Science.gov

Sample records for intersectoral allocations factors

  1. Constraints and potential for efficient inter-sectoral water allocations in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashaigili, Japhet J.; Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Sokile, Charles S.; Mahoo, Henry F.

    In many sub-Saharan African countries, there are conflicts over water uses in most river basins. In Tanzania, conflicts are becoming alarming and are exacerbated by increasing water demands due to rapid population growth and expanding economic activities. This paper reviews the major constraints and potential for achieving efficient systems of allocating water resources to different uses and users in Tanzania. The following constraints are identified: (a) the lack of active community involvement in management of water resources, (b) conflicting institutions and weak institutional capacities both in terms of regulations and protection of interests of the poor, (c) the lack of data and information to inform policy and strategies for balanced water allocation, and (d) inadequate funds for operation, maintenance and expansion of water supply systems. Despite these constraints, there are also opportunities for improving water allocation and management systems in the country. These include: the available reserve of both surface and groundwater resources, which remain unexploited; high demand for water services; a high potential for investing in the water sector; and availability of basic infrastructure and elements of institutional framework that can be improved. The paper recommends the use of combined variants of water allocation devices which (a) meet different water requirements and ensure desirable multiple-use outcomes, (b) facilitate the classification of water resources in terms of desired environmental protection levels, (c) allow reforms in water utilization to achieve equity and meet changing social and economic priorities, (d) facilitate the development of effective local institutions, (e) put in place the legal system that assigns rights to water resources and describes how those rights may be transferred, (f) enforce the rights and punish infringements on those rights, and (g) use cost-effective pricing systems to ensure that payment for water uses cover

  2. Intersectoral action: local governments promoting health.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed. PMID:25217361

  3. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  4. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected...

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to: (1) evaluate the quality and completeness of data and methods being used for temporal allocation of emissions data, (2) identify and prioritize needed improvements to current methods for developing temporal allocation factors (TAFs), and ...

  6. 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and application of spatial allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment program(NAPAP) Emissions Inventory (Version 2). The 1985 annual inventory and related modelers' inventory represent the most comprehensive and hi...

  7. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  8. Important Factors For Resource Allocation In Applied Research And Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, E. U.

    1989-01-01

    Competitiveness of modern societies requires optimum allocation of capital, qualified workforce and organizational infrastructure with the connecting link determined by information technology. Human resources of the scientific and technical community can compensate limited resources of other types supported by enhanced information promotion mechanisms in applied research and development. Descriptive features of the problem dimensions are given as a frame of reference, and important factors are reviewed for possible consideration in the fields of technology policy, resource allocation methods and management practices.

  9. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Tanvir M.; Tahsina, Tazeen; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH) including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities), and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions). Design We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage. PMID:26880153

  10. Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; MacNicoll, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A persistent problem in health risk analysis where it is known that a disease may occur as a consequence of multiple risk factors with interactions is allocating the total risk of the disease among the individual risk factors. This problem, referred to here as risk apportionment, arises in various venues, including: (i) public health management, (ii) government programs for compensating injured individuals, and (iii) litigation. Two methods have been described in the risk analysis and epidemiology literature for allocating total risk among individual risk factors. One method uses weights to allocate interactions among the individual risk factors. The other method is based on risk accounting axioms and finding an optimal and unique allocation that satisfies the axioms using a procedure borrowed from game theory. Where relative risk or attributable risk is the risk measure, we find that the game-theory-determined allocation is the same as the allocation where risk factor interactions are apportioned to individual risk factors using equal weights. Therefore, the apportionment problem becomes one of selecting a meaningful set of weights for allocating interactions among the individual risk factors. Equal weights and weights proportional to the risks of the individual risk factors are discussed. PMID:25644783

  11. 25 CFR 170.202 - Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate funding among tribes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.202 Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor...

  12. 25 CFR 170.202 - Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate funding among tribes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.202 Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor...

  13. SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTOR PROCEDURES FOR THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSIONS INVENTORY DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of spatial allocation factors to apportion National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) area source emissions from counties to individual grid cells for input to the Regional Acid Deposition Models (RADM) and Regional Oxidant Models ...

  14. Intersectoral approaches to dengue vector control.

    PubMed

    Kay, B H

    1994-12-01

    Medical entomology in the context of urban vector control, especially for dengue, can be likened to the tail of a dog. Vertically structured Aedes aegypti campaigns such as run by Gorgas and Soper earlier this century relied on sufficient legislative backing for vector control to ensure that the tail was capable of wagging the dog. Under these conditions, especially where individual rights do not intrude, vertical programs will be successful. The global expansion of dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and its vectors, plus growing trends towards urban/periurban living indicate a more serious scenario than at present. In 1987, the Brundtland Report: "Our Common Future" decried sectoralism in problem solving. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the resulting Commission on Sustainable Development has promoted the intersectoral message of health, environment and development. The WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control has promoted this for some time and is attempting to build multidisciplinary projects against urban vector borne disease. Adequate solid waste management and recycling will reduce numbers of water bearing containers infested with Aedes aegypti and provision of reliable piped water supplies will impact heavily on infested water storage containers. Both should be encouraged as viable control options. For much of the world, vertical programs have been reported as prohibitively expensive, and unacceptable intrusion on human rights and thus unsustainable in the modern economic context. However there are successful modern examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844851

  15. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculate new, composite factors and, if applicable, category relationships based on a weighted average of... the composite allocation factors and, if applicable, the composite category percentage relationships..., to cost company status during the period July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2011, shall, for the...

  16. A scoping review of definitions and frameworks of intersectoral action.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alejandra; St-Pierre, Louise; Veras, Mirella

    2015-10-01

    Intersectoral action is rooted in all health promotion activities because the determinants of health lie outside of the health sector. Despite the increasing use of these terms (intersectoral action, intersectoral action for health, intersectoral collaboration), often interchangeably, we noted a lack of consensus on their definitions and conceptualizations. The objective of this paper is to report the results of a scoping review of the use of definitions for a set of related terms as well as for conceptual frameworks, including the discussion of the evolution of those definitions and the sectors that use them. Finally, we propose a single definition for each term. We conducted a systematic search for documents published between January, 1960 and March, 2011 in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. We retrieved 11 to 15 definitions per main term. Using a content analysis approach, an integrative conceptual definition was proposed for four main terms. Furthermore, in reviewing frameworks for potential use, we noted the lack of a comprehensive framework for intersectoral processes. PMID:26465838

  17. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm. PMID:25152925

  18. 15 CFR 303.14 - Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions. 303.14 Section 303.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES,...

  19. 15 CFR 303.14 - Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions. 303.14 Section 303.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES,...

  20. [The dynamic of the informal urban sector in Mexico: the role of intersectoral mobility].

    PubMed

    Roubaud, F

    1992-01-01

    This examination of labor mobility between the formal and informal sectors in Mexico provides a critique of existing models of intersectoral articulation, analyzes the flows between the formal and informal sectors of a group of small entrepreneurs in the informal sector, and assesses the consequences of existing mobility strategies for the economic performance of the informal sector. Works of economists interested in dual models of economies in developing countries do not deal directly with questions of intersectoral mobility, but they implicitly suggest a labor force with 2 closed compartments. But empirical studies in Latin America have demonstrated a strong rotation of workers between the 2 sectors. The functional theory proposed by H. Lopez is one of the most developed among a group that assert that movement between the modern and informal sectors is massive. The Lopez theory suggests that very young workers gain experience in small enterprises in the informal sector, become wage earners in the modern sector sometime in their 20s, and retire after 30 or 40 years to new employment in the informal sector. Very few studies on mobility between sectors have been done in Mexico. But a simulation model demonstrates that when age-related variations in total labor force participation are factored in, the life cycle model of intersectoral mobility is not valid, despite apparent support when the sectoral composition of the labor force is examined cross-sectionally and the results interpreted longitudinally. The National Survey of the Informal Economy was conducted among 2748 units employing fewer than 6 persons in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Leon, Juarez, and Tijuana. The objective was not to study intersectoral mobility, and questions were asked only on the 2 most recent jobs rather than the entire work history. Only the "micro-entrepreneurs" themselves were interviewed, with the 33% of the work force comprising hired workers and unpaid family labor

  1. Tackling the urban health divide though enabling intersectoral action on malnutrition in Chile and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Lang'o, Daniel; McCowan, Tristan; Charnes, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    As momentum grows for a sustainable urbanisation goal in the post-2015 development agenda, this paper reports on an action research study that sought to tackle the urban health divide by enabling intersectoral action on social determinants at the local level. The study was located in the cities of Mombasa in Kenya and Valparaíso in Chile, and the impact of the intervention on child nutrition was evaluated using a controlled design. The findings showed that an action research process using the social educational process known as PLA could effectively build the capacity of multisectoral teams to take coordinated action which in turn built the capacity of communities to sustain them. The impact on child nutrition was inconclusive and needed to be interpreted within the context of economic collapse in the intervention area. Four factors were found to have been crucial for creating the enabling environment for effective intersectoral action (i) supportive government policy (ii) broad participation and capacity building (iii) involving policy makers as advisors and establishing the credibility of the research and (iii) strengthening community action. If lessons learned from this study can be adapted and applied in other contexts then they could have a significant economic and societal impact on health and nutrition equity in informal urban settlements. PMID:25758598

  2. Sharing the Wealth: Factors Influencing Resource Allocation in the Sharing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantino, Edmund; Kennelly, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Students chose between two allocation options, one that gave the allocator more and another participant still more (the "optimal" choice) and one which gave the allocator less and the other participant still less (the "competitive" choice). In a within-subjects design, students' behavior patterns were significantly correlated across the two rounds…

  3. Modelling the effect of environmental factors on resource allocation in mixed plants systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2010-05-01

    In most cases, growth of plants is determined by competition against neighbours for the local resources light, water and nutrients and by defending against herbivores and pathogens. Consequently, it is important for a plant to grow fast without neglecting defence. However, plant internal substrates and energy required to support maintenance, growth and defence are limited and the total demand for these processes cannot be met in most cases. Therefore, allocation of carbohydrates to growth related primary metabolism or to defence related secondary metabolism can be seen as a trade-off between the demand of plants for being competitive against neighbours and for being more resistant against pathogens. A modelling approach is presented which can be used to simulate competition for light, water and nutrients between plant individuals in mixed canopies. The balance of resource allocation between growth processes and synthesis of secondary compounds is modelled by a concept originating from different plant defence hypothesis. The model is used to analyse the impact of environmental factors such as soil water and nitrogen availability, planting density and atmospheric concentration of CO2 on growth of plant individuals within mixed canopies and variations in concentration of carbon-based secondary metabolites in plant tissues.

  4. Typical and Top-Ranked Polish Private Higher Education: Intersectoral and Intrasectoral Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the degree and shape of differences between private and public sectors (intersectoral) and within the private sector (intrasectoral) in Polish higher education. The intersectoral hypothesis is that Poland's two sectors are quite different and that these differences mostly follow those claimed and so far found in…

  5. Pediatric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinical and biologic prognostic factors and risk allocation.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Sheila; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Weinstein, Howard J

    2002-03-01

    The use of effective combination chemotherapy for all stages and subtypes of non-Hodgkin"s lymphoma (NHL) in children has resulted in a striking improvement in cure rates. Event-free survival now ranges from 70% to 90%, depending on the stage of disease and the NHL subtype. Risk-adapted therapy has resulted in a dramatic improvement in outcome for high-risk patients, at the cost of significantly increased short-term toxicity, and a reduction of therapy and toxicity for the lower-risk patient, while maintaining the excellent cure rate. Successful risk allocation of patients is dependent on the identification and continual validation of prognostic factors. The specific treatment protocol is the single most important factor predicting outcome today. Traditional prognostic factors such as stage and tumor burden are useful in selecting the intensity and length of therapy, rather than as a major indicator of likelihood of survival. In order to further improve cure rates and decrease toxicity, new biologic prognosticators need to be found and validated. Some promising avenues for study appear to be the presence or absence of adhesion molecules and of aberrant proteins that are specific to subtypes of lymphomas, such as soluble CD30 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), the molecular classification of lymphomas on the basis of gene expression, and the evaluation of biologic markers for measuring early response to therapy. PMID:11822982

  6. 41 CFR 102-37.100 - What factors will GSA consider in allocating surplus property among SASPs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-generated property to be allocated through a SASP for donation to a specific service educational activity. (c) Need and usability of property, as reflected by requests from SASPs. GSA will also give special... property among the SASPs on a fair and equitable basis using the following factors: (a) Extraordinary...

  7. Prognostic factors identified three risk groups in the LRF CLL4 trial, independent of treatment allocation

    PubMed Central

    Oscier, David; Wade, Rachel; Davis, Zadie; Morilla, Alison; Best, Giles; Richards, Sue; Else, Monica; Matutes, Estella; Catovsky, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Many prognostic markers have been identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but there have been few opportunities to assess their relative importance in a large randomized trial. The aim of this study was to determine which of the available markers independently predicted outcome in patients requiring treatment and to use these to define new risk groups. Design and Methods A broad panel of clinical and laboratory markers, measured at randomization in patients entering the LRF CLL4 trial, was assessed with respect to treatment response, progression-free and overall survival, at a median follow-up of 68 months. Results Using the factors identified as independent predictors for progression-free survival, patients were subdivided into three risk groups: 6% had poor risk with known TP53 loss of greater than 10%; 72% had an intermediate risk without TP53 loss (≤10%) and with at least one of: unmutated IGHV genes and/or IGHV3-21 usage, 11q deletion, β-2 microglobulin greater than 4 mg/L; 22% had a good risk (with none of the above and mutated IGHV genes). The 5-year progression-free survival rates for these three groups were 0%, 12% and 34%, respectively, and the corresponding 5-year overall survival rates were 9%, 53% and 79% (both P<0.00005 independent of treatment allocation). In the intermediate risk group 250 patients, with data for all three risk factors, were further subdivided into intermediate-low (one risk factor) or intermediate-high (2 or 3 risk factors). The 5-year progression-free survival rates were 18% and 7% (P=0.0001) and the 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and 40% (P<0.00005), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the role of biomarkers in prognosis and shows that, in patients requiring treatment, disease stage may no longer be an independent predictor of outcome. If validated independently, the risk groups defined here may inform the design of future trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Clinicaltrials

  8. Computer Processor Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  9. Exploring the intersectoral partnerships guiding Australia's dietary advice.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jane; Sindall, Colin; Banwell, Cathy

    2004-03-01

    In 1986, the Ottawa Charter alerted a new generation of health promotion practitioners to the benefits of working with the non-health sectors, including the commercial sector. Since then, the establishment of partnerships with government and non-government bodies has been advanced as a positive way of fostering policies that enhance health and well-being. The food and nutrition field has enthusiastically adopted partnerships between government, non-government and industry. In this article, we focus on the tactics employed by industry bodies to further their cause in a range of fields that are characterized by risk and contestation. We describe the nature of the alliances and interactions between commercial, scientific and government groups whose stated aim is to improve Australia's diet. Our analysis shows that these partnerships have been guided less by the ethos of the Ottawa Charter and more by the interests of the various parties: namely the food industry's need for credibility in making health claims, the financial imperatives of professional bodies and scientists whose public funding is inadequate, and government endorsement of public-private partnerships as the preferred mechanism for service delivery. The symbiotic relationship that is emerging between segments of the food industry and the nutrition professions raises questions about the independence of the dietary advice being given to consumers. We conclude by arguing for a research programme to investigate the consequences of intersectoral partnerships on the nutritional status of the population. PMID:14976167

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NAPAP) EMISSIONS INVENTORY, 1980: THE FLEXIBLE REGIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (SOFTWARE, ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES, PERIPHERAL DATA FILES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The package contains documentation of the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) for the 1980 NAPAP Emissions Inventory, FREDS source code, allocation factor files, and peripheral data files. FREDS extracts emissions data, pertinent modeling parameters (e.g., stack heigh...

  11. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP): project framework.

    PubMed

    Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up. PMID:24344316

  12. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI–MIP): Project framework

    PubMed Central

    Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up. PMID:24344316

  13. [Constraints and opportunities for inter-sector health promotion initiatives: a case study].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rosana

    2015-07-01

    This article analyzes the implementation of inter-sector initiatives linked to the Family Grant, Family Health, and School Health Programs in the Manguinhos neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 and included document review, local observation, and 25 interviews with program managers, professionals, and staff. This was an exploratory case study using a qualitative approach that identified constraints and opportunities for inter-sector health experiences, contributing to the debate on the effectiveness of health promotion and poverty relief programs. PMID:26248098

  14. An intersectoral, international policy fellowship experience as a framework for faculty development: the marshall memorial fellowship.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Ayanna V

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the experience of a faculty physician at a historically Black medical school who participated in the Marshall Memorial Fellowship, an intersectoral, international experience in which emerging leaders explore political, economic, social, and cultural institutions. The fellowship facilitates collaboration and sharing these experiences within academia and the community. PMID:23974373

  15. Effect of growth factors on oocyte maturation and allocations of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells of cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Arat, Sezen; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Cevik, Mesut; Akkoc, Tolga; Cetinkaya, Gaye; Bagis, Haydar

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the additive effects of exogenous growth factors during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) and the sequential culture of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Oocyte maturation and culture of reconstructed embryos derived from bovine granulosa cells were performed in culture medium supplemented with either epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone or a combination of EGF with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The maturation rates of oocytes matured in the presence of EGF or the EGF + IGF-I combination were significantly higher than those of oocytes matured in the presence of only fetal calf serum (FCS) (P 0.05). IGF-I alone or in combination with EGF in sequential embryo culture medium significantly increased the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to total blastocyst cells (P < 0.05). Our results showed that the addition of growth factors to IVM and sequential culture media of cloned bovine embryos increased the ICM without changing the total cell number. These unknown and uncontrolled effects of growth factors can alter the allocation of ICM and trophectoderm cells (TE) in NT embryos. A decrease in TE cell numbers could be a reason for developmental abnormalities in embryos in the cloning system. PMID:26444069

  16. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should be...; (2) Regulatory compliance risks, including environmental and third-party issues, such as...

  17. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should be...; (2) Regulatory compliance risks, including environmental and third-party issues, such as...

  18. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should be...; (2) Regulatory compliance risks, including environmental and third-party issues, such as...

  19. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should be...; (2) Regulatory compliance risks, including environmental and third-party issues, such as...

  20. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should be...; (2) Regulatory compliance risks, including environmental and third-party issues, such as...

  1. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  2. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  3. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the acquiring company, the acquiring carrier shall first sum its existing (pre-purchase) access lines (A) with the total access lines acquired from selling company (B). Then, multiply its factors and category relationship percentages by (A/(A+B)) and those of the selling company by (B/(A+B)) and sum...

  4. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the acquiring company, the acquiring carrier shall first sum its existing (pre-purchase) access lines (A) with the total access lines acquired from selling company (B). Then, multiply its factors and category relationship percentages by (A/(A+B)) and those of the selling company by (B/(A+B)) and sum...

  5. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the acquiring company, the acquiring carrier shall first sum its existing (pre-purchase) access lines (A) with the total access lines acquired from selling company (B). Then, multiply its factors and category relationship percentages by (A/(A+B)) and those of the selling company by (B/(A+B)) and sum...

  6. 15 CFR 303.14 - Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contained in § 303.13(b). (c) Calculation of the value of the mid-year production incentive certificates. (1...%; plus (iv) Incremental units shipped up to 750,000 units times a factor of 75%. (2) Calculation of the..., life insurance and pension benefits plus any duty differential, if applicable, averaged from the...

  7. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  8. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; McKee, Martin

    2005-05-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  9. Collaborative intersectoral approaches to nutrition in a community on the urban fringe.

    PubMed

    Webb, K; Hawe, P; Noort, M

    2001-06-01

    A case study is presented that describes the 10-year evolution of a local intersectoral project aimed at improving components of a community's food system as an approach to improving nutrition. Aspects of innovation and good contemporary practice in collaborating for health promotion are illustrated. Key initiators of the project were a university public health department, a community health service, and a local government authority. Players brought into the process included the agricultural sector and food retailers. Several strategies have contributed to the success and institutionalization of the project. These include a specific focus on organizational development and capacity building among the key intersectoral partners and the use of formative evaluation methods to hasten the natural phases of collaborative problem solving. The project achieved many policy- and system-level changes. The impact on food consumption patterns is still to be evaluated. PMID:11380051

  10. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Drew S; Koepsel, Richard R; Ataai, Mohammad M; Domach, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1) determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2) identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk) flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g) resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g). Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that

  11. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  12. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates. PMID:25844042

  13. Intersectoral debate on social research strengthens alliances, advocacy and action for maternal survival in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Mary; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Muulu, Elson; Mulenga, Mary Mwange; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2009-03-01

    The Health Promotion Research Centre of the National University of Ireland, Galway and the University of Zambia's School of Medicine conducted operational research to understand and address the socio-cultural and gender contexts of maternal survival. Together with an analytical policy and programming review and qualitative research, the project process also involved the convening of 'Interest Group' meetings involving intersectoral stakeholders at Central (Lusaka) and Provincial (Kasama) levels. These meetings aimed to catalyse debate and stimulate advocacy on the project theme by using discussion of qualitative research as entry point. Participants came from government departments, civil society groups, the indigenous health system, academia, technical provider associations, and media, advocacy and human rights organisations. We found that engagement in Interest Groups was successful at Provincial level with lively participation from civil society, media and advocacy stakeholders and strong engagement by the health system. The process was welcomed as an opportunity to fill gaps in understanding about underlying social determinants of health and jointly explore intervention approaches. Overburdened government staff at central level faced with disease-focused interventions rather than underlying contextual determinants, and a weak culture of health sector engagement with civil society, academics and activists, contributed to less successful functioning in Lusaka. Final Dissemination and Discussion Events incorporated material from Interest Group Meetings to stimulate wider discussion and make recommendations. This project highlights the potential value of intersectoral stakeholder discussions from the inception stage of research to stimulate intersectoral exchange and alliance building, inform advocacy, and catalyse the process of research into action. PMID:19008243

  14. Strengthening Intersectoral Collaboration for Primary Health Care in Developing Countries: Can the Health Sector Play Broader Roles?

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Omokhoa Adedayo; Ofili, Antoinette Ngozi

    2010-01-01

    Many strategic challenges impeding the success of primary health care are rooted in weak strategic inputs, including intersectoral collaboration. Some encouraging evidence from programmes, projects, and studies suggests that intersectoral collaboration is feasible and useful. The strategy has the potential to fast-track the attainment of Millenium Development Goals. However, the strategy is not commonly utilised in developing countries. The health sector expects inputs from other sectors which may not necessarily subscribe to a shared responsibility for health improvement, whereas the public expects ‘‘health” from the health sector. Yet, the health sector rarely takes on initiatives in that direction. The sector is challenged to mobilise all stakeholders for intersectoral collaboration through advocacy and programming. Pilot projects are advised in order to allow for cumulative experience, incremental lessons and more supportive evidence. PMID:20454703

  15. Child protection network and the intersector implementation of the circle of security as alternatives to medication☆

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ana Laura Martins M.M.; de Souza, Paulo Haddad; de Oliveira, Mônica Martins; Paraguay, Nestor Luiz Bruzzi B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical history of a child with aggressive behavior and recurring death-theme speech, and report the experience of the team of authors, who proposed an alternative to medication through the establishment of a protection network and the inter-sector implementation of the circle of security concept. Case description: A 5-year-old child has a violent and aggressive behavior at the daycare. The child was diagnosed by the healthcare center with depressive disorder and behavioral disorder, and was medicated with sertraline and risperidone. Side effects were observed, and the medications were discontinued. Despite several actions, such as talks, teamwork, psychological and psychiatric follow-up, the child's behavior remained unchanged. Remarks: A unique therapeutic project was developed by Universidade Estadual de Campinas' Medical School students in order to establish a connection between the entities responsible for the child's care (daycare center, healthcare center, and family). Thus, the team was able to develop a basic care protection network. The implementation of the inter-sector circle of security, as well as the communication and cooperation among the teams, produced very favorable results in this case. This initiative was shown to be a feasible and effective alternative to the use of medication for this child. PMID:25479857

  16. A Multiple-Case Study of Intersectoral Collaboration in Comprehensive School Health Promotion Using the Diagnosis of Sustainable Collaboration (DISC) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucher, K. K.; Candel, M. J. J. M.; Boot, N. M. W. M.; van Raak, A. J. A.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intersectoral collaboration is often a prerequisite for effective interventions in public health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the facilitating and hindering conditions regarding intersectoral collaboration between health authorities, public health services (PHSs), public services stakeholders (PPSs) and the education sector in…

  17. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  18. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  19. Effect of a Multi-Dimensional and Inter-Sectoral Intervention on the Adherence of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Anne; Wolf, Carolin; Mayr, Andreas; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Friedland, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, hospital stays and transitions to the ambulatory sector are susceptible to major changes in drug therapy that lead to complex medication regimens and common non-adherence among psychiatric patients. A multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral intervention is hypothesized to improve the adherence of psychiatric patients to their pharmacotherapy. Methods 269 patients from a German university hospital were included in a prospective, open, clinical trial with consecutive control and intervention groups. Control patients (09/2012-03/2013) received usual care, whereas intervention patients (05/2013-12/2013) underwent a program to enhance adherence during their stay and up to three months after discharge. The program consisted of therapy simplification and individualized patient education (multi-dimensional component) during the stay and at discharge, as well as subsequent phone calls after discharge (inter-sectoral component). Adherence was measured by the “Medication Adherence Report Scale” (MARS) and the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (DAI). Results The improvement in the MARS score between admission and three months after discharge was 1.33 points (95% CI: 0.73–1.93) higher in the intervention group compared to controls. In addition, the DAI score improved 1.93 points (95% CI: 1.15–2.72) more for intervention patients. Conclusion These two findings indicate significantly higher medication adherence following the investigated multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral program. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006358 PMID:26437449

  20. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    PubMed Central

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  1. Implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Kleij, R; Coster, N; Verbiest, M; van Assema, P; Paulussen, T; Reis, R; Crone, M

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity (IACO) is considered challenging. To help overcome these challenges, an overview of the evidence to date is needed. We searched four databases to identify papers that reported on the determinants of successful implementation of IACOs, resulting in the inclusion of 25 studies. We appraised study quality with the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool and the Quality Framework; reported implementation outcome indicators were reviewed via narrative synthesis. Quality of included studies varied. The most frequently reported indicators of implementation success were fidelity and coverage. Determinants related to the social-political context and the organization were most often cited as influencing implementation, in particular, 'collaboration between community partners', 'the availability of (human) resources' and 'time available for implementation'. The association between determinants and implementation variability was never explicated. We conclude that although some insights into the effective implementation of IACOs are present, more research is needed. Emphasis should be placed on elucidating the relationship between determinants and implementation success. Research should further focus on developing a 'golden standard' for evaluating and reporting on implementation research. These actions will improve the comparison of study outcomes and may constitute the cumulative development of knowledge about the conditions for designing evidence-based implementation strategies. PMID:25824957

  2. Inter-sectoral comparison of model uncertainty of climate change impacts in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Vetter, Tobias; Piontek, Franzisca; Gosling, Simon N.; Kamali, Bahareh; Reinhardt, Julia; Dinkneh, Aklilu; Yang, Hong; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2016-04-01

    We present the model results and their uncertainties of an inter-sectoral impact model inter-comparison initiative (ISI-MIP) for climate change impacts in Africa. The study includes results on hydrological, crop and health aspects. The impact models used ensemble inputs consisting of 20 time series of daily rainfall and temperature data obtained from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 4 Representative concentration pathway (RCP). In this study, we analysed model uncertainty for the Regional Hydrological Models, Global Hydrological Models, Malaria models and Crop models. For the regional hydrological models, we used 2 African test cases: the Blue Nile in Eastern Africa and the Niger in Western Africa. For both basins, the main sources of uncertainty are originating from the GCM and RCPs, while the uncertainty of the regional hydrological models is relatively low. The hydrological model uncertainty becomes more important when predicting changes on low flows compared to mean or high flows. For the other sectors, the impact models have the largest share of uncertainty compared to GCM and RCP, especially for Malaria and crop modelling. The overall conclusion of the ISI-MIP is that it is strongly advised to use ensemble modeling approach for climate change impact studies throughout the whole modelling chain.

  3. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  4. [Effect of environmental factors and fishing effort allocation on catch of the Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) in Southern Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Elizabeth; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Iván

    2013-09-01

    Aetobatus narinari represents a fisheries target in Southern Gulf of Mexico, and it is currently considered a Near Threatened species by the IUCN red list. The information available of this batoid fish includes some biological and fishery aspects; nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing on fishing operations and catches. In order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors and the fishing effort allocation by vessels on the target fishery of A. narinari in this area, a daily basis sampling was carried out on four small-scale vessels, from January to July 2009 (the entire fishing season), in two fishing localities (Campeche and Seybaplaya). A total of 896 rays were recorded from 280 fishing trips. A General Linear Model was used to predict the factors effect on the probability that fishing operations occurred, and on the probability for captures of at least one or three or five rays per vessel-trip. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Campeche was predicted by the lunar cycle, with the highest probability in the new moon period (66%) and a probability smaller than 35% for the other periods. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Seybaplaya was predicted by wind velocity, with higher probabilities at low wind velocity than at high wind velocity, and a 50% probability of fishing operations at 12-15 km/h. Catch rates off Seybaplaya were predicted by the vessel's factor (the effect of fishing effort allocation), the North wind season and sea surface temperature. The probability for captures of at least one and three rays per vessel-trip was predicted by the vessel's factor and the North wind season. One vessel had higher catch probability (83% for at least one ray and 43% for at least three rays) than the others (69 and 70% for at least one ray and 26% for at least three rays), and during the North wind season the catch probability was higher (96% for at least one ray and 72% for at least three rays) than out of

  5. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts held in reserve or distributed by base or administrative allocation times the basic State factor... available for allocation−NO reserve−total base and administrative allocations) × SF. (4) Transition formula... program section. (5) Base allocation. An amount that may be allocated to each State dependent upon...

  6. ISI-MIP: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, V.; Dahlemann, S.; Frieler, K.; Piontek, F.; Schewe, J.; Serdeczny, O.; Warszawski, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) aims to synthesize the state-of-the-art knowledge of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. The project's experimental design is formulated to distinguish the uncertainty introduced by the impact models themselves, from the inherent uncertainty in the climate projections and the variety of plausible socio-economic futures. The unique cross-sectoral scope of the project provides the opportunity to study cascading effects of impacts in interacting sectors and to identify regional 'hot spots' where multiple sectors experience extreme impacts. Another emphasis lies on the development of novel metrics to describe societal impacts of a warmer climate. We briefly outline the methodological framework, and then present selected results of the first, fast-tracked phase of ISI-MIP. The fast track brought together 35 global impact models internationally, spanning five sectors across human society and the natural world (agriculture, water, natural ecosystems, health and coastal infrastructure), and using the latest generation of global climate simulations (RCP projections from the CMIP5 archive) and socioeconomic drivers provided within the SSP process. We also introduce the second phase of the project, which will enlarge the scope of ISI-MIP by encompassing further impact sectors (e.g., forestry, fisheries, permafrost) and regional modeling approaches. The focus for the next round of simulations will be the validation and improvement of models based on historical observations and the analysis of variability and extreme events. Last but not least, we discuss the longer-term objective of ISI-MIP to initiate a coordinated, ongoing impact assessment process, driven by the entire impact community and in parallel with well-established climate model intercomparisons (CMIP).

  7. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib @ Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents’ objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  8. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-10-01

    The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents' objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  9. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation.

    PubMed

    McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1997-07-15

    Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146

  11. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  12. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... held in the National Office reserve and distributed by base and administrative allocation, multiplied... allocation−national reserve−base allocation−administrative allocation) × State Factor (b) To calculate the..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan...

  13. Reward Allocation among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chi-Yue

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of personality and performance on reward allocation. Subjects were 89 Hong Kong senior high school students. Results showed that the subjects took into consideration the recipient's personality when they allocated reward to a relatively low performer. Personality was not a factor in allocation of reward to a high performer. (GG)

  14. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process. PMID:19287867

  15. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  16. Allocation without locking

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    In a programming environment with both concurrency and automatic garbage collection, the allocation and initialization of a new record is a sensitive matter: if it is interrupted halfway through, the allocating process may be in a state that the garbage collector can't understand. In particular, the collector won't know which words of the new record have been initialized and which are meaningless (and unsafe to transverse). For this reason, parallel implementations usually use a locking or semaphore mechanism to ensure that allocation is an atomic operation. The locking significantly adds to the cost of allocation. This paper shows that allocation can run extremely quickly even in a multi-thread environment: open-coded, without locking.

  17. [Production of knowledge and an inter-sectoral approach vis-à-vis living and health conditions of workers in the sugarcane sector].

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment. PMID:21860934

  18. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  19. Exploring intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management for residential buildings in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, J. C.

    Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster management. This study assesses intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management affecting residential buildings in the U.S. using an interpretive content analysis and thematic text analysis of written materials. Twenty-four word combinations were searched for in 62 written materials to identify occurrences of convergence and to uncover how the terms are used in the separate policy fields. The disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some complementary public policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory systems, goals and desired outcomes; however, these two fields have not adequately converged, missing opportunities for greater positive impact on society. Convergence is found in isolated examples. Namely, convergence is found in federal interagency collaboration, policies that are general enough to span both domains, and policies that address long-range actions rather than emergency response. One voluntary program, FORTIFIED Homes, was identified. The Center for Housing Policy is noted as a key interest group guiding the convergence of disaster and sustainable energy policy.

  20. The Ethics of Allocating Uterine Transplants.

    PubMed

    Bayefsky, Michelle J; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    In September 2014, a healthy male child was born in Sweden following a successful uterine transplantation (UTx). The event brought hope to many women without functional uteruses around the world. Having a child with a transplanted uterus is now possible, and as knowledge of the procedure proliferates and interest in UTx grows, it is important to begin thinking about how a scarce supply of uteruses will be allocated. This article represents a first discussion of the range of factors that must be considered in answering the allocation question. The primary issues addressed are (1) the motivation to seek treatment, (2) allocation by age, (3) child-rearing capacity, and (4) the amount of infertility treatment required. A set of eligibility and ranking criteria are presented. These criteria are not exhaustive but are intended to spark discussion about how uteruses can be allocated in a just manner. PMID:26864991

  1. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  2. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  3. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  4. Spilt milk: an inter-sectoral partnership that failed to advance milk security for low-income lone mothers in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N Theresa; Hilchie-Pye, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Canadian agricultural policy supports higher milk prices. Consequently, poor families lack sufficient funds to purchase adequate quantities of milk. Low-income lone mothers in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia suggested their preferred strategies for improved access to milk. We then built inter-sectoral support for a policy intervention to address their recommendations. Our research-to-action process led to a policy dialogue focusing on an electronic smart card that would permit the delivery of lower-priced milk to poor households. While all agreed that milk insecurity was an important issue, the project ultimately failed because of the entrenched positions of influential stakeholder groups. PMID:21721295

  5. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  6. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  7. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  8. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  9. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  10. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  11. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  12. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  13. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  14. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  15. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  16. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  17. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  18. Antenna Allocation in MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas for Multi-Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes. PMID:25350505

  19. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  20. Determining the optimal operator allocation using a three-phase methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Ab Rahman, Mohd Nizam

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the operator allocation decision in labor-intensive manufacturing system using a three-phase methodology. A two-phase methodology from literatures has been extended to a three-phase methodology which in a three-phase methodology, operators' performance is evaluated before the allocation is made. The evaluation of operators' performance in Phase 1 is realized as a requirement in operator allocation decision because it will affect the production system's performance. In Phase 2, the used of computer simulation offered flexibility in determining inputs and outputs of each operator allocation alternative. Finally, in Phase 3 the optimal operator allocation is concluded. The combination of these three phases is essential because it includes all important factors. Hence, it will assist the management of the manufacturing companies, especially SMEs in providing ideas to determine an optimal operator allocation. Based on these findings a three-phase methodology improves the current operator allocation.

  1. Managing Institutional Research Advancement: Implications from a University Faculty Time Allocation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Derrick M.; Slade, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    While much is known about faculty time allocation, we know very little about how traditional managerial factors influence faculty time allocation behaviors. We know even less about the possible downsides associated with relying on these traditional managerial factors. Using survey data from the National Science Foundation/Department of Energy…

  2. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  3. [Intersectoral, convergent and sustainable actions: the challenges of the "Bolsa Família" program in Manguinhos shantytown in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rosana; Coelho, Angela Virginia; Nogueira, Milena Ferreira; Bocca, Cláudia

    2011-11-01

    Some studies have revealed the impact of the family welfare allowance based on the fulfillment of certain conditions on improving living conditions and access to health and education services in different countries. However, gaps persist relating to the evaluation of the benefits of such programs among the groups that have greater difficulty in gaining access to public services or advances in the quality of education and school performance. Moreover, there is limited evidence of adequacy of the program to the respective contexts of implementation, levels of adhesion and local cooperation and strategies adopted for integration with other social policy programs. The scope of this article is to discuss the findings of the study of the implementation of the "Bolsa Familia" in the Manguinhos shantytown area in Rio de Janeiro conducted in 2007 and 2008 based on semi-structured interviews with program officials and local stakeholders. In conclusion, the study shows that the sustainability of "Bolsa Familia" actions to reduce poverty and promote health equity calls for strengthening the vertical and horizontal communication channels between government levels, public managers and civil associations, recognition of the complexity of the local social demands and an intersectoral agenda. PMID:22124825

  4. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  5. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  6. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  7. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  8. Prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: Pathways to integrated, inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, John C; Ehrenberg, John P; Ault, Steven K; Rojas, Rocio; Vasquez, Javier; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Genovese, Miguel A; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2007-01-01

    Background In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves. Discussion As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development. Summary The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a renewed effort toward the

  9. Funding Higher Education in England: How HEFCE Allocates Its Funds. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide describes the principles that underlie allocations of grants to universities and colleges by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). Formulas are used to determine how most of the money is allocated between institutions. These take into account certain factors for each institution, including the number and type of…

  10. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands...

  11. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  12. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  13. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  14. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  16. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  17. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  18. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  19. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  20. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  1. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a...) Cost allocation and distribution for the planning, design, development, installation and operation...

  2. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  3. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  4. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  5. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  6. Great Expectations: An Examination of Section 180c Funding Allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) moves toward milestones in developing a plan to ship high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain, an increasingly difficult issue is the distribution of Federal emergency management funds to mitigate costs of preparing for the shipments. DOE staff and contractors, and state transportation planning groups, have high expectations that some allocation formula based on technical factors can be used to distribute funds effectively and equitably. This paper examines the empirical results of a funding allocation formula proposed by the Western Governors Association among the eleven affected states which are members of the Western Interstate Energy Board. The amount of Federal funds allocated to Western states is also compared to the amount of revenue that would be generated by state-imposed fees on DOE shipments. (authors)

  7. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  8. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  9. Distinguishing the Biomass Allocation Variance Resulting from Ontogenetic Drift or Acclimation to Soil Texture

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiangbo; Tang, Lisong; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xu, Guiqing; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In resource-poor environments, adjustment in plant biomass allocation implies a complex interplay between environmental signals and plant development rather than a delay in plant development alone. To understand how environmental factors influence biomass allocation or the developing phenotype, it is necessary to distinguish the biomass allocations resulting from environmental gradients or ontogenetic drift. Here, we compared the development trajectories of cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum L.), which were grown in two contrasting soil textures during a 60-d period. Those results distinguished the biomass allocation pattern resulting from ontogenetic drift and the response to soil texture. The soil texture significantly changed the biomass allocation to leaves and roots, but not to stems. Soil texture also significantly changed the development trajectories of leaf and root traits, but did not change the scaling relationship between basal stem diameter and plant height. Results of nested ANOVAs of consecutive plant-size categories in both soil textures showed that soil gradients explained an average of 63.64–70.49% of the variation of biomass allocation to leaves and roots. Ontogenetic drift explained 77.47% of the variation in biomass allocation to stems. The results suggested that the environmental factors governed the biomass allocation to roots and leaves, and ontogenetic drift governed the biomass allocation to stems. The results demonstrated that biomass allocation to metabolically active organs (e.g., roots and leaves) was mainly governed by environmental factors, and that biomass allocation to metabolically non-active organs (e.g., stems) was mainly governed by ontogenetic drift. We concluded that differentiating the causes of development trajectories of plant traits was important to the understanding of plant response to environmental gradients. PMID:22911802

  10. Adaptation of carbon allocation under light and nutrient reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Frederik; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Whereas shifts in the allocation of photosynthates induced by reduced water availability, enhanced temperature and CO2 concentration were recently investigated in various studies, less is known about the response to light and nutrient reduction. We induced different allocation patterns in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analysed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Finally, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labelling and followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon to eight different classes of plant tissues and respiration for 13 days. The results revealed a high intraspecific variability in C distribution to tissues and in respiration. Allocation changes even varied within leaf and stem tissue classes (e.g. more C in main stems, less in lateral stems). These results show that the common separation of plant tissues in only three classes, i.e. root, shoot and leaf tissues, can result in missing information about allocation changes. The nutrient reduction enhanced the transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in terms of quantity (c. 200%) and velocity compared to control plants. Interestingly, a 57% light reduction enhanced photosynthetic capacity and caused no change in final biomass after 15 months. Therefore, our results support the recently discussed sink regulation of photosynthesis. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C loss from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates used for respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a control mechanism for C

  11. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  12. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  13. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  14. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  15. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  16. The organ allocation controversy: how did we arrive here?

    PubMed

    Van Meter, C H

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recently issued a final regulation governing the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) that directs the allocation of organs to the sickest patients first without regard to a host of medical, geographic, and social factors that members of the transplant community view as an essential part of a sound organ allocation policy.Current organ allocation mechanisms are based on policies that reflect a broad consensus of medical experts and provide equal consideration for both the needs of the sickest patients and the efficient use of organs. This system also reduces potential waste of organs by minimizing cold ischemic time, increases access to transplantation for patients in local communities, provides positive incentives for local citizens and medical professionals to support organ donation initiatives, and decreases the cost of organ transplantation.Representatives of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons have testified before Congress that "giving priority to the sickest patients first over broad geographic areas would be wasteful and dangerous, resulting in fewer patients transplanted, increased death rates, increased retransplantation due to poor organ function, and increased overall cost of transplantation." In response, Congress enacted a 1-year moratorium on the implementation of the HHS rule and provided for a study of the current organ allocation policy and HHS regulation by The Institute of Medicine. PMID:21845113

  17. Popularity-aware rate allocation in multiview video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandrotti, Attilio; Chakareski, Jacob; Frossard, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    We propose a framework for popularity-driven rate allocation in H.264/MVC-based multi-view video communications when the overall rate and the rate necessary for decoding each view are constrained in the delivery architecture. We formulate a rate allocation optimization problem that takes into account the popularity of each view among the client population and the rate-distortion characteristics of the multi-view sequence so that the performance of the system is maximized in terms of popularity-weighted average quality. We consider the cases where the global bit budget or the decoding rate of each view is constrained. We devise a simple ratevideo- quality model that accounts for the characteristics of interview prediction schemes typical of multi-view video. The video quality model is used for solving the rate allocation problem with the help of an interior point optimization method. We then show through experiments that the proposed rate allocation scheme clearly outperforms baseline solutions in terms of popularity-weighted video quality. In particular, we demonstrate that the joint knowledge of the rate-distortion characteristics of the video content, its coding dependencies, and the popularity factor of each view is key in achieving good coding performance in multi-view video systems.

  18. Methodology to Support Dynamic Function Allocation Policies Between Humans and Flight Deck Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Function allocation assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automation. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically have been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary aspects of function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives have emerged from this comprehensive review of literature on those fields: the technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented perspectives. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), structure and strategy of a team, and work structure and environment. This report offers eight issues with function allocation that can be used to assess the extent to which each of issues exist on a given function allocation. A modeling framework using formal models and simulation was developed to model work as described by the environment, agents, their inherent dynamics, and relationships among them. Finally, to validate the framework and metrics, a case study modeled four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight.

  19. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

  20. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  1. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  2. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  3. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units based on information provided by: (A) The needs assessment prepared in accordance with 24 CFR 8.25... dwelling units in the project for the year preceding the date of submission of the allocation plan to HUD... available for occupancy during the two-year period following the date of submission of the allocation...

  4. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  5. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  6. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limited entry gear is open. When the fishery for a vessel's limited entry gear has closed, groundfish caught by that vessel with open access gear will be counted against the open access allocation. All... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for...

  7. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  8. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  9. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  11. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  12. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  13. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  14. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  15. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  16. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  17. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  18. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  19. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... halibut regulations) is managed under regulations at 50 CFR part 300, subpart E. Beginning with the 2011..., the OY is reduced by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal harvest (allocations, set-asides, and...: recreational estimates are not deducted here). (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations,...

  20. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  1. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  2. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  3. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  4. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...

  5. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  6. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  7. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  8. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  9. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  10. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  11. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  12. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  13. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  14. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  16. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  17. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106

  18. The allocation of the radio spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. L.

    1980-02-01

    The system of the radio spectrum (10 kHz-300 GHz) allocation is discussed in its technical, economic, and managerial aspects. Possible improvements to the system are considered, such as minimizing human management, establishing a single authority for the allocation of the spectrum, and stimulating a more efficient use of the spectrum with economic incentives. The 'anarchy band' concept, a system of dynamic allocation, is suggested as a means of replacing human management with electronic equipment. The growing importance of the satellite portion of the spectrum is also shown.

  19. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  20. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  2. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  3. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  4. Grouping Promotes Equality: The Effect of Recipient Grouping on Allocation of Limited Medical Resources.

    PubMed

    Colby, Helen; DeWitt, Jeff; Chapman, Gretchen B

    2015-07-01

    Decisions about allocation of scarce resources, such as transplant organs, often entail a trade-off between efficiency (i.e., maximizing the total benefit) and fairness (i.e., dividing resources equally). In three studies, we used a hypothetical scenario for transplant-organ allocation to examine allocation to groups versus individuals. Study 1 demonstrated that allocation to individuals is more efficient than allocation to groups. Study 2 identified a factor that triggers the use of fairness over efficiency: presenting the beneficiaries as one arbitrary group rather than two. Specifically, when beneficiaries were presented as one group, policymakers tended to allocate resources efficiently, maximizing total benefit. However, when beneficiaries were divided into two arbitrary groups (by hospital name), policymakers divided resources more equally across the groups, sacrificing efficiency. Study 3 replicated this effect using a redundant attribute (prognosis) to create groups and found evidence for a mediator of the grouping effect--the use of individualizing information to rationalize a more equitable allocation decision. PMID:26078294

  5. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth...

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  7. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  8. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  9. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  10. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  11. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  12. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  13. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  14. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed. PMID:17746245

  15. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  16. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  17. Atypical resource allocation may contribute to many aspects of autism

    PubMed Central

    Goldknopf, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature and on reports by people with autism, this paper suggests that atypical resource allocation is a factor that contributes to many aspects of autism spectrum conditions, including difficulties with language and social cognition, atypical sensory and attentional experiences, executive and motor challenges, and perceptual and conceptual strengths and weaknesses. Drawing upon resource theoretical approaches that suggest that perception, cognition, and action draw upon multiple pools of resources, the approach hypothesizes that compared with resources in typical cognition, resources in autism are narrowed or reduced, especially in people with strong sensory symptoms. In narrowed attention, resources are restricted to smaller areas and to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition; narrowed resources may be more intense than in typical cognition. In reduced attentional capacity, overall resources are reduced; resources may be restricted to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition, or the amount of resources allocated to each area or process may be reduced. Possible neural bases of the hypothesized atypical resource allocation, relations to other approaches, limitations, and tests of the hypotheses are discussed. PMID:24421760

  18. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  19. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  20. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  1. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  2. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  3. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  4. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  5. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Link to...

  6. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  7. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  8. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  9. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  10. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  11. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  12. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  13. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  14. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  15. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  16. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  17. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  1. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  2. Model-based metrics of human-automation function allocation in complex work environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Young

    Function allocation is the design decision which assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automated. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically has been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, and cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary issues with function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives emerged from a review of these fields: technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), team structure and processes, and work structure and the work environment. Together, these perspectives identify the following eight issues with function allocation: 1) Workload, 2) Incoherency in function allocations, 3) Mismatches between responsibility and authority, 4) Interruptive automation, 5) Automation boundary conditions, 6) Function allocation preventing human adaptation to context, 7) Function allocation destabilizing the humans' work environment, and 8) Mission Performance. Addressing these issues systematically requires formal models and simulations that include all necessary aspects of human-automation function allocation: the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them. Also, addressing these issues requires not only a (static) model, but also a (dynamic) simulation that captures temporal aspects of work such as the timing of actions and their impact on the agent's work. Therefore, with properly modeled work as described by the work environment, the dynamics inherent to the work, agents, and relationships among them, a modeling framework developed by this thesis, which includes static work models and dynamic simulation, can capture the

  3. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  4. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  5. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    PubMed

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds. PMID:10165780

  6. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  7. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  8. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844

  9. Allocation of Attention by Fishing Vessel Watchkeepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Malcolm

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the way in which attention is allocated by watchkeepers on fishing vessels and identifies differences in the approach displayed by individuals with different levels of training and experience. A method of analysing the way in which attention is allocated on a sample of UK fishing vessels is described. It was found that both skippers and mates allocated disproportionate amounts of attention to fishfinding equipment at certain stages of the fishing trip, while crewmen were heavily reliant upon the track plotter both while fishing and on passage. Those with more training and experience appeared to treat the array of navigation and control components as an integrated system, while untrained crewmen dealt with each aspect in isolation.

  10. Allocation of resources for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Praveen; Anderson, T Anthony; Vagefi, Parsia A

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 6 decades, organ transplantation has achieved great success to become standard therapy for the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With this success has emerged candidate wait lists that greatly outnumber the current supply of deceased donor organs. The increasing number of candidates and transplants performed has resulted in an organ allocation process that occurs at a local, regional, and sometimes national level. A brief description of the history is presented as well as the methodologies involved in allocation of a donor organ to a single recipient. PMID:24287345

  11. Allocation for the SANDAC multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ravl, T.M.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an algorithm for the static allocation of tasks in a general Dataflow Multiprocessor and the SANDAC IV system in particular. Initially a model of execution and the underlying assumptions about the architecture are outlined. The authors then discuss a Graph Reduction algorithm for preprocessing the computation graph. The Graph Reduction algorithm reduces a fine grain graph to an optimal grain graph. The heuristic allocation algorithm is presented and is based on giving precedence to critical paths and minimizing the communication time between tasks. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed and the effect of varying parameters is studied. Subsequently an alternative variation with better characteristics is proposed.

  12. Aboveground Tree Growth Varies with Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Tropical Rainforest Environment

    PubMed Central

    Raich, James W.; Clark, Deborah A.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E.

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24945351

  13. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  14. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  15. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  16. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  17. Principles of allocation of health care resources.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    1978-01-01

    The methods and principles of allocating centrally provided health care resources to regions and areas are reviewed using the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976) and the consultative document (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976a) as a basis. A range of practical problems arising from these papers (especially the report of the RAWP) is described and traced to the terms of reference. It is concluded that the RAWP misinterpreted aspects of social and administrative reality, and it failed to recognise clearly that the several principles on which it had to work conflicted with each other and demanded decisions of priority. The consequential errors led to (a) an injudicious imposition of 'objectivity' at all levels of allocation, (b) an unjustified insistence that the same method be used at each administrative level in an additive and transitive manner, (c) the exclusion of general practitioner services from their considerations, (d) a failure to delineate those decisions which are in fact political decisions, thus to concatenate them, inappropriately, with technical and professional issues. The main requirement in a revised system is for a mechanism which allocates different priorities to different principles at each appropriate administrative and distributive level, and adapts the working methods of each tier to meet separately defined objectives. PMID:262585

  18. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  19. Back to the Basics with Resource Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, John; Humphries, Frederick S.

    A resource allocation and utilization study was undertaken of Tennessee State University and the results, recommendations and policy decisions that evolved are presented. The President's Council, comprised of the President, the Vice Presidents, and the Director of Planning, Management and Evaluation, directed the study. Data from the Office of…

  20. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims...

  1. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  2. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  3. Allocation of Human Resources for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Bonita

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews personnel administration techniques that have been used to establish work-load parameters, but offer no aid in subject deployment. A model which identifies elements that must be included in a consideration of work-load measurement and subject allocation for library collection development tasks is presented. Thirty-four…

  4. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  5. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  6. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  7. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  8. controlling retained insurance costs through an allocation.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    An insurance allocation may help a hospital or health system achieve the following goals for its professional liability and workers' compensation self-insurance or large-deductible programs: Loss-control incentive. Stability. Equity. Comprehension. Ease of administration. PMID:26665334

  9. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  10. Resource Allocation in U. K. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Information on resource allocation in United Kingdom (UK) universities, which is derived from a study by a Working Party of the Conference of University administrators, is presented. Attention is directed to: structures and constitutions; the use of norms and formulas; administration and central services; minor works, maintenance, and space; and…

  11. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle a fleet or covered person acquires that exceeds the number of alternative fueled vehicles that...

  12. RESOURCES ALLOCATION TO OPTIMIZE MINING POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive model for mine drainage simulation and optimization of resource allocation to control mine acid pollution in a watershed has been developed. The model is capable of: (a) Producing a time trace of acid load and flow from acid drainage sources as a function of clima...

  13. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General Administration-Reviews and Audits; Withholding for...

  15. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  16. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  17. 2 CFR 200.405 - Allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles Basic Considerations § 200.405 Allocable costs. (a) A cost...

  18. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  19. Rural Attitudes toward Public Welfare Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laura F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines 1984 Wyoming opinion poll. Wyoming respondents agreed welfare allocation should be based on need, but 50 percent believed welfare recipients should not receive more than minimum-wage income. Wyoming's welfare support is lower than national average. Rurality may contribute to results. Recommends ways to increase rural support for welfare…

  20. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  1. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  2. Plant allocation of carbon to defense as a function of herbivory, light and nutrient availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ju, Shu; Liu, Rongsong; Bryant, John P.; Gourley, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We use modeling to determine the optimal relative plant carbon allocations between foliage, fine roots, anti-herbivore defense, and reproduction to maximize reproductive output. The model treats these plant components and the herbivore compartment as variables. Herbivory is assumed to be purely folivory. Key external factors include nutrient availability, degree of shading, and intensity of herbivory. Three alternative functional responses are used for herbivory, two of which are variations on donor-dependent herbivore (models 1a and 1b) and one of which is a Lotka–Volterra type of interaction (model 2). All three were modified to include the negative effect of chemical defenses on the herbivore. Analysis showed that, for all three models, two stable equilibria could occur, which differs from most common functional responses when no plant defense component is included. Optimal strategies of carbon allocation were defined as the maximum biomass of reproductive propagules produced per unit time, and found to vary with changes in external factors. Increased intensity of herbivory always led to an increase in the fractional allocation of carbon to defense. Decreases in available limiting nutrient generally led to increasing importance of defense. Decreases in available light had little effect on defense but led to increased allocation to foliage. Decreases in limiting nutrient and available light led to decreases in allocation to reproduction in models 1a and 1b but not model 2. Increases in allocation to plant defense were usually accompanied by shifts in carbon allocation away from fine roots, possibly because higher plant defense reduced the loss of nutrients to herbivory.

  3. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-01-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  4. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-06-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  5. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Will; Smedley, Scott; Gillingham, Peter; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Jouvel, Stephanie; Nord, Brian

    2014-08-05

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys, and for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases by 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. With a natural tilt minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30microns. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  6. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such...

  7. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April 1, 2005) Each inshore pollock... annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed and final BSAI harvest...

  8. Improved ant colony optimization for optimal crop and irrigation water allocation by incorporating domain knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved ant colony optimization (ACO) formulation for the allocation of crops and water to different irrigation areas is developed. The formulation enables dynamic adjustment of decision variable options and makes use of visibility factors (VFs, the domain knowledge that can be used to identify ...

  9. 20 CFR 631.32 - Allocation of funds by the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for an appropriate weight for each of the formula factors set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this... formula to be used in issuing substate allocations required under paragraph (a) of this section to substate grantees. (2) The formula prescribed pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall...

  10. 20 CFR 631.32 - Allocation of funds by the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for an appropriate weight for each of the formula factors set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this... formula to be used in issuing substate allocations required under paragraph (a) of this section to substate grantees. (2) The formula prescribed pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall...

  11. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  12. Determinants of Economic Reasoning in Monetary and Time-Allocation Decisions: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn; Kehret-Ward, Trudy

    1983-01-01

    Participation in a college-level economics course appeared to be a very important predictor of economic cognition and of economic reasoning with respect to students' personal monetary decisions. Course participation was not a strong factor in economic reasoning with respect to time-allocation decisions. (RM)

  13. Exploring Time Allocation for Academic Activities by University Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernex, Alain; Lima, Laurent; de Vries, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study how students allocate time to different university and extra-university activities and to identify factors that might explain variability both between and within fields of study. At the heart of this exercise is the question of the time students dedicate to academic activities in competition with a whole…

  14. An approach toward function allocation between humans and machines in space station activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1982-01-01

    Basic guidelines and data to assist in the allocation of functions between humans and automated systems in a manned permanent space station are provided. Human capabilities and limitations are described. Criteria and guidelines for various levels of automation and human participation are described. A collection of human factors data is included.

  15. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  16. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  17. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  18. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  19. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reserve Air Fleet Program of the Department of Defense. The current listing of aircraft allocations may be... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance...

  20. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  1. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  2. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  3. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  4. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  14. Motivation and Competence as Determinants of Young Children's Reward Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Sharon A.; Dweck, Carol S.

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the effects of allocation instructions and self-interest on preschool children's use of the rule of equity in situations involving reward allocation. Results showed that when the demand for equity was explicit and self-interest was removed, all children used equity in allocating rewards. (Author/JMB)

  15. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of... facilities capacity in anticipation of the receipt of rated orders; (b) Directive: an official action...

  16. 10 CFR 470.15 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 470.15 Section 470.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.15 Allocation of funds. (a) DOE shall annually allocate fiscal year funds available for support among the 10...

  17. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  18. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  20. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of...

  3. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  4. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  5. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  6. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 96.142... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat...

  7. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  8. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  9. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 97.142... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  10. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  11. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  12. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  13. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  16. 7 CFR 1466.5 - National allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National allocation and management. 1466.5 Section... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1466.5 National allocation and management. The Chief allocates EQIP funds to... adjustments to national priorities and information about resource concerns and program performance. The...

  17. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO,...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  1. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  2. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for use of capital shall be allocated to work orders in accordance with the service company's... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such companies in the same manner. Each work order should identify the methods of allocation to associate...

  3. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  4. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  5. 12 CFR 327.53 - Allocation and payment of dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and payment of dividends. 327.53 Section 327.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.53 Allocation and payment of dividends. (a)(1) The allocation of any...

  6. 77 FR 2240 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ59 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense... guidance relating to the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. The temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense by corporations owning...

  7. 77 FR 2225 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545- BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense AGENCY: Internal... regulations that provide guidance regarding the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. These temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense...

  8. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and...

  9. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  10. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and reallocation. The Secretary allocates...

  11. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    DOEpatents

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  12. The relationship between attention allocation and cheating.

    PubMed

    Pittarello, Andrea; Motro, Daphna; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Pluchino, Patrik

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention allocation and dishonesty. The goal of the present work was to address this issue using the eyetracking methodology. We developed a novel task in which participants could honestly report seeing a particular card and lose money, or they could falsely report not seeing the card and not lose money. When participants cheated, they allocated less attention (i.e., shorter fixation durations and fewer fixations) to the card than when they behaved honestly. Our results suggest that when dishonesty pays, shifting attention away from undesirable information can serve as a self-deception strategy that allows individuals to serve their self-interests while maintaining a positive self-concept. PMID:26340847

  13. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  14. Optimal rate allocation in cluster-tree WSNs.

    PubMed

    Morell, Antoni; Vicario, Jose Lopez; Vilajosana, Xavier; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM) approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors' proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM) in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS) policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled. PMID:22163812

  15. Cognitive-Aware Modality Allocation in Intelligent Multimodal Information Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton

    Intelligent multimodal presentation (IMMP) systems are able to generate multimodal presentations adaptively, based on the run-time requirements of user-computer interaction. Modality allocation in IMMP system needs to adapt the modality choice to changes in various relevant factors, such as the type of information to be conveyed, the presentation goal, the characteristics of the available modalities, the user profile, the condition of the environment, and the type of user task. In this study, we emphasize that modality allocation in IMMP systems should also take into account the cognitive impacts of modality on human information processing. We first describe several modality-related cognitive and neuropsychological findings. Then a user study is presented to demonstrate the effects of modality on performance, cognitive load and stress, using a high-load and time-critical user task. Finally, we show a possible way to integrate relevant cognitive theories into a computational model that can systematically predict the suitability of a modality choice for a given presentation task.

  16. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  17. Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.

    2000-09-12

    In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.

  18. Revision of the MCSAP Allocation Formula: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Davis, S.C.; Hu, P.S.

    2000-09-01

    In 1982, Congress authorized the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), a Federal grant-in-aid program to improve commercial motor carrier safety. MCSAP was reauthorized in 1986, 1991, and 1998. In June 1997, in anticipation of and preparation for reauthorization, a MCSAP Formula Workgroup convened to analyze requirements for a new allocation formula and to develop the formula. Because of provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), a major change in approach was to consider including performance (i.e., safety improvements) in the formula. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) actively participated in the Workgroup activities, provided technical assistance in evaluating factors and conducting scenario analyses, prepared regulatory language for the Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), analyzed NPRM comments and recommended responses to the comments, assisted with preparation of the Federal Register Final Rule, developed the final spreadsheet, and prepared an informational brochure on MCSAP for use by the States. The allocation of MCSAP funds for FY2001 will use the new formula.

  19. Problems of priority change in kidney allocation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, Marlies; Kliemt, Hartmut

    2013-06-01

    Standardized and transparent priority setting in medicine, desirable as it is, will generally exacerbate inter-temporal equity problems arising from changes in treatment priorities: when can it be fair that the treatment of already waiting patients who would have had priority under an established system should be postponed (withheld) for an extended period of time to advance the treatment of others under a reformed system? The reform of the Eurotransplant system of priority setting in kidney allocation (ETKAS), which is in many respects ideal, is a case in point. To give due weight to new medical knowledge, waiting time after the onset of end state renal failure should change from a priority-enhancing to a priority-reducing factor. Since those who have gained in priority by waiting under the present system would be set back under the new, severe problems of transitional justice must be overcome when responding to advances in medical knowledge. The paper explores conceptually some possible ways of rule change and indicates their general relevance from an ethical and a practical point of view for future problems of medical resource allocation under transparent, standardized priority-setting rules. PMID:22358456

  20. Donor risk indices in pancreas allocation in the Eurotransplant region.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Wouter H; de Vries, Erwin; de Boer, Jan; Putter, Hein; Schareck, Wolfgang; Samuel, Undine; Braat, Andries E

    2016-08-01

    Pancreas donor selection and recognition are important to cope with increasing organ shortage. We aim to show that the PDRI is more useful than the P-PASS to predict acceptance and should thus be preferred over P-PASS. Eurotransplant donors from 2004 until 2014 were included in this study. PDRI logistical factors were set to reference to purely reflect donor quality (PDRI donor ). PDRI and P-PASS association with allocation outcome was studied using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Regional differences in donor quality were also investigated. Of the 10 444 pancreata that were reported, 6090 (58.3%) were accepted and 2947 (28.2%) were transplanted. We found that P-PASS was inferior to PDRIdonor in its ability to predict organ reporting, acceptance, and transplantation: AUC 0.63, 0.67 and 0.73 for P-PASS vs. 0.78, 0.79 and 0.84 for PDRIdonor , respectively. Furthermore, there were significant differences in donor quality among different Eurotransplant countries, both in reported donors and in transplanted organs. PDRI is a powerful predictor of allocation outcome and should be preferred over P-PASS. Proper donor selection and recognition, and possibly a more liberal approach toward inferior quality donors, may increase donation and transplant rates. PMID:27188797

  1. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  2. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26835560

  3. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  4. Physical and economic processes of water scarcity and water allocation for integrated river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiangzheng; Singh, R. B.; Liu, Junguo; Güneralp, Burak

    Water scarcity and stress have attracted increasing attention as water has become increasingly regarded as one of the most critical resources in the world's sustainable development. Water allocation is correlated to the land use and cover changes (LUCC), population distribution, economic development, climate changes, and environmental governance. These factors physically alter surface energy for water balance through the changes in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of vegetation (Haiming Yan et al.), and natural resource productivity, simultaneously, financially and interactively influence on water allocation for socio-economic development (Xiangzheng Deng et al.). Therefore, it is very important to figure out a mechanism of water allocation in the course of LUCC (Xiangzheng Deng et al.; Hasan Ozdemir and Emre Elbaşı), climate and economic changes at various spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Watching sexy displays improves hatching success and offspring growth through maternal allocation.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-11-22

    Male attractiveness can have tremendous effects on the fitness of his offspring via good genes, but also via enhanced maternal allocation of resources. Yet the proximate mechanisms influencing differential maternal allocation in relation to male sexiness are poorly known. Here, we studied the importance of visual stimulation for maternal allocation in the Houbara bustard, a vulnerable bird species bred in captivity to support wild populations. Artificial insemination allowed controlling for potential confounding factors, such as a male's territory quality, social interactions or sperm quality/quantity, probably linked to mate attractiveness. We show that artificially inseminated females stimulated by highly displaying males increased their hatching success, owing to increased fertilization success. The females also increased the allocation of maternal androgens in their eggs, leading to an increase of circulating testosterone and growth rate in chicks. Hence, visual stimulation of the females can promote differential maternal allocation and favour offspring fitness. Our results further suggest that using artificial insemination for species conservation without appropriate stimulation of the breeding females probably has negative impacts on their breeding performance and therefore on population viability. PMID:20538650

  6. Relationship of coal severance tax allocations to coal county socio-economic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This research study undertakes an analysis of social and economic conditions in America's coal producing counties and the relationship to and effect of coal severance tax allocations on these conditions. These conditions are examined for 188 major coal producing counties in 16 states for the period 1970-1980. Coal county conditions are analyzed in detail. Among the variables reported are income, poverty, unemployment, total employment, bank deposits, population, population density, and local government finances. Change in these conditions are compared in a quasi-experimental model that identifies coal counties receiving severance tax as the experimental group and coal counties as a control group. These counties represent a total enumeration of major coal producing counties of the United States. Eastern severance counties averaged $10 per capita while western counties averaged nearly $293 per head in coal severance allocations. Local allocations equalled about one-third of property tax collections and about 3% of per capita income nationwide. Significant differences were found in most of the five socio-economic welfare variables between severance and nonseverance counties. The factor analysis revealed a significant relationship of coal severance tax allocations to economic growth in eastern counties. A weak relationship was found in western counties, possibly due to the lateness of those allocations to the study period.

  7. Evolutionarily stable sexual allocation by both stressed and unstressed potentially simultaneous hermaphrodites within the same population.

    PubMed

    Broom, M; Hughes, R N; Burrows, M T; Ruxton, G D

    2012-09-21

    Factors influencing allocation of resources to male and female offspring continue to be of great interest to evolutionary biologists. A simultaneous hermaphrodite is capable of functioning in both male and female mode at the same time, and such a life-history strategy is adopted by most flowering plants and by many sessile aquatic animals. In this paper, we focus on hermaphrodites that nourish post-zygotic stages, e.g. flowering plants and internally fertilising invertebrates, and consider how their sex allocation should respond to an environmental stress that reduces prospects of survival but does not affect all individuals equally, rather acting only on a subset of the population. Whereas dissemination of pollen and sperm can begin at sexual maturation, release of seeds and larvae is delayed by embryonic development. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy for allocation between male and female functions will be critically dependent on the effect of stress on the trade-off between the costs of male and female reproduction, (i.e. of sperm and embryos). Thus, we identify evaluation of this factor as an important challenge to empiricists interested in the effects of stress on sex allocation. When only a small fraction of the population is stressed, we predict that stressed individuals will allocate their resources entirely to male function and unstressed individuals will increase their allocation to female function. Conversely, when the fraction of stress-affected individuals is high, stressed individuals should respond to this stressor by increasing investment in sperm and unstressed individuals should invest solely in embryos. A further prediction of the model is that we would not expect to find populations in the natural world where both stressed and unstressed individuals are both hermaphrodite. PMID:22721995

  8. What is the difference between a 2, 3, 4, or 5 °C world and how good are we at telling this difference? Results from ISI-MIP the first Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, K.; Huber, V.; Piontek, F.; Schewe, J.; Serdeczny, O.; Warszawski, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Inter-sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) aims to synthesize the state-of-the-art knowledge of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. Over 25 climate impact modelling teams from around the world, working within the agriculture, water, biomes, infrastructure and health sectors, are collaborating to find answers to the question "What is the difference between a 2, 3, 4, or 5 °C world and how good are we at telling this difference?". The analysis is based on common, bias-corrected climate projections, and socio-economic pathways. The first, fast-tracked phase of the ISI-MIP has a focus on global impact models. The project's experimental design is formulated to distinguish the uncertainty introduced by the impact models themselves, from the inherent uncertainty in the climate projections and the variety of plausible socio-economic futures. Novel metrics, developed to emphasize societal impacts, will be used to identify regional 'hot-spots' of climate change impacts, as well as to quantify the cross-sectoral impact of the increasing frequency of extreme events in future climates. We present here first results from the Fast-Track phase of the project covering impact simulations in the biomes, agriculture and water sectors, in which the societal impacts of climate change are quantified for different levels of global warming. We also discuss the design of the scenario set-up and impact indicators chosen to suit the unique cross-sectoral, multi-model nature of the project.

  9. Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh

    2008-10-01

    The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571

  10. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  11. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Diego von B. M.; Halmenschlager, Vitor; Ortolan, Leonardo; De Castro, Maria C. F.; De Castro, Fernando C. C.; Ourique, Fabrício

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  12. Scheduling Patients' Appointments: Allocation of Healthcare Service Using Simulation Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chenl, Ping-Shun; Robielos, Rex Aurelius C; Palaña, Philline Kate Vera C; Valencia, Pierre Lorenzo L; Chen, Gary Yu-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    In the service industry, scheduling medical procedures causes difficulties for both patients and management. Factors such as fluctuations in customer demand and service time affect the appointment scheduling systems' performance in terms of, for example, patients' waiting time, idle time of resources, and total cost/profits. This research implements four appointment scheduling policies, i.e., constant arrival, mixed patient arrival, three-section pattern arrival, and irregular arrival, in an ultrasound department of a hospital in Taiwan. By simulating the four implemented policies' optimization procedures, optimal or near-optimal solutions can be obtained for patients per arrival, patients' inter-arrival time, and the number of the time slots for arrived patients. Furthermore, three objective functions are tested, and the results are discussed. The managerial implications and discussions are summarized to demonstrate how outcomes can be useful for hospital managers seeking to allocate their healthcare service capacities. PMID:26288890

  13. The Stimulus Movement Effect: Allocation of Attention or Artifact?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In previous reports, including one by the author, learning has been shown to benefit by having discriminanda move rather than remain stationary. This stimulus movement effect might be attributed to several theoretical mechanisms, including attention, topological memory, and exposure duration. The series of experiments reported in this article was designed to Contrast these potential explanatory factors. Ten rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested on a variety of computerized tasks in which the stimuli remained stationary, flashed, or moved at systematically varied speeds. Performance was significantly best when the sample stimulus moved quickly and was poorest when the stimulus remained stationary. Further analysis of these data and other previously published data revealed that the distribution of the stimulus movement effect across trials supported an attention allocation interpretation.

  14. Outcome based state budget allocation for diabetes prevention programs using multi-criteria optimization with robust weights.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Sanjay; Kim, Kibaek

    2011-12-01

    We consider the problem of outcomes based budget allocations to chronic disease prevention programs across the United States (US) to achieve greater geographical healthcare equity. We use Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCP) by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an example. We present a multi-criteria robust weighted sum model for such multi-criteria decision making in a group decision setting. The principal component analysis and an inverse linear programming techniques are presented and used to study the actual 2009 budget allocation by CDC. Our results show that the CDC budget allocation process for the DPCPs is not likely model based. In our empirical study, the relative weights for different prevalence and comorbidity factors and the corresponding budgets obtained under different weight regions are discussed. Parametric analysis suggests that money should be allocated to states to promote diabetes education and to increase patient-healthcare provider interactions to reduce disparity across the US. PMID:21674143

  15. A dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Wu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Maode; Li, Wenming; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2008-11-01

    This paper analyses current bandwidth schemes and proposes a novel dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON. According the scheme, we define four kinds of multimedia services such as Unsolicited Request Service (URS), Realtime Service (rt-S), Non-Real-time Service (nrt-S) and Best Effort (BE). Different kinds of services have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Our scheme considers the diverse QoS request, e.g., delay for rt-S, throughput for nrt-S and fairness for BE. The simulation results show this novel scheme can ensure the quality of service (QoS) and improve bandwidth utilization.

  16. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  17. Comparison of multinomial logistic regression and logistic regression: which is more efficient in allocating land use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yingzhi; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xing; Ma, Enjun

    2014-12-01

    Spatially explicit simulation of land use change is the basis for estimating the effects of land use and cover change on energy fluxes, ecology and the environment. At the pixel level, logistic regression is one of the most common approaches used in spatially explicit land use allocation models to determine the relationship between land use and its causal factors in driving land use change, and thereby to evaluate land use suitability. However, these models have a drawback in that they do not determine/allocate land use based on the direct relationship between land use change and its driving factors. Consequently, a multinomial logistic regression method was introduced to address this flaw, and thereby, judge the suitability of a type of land use in any given pixel in a case study area of the Jiangxi Province, China. A comparison of the two regression methods indicated that the proportion of correctly allocated pixels using multinomial logistic regression was 92.98%, which was 8.47% higher than that obtained using logistic regression. Paired t-test results also showed that pixels were more clearly distinguished by multinomial logistic regression than by logistic regression. In conclusion, multinomial logistic regression is a more efficient and accurate method for the spatial allocation of land use changes. The application of this method in future land use change studies may improve the accuracy of predicting the effects of land use and cover change on energy fluxes, ecology, and environment.

  18. Conflict over condition-dependent sex allocation can lead to mixed sex-determination systems

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, Bram; Pen, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent–offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the environment has sex-specific fitness consequences. Additionally, one sex is assumed to be more costly to produce than the other, which leads offspring to favor a sex ratio less biased toward the cheaper sex in comparison to the sex ratio favored by mothers. The scope for parent–offspring conflict depends on the relative frequency of both environments: when one environment is less common than the other, parent–offspring conflict can be reduced or even entirely absent, despite a biased population sex ratio. The model shows that conflict-driven invasions of condition-independent sex factors (e.g., sex chromosomes) result either in the loss of condition-dependent sex allocation, or, interestingly, lead to stable mixtures of condition-dependent and condition-independent sex factors. The latter outcome corresponds to empirical observations in which sex chromosomes are present in organisms with environment-dependent sex determination. Finally, conflict can also favor errors in environmental perception, potentially resulting in the loss of condition-dependent sex allocation without genetic changes to sex-determining loci. PMID:25180669

  19. Seasonal evolution of carbon allocation to biomass in a French beech forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, Laura; Calvaruso, Christophe; Conil, Sébastien; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Longdoz, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of ecosystem behavior in term of assimilated carbon (C) use. In the global climate change context, this C allocation could play a critical role in predicting ecosystems long terms emissions (Trumbore 2006) and has become a major goal of several emergent studies The monthly C allocation has been determined for a 50-year old beech forest located in north-east of France through the quantification of Gross Primary Production (GPP), biomass production and some of its components (holocelluloses, lignin). In a second phase, the potential factors influencing those productions and allocations throughout a year have been assessed. The temporal evolution of GPP was obtained from the partitioning of eddy-covariance flux measurements and monitored for one year. It was connected to tree aboveground C biomass growth at a monthly step. To achieve the latter, site specific allometric equations were used with trees diameter at breast height (DBH) measured monthly during the growing season on one hand and, on the other hand, C concentrations were deduced from analyses on trunk cores (sampled monthly) and on leaves and bulk branches cores (sampled at the beginning and at the end of the growing season). The C allocated to the aboveground biomass was then estimated, along with the portion allocated to structural C. The results show the delay existing between the end of the tree growth and carbon assimilation. We analyze the possibility to explain this divergence by a compensation coming from the C concentration evolution. Keywords: Carbon allocation, Forest, Biomass production, Carbon concentration, Eddy Covariance Trumbore S. 2006. Carbon Respired by Terrestrial Ecosystems - Recent Progress and Challenges. Global Change Biology 12 (2): 141-53.

  20. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... published by the CDFI Fund on how an entity may apply to become certified as a CDE (66 FR 65806, December 20... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... note the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (the CDFI Fund) will only...

  1. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  2. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding. PMID:22635187

  4. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Will; Smedley, Scott; Gillingham, Peter; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Jouvel, Stephanie; Nord, Brian

    2014-08-01

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys. We simulate various survey strategies, for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases to 94.4% and 97.2% respectively, representing fractional gains of 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. The simulated annealing allows spine tilt minimization to be included in the optimization, at some small cost to the yield. With a natural minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30 μm. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  5. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  6. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  8. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  9. Development of target allocation methods for LAMOST focal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

    2014-01-01

    We first introduce the primary target allocation requirements and restrictions for the parallel control multiple fiber system, which is used in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. The fiber positioner anti-collision model is imported. Then several target allocation methods and features are discussed in detail, including a network flow algorithm, high priority for fiber unit holding less target number, target allocation algorithm for groups, target allocation method for add-ons and target reallocation. Their virtues and weaknesses are analyzed for various kinds of scientific research situations. Furthermore an optimization concept using the Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SAA) is developed to improve the fiber utilizing efficiency.

  10. The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation

    PubMed Central

    Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D.; Washington, Mary K.; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P.; Reddy, Vishruth K.; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F.; Engel, Michael E.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1−/− mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1−/− intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1−/− whole intestines and Mtgr1−/− enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1−/− intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1−/− mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1−/− mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation.—Parang, B., Rosenblatt, D., Williams, A. D., Washington, M. K., Revetta, F., Short, S. P., Reddy, V. K., Hunt, A., Shroyer, N. F., Engel, M. E., Hiebert, S. W., Williams, C. S. The transcriptional corepressors MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation. PMID:25398765

  11. Function allocation for humans and automation in the context of team dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Jacques Hugo; Johanna Oxstrand

    2015-07-01

    Within Human Factors Engineering, a decision-making process called function allocation (FA) is used during the design life cycle of complex systems to distribute the system functions, often identified through a functional requirements analysis, to all human and automated machine agents (or teammates) involved in controlling the system. Most FA methods make allocation decisions primarily by comparing the capabilities of humans and automation, but then also by considering secondary factors such as cost, regulations, and the health and safety of workers. The primary analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of humans and machines, however, is almost always considered in terms of individual human or machine capabilities. Yet, FA is fundamentally about teamwork in that the goal of the FA decision-making process is to determine what are the optimal allocations of functions among agents. Given this framing of FA, and the increasing use of and sophistication of automation, there are two related social psychological issues that current FA methods need to address more thoroughly. First, many principles for effective human teamwork are not considered as central decision points or in the iterative hypothesis and testing phase in most FA methods, when it is clear that social factors have numerous positive and negative effects on individual and team capabilities. Second, social psychological factors affecting team performance and can be difficult to translate to automated agents, and most FA methods currently do not account for this effect. The implications for these issues are discussed.

  12. Perceptions and Attitudes of Health Professionals in Kenya on National Health Care Resource Allocation Mechanisms: A Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan Megan; Wang, Bill; Huang, Kuo-Cherh; Muga, Miriam Adoyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care resource allocation is key towards attaining equity in the health system. However, health professionals’ perceived impact and attitude towards health care resource allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; furthermore, they occupy a position which makes them notice the impact of different policies in their health system. This study explored perceptions and attitudes of health professionals in Kenya on health care resource allocation mechanism. Method We conducted a survey of a representative sample of 341 health professionals in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital from February to April 2012, consisting of over 3000 employees. We assessed health professionals’ perceived impact and attitudes on health care resource allocation mechanism in Kenya. We used structural equation modeling and applied a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure to test the hypothesized model. Results We found that the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their perceived positive impact (-1.04, p < .001), health professionals’ satisfaction (-0.24, p < .01), and professionals’ attitudes (-1.55, p < .001) while it was positively associated with perceived negative impact (1.14, p < .001). Perceived positive impact of the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their overall satisfaction (-0.08) and attitude (-0.98) at p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, overall satisfaction was negatively associated with attitude (-1.10, p <.001). On the other hand, perceived negative impact of the allocation was positively associated with overall satisfaction (0.29, p <.001) but was not associated with attitude. Conclusion The result suggests that health care resource allocation mechanism has a negative effect towards perceptions, attitudes and overall satisfaction of health professionals who are at the frontline in health care. These findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers as the Kenyan

  13. Rationality and allocating scarce medical resources.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, R P

    1995-02-01

    In an article titled, "Who Shall Live When Not All Can?", James Childress proposes a system for allocating scarce lifesaving medical resources based on random selection procedures. Childress writes of random selection procedures, [They] "cannot be dismissed as a 'non-rational' and 'non-human' ...without an inquiry into the reasons, including human values which might justify it." My thesis is that once we concentrate on determining the rationality of random selection procedures, we will see that Childress's claim that we cannot dismiss such procedures as 'non-rational' is open to question. My claim will be that while both random selection and social worth procedures are rationally defensible systems, random selection procedures easily lead to specific choices that are objectively irrational, apart from the limited perspective of the random selection process itself. PMID:7738457

  14. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  15. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  16. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. PMID:26022569

  17. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  18. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  19. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Methods Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. Results About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Conclusion Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada’s health system leadership teams. PMID:23819598

  20. A unified framework of unsupervised subjective optimized bit allocation for multiple video object coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Han, Junwei; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-10-01

    MPEG-4 treats a scene as a composition of several objects or so-called video object planes (VOPs) that are separately encoded and decoded. Such a flexible video coding framework makes it possible to code different video object with different distortion scale. It is necessary to analyze the priority of the video objects according to its semantic importance, intrinsic properties and psycho-visual characteristics such that the bit budget can be distributed properly to video objects to improve the perceptual quality of the compressed video. This paper aims to provide an automatic video object priority definition method based on object-level visual attention model and further propose an optimization framework for video object bit allocation. One significant contribution of this work is that the human visual system characteristics are incorporated into the video coding optimization process. Another advantage is that the priority of the video object can be obtained automatically instead of fixing weighting factors before encoding or relying on the user interactivity. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we compare it with traditional verification model bit allocation and the optimal multiple video object bit allocation algorithms. Comparing with traditional bit allocation algorithms, the objective quality of the object with higher priority is significantly improved under this framework. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this unsupervised subjective quality lifting framework.

  1. Decision Makers' Allocation of Home-Care Therapy Services: A Process Map

    PubMed Central

    Poss, Jeff; Egan, Mary; Rappolt, Susan; Berg, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore decision-making processes currently used in allocating occupational and physical therapy services in home care for complex long-stay clients in Ontario. Method: An exploratory study using key-informant interviews and client vignettes was conducted with home-care decision makers (case managers and directors) from four home-care regions in Ontario. The interview data were analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: The decision-making process for allocating therapy services has four stages: intake, assessment, referral to service provider, and reassessment. There are variations in the management processes deployed at each stage. The major variation is in the process of determining the volume of therapy services across home-care regions, primarily as a result of financial constraints affecting the home-care programme. Government funding methods and methods of information sharing also significantly affect home-care therapy allocation. Conclusion: Financial constraints in home care are the primary contextual factor affecting allocation of therapy services across home-care regions. Given the inflation of health care costs, new models of funding and service delivery need to be developed to ensure that the right person receives the right care before deteriorating and requiring more costly long-term care. PMID:24403672

  2. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  3. Game analysis and benefit allocation in international projects among owner, supervisor and contractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sini; Xu, Xiaofeng; Che, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    International projects are different from general domestic ones. In order to analyse the differences, a tripartite game model is built up to describe the relationship among owner, supervisor and general contractor, and some measures are given for the owner to more effectively complete the project. In addition, a project schedule selection model is formulated and a new benefit allocation method is proposed by introducing a new modified Shapley value with weighted factor.

  4. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    PubMed

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  5. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  6. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  7. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  8. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  9. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  10. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 648.70 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  11. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  12. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 648.70 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. Link... Regional Administrator shall determine the initial allocation of surfclams and ocean quahogs for the...

  13. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  14. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  15. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  16. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  17. 42 CFR 415.60 - Allocation of physician compensation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Physician Services § 415.60 Allocation of physician compensation costs. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... or the carrier. (2) Report the information on which the physician compensation allocation is based to the intermediary or the carrier on an annual basis and promptly notify the intermediary or carrier...

  18. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifying targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  19. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  20. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... qualifying targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a) Prepaid dues income for which...

  2. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  3. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  5. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  6. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  7. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  8. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  9. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  10. Allocating the Materials Funds Using Total Cost of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubberley, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need at the University of Southern Mississippi library to review resource allocations among serials, monographs and standing orders, and to select an allocation formula. The supply and demand formula used, its implementation, and results in departmental purchasing power are described. (four references) (EA)

  11. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  12. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  13. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  14. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg...

  16. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  17. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  18. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  20. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  1. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  2. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a) Sections 73.21 to 73.37, inclusive,...

  3. 7 CFR 1470.4 - Allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and management. 1470.4 Section 1470.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM General Provisions § 1470.4 Allocation and management....

  4. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 791, subpart D. There are three categories of section 213(d) funding allocations... notices of funding availability (NOFA) in the Federal Register. See 24 CFR part 12, subpart B; and 24 CFR... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding....

  5. 24 CFR 576.3 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Allocation of funding. 576.3 Section 576.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... funding. (a) Territories. HUD will set aside for allocation to the territories up to 0.2 percent, but...

  6. 34 CFR 673.4 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... institution its allocation in accordance with the payment methods described in 34 CFR 668.162. (3) Unexpended... 34 CFR 675.18 (b), (c), and (f), an institution may not use funds allocated or reallocated for an... award year. (g) Authority to expend FSEOG funds. Except as specifically provided in 34 CFR...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole...

  8. 34 CFR 673.4 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... institution its allocation in accordance with the payment methods described in 34 CFR 668.162. (3) Unexpended... 34 CFR 675.18 (b), (c), and (f), an institution may not use funds allocated or reallocated for an... award year. (g) Authority to expend FSEOG funds. Except as specifically provided in 34 CFR...

  9. Higher Education Cooperation Act: Fiscal Year 1998 Grant Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report describes fiscal year 1998 grant allocations made under the Illinois Higher Education Cooperation Act (HECA) to support programs and projects involving cooperation among higher education institutions. A total of $16.59 million was allocated. Projects recommended for grant funds include 3 new and 12 continuing interinstitutional…

  10. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  14. The Use of Student Outcomes in Resource Allocation Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfner, Eliot S.

    Resource allocation processes suitable for use in not-for-profit institutions are discussed and a conceptual model for resource allocation in institutions of higher education is presented. The objectives of higher education include the personal development and education of students, not merely the certification of students by conferring degrees.…

  15. Resource Allocation Strategies Employed in Large versus Small School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Eugene J.

    Education is faced with a declining resource base coupled with overwhelming demands for categorical programs. The current resource allocation strategy common to all systems is cutting spending. The difference between large and small districts is less important than differences in complexity. Complexity in resource allocations is more a function of…

  16. 40 CFR 35.910 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 35.910 Section 35.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910 Allocation of...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... development, expansion or maintenance of the market in the importing country for the particular...

  18. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  19. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  2. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  3. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  4. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  5. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation...

  6. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  7. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  8. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  9. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  10. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  11. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  16. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  17. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  18. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  19. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  20. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  1. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  2. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  3. Efficiency of Fiscal Allocations in Site-Based Empowered Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jerome Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented a two phase concurrent mixed-methods design to generate a greater understanding of how elementary schools with increased autonomy in fiscal decision making allocated their money, how their site-based decisions affected allocative efficiency, and how increased autonomy affected site-based decision making when compared with a…

  4. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  5. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  6. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  7. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  8. 48 CFR 408.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation process. 408.705-3 Section 408.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION... Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.705-3 Allocation process. (a) The chief of...

  9. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  11. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  12. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  13. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  14. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  2. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of funds. (a) For this program...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  7. Lung and heart allocation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colvin-Adams, M; Valapour, M; Hertz, M; Heubner, B; Paulson, K; Dhungel, V; Skeans, M A; Edwards, L; Ghimire, V; Waller, C; Cherikh, W S; Kasiske, B L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K

    2012-12-01

    Lung and heart allocation in the United States has evolved over the past 20-30 years to better serve transplant candidates and improve organ utilization. The current lung allocation policy, based on the Lung Allocation Score, attempts to take into account risk of death on the waiting list and chance of survival posttransplant. This policy is flexible and can be adjusted to improve the predictive ability of the score. Similarly, in response to the changing clinical phenotype of heart transplant candidates, heart allocation policies have evolved to a multitiered algorithm that attempts to prioritize organs to the most infirm, a designation that fluctuates with trends in therapy. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and its committees have been responsive, as demonstrated by recent modifications to pediatric heart allocation and mechanical circulatory support policies and by ongoing efforts to ensure that heart allocation policies are equitable and current. Here we examine the development of US lung and heart allocation policy, evaluate the application of the current policy on clinical practice and explore future directions for lung and heart allocation. PMID:22974276

  8. On the Allocation of Resources for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal allocation of resources--in terms of school management, teachers, supporting employees and materials--in secondary schools. We use a flexible budget constrained output distance function model to estimate both technical and allocative efficiency scores for 448 Dutch secondary schools between 2002 and 2007. The results…

  9. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  10. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  11. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a... income over the period of time during which the liability to render services or make available...

  14. 77 FR 9844 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Register on January 17, 2012 (77 FR 2225) that provide guidance regarding the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. DATES: This correction is effective on February 21, 2012, and is applicable on... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest...

  15. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  16. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  17. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  18. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  19. The Effect of Student Time Allocation on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature on the influence of institutional characteristics on student academic achievement. In contrast, relatively little research focusses on student time allocation and its effects on student performance. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of student time allocation on the average grade of…

  20. Discretionary Task Interleaving: Heuristics for Time Allocation in Cognitive Foraging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Stephen J.; Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Neth, Hansjorg

    2007-01-01

    When participants allocated time across 2 tasks (in which they generated as many words as possible from a fixed set of letters), they made frequent switches. This allowed them to allocate more time to the more productive task (i.e., the set of letters from which more words could be generated) even though times between the last word and the switch…