centered treatments is discussed. PMID:26683869

  4. Concept and design of an FBG emulator for a scanning laser-based fiber optic interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhenuri, Nader; Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Obermaier, Johannes; Schweyer, Sebastian; Hurni, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    The Hybrid Sensor Bus is a space-borne temperature monitoring system for telecommunication satellites com­ bining electrical and fiber-optical Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. Currently, there is no method available for testing the functionality and robustness of the system without setting up an actual sensor-network implying numerous FBG sensors in which each has to be heated/cooled individually. As a verification method of the mentioned system, FBG reflection based scanning laser interrogator, an FBG­ emulator is implemented to emulate the necessary FBG sensors. It is capable of immediate emulation of any given FBG spectrum, thus, any temperature. The concept provides advantages like emulating different kinds of FBGs with any peak shape, variable Bragg-wavelength λB, maximal-reflectivity τmax, spectral-width and degradation characteristics. Further, it facilitates an efficient evaluation of different interrogator peak-finding algorithms and the capability of emulating up to 10000 sample points per second is achieved. In the present paper, different concepts will be discussed and evaluated yielding to the implementation of a Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) as the main actuator of the emulator. The actuator choice is further restricted since the emulator has to work with light in unknown polarization state. In order to implement a fast opto-ceramic VOA, issues like temperature dependencies, up to 200 V driving input and capacitive load have to be overcome. Furthermore, a self-calibration procedure mitigates problems like attenuation losses and long-term drift.

  5. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  6. Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk: The Role of the Interrogative Form of Simple Future Tense

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes. PMID:20424090

  7. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-06-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application used FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Both applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events. PMID:26072789

  8. International Social Work Field Placement or Volunteer Tourism? Developing an Asset-Based Justice-Learning Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Dubus, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a developing model for building an international social work placement that meets the needs of the host agency and community first. The paper addresses the challenges for social work departments to develop a strong learning environment while also keeping primary the needs of the host community and agency.

  9. Interrogating discourse: the application of Foucault's methodological discussion to specific inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    Discourse analysis following the work of Michel Foucault has become a valuable methodology in the critical analysis of a broad range of topics relating to health. However, it can be a daunting task, in that there seems to be both a huge number of possible approaches to carrying out this type of project, and an abundance of different, often conflicting, opinions about what counts as 'Foucauldian'. This article takes the position that methodological design should be informed by ongoing discussion and applied as appropriate to a particular area of inquiry. The discussion given offers an interpretation and application of Foucault's methodological principles, integrating a reading of Foucault with applications of his work by other authors, showing how this is then applied to interrogate the practice of vocational rehabilitation. It is intended as a contribution to methodological discussion in this area, offering an interpretation of various methodological elements described by Foucault, alongside specific application of these aspects. PMID:23117590

  10. Working with Real Data: Getting Analytic Element Groundwater Model Results to Honor Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Models of groundwater flow often work best when very little field data exist. In such cases, some knowledge of the depth to the water table, annual precipitation totals, and basic geological makeup is sufficient to produce a reasonable-looking and potentially useful model. However, in this case where a good deal of information is available regarding depth to bottom of a dune field aquifer, attempting to incorporate the data set into the model has variously resulted in convergence, failure to achieve target water level criteria, or complete failure to converge. The first model did not take the data set into consideration, but used general information that the aquifer was thinner in the north and thicker in the south. This model would run and produce apparently useful results. The first attempt at satisfying the data set; in this case 51 wells showing the bottom elevation of a Pacific coast sand dune aquifer, was to use the isopach interpretation of Robinson (OFR 73-241). Using inhomogeneities (areas of equal characteristics) delineated by Robinson's isopach diagram did not enable an adequate fit to the water table lakes, and caused convergence problems when adding pumping wells. The second attempt was to use a Thiessen polygon approach, creating an aquifer thickness zone for each data point. The results for the non-pumping scenario were better, but run times were considerably greater. Also, there were frequent runs with non-convergence, especially when water supply wells were added. Non-convergence may be the result of the lake line-sinks crossing the polygon boundaries or proximity of pumping wells to inhomogeneity boundaries. The third approach was to merge adjacent polygons of similar depths; in this case within 5% of each other. The results and run times were better, but matching lake levels was not satisfactory. The fourth approach was to reduce the number of inhomogeneities to four, and to average the depth data over the inhomogeneity. The thicknesses were

  11. NASA's Design and Development of a Field Goniometer Instrument Using Solid Works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Mark; Sasaki, Glen; Jennings, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With NASA suffering severe funding cutbacks, engineers at NASA are required to produce state-of-the-art hardware with limited personnel and financial resources. In light of these constraints, the new NASA mandate is to build better, faster and cheaper. In April of 1998, Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program contracted to the Systems Engineering Division at NASA Ames Research Center to develop a device known as a Field Goniometer. A Field Goniometer is a device that measures bi-directional reflectance of a target, such as vegetation, relative to the sun and an imaging system in an aircraft or spacecraft. The device is able to provide a spectral fingerprint of the surface it is measuring in wavelengths from 350nm-2500nm using a hyperspectral imager. To accomplish this project, several obstacles had to be overcome. First, the design had to be completed in less than four months. Second, due to the complexity of the design, the use of solid modeling was highly desirable but most of the group's solid modelers were assigned to other jobs. Third, the amount of funding available from the customer was one half to one third the funding typically expended for a job of this nature. Our choices for this project were to design with standard 2-D CAD systems currently used in-house or train additional engineers on our existing solids package or purchase a new solid model package. The use of a 2D CAD system was very undesirable due to the complexity of the design. Using our existing solids modeler would have required a learning curve for our engineers that would be incompatible with our schedule. Prior to this project, a member of our design group researched the solid modeling industry and decided to purchase SolidWorks. After examining the product for ease of use, modeling capability, training time required and cost, we decided our highest probability of success would be to design with Solidworks. During the design phase, our fabrication group was able to provide

  12. System design considerations for fast-neutron interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Curry, B.P.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1993-10-01

    Nonintrusive interrogation techniques that employ fast neutrons are of interest because of their sensitivity to light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The primary requirement of a fast-neutron inspection system is to determine the value of atomic densities, or their ratios, over a volumetric grid superimposed on the object being interrogated. There are a wide variety of fast-neutron techniques that can provide this information. The differences between the various nuclear systems can be considered in light of the trade-offs relative to the performance requirements for each system`s components. Given a set of performance criteria, the operational requirements of the proposed nuclear systems may also differ. For instance, resolution standards will drive scanning times and tomographic requirements, both of which vary for the different approaches. We are modelling a number of the fast-neutron interrogation techniques currently under consideration, to include Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS), Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), and its variant, 14-MeV Associated Particle Imaging (API). The goals of this effort are to determine the component requirements for each technique, identify trade-offs that system performance standards impose upon those component requirements, and assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. In determining the component requirements, we will consider how they are driven by system performance standards, such as image resolution, scanning time, and statistical uncertainty. In considering the trade-offs between system components, we concentrate primarily on those which are common to all approaches, for example: source characteristics versus detector array requirements. We will then use the analysis to propose some figures-of-merit that enable performance comparisons between the various fast-neutron systems under consideration. The status of this ongoing effort is presented.

  13. Work statistics of charged noninteracting fermions in slowly changing magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Yi, Juyeon; Talkner, Peter

    2011-04-01

    We consider N fermionic particles in a harmonic trap initially prepared in a thermal equilibrium state at temperature β^{-1} and examine the probability density function (pdf) of the work done by a magnetic field slowly varying in time. The behavior of the pdf crucially depends on the number of particles N but also on the temperature. At high temperatures (β≪1) the pdf is given by an asymmetric Laplace distribution for a single particle, and for many particles it approaches a Gaussian distribution with variance proportional to N/β(2). At low temperatures the pdf becomes strongly peaked at the center with a variance that still linearly increases with N but exponentially decreases with the temperature. We point out the consequences of these findings for the experimental confirmation of the Jarzynski equality such as the low probability issue at high temperatures and its solution at low temperatures, together with a discussion of the crossover behavior between the two temperature regimes. PMID:21599127

  14. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this measurement

  15. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  16. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  17. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  18. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil). PMID:24800754

  19. FBG interrogation method based on wavelength-swept laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuan; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang; Rauf, Abdul; Wang, Donghui; Yang, Dexing

    2013-06-01

    Wavelength-swept laser technique is an active demodulation method which integrates laser source and detecting circuit together to achieve compact size. The method also has the advantages such as large demodulation range, high accuracy, and comparatively high speed. In this paper, we present a FBG interrogation method based on wavelength-swept Laser, in which an erbium-doped fiber is used as gain medium and connected by a WDM to form a ring cavity, a fiber FP tunable filter is inserted in the loop for choosing the laser frequency and a gas absorption cell is adopted as a frequency reference. The laser wavelength is swept by driving the FP filter. If the laser wavelength matches with that of FBG sensors, there will be some strong reflection peak signals. Detecting such signals with the transmittance signal after the gas absorption cell synchronously and analyzing them, the center wavelengths of the FBG sensors are calculated out at last. Here, we discuss the data processing method based on the frequency reference, and experimentally study the swept laser characteristics. Finally, we adopt this interrogator to demodulate FBG stress sensors. The results show that, the demodulation range almost covers C+L band, the resolution and accuracy can reach about 1pm or less and 5pm respectively. So it is very suitable for most FBG measurements.

  20. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    SciTech Connect

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  1. Special nuclear material detection using pulsed neutron interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.; Flammang, Robert W.

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed neutron interrogation methods for detection of Special Nuclear Materials are being developed. Fast prompt neutrons from thermal neutron-induced fissions are detected in the time intervals following 100-μs neutron bursts from a pulsed D-T neutron generator operating at 1000 pulses per second. Silicon Carbide semiconductor neutron detectors are used to detect fission neutrons in the 30-840 μs time intervals following each 14-MeV D-T neutron pulse. Optimization of the neutron detectors has led to dramatic reduction of detector background and improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio for Special Nuclear Material detection. Detection of Special Nuclear Materials in the presence of lead, cadmium and plywood shielding has been demonstrated. Generally, the introduction of shielding leads to short thermal neutron die-away times of 100-200 μs or less. The pulsed neutron interrogation method developed allows detection of the neutron signal even when the die-away time is less than 100 μs.

  2. Leveraging dialog systems research to assist biomedical researchers' interrogation of Big Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Julia; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide adoption of electronic health records (EHR) promises to accelerate clinical research, which lies at the heart of medical advances. However, the interrogation of such Big Data by clinical researchers can be laborious and error-prone, involving iterative and ineffective communication of data requests to data analysts. Research on this communication process is rare. There also exists no contemporary system that offers intelligent solutions to assist clinical researchers in their quest for clinical data. In this article, we first provide a detailed characterization of the challenges encountered in this communication space. Second, we identify promising synergies between fields studying human-to-human and human-machine communication that can shed light on biomedical data query mediation. We propose a mixed-initiative dialog-based approach to support autonomous clinical data access and recommend needed technology development and communication study for accelerating clinical research. PMID:27067901

  3. 48 CFR 252.237-7010 - Prohibition on interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... personnel or DoD contractor personnel being held for law enforcement purposes. Interrogation of detainees... obtaining reliable information to satisfy foreign intelligence collection requirements. (b)...

  4. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections. PMID:24377911

  5. High-throughput spectral system for interrogation of dermally-implanted luminescent sensors.

    PubMed

    Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Ratiometric luminescent microparticle sensors have been developed for sensing biochemical targets such as glucose in interstitial fluid, enabling use of dermal implants for on-demand monitoring. For these sensor systems to be deployed in vivo, a matched optoelectronic system for interrogation of dermally-implanted sensors was previously designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. During evaluation experiments, it revealed that the system efficiency was compromised by losses due to fiber connections of a commercial spectrometer. In this work, a high-throughput spectral system was presented to solve the photon loss problem. This system was designed, constructed, and tested. The throughput was around hundred time more than the previous system we used, and it was cost-effective, as well. It enables use of an integrated system for excitation, collection and measurement of luminescent emission, and will be used as a tool for in vivo studies with animal models or human subjects. PMID:23366396

  6. Effects function analysis of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electric utility work environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Nair, I; Sahl, J

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete understanding of the relation between power-frequency fields and biological responses raises problems in defining an appropriate metric for exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. Based on evidence from biological experiments, one can define alternative metrics or effects functions that embody the relationship between field exposure patterns and hypothetical health effects. In this paper, we explore the application of the "effects function" approach to occupational exposure data. Our analysis provides examples of exposure assessments based on a range of plausible effects functions. An EMDEX time series data set of ELF frequency (40-800 Hz) magnetic field exposure measurements for electric utility workers was analyzed with several statistical measures and effects functions: average field strength, combination of threshold and exposure duration, and field strength changes. Results were compared for eight job categories: electrician, substation operator, machinist, welder, plant operator, lineman/splicer, meter reader, and clerical. Average field strength yields a different ranking for these job categories than the ranks obtained using other biologically plausible effects functions. Whereas the group of electricians has the highest exposure by average field strength, the group of substation operators has the highest ranking for most of the other effects functions. Plant operators rank highest in the total number of field strength changes greater than 1 microT per hour. The clerical group remains at the lowest end for all of these effects functions. Our analysis suggests that, although average field strength could be used as a surrogate of field exposure for simply classifying exposure into "low" and "high," this summary measure may be misleading in the relative ranking of job categories in which workers are in "high" fields. These results indicate the relevance of metrics other than average field strength in occupational exposure assessment and

  7. Pluralizing Methodologies in the Field of LD: From "What Works" to What Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Gallagher, Deborah; Connor, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of learning disabilities (LD) has a complex and complicated history. Tensions over definitions, eligibility criteria, service delivery models, and best practices, as well as epistemological debates, have been a part of that history from its inception. Given our collective struggles, as well as the current realities facing the field,…

  8. Employers Talk about Building a School-to-Work System: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Joan L., Ed.

    This document contains background information on the school-to-work (STW) movement and 20 essays written by employers and intermediaries involved in STW program planning and implementation. Four points are highlighted: (1) it takes time to assemble an STW system; (2) the number of students participating in structured work-based learning remains…

  9. Critiquing Teacher Professional Development: Teacher Learning within the Field of Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This study is an empirical account of the professional development (PD) practices that constituted part of the work of a group of teachers and school-based administrators working together in a cluster of six schools in southeast Queensland, Australia, during a period of intense educational reform. The data comprise meeting transcripts and…

  10. Mentoring Formerly Incarcerated Adults: Insights from the Ready4Work Reentry Initiative. Field Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauldry, Shawn; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; McClanahan, Wendy S.; McMaken, Jennifer; Kotloff, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    This report explores mentoring as a tool for supporting the successful reintegration of formerly incarcerated individuals within the context of a larger reentry strategy--in this case, the "Ready4Work" model. "Ready4Work" was a three-year national demonstration designed to address the needs of the growing ex-prisoner population and to test the…