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Sample records for interstitial acochlidian gastropod

  1. MICROANATOMY, ULTRASTRUCTURE, AND SYSTEMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM AND MANTLE CAVITY OF AN ACOCHLIDIAN GASTROPOD (OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, A.; Haszprunar, G.

    2002-05-01

    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of an undescribed mesopsammic gastropod of the genus Hedylopsis have been examined by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions, and transmission electron microscopy. The functional metanephridial system comprises a monotocardian heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a spacious pericardium as well as a single, large kidney. Podocytes in the auricular epicardium represent the site of ultrafiltration and formation of the primary urine, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with extensive basal infoldings, large vacuoles and the apical microvillous border indicates modification of the primary filtrate. Solitary rhogocytes (pore cells) represent additional loci of ultrafiltration with an identical fine-structure as those of the podocytes (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix). The presence of podocytes situated in the epicardial wall of the auricle is regarded as plesiomorphic for the Opisthobranchia and is confirmed for the Acochlidia for the first time. Kidney and rectum both open into a small, yet distinct mantle cavity. Within the Acochlidia this condition represents a plesiomorphic character only known from one further Hedylopsis species until now. Special cells (here termed microvillous pit-cells) with a presumed absorptive function are interspersed between the epithelial cells of the mantle cavity. They are mainly characterized by a prominent invagination of the apical border with densely arranged, very large microvilli. The presence of a mantle cavity that has been lost in all other acochlidian genera supports the systematic placement of the Hedylopsidae at the base of the Achochlidia. PMID:12011235

  2. On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A robust phylogenetic hypothesis of euthyneuran gastropods, as a basis to reconstructing their evolutionary history, is still hindered by several groups of aberrant, more or less worm-like slugs with unclear phylogenetic relationships. As a traditional "order" in the Opisthobranchia, the Acochlidia have a long history of controversial placements, among others influenced by convergent adaptation to the mainly meiofaunal habitats. The present study includes six out of seven acochlidian families in a comprehensive euthyneuran taxon sampling with special focus on minute, aberrant slugs. Since there is no fossil record of tiny, shell-less gastropods, a molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times within Euthyneura. Results Our multi-locus molecular study confirms Acochlidia in a pulmonate relationship, as sister to Eupulmonata. Previous hypotheses of opisthobranch relations, or of a common origin with other meiofaunal Euthyneura, are clearly rejected. The enigmatic amphibious and insectivorous Aitengidae incerta sedis clusters within Acochlidia, as sister to meiofaunal and brackish Pseudunelidae and limnic Acochlidiidae. Euthyneura, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata as traditionally defined are non-monophyletic. A relaxed molecular clock approach indicates a late Palaeozoic diversification of Euthyneura and a Mesozoic origin of the major euthyneuran diversity, including Acochlidia. Conclusions The present study shows that the inclusion of small, enigmatic groups is necessary to solve deep-level phylogenetic relationships, and underlines that "pulmonate" and "opisthobranch" phylogeny, respectively, cannot be solved independently from each other. Our phylogenetic hypothesis requires reinvestigation of the traditional classification of Euthyneura: morphological synapomorphies of the traditionally defined Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia are evaluated in light of the presented phylogeny, and a redefinition of major groups is proposed. It is demonstrated that

  3. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rye-tus) is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. Interstitial nephritis reduces the kidneys’ ability to filter properly. Interstitial nephritis is a serious condition, but ...

  4. [Gastropods associated with the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia (Udoteaceae) in Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Soto-Santiago, Francisco J; Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J; Medina-Hernández, Javier R

    2008-12-01

    Gastropod communities associated with the calcareous green alga Halimeda opuntia are described and compared for two Puerto Rico coral reefs: one in the northeast with front tradewinds (windward zone) and one in the southwest (leeward zone). We analyzed the content of 21 lots (2432 g) of H. opuntia from leeward zone and 15 lots (2448 g) from the windward zone. In total we recovered 526 gastropods (prosobranchs) classified in 54 taxa. Thirteen species of gastropods represented 79.6% of the community. Differences between species richness and mean density values were not significant (p > 0.100). Forty species were identified from leeward and thirty one (31) species from windward. Gastropod mean density was 13.9/100 g of algae in leeward and 7.6/100 g in windward. Significant differences were found for the Simpson Diversity Index (0.91 in the leeward and 0.82 in the windward community; t = 3.44, alpha = 0.005). We found no correlation between the weight of the algae and the frequency of the gastropods (R2 = 0.0893 in leeward, 0.0249 windward and 0.0923 for both). The relationship between species composition in lots of windward and leeward study sites was explored via polar ordination and no segregation was found. When compared, the gastropod communities found in H. opuntia collected in coral reefs in Puerto Rico were more similar within them than any other communities found in other genera of seaweed and in other environments. Our results agree with the hypothesis that H. opuntia offers the interstitial community a protected microhabitat from water movement impact. H. opuntia creates more homogenous conditions than those of the habitat where we found the algae. PMID:19419075

  5. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  6. Fracture Mitigation Strategies in Gastropod Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Christopher; Kisailus, David

    2013-04-01

    For hundreds of millions of years, gastropods have been evolving, modifying their external calcified shells for defense against shell-breaking and drilling predators. They have evolved primarily to use two different aragonitic microstructures: the evolutionary older Nacre (mother of pearl) structure and the more recently developed crossed-lamellar structure. By using both of these structures, gastropods are able to produce shells that are significantly tougher then geologic aragonite. However, the crossed-lamellar structure allows for a wider variety of shell morphologies, ensuring its increasing presence since the Mesozoic Marine Revolution more than 200 million years ago.

  7. Gastropod Seed Dispersal: An Invasive Slug Destroys Far More Seeds in Its Gut than Native Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Blattmann, Tamara; Boch, Steffen; Türke, Manfred; Knop, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the most important mechanisms shaping biodiversity, and animals are one of the key dispersal vectors. Animal seed dispersal can directly or indirectly be altered by invasive organisms through the establishment of new or the disruption of existing seed dispersal interactions. So far it is known for a few gastropod species that they ingest and defecate viable plant seeds and consequently act as seed dispersers, referred to as gastropodochory. In a multi-species experiment, consisting of five different plant species and four different gastropod species, we tested with a fully crossed design whether gastropodochory is a general mechanism across native gastropod species, and whether it is altered by the invasive alien slug species Arion lusitanicus. Specifically, we hypothesized that a) native gastropod species consume the seeds from all tested plant species in equal numbers (have no preference), b) the voracious invasive alien slug A. lusitanicus – similarly to its herbivore behaviour – consumes a higher amount of seeds than native gastropods, and that c) seed viability is equal among different gastropod species after gut passage. As expected all tested gastropod species consumed all tested plant species. Against our expectation there was a difference in the amount of consumed seeds, with the largest and native mollusk Helix pomatia consuming most seeds, followed by the invasive slug and the other gastropods. Seed damage and germination rates did not differ after gut passage through different native species, but seed damage was significantly higher after gut passage through the invasive slug A. lusitanicus, and their germination rates were significantly reduced. PMID:24086477

  8. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  9. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, the cause ...

  10. Could gastropods crawl using Newtonian mucus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janice; Vazquez-Torres, Maria; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2010-11-01

    The locomotion of terrestrial gastropods is driven by a train of periodic muscle contractions (pedal waves) and relaxations (interwaves) that propagate from their tail to their head (direct waves). We study the locomotion of these animals on smooth flat surfaces by measuring the three-dimensional displacements of the ventral foot surface induced by the passage of the waves. A simple model based on lubrication theory is proposed in accordance with the experimental observations. This model uncovers a new mode of locomotion that works even when the lubricant between the foot and the animal is Newtonian. The model can also be adapted to situations where the animal's foot is in contact with the ground only at discrete points, as is the case when it crawls on a wire mesh or on rough soil surfaces. Furthermore, comparison between the stress exerted by the animal on the substrate and the model predictions allows us to clarify the role of the complex rheology observed in the mucus of terrestrial gastropods.

  11. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  12. Phylogenomic analyses of deep gastropod relationships reject Orthogastropoda

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Wilson, Nerida G.; Howison, Mark; Andrade, Sónia C. S.; Jörger, Katharina M.; Schrödl, Michael; Goetz, Freya E.; Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunn, Casey W.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropods are a highly diverse clade of molluscs that includes many familiar animals, such as limpets, snails, slugs and sea slugs. It is one of the most abundant groups of animals in the sea and the only molluscan lineage that has successfully colonized land. Yet the relationships among and within its constituent clades have remained in flux for over a century of morphological, anatomical and molecular study. Here, we re-evaluate gastropod phylogenetic relationships by collecting new transcriptome data for 40 species and analysing them in combination with publicly available genomes and transcriptomes. Our datasets include all five main gastropod clades: Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia. We use two different methods to assign orthology, subsample each of these matrices into three increasingly dense subsets, and analyse all six of these supermatrices with two different models of molecular evolution. All 12 analyses yield the same unrooted network connecting the five major gastropod lineages. This reduces deep gastropod phylogeny to three alternative rooting hypotheses. These results reject the prevalent hypothesis of gastropod phylogeny, Orthogastropoda. Our dated tree is congruent with a possible end-Permian recovery of some gastropod clades, namely Caenogastropoda and some Heterobranchia subclades. PMID:25232139

  13. Invasion of Impatiens glandulifera affects terrestrial gastropods by altering microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckli, Regina; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Invasive species can have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Invasive plants may be able to change habitat structure and quality. We conducted a field experiment to examine whether the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera affects native terrestrial gastropods. We also evaluated whether the invasive plant alters forest soil characteristics and microclimate which in turn may influence gastropod abundance. We sampled gastropods in plots installed in patches of I. glandulifera, in plots in which I. glandulifera was regularly removed by hand, and in control plots which were not yet colonized by the invasive plant. The three types of plots were equally distributed over three mixed deciduous forest areas that were slightly, moderately or heavily affected by a wind throw 11 years ago. A total of 33 gastropod species were recorded. Gastropod species richness was not affected by delayed effects of the wind throw, but it was significantly higher in invaded plots than in uninvaded plots. Similarly, gastropod abundance was higher in invaded plots than in the two types of control plots. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed marginally significant shifts of gastropod communities between the three types of plots and indicated that soil moisture, presence of I. glandulifera and cover of woody debris affected gastropod species composition. Field measurements showed that soil moisture was higher and daily soil temperature was more damped in patches of I. glandulifera than in the native ground vegetation. The changed microclimatic conditions may favour certain gastropod species. In particular, ubiquitous species and species with a high inundation tolerance increased in abundance in plots invaded by I. glandulifera. Our field experiment demonstrated that an invasive plant can indirectly affect native organisms by changing soil characteristics and microclimate.

  14. Gastropod fauna of the Cameroonian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandel, K.; Kowalke, T.

    1999-11-01

    Eighteen species of gastropods were encountered living near and within the large coastal swamps, mangrove forests, intertidal flats and the rocky shore of the Cameroonian coast of the Atlantic Ocean. These represent members of the subclasses Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterostropha. Within the Neritimorpha, representatives of the genera Nerita, Neritina, and Neritilia could be distinguished by their radula anatomy and ecology. Within the Caenogastropoda, representatives of the families Potamididae with Tympano-tonos and Planaxidae with Angiola are characterized by their early ontogeny and ecology. The Pachymelaniidae are recognized as an independent group and are introduced as a new family within the Cerithioidea. Littorinimorpha with Littorina, Assiminea and Potamopyrgus as well as Neogastropoda (Thais) and Heterostropha (Melampus and Onchidium) are described and compared with representatives of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific province.

  15. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  16. Does energy availability predict gastropod reproductive strategies?

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Filler, Ryan; Auld, Josh R

    2014-08-22

    The diversity of reproductive strategies in nature is shaped by a plethora of factors including energy availability. For example, both low temperatures and limited food availability could increase larval exposure to predation by slowing development, selecting against pelagic and/or feeding larvae. The frequency of hermaphroditism could increase under low food availability as population density (and hence mate availability) decreases. We examine the relationship between reproductive/life-history traits and energy availability for 189 marine gastropod families. Only larval type was related to energy availability with the odds of having planktotrophic larvae versus direct development decreasing by 1% with every one-unit increase in the square root of carbon flux. Simultaneous hermaphroditism also potentially increases with carbon flux, but this effect disappears when accounting for evolutionary relationships among taxa. Our findings are in contrast to some theory and empirical work demonstrating that hermaphroditism should increase and planktotrophic development should decrease with decreasing productivity. Instead, they suggest that some reproductive strategies are too energetically expensive at low food availabilities, or arise only when energy is available, and others serve to capitalize on opportunities for aggregation or increased energy availability. PMID:25009058

  17. Does energy availability predict gastropod reproductive strategies?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Filler, Ryan; Auld, Josh R.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of reproductive strategies in nature is shaped by a plethora of factors including energy availability. For example, both low temperatures and limited food availability could increase larval exposure to predation by slowing development, selecting against pelagic and/or feeding larvae. The frequency of hermaphroditism could increase under low food availability as population density (and hence mate availability) decreases. We examine the relationship between reproductive/life-history traits and energy availability for 189 marine gastropod families. Only larval type was related to energy availability with the odds of having planktotrophic larvae versus direct development decreasing by 1% with every one-unit increase in the square root of carbon flux. Simultaneous hermaphroditism also potentially increases with carbon flux, but this effect disappears when accounting for evolutionary relationships among taxa. Our findings are in contrast to some theory and empirical work demonstrating that hermaphroditism should increase and planktotrophic development should decrease with decreasing productivity. Instead, they suggest that some reproductive strategies are too energetically expensive at low food availabilities, or arise only when energy is available, and others serve to capitalize on opportunities for aggregation or increased energy availability. PMID:25009058

  18. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  19. ‘Clumped isotopes’ thermometry in land gastropod carbonate shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.

    2009-12-01

    The carbonate ‘clumped isotope’ (Δ47) thermometer is based on the dependence of the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in carbonates on the carbonate formation temperature. We repeated at higher analytical precision the original thermometer calibration experiments of Ghosh et al., (2006) using carbonates precipitated synthetically by slow degassing of CO2 from saturated Ca(HCO3)2 solutions at a temperature range of 8°C to 70°C. Our data fall within error of the original calibration and generally confirms it. However, the samples precipitated at lower temperatures are slightly shifted, forming a line with a lower slope, fitting better the theoretical calibration thermometer predicted by Guo et al., (in press). We tested the Δ47 thermometer in land gastropods (snails) by analyzing modern gastropod shells from various geographical locations in comparison to the gastropods’ growing season temperatures. No significant inhomogeneity was observed within an individual shell. Segments growing at different stages in the gastropods’ life (e.g., inner part of the helix reflecting young gastropod growth and outer shell that grew at older gastropod age) revealed no significant variations within a specimen in either Δ47 or δ18O, whereas δ13C varied significantly (0.5 ‰) implying a change in the gastropods’ food source. Inter-species comparison revealed significant δ13C and δ18O variations among specimens collected at the same location (Sphincterochila zonata and Trochoidea simulate, south Israel, and Pleurodonte acuta and Orthalicus undutus, Jamaica) but no significant interspecies variations in Δ47, providing a strong indication for carbonate precipitation in isotopic equilibrium. Gastropod shells do not grow year-round, with most gastropods being dormant during dry cold seasons. ‘Clumped isotopes’ values are therefore expected to record the temperature of the gastropods’ growth season. Hence gastropod ecology and preferred growth conditions has to be taken

  20. Annotated Checklist of the Terrestrial Gastropods of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is the very first checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Nepal. It includes 138 species and six subspecies, of which 22 species are endemic and four are introduced. It highlights 34 species recorded for the first time in Nepal and provides new distribution records for another 30 species. PMID:25878541

  1. Density estimates for deep-sea gastropod assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, Michael A.; Etter, Ron J.; Nimeskern, Phillip W.

    1990-04-01

    Extensive boxcore sampling in the Atlantic Continental Slope and Rise study permitted the first precise measurement of gastropod density in the bathyal region of the deep sea. Gastropod density decreases significantly and exponentially with depth (250-3494 m), and density-depth regression lines do not differ significantly in either slope or elevatiob over horizontal scales of approximately 1000 km. The subclasses Prosobranchia and Opisthobranchia both show significant decreases in density with depth. Predatory taxa (neogastropods and opisthobranchs) exhibit significantly steeper declines in density with depth than do taxa dominated by deposit feeders (archaeogastropods and mesogastropods). Members of upper trophic levels may be more sensitive to the reduction in nutrient input with increased depth because of the energy loss between trophic levels in the food chain. A comparison of density estimates of gastropods from boxcore, grab and anchor-dredge samples taken in the same region revealed no significant differences in density-depth relationships among the sampling methods. A synthesis of data from 777 boxcore samples collected from the Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific over a depth range of 250-7298 m indicates that the decline in gastropod density with depth is a global trend with only moderate inter-regional variation.

  2. Vermetid gastropods and intertidal reefs in Israel and bermuda.

    PubMed

    Safriel, U N

    1974-12-20

    Small-rimmed intertidal reefs develop in the subtropical marine waters of Israel and Bermuda when erosion of exposed promontories is arrested by vermetid gastropods. The reefs in Bermuda are actively growing, wave-resistant biogenic structures, while those in Israel are limestone structures only encrusted by a relatively thin layer of vermetid shells cemented by coralline algae. PMID:17818625

  3. Pennsylvanian gastropod Pseudozygopleura (Pseudozygopleura) from the Appalachian basin: II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, R.E.; Sturgeon, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five additional taxa to those described by Hoare and Sturgeon (1981) of the gastropod Pseudozygopleura (Pseudozygopleura) are described from the Pennsylvania System of the Appalachian Basin. A key for identification of known Pennsylvanian species from this region is included.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  5. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Dixon, A K; Roberton, N R

    1984-01-01

    Forty one of 210 preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome in a three year period had radiological evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. The development of this condition was significantly associated with malpositioning of the endotracheal tube in a main bronchus and the use of high peak pressure ventilation. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema was associated with a significant increase in the number of pneumothoraces, intraventricular haemorrhages, and the need for prolonged respiratory support, but did not increase mortality. Although in 12 infants in whom fast rate ventilation was used there was a significant reduction in the number of pneumothoraces, outcome was not altered in any other way. Fast rate ventilation may be of greater benefit if initiated before the development of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6508339

  6. Inherited interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Christine Kim; Raghu, Ganesh

    2004-09-01

    This article focuses on recent advances in the identification of genes and genetic polymorphisms that have been implicated in the development of human interstitial lung diseases. It focuses on the inherited mendelian diseases in which pulmonary fibrosis is part of the clinical phenotype and the genetics of familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other rare inherited interstitial lung diseases. The article also reviews the association studies that have been published to date regarding the genetics of sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The reader is directed to recent reviews on human genetic predisposition of sarcoidosis, environmental-related, drug-related, connective tissue related pulmonary fibrosis, and genetic predisposition of fibrosis in animal models. PMID:15331184

  7. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the National Institutes of Health. Articles and Book Chapters Keay SK, Warren JW. Is interstitial cystitis ... Incontinence. Paris: Health Publication Ltd.; 2009: 1459–1518. Books and Booklets Moldwin RM. Interstitial Cystitis Survival Guide: ...

  8. Are gastropods, rather than ants, important dispersers of seeds of myrmecochorous forest herbs?

    PubMed

    Türke, Manfred; Andreas, Kerstin; Gossner, Martin M; Kowalski, Esther; Lange, Markus; Boch, Steffen; Socher, Stephanie A; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Fischer, Markus; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2012-01-01

    Seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is widespread, and seed adaptations to myrmecochory are common, especially in the form of fatty appendices (elaiosomes). In a recent study, slugs were identified as seed dispersers of myrmecochores in a central European beech forest. Here we used 105 beech forest sites to test whether myrmecochore presence and abundance is related to ant or gastropod abundance and whether experimentally exposed seeds are removed by gastropods. Myrmecochorous plant cover was positively related to gastropod abundance but was negatively related to ant abundance. Gastropods were responsible for most seed removal and elaiosome damage, whereas insects (and rodents) played minor roles. These gastropod effects on seeds were independent of region or forest management. We suggest that terrestrial gastropods can generally act as seed dispersers of myrmecochorous plants and even substitute myrmecochory, especially where ants are absent or uncommon. PMID:22173465

  9. Pathology of Haplosporidium patagon affecting siphonariid gastropods in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Gisele; Gilardoni, Carmen; Ituarte, Cristián

    2014-11-13

    Haplosporidium patagon was found parasitizing Siphonaria lessonii and S. lateralis, 2 siphonariid gastropods co-occurring on the littoral rocky shore at Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Gastropods from 2 habitats representing 2 different levels of environmental harshness were studied. In both cases, S. lessonii showed a higher prevalence of infection (3.78%) over the entire 14 mo study period than S. lateralis (0.13%). Very different values of prevalence of infection were observed at the different sampling sites: Site 1, the more restrictive habitat (exposed for long periods to desiccation during low tides, higher ultraviolet exposure, and high ranges of temperature variation) showed a higher prevalence value (5.99%) than Site 2 (1.46%). Statistical differences in prevalence were also found between values corresponding to the austral spring (3.35% at Site 1 and 0.74% at Site 2) and winter (13.79% at Site 1 and 2.13% at Site 2). The presence/absence of H. patagon did not vary significantly with gastropod shell length. Infection affected the digestive gland, whose normal histology was greatly modified. The hermaphroditic gonads were also affected; the female germinal cells disappeared or only a few primary or previtellogenic oocytes were present, and vitellogenesis was inhibited. The function of the male germinal epithelium, as well as spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes and associated organs (seminal vesicles and seminal receptacles), were not affected. However, the glandular pallial complex of the reproductive systemwas affected, and we observed a significant reduction in development in parasitized gastropods. H. patagon sporocysts also invaded the supporting connective tissues of both the kidney and pseudobranch. PMID:25392043

  10. Spermiogenesis in the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma petraeum (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia).

    PubMed

    D'Ancona Lunetta, G; Damiani, F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and maturation of the male gonad of the Mediterranean vermetid gastropod Dendropoma petraeum are described. Histological sections of the gonads were made throughout development and gonad activity was monitored at regular monthly intervals. During the autumn months the gonad is very small and is surrounded by a large quantity of connective tissue; it becomes more voluminous from December to August, with the highest growth peak in springtime. The stages of spermatogenesis were also observed and described. PMID:12044050

  11. Predation through geological time: evidence from gastropod shell repair.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, G J; Schindel, D E; Zipser, E

    1981-11-27

    Warm-water marine gastropods from soft-bottom habitats show an increase in the incidence of breakage-resistant shell characteristics over geological time. The hypothesis that breakage became a more important component of selection in the middle of the Mesozoic Era is supported by the finding that frequencies of breakage-induced shell repair increased from the Pennsylvanian and Triassic periods to the Cretaceous, Miocene, and Recent. PMID:17808668

  12. Methanotrophic gastropods from a bathyal hydrocarbon seep, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.C.; Aharon, P.; Gupta, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Two gastropods, Neritina sp. and Truncatella sp., collected live from a Gulf of Mexico active gas seep with the submersible Johnson Sea Link in September 1991, apparently incorporate methane-derived carbon in their soft tissues. Flesh of an individual Neritina sp. had a delta C-13 of [minus]50.92 per mil PDB, and that of two coexisting individuals of Truncatella sp. had values of [minus]45.11 and [minus]49.27 per mil. These isotope values are comparable to those reported for the methanotrophic mytilid bivalve Bathymodiolus sp. from other hydrocarbon seeps on the Gulf of Mexico, and are lighter than published isotopic values of chemosynthetic organisms with sulfur-oxidizing symbionts. The anomalously light carbon-isotopic values of Neritina sp. and Truncatella sp. may steam from one of three causes: (1) these gastropods host symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria, (2) their chief food is methane-oxidizing bacteria present at the seep, or (3) they incorporate some carbon from the periostracum of mussels on which they may graze. The presence of abundant juveniles of Bathymodiolus, reported to settle preferentially in areas of active seepage and high methane release, indicates that methane was abundant and supported a community with multiple trophic levels. Generally, studies of hydrocarbon-seep communities have focused on larger community members, especially bivalves and tube worms. The presence of living Neritina and Truncatella at the authors sampling site, however, draws attention to the fact that these gastropods are integral and significant parts of hydrocarbon-seep communities. Both gastropod species are members of genera that characteristically inhabit shallow marine, intertidal, and semiterrestrial environments. The presence of these genera in bathyal hydrocarbon seeps indicates that they have very broad environmental ranges, thus limiting their utility in paleoecologic reconstructions.

  13. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  14. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  15. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5-0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  16. Using microwaves to prepare gastropods for DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Galindo, L A; Puillandre, N; Strong, E E; Bouchet, P

    2014-07-01

    Extracting DNA from gastropods presents particular difficulties due to the capacity of the living animal to retract into the shell, resulting in poor penetration of the ethanol into the tissues. Because the shell is essential to establish the link between sequences and traditional taxonomic identity, cracking the shell to facilitate fixation is not ideal. Several methods are currently in routine use to overcome this difficulty, including chemical relaxation, drilling the shell and boiling. Most of these methods are time-consuming, may be safety hazards and constitute a bottleneck in the preparation of large numbers of specimens in the field. We have experimented with a method traditionally used to clean shells that involves placing the living gastropods in a microwave (MW) oven; the electromagnetic radiation very quickly heats both the animal and the water trapped inside the shell, resulting in separation of the muscles that anchor the animal to the shell. Done properly, the body can be removed intact from the shell and the shell voucher is preserved undamaged. To test the method, the bodies of live-collected specimens from two gastropod species were separated from their shell by microwaving and by anesthetizing/drilling. After identical extraction and PCR procedures, the gels showed no difference in DNA quantity or quality, and the resulting sequences are identical within species. The method was then implemented on a large scale during expeditions, resulting in higher percentage of DNA extraction success. The MWs are also effective for quickly and easily removing other molluscs from their shells, that is, bivalves and scaphopods. Workflows implementing the MW technique show a three- to fivefold increase in productivity compared with other methods. PMID:24450943

  17. Phylogeographical disjunction in abundant high-dispersal littoral gastropods.

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; King, T M; O'Loughlin, P M; Spencer, H G

    2005-08-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical disjunctions in high-dispersal marine taxa are variously ascribed to palaeogeographical conditions or contemporary ecological factors. Associated biogeographical studies, however, seldom incorporate the sampling design required to confidently discriminate among such competing hypotheses. In the current study, over 7800 gastropod specimens were examined for operculum colour, and 129 specimens genetically, to test ecological and historical biogeographical hypotheses relating to biogeographical disjunction in the Southern Hemisphere, and to southern Australia in particular. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the high-dispersal intertidal gastropod Nerita atramentosa in southern Australia (88 specimens; 18 localities) revealed an east-west phylogeographical split involving two highly divergent clades (26.0 +/- 1.9%) exhibiting minimal geographical overlap in the southeast. The eastern clade of Nerita atramentosa is also widespread in northern New Zealand (43 specimens, 10 localities), but no significant genetic differentiation is explained by the Tasman Sea, a 2000-km-wide oceanic barrier. Spatial genetic structure was not detected within either clade, consistent with the species' dispersive planktotrophic phase lasting for 5-6 months. Digital analysis of operculum colouration revealed substantial differences between eastern (tan) and western (black) specimens. Genetic analysis and visual inspection of 88 Australian specimens revealed a completely nonrandom association between mtDNA data and operculum colouration. Independent examination of a further 7822 specimens from 14 sites in southern Australia revealed both colour morphs at all localities, but reinforced the phylogeographical data by indicating a marked turnover in colour morph abundance associated with a palaeogeographical barrier: Wilsons Promontory. This sharp biogeographical disjunction is in marked contrast to the species' high dispersal abilities. The genetic similarity of

  18. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5%) being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors), but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal limitation and

  19. [Conotoxins: from the biodiversity of gastropods to new drugs].

    PubMed

    Fedosov, A É; Moshkovskiĭ, S A; Kuznetsova, K G; Olivera, B M

    2013-01-01

    A review describes general trends in research of conotoxins that are peptide toxins isolated from sea gastropods of the Conus genus, since the toxins were discovered in 1970th. There are disclosed a conotoxin classification, their structure diversity and different ways of action to their molecular targets, mainly, ion channels. In the applied aspect of conotoxin research, drug discovery and development is discussed, the drugs being based on conotoxin structure. A first exemplary drug is a ziconotide, which is an analgesic of new generation. PMID:23987066

  20. Space: A non-limiting resource in the niches of some abundant coral reef gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelt, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    Given the importance attributed to the occupation of space in benthic coral reef communities, this study asks the question: are any particular microhabitat types limiting resources for an assemblage of worm-eating gastropods on Heron reef (Great Barrier Reef). Microhabitat resource use was measured on three occasions, separated by 12 and 20-month periods. The gastropod populations were typical of those of other Indo-Pacific sites with respect to mean shell size and density. Fluctuations in species' size and density are assumed to have not significantly influenced availability of microhabitat resources. Gastropods occurred mainly in the structurally complex “refuge” microhabitats during the day and showed an increased abundance in smooth, exposed, “foraging” microhabitat nocturnally. Nassarius gaudiosus is the most extreme microhabitat specialist diurnally and the most extreme microhabitat generalist nocturnally. A similar, although less pronounced trend was exhibited by other gastropod species. Microhabitat niche overlap was high for Conus coronatus, C. miliaris, C. flavidus, Vasum turbinellus and N. gaudiosus at night and was also high during the day for all these species except N. gaudiosus, which showed little overlap with other gastropod species diurnally. Using gastropod abundance data from all samples, and independently derived microhabitat abundance data, multiple regression analysis demonstrated: 1) A significant relationship between the abundances of N. gaudiosus, C. coronatus, and C. flavidus and the abundance of microhabitat 2 (sand under rocks=“refuge”). 2) No positive association between gastropod abundance and the abundance of microhabitat 7a (thin layer of algal-bound sand on reef limestone). Only N. gaudiosus is abundant in microhabitat 2. Therefore it is concluded that, with some exceptions, microhabitat abundance does not have a significant influence, directly or indirectly, on gastropod abundance. It is possible that density

  1. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process. PMID:27514593

  2. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  3. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Interstitial Collagen Catabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Gregg B.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial collagen mechanical and biological properties are altered by proteases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the collagen triple-helical structure. Collagenolysis is critical in development and homeostasis but also contributes to numerous pathologies. Mammalian collagenolytic enzymes include matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin K, and neutrophil elastase, and a variety of invertebrates and pathogens possess collagenolytic enzymes. Components of the mechanism of action for the collagenolytic enzyme MMP-1 have been defined experimentally, and insights into other collagenolytic mechanisms have been provided. Ancillary biomolecules may modulate the action of collagenolytic enzymes. PMID:23430258

  5. Carbonate biomineralization in terrestrial gastropods: environmental vs. physiological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa, D.; Stolarski, J.

    2009-04-01

    Preservational potential of shells of terrestrial gastropods allows to use them as valuable (paleo)climatic proxies. Despite of the fact, that the elements incorporated in their skeleton derive almost entirely from their diet, details of the ion uptake routes have not been studied in details. This work is a first step in the investigations of element uptake and biomineralization processes in pulmonate gastropod Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac, 1821). Although phenotypic plasticity in the shell characters of the species appears to be mainly genetic in nature, some differences seem to correlate with availability of ions used in biomineralization. For example, shells of individuals living in marginal parts of flood plains (environment extreme for the species and generally depleted in calcium) have weakened structure and faded color pattern, whereas individuals from the lime substrata form typically developed, pigmented shells with several cross-lamellar layers. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of shells from different environments are visualized by SEM and AFM imaging techniques and some biogeochemical properties are characterized by spectroscopic and fluorescence methods. Further experiments are required to elucidate the ion/trace elements transfer between the substratum, nutrients, organism, and the shell.

  6. The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Jeffrey S.; Osenberg, Craig W.; Stier, Adrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse systems on the planet; yet, only a small fraction of coral reef species have attracted scientific study. Here, we document strong deleterious effects of an often overlooked species—the vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma maximum—on growth and survival of reef-building corals. Our surveys of vermetids on Moorea (French Polynesia) revealed a negative correlation between the density of vermetids and the per cent cover of live coral. Furthermore, the incidence of flattened coral growth forms was associated with the presence of vermetids. We transplanted and followed the fates of focal colonies of four species of corals on natural reefs where we also manipulated presence/absence of vermetids. Vermetids reduced skeletal growth of focal corals by up to 81 per cent and survival by up to 52 per cent. Susceptibility to vermetids varied among coral species, suggesting that vermetids could shift coral community composition. Our work highlights the potential importance of a poorly studied gastropod to coral dynamics. PMID:20484230

  7. The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jeffrey S; Osenberg, Craig W; Stier, Adrian C

    2010-12-23

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse systems on the planet; yet, only a small fraction of coral reef species have attracted scientific study. Here, we document strong deleterious effects of an often overlooked species-the vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma maximum-on growth and survival of reef-building corals. Our surveys of vermetids on Moorea (French Polynesia) revealed a negative correlation between the density of vermetids and the per cent cover of live coral. Furthermore, the incidence of flattened coral growth forms was associated with the presence of vermetids. We transplanted and followed the fates of focal colonies of four species of corals on natural reefs where we also manipulated presence/absence of vermetids. Vermetids reduced skeletal growth of focal corals by up to 81 per cent and survival by up to 52 per cent. Susceptibility to vermetids varied among coral species, suggesting that vermetids could shift coral community composition. Our work highlights the potential importance of a poorly studied gastropod to coral dynamics. PMID:20484230

  8. Variation in the diets of hydrothermal vent gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-11-01

    A prevailing paradigm of hydrothermal vent ecology is that primary consumers feed on chemoautotrophic bacteria. However, for the purposes of reconstructing vent food webs and for tracking energy flow from the generation of rock and fluid chemistry through primary/ secondary productivity and consumption to the overlying water column, it remains unclear which consumers feed on which bacteria. In paired analyses of carbon and nitrogen tissue stable isotope values with unique 16S rRNA sequences from the stomach contents, we determined that two species of gastropod grazers appear to feed on epsilon-proteobacteria, while two other species have more diverse diets, including one species that consumes alpha-proteobacteria, planctomycetes, and non-green sulfur bacteria. Different carbon fixation pathways used by epsilon- and alpha-proteobacteria may account for the variation in the carbon stable isotope values among the consumers. Furthermore, our results indicate that trophic specialization and niche partitioning may contribute to the distribution and abundance of vent-endemic gastropods and support the hypothesis that consumers in the warmer habitats commonly feed on epsilon-proteobacteria that use the rTCA cycle, while in the cooler habitats they feed on additional bacteria that use the CBB cycle. These results suggest that the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of free-living bacteria may play an important and previously overlooked role in facilitating species coexistence among primary consumers at hydrothermal vents and other chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

  9. Evolution of corallivory in the gastropod genus Drupella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claremont, M.; Reid, D. G.; Williams, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Although muricid gastropods in the genus Drupella are well-known consumers of Indo-Pacific corals, their evolutionary and ecological history is unclear, as is their relationship to the apparently facultative coral-feeder Ergalatax margariticola, which has been reported to feed upon corals in Hong Kong. We use a well resolved molecular phylogeny (reconstructed from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes) to show that the monophyletic genus Drupella falls into the muricid subfamily Ergalataxinae and that the genus includes ` E. margariticola', which is composed of two cryptic species. We show that genetic structure within the here reassigned ` Drupella margariticola' species complex does not relate to feeding mode, but instead seems to correspond to broad patterns of habitat ecology found in other gastropod taxa. Our analyses suggest that Drupella originated in the late Miocene (approximately 9.6 Ma) and diversified approximately 5.0 Ma, much later than the appearance of modern coral reefs in the early Cenozoic. Thus, it is possible that corallivory in Drupella evolved in response to the major expansion and reorganization of reefs that took place in the early Miocene.

  10. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  11. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  12. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    During the Neogene Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, such lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their (geologically) temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. As glacial lakes are also geographically restricted to glacial regions (and their catchment areas) their preservation potential is fairly low. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems, such as the Late Miocene Lake Pannon, the Early to Middle Miocene Dinaride Lake System, the Middle Miocene Lake Steinheim and several others. All these systems have been studied for more than 150 years concerning their mollusk inventories and the taxonomic literature is formidable. However, apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Our preliminary data suggest fundamental differences between modern and pre-Pleistocene freshwater biogeography in central Europe. A rather homogenous central European Pleistocene and Holocene lake fauna is contrasted by considerable provincialism during the early Middle Miocene. Aside from the ancient Dessaretes lakes of the Balkan Peninsula, Holocene lake faunas are dominated by planorbids and lymnaeids in species numbers. This composition differs considerably from many Miocene and Pliocene lake faunas, which comprise pyrgulid-, hydrobiid-, viviparid-, melanopsid

  13. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Adelphophagy in Gastropod Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10–30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids

  14. Trapping of interstitials in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Frank, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The term trapping is used extensively to refer to the fact that interstitial atoms often find interstices associated with lattice imperfections to be energetically preferable to normal sites. This preference results in a delay of diffusion of interstitial atoms near these sites. As understanding of the details of lattice imperfections has improved, understanding of the effect of traps on the diffusion process has increased. Trapping is often illustrated by the use of a potential energy diagram. This simple model is characterized by a potential energy well deeper than those of surrounding interstitial sites. The energy required for the interstitial to jump into the trap is the same as that required for jumping into other adjacent interstitial sites, but that required for jumping out is greater. The additional energy required to leave the site is often designated as the trap binding energy, E/sub B/. Potential energy diagrams appropriate for most traps in metals are likely to be more complicated, but this simple model is a starting point for more sophisticated models of trapping. Imperfections may occasionally produce interstitial sites less favorable than normal sites and thus be less preferred. Little experimental exploration of this anti-trapping phenomenon has been carried out, however. Developments in understanding at various levels of trapping of interstitial impurities by lattice imperfections are examined.

  15. Prior exposure influences the behavioural avoidance by an intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, of acidified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical to the maintenance of viable populations under future environmental change. Here we examined the role of behavioural avoidance of sub-optimal conditions in enabling the intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, to persist in mangrove forests affected by the low pH runoff from acid sulphate soils (ASS). Behaviourally, the gastropod may be able to avoid periods of particularly high acidity by using pneumatophores and/or mangrove trunks to vertically migrate above the water line or by retreating into its shell. We hypothesised that (1) B. auratum would display greater and more rapid vertical migration out of acidified than reference estuarine waters, and (2) responses would be more pronounced in gastropods collected from acidified than reference sites. Gastropods from acidified sites showed significantly higher activity in and more rapid migration out of acidified waters of pH 6.2-7.0, than reference waters or waters of pH < 5.0. Gastropods from reference locations showed a significantly weaker response to acidified water than those from acidified waters, and which did not significantly differ from their response to reference water. At extremely low pHs, <5.0, a higher proportion of both acidified and reference gastropods retreated into their shell than at higher pHs. Both the migration of gastropods out of acidified waters and retraction into their shells serves to reduce exposure time to acidified waters and may reduce the impact of this stressor on their populations. The stronger response to acidification of gastropods from populations previously exposed to this stressor suggests that the response may be learned, inherited or induced over multiple exposures. Our study adds to growing evidence that estuarine organisms may exhibit considerable physiological and behaviour adaptive capacity to acidification. The potential for such adaptive capacity should be incorporated into studies seeking to forecast impacts to marine organisms

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  17. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5%) could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v) biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi) eco-insularity within the Ohrid Basin occurs

  19. Species, Diaspore Volume and Body Mass Matter in Gastropod Seed Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Conclusions and Significance Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size. PMID:23844239

  20. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Lehmann, Sophie B.; McGimpsey, Chelsea N.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating.

  1. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, J.A.; Pigati, J.S.; Lehmann, S.B.; McGimpsey, C.N.; Grimley, D.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating. ?? 2011 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  2. [Toxicity and tetramine contents of salivary glands from carnivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yoko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    Salivary glands from 29 species of marine carnivorous gastropods in nine families were examined for lethal activity against mice and tetramine content. Mouse lethality was assayed by intravenous injection of buffer extracts into mice, and was detected in 14 species. Heat-stability tests confirmed that toxins in four species were thermolabile, while those in eight species were thermostable. Based on the tetramine contents determined by the colorimetric method using methanolic extracts, the thermostable toxins in seven species (Neptunea eulimatalamellosa, N. vinosa, N. arthritica, N. bulbacea, N. intersculpta f. pribiloffensis, N. intersculpta f. frater pilsbry and Hemifusus tuba) were considered to be tetramine contained at high levels (more than 900 micrograms/g salivary gland), but that in one species (Buccinum opisthoplectum) appeared to be a low-molecular-weight compound differing from tetramine. It is interesting that one (Hemifusus tuba) of the seven species containing high amounts of tetramine belongs to the family Melongenidae, although the other six Neptunea species are members of the family Buccinidae, as expected from previous studies. PMID:12635343

  3. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters. PMID:19140337

  4. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of strombid gastropod morphological diversity.

    PubMed

    Latiolais, Jared M; Taylor, Michael S; Roy, Kaustuv; Hellberg, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The shells of strombid gastropods show a wide variety of forms, ranging from small and fusiform to large and elaborately ornamented with a strongly flared outer lip. Here, we present the first species-level molecular phylogeny for strombids and use the resulting phylogenetic framework to explore relationships between species richness and morphological diversity. We use portions of one nuclear (325 bp of histone H3) and one mitochondrial (640 bp of cytochrome oxidase I, COI) gene to infer relationships within the two most species-rich genera in the Strombidae: Strombus and Lambis. We include 32 species of Strombus, representing 10 of 11 extant subgenera, and 3 of the 9 species of Lambis, representing 2 of 3 extant subgenera. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of COI and of H3 and COI combined suggest Lambis is nested within a paraphyletic Strombus. Eastern Pacific and western Atlantic species of Strombus form a relatively recent monophyletic radiation within an older, paraphyletic Indo-West Pacific grade. Morphological diversity of subclades scales positively with species richness but does not show evidence of strong phylogenetic constraints. PMID:16839783

  5. Spatial vision in the prosobranch gastropod ampularia sp

    PubMed

    Seyer; Nilsson; Warrant

    1998-05-01

    The eyes of gastropods of the genus Ampularia superficially resemble the well-developed camera-type eyes of Littorina littorea and Strombus raninus. The eyes are of the closed-vesicle type, having a cornea and a lens that is separated from the retina by a narrow vitreous body. Light and electron microscopy were used to generate an accurate geometrical model of the Ampularia sp. eye, which was then used to predict its optical performance. The image quality of the lens was investigated using a modified microscope and revealed that images suffer from severe aberrations. The focal length was estimated to be approximately 430 microm, putting the plane of best focus in or just proximal to the rhabdoms. The aberrant optics result in a large retinal blur-circle with a diameter of approximately 120 microm and an angular half-width of approximately 17 degrees, allowing only comparatively poor resolution compared with the eyes of Littorina littorea and Strombus raninus. Behavioural experiments revealed no significant optomotor response. The results imply that Ampularia sp. has poor spatial vision, limited by the blur-circles on the retina. The eyes appear to be suitable only for relatively simple visual tasks, such as finding an open water surface for breathing, but the large size of the eye allows it to perform this task even at night. PMID:9556547

  6. Characterization of a Venom Peptide from a Crassispirid Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Cabang, April B.; Imperial, Julita S.; Gajewiak, Joanna; Watkins, Maren; Corneli, Patrice Showers; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2011-01-01

    The crassispirids are a large branch of venomous marine gastropods whose venoms have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that crassispirids comprise a major group of toxoglossate snails in a clade distinct from all turrids whose venoms have been analyzed. The isolation and biochemical definition of the first venom component from any crassispirid is described. Crassipeptide cce9a from Crassispira cerithina (Anton, 1838) was purified from crude venom by following biological activity elicited in young mice, lethargy and a lack of responsiveness to external stimuli. Using Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry, the purified peptide was shown to be 29 amino acid residues long, with the sequence: GSCGLPCHENRRCGWACYCDDGICKPLRV. The sequence assignment was verified through the analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the peptide. The peptide was chemically synthesized and folded; the synthetic peptide was biologically active and coelution with the native venom peptide was demonstrated. When injected into mice of various ages, the peptide elicited a striking shift in behavioral phenotype between 14 and 16 days, from lethargy to hyperactivity. PMID:21939682

  7. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  8. Substrate attributes determine gait in a terrestrial gastropod.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; Voltzow, Janice; Pernet, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Some terrestrial gastropods are able to move using two gaits: adhesive crawling, where the entire foot is separated from the substrate only by a thin layer of mucus and the snail leaves a continuous mucus trail; and loping, where regions of the foot arch above the substrate and the snail leaves a discontinuous mucus trail. Loping has been interpreted as a means of rapidly escaping predators. We found that the pulmonate Cornu aspersum moved using adhesive crawling on dry acrylic or glass substrates, but loped on dry concrete or wood. Loping snails did not move more rapidly than snails using adhesive crawling. Snails moving on concrete secreted a greater volume of pedal mucus per area of trail than those moving on acrylic; locomotion on concrete thus requires greater expenditure of mucus than does locomotion on acrylic. Because loping snails deposit a smaller area of mucus per distance traveled than do snails using adhesive crawling, loping may conserve mucus when moving on porous, absorbent substrates. Members of several other terrestrial pulmonate taxa can also lope on concrete, suggesting that this plasticity in gait is widespread among terrestrial snails. PMID:23493509

  9. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  10. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  11. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  12. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    2015-03-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1-5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon (Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa.

  13. Digenean-gastropod host associations inform on aspects of specific immunity in snails

    PubMed Central

    Adema, C.M.; Loker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropod immunology is informed importantly by the study of the frequent encounters snails endure with digeneans (digenetic trematodes). One of the hallmarks of gastropod-digenean associations is their specificity: any particular digenean parasite species is transmitted by a limited subset of snail taxa. We discuss the nature of this specificity, including its immunological basis. We then review studies of the model gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata indicating that the baseline responses of snails to digeneans can be elevated in a specific manner. Studies incorporating molecular and functional approaches are then highlighted, and are further suggestive of the capacity for specific gastropod immune responses. These studies have led to the compatibility polymorphism hypothesis: the interactions between diversified fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and diverse carbohydrate-decorated polymorphic parasite antigens determine recognition and trigger specific immunity. Complex glycan structures are also likely to play a role in the host specificity typifying snail-digenean interactions. We conclude by noting the dynamic and consequential interactions between snails and digeneans can be considered as drivers of diversification of digenean parasites and in the development and maintenance of specific immunity in gastropods. PMID:25034871

  14. Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Paul D.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Cordeiro, James R.; Garner, Jeffrey T.; Hartfield, Paul D.; Lepitzki, Dwayne A.; Mackie, Gerry L.; Pip, Eva; Tarpley, Thomas A.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Whelan, Nathan V.; Strong, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first American Fisheries Society conservation assessment of freshwater gastropods (snails) from Canada and the United States by the Gastropod Subcommittee (Endangered Species Committee). This review covers 703 species representing 16 families and 93 genera, of which 67 species are considered extinct, or possibly extinct, 278 are endangered, 102 are threatened, 73 are vulnerable, 157 are currently stable, and 26 species have uncertain taxonomic status. Of the entire fauna, 74% of gastropods are imperiled (vulnerable, threatened, endangered) or extinct, which exceeds imperilment levels in fishes (39%) and crayfishes (48%) but is similar to that of mussels (72%). Comparison of modern to background extinction rates reveals that gastropods have the highest modern extinction rate yet observed, 9,539 times greater than background rates. Gastropods are highly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation, particularly narrow endemics restricted to a single spring or short stream reaches. Compilation of this review was hampered by a paucity of current distributional information and taxonomic uncertainties. Although research on several fronts including basic biology, physiology, conservation strategies, life history, and ecology are needed, systematics and curation of museum collections and databases coupled with comprehensive status surveys (geographic limits, threat identification) are priorities.

  15. Self-Interstitial in Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Janke, C.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Coutinho, J.; Öberg, S.

    2007-10-01

    Low-temperature radiation damage in n- and p-type Ge is strikingly different, reflecting the charge-dependent properties of vacancies and self-interstitials. We find, using density functional theory, that in Ge the interstitial is bistable, preferring a split configuration when neutral and an open cage configuration when positively charged. The split configuration is inert while the cage configuration acts as a double donor. We evaluate the migration energies of the defects and show that the theory is able to explain the principal results of low-temperature electron-irradiation experiments.

  16. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  17. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  18. At the limits of a successful body plan – 3D microanatomy, histology and evolution of Helminthope (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Rhodopemorpha), the most worm-like gastropod

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastropods are among the most diverse animal clades, and have successfully colonized special habitats such as the marine sand interstitial. Specialized meiofaunal snails and slugs are tiny and worm-shaped. They combine regressive features – argued to be due to progenetic tendencies – with convergent adaptations. Microscopic size and concerted convergences make morphological examination non-trivial and hamper phylogenetic reconstructions. The enigmatic turbellarian-like Rhodopemorpha are a small group that has puzzled systematists for over a century. A preliminary molecular framework places the group far closer to the root of Heterobranchia – one of the major gastropod groups – than previously suggested. The poorly known meiofaunal Helminthope psammobionta Salvini-Plawen, 1991 from Bermuda is the most worm-shaped free-living gastropod and shows apparently aberrant aspects of anatomy. Its study may give important clues to understand the evolution of rhodopemorphs among basal heterobranchs versus their previously thought origin among ‘higher’ euthyneuran taxa. Results We describe the 3D-microanatomy of H. psammobionta using three-dimensional digital reconstruction based on serial semithin histological sections. The new dataset expands upon the original description and corrects several aspects. Helminthope shows a set of typical adaptations and regressive characters present in other mesopsammic slugs (called ‘meiofaunal syndrome’ herein). The taxonomically important presence of five separate visceral loop ganglia is confirmed, but considerable further detail of the complex nervous system are corrected and revealed. The digestive and reproductive systems are simple and modified to the thread-like morphology of the animal; the anus is far posterior. There is no heart; the kidney resembles a protonephridium. Data on all organ systems are compiled and compared to Rhodope. Conclusions Helminthope is related to Rhodope sharing unique apomorphies

  19. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    2015-01-01

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range…

  20. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). PMID:24675441

  1. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    PubMed Central

    Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown. PMID:23569871

  2. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines. PMID:27615983

  3. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laria, A; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  4. Late Mississippian gastropods of the Chainman Shale, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Mackenzie, Jr.; Yochelson, Ellis L.

    1987-01-01

    The Chainman Shale of Mississippian (Osagean to late Chesterian) age, well exposed in the Confusion Range of western Utah, has yielded a profusion of fossils during investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the past 30 years. Conspicuous among these fossils are gastropods, which range in age from latest Meramecian to late Chesterian. In west-central Utah, not far from the State boundary, the Chainman outcrop belt stretches from Granite Mountain south to the northern part of the Needle Range, a distance of69 miles (110 km). The Chainman thickens from north to south; the section at Granite Mountain is 1,315 feet (401 m) thick and that at Jensen Wash in the Burbank Hills, 2,203 feet (671 m). The rocks of the Chainman Shale record a general though irregular shallowing of the area from moderate depths of 330 feet (100 m) or so to quite shallow depths of perhaps locally little more than 3-6 feet (1-2 m). Most of the gastropods occur with ammonoids in a facies of shale or shale containing phosphatic limestone concretions, In this lutaceous facies, Glabrocingulum is predominant and Lunulazona and Retispira are common; these genera are represented by a succession of species. A thick limestone unit is present in some areas in the upper part of the formation, particularly in the vicinity of Skunk Spring, where it is 318 feet (97 m) thick. This limestone unit represents a calcareous shoal facies having an entirely different gastropod fauna, characterized by Catazona and species of Naticopsis. The Chainman Shale could be easily zoned by gastropods, but we are not proposing such azonation. A framework of ammonoid and foraminiferal zones already is available, and we prefer to regard the gastropod assemblages as part of this framework. The assemblages are confined to the major ammonoid and foraminiferal zones, and only three of the gastropod species seem to range across major zonal boundaries. These species are Bellerophon (Bellerophon vespertinus Gordon and

  5. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-09-01

    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs. PMID:26324804

  6. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ebschner, U; Hartschuh, W; Petzoldt, D

    2000-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a rare dermatologic disorder seen in patients suffering from diseases in which circulating immune complexes occur. The typical cutaneous signs are linear cords usually located on the lateral aspect of the trunk. The characteristic, although not specific, histology reveals a dense diffuse infiltrate composed mostly of histiocytes, accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils, and degenerated collagen surrounded by palisades of histiocytes. We discuss this disorder and its differential diagnosis. PMID:10743580

  7. Toxin-screening and identification of bacteria isolated from highly toxic marine gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Luo, Xuan; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lin, Xiang-Tian

    2008-07-01

    Bacteria isolated from a highly toxic sample of gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province in July 2007, were studied to probe into the relationship between bacteria and toxicity of nassariid gastropod. The toxicity of the gastropod sample was 2 x 10(2)mouse unit (MU) per gram of tissue (wet weight). High concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues (TTXs) were found in the digestive gland and muscle of the gastropod, using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass chromatography (LC-MS). Bacterial strains isolated from the digestive gland were cultured and screened for TTX with a competitive ELISA method. Tetrodotoxin was detected in a proportion of bacterial strains, but the toxin content was low. Partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the TTX-producing strains was then sequenced and compared with those published in the GenBank to tentatively identify the toxic strains. It was found that most of the toxic strains were closely affiliated with genus Vibrio, and the others were related to genus Shewanella, Marinomonas, Tenacibaculum and Aeromonas. These findings suggest that tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria might play an important role in tetrodotoxin accumulation/production in N. semiplicatus. PMID:18573274

  8. First detection and seasonal variation of lipophilic toxins okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and yessotoxin in Korean gastropods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka Jeong; Mok, Jong Soo; Song, Ki Cheol; Yu, Hongsik; Lee, Doo Seog; Jung, Jee Hyung; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2012-11-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2, and yessotoxin (YTX) are classes of lipophilic toxins found in marine animals. OA and DTX1 accumulation causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, a worldwide public health problem. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning has not previously been reported in gastropods, which are widely consumed in Korea. Seasonal variation in marine lipophilic toxins in gastropods was investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty specimens of Neptunea cumingii, 65 specimens of Rapana venosa, and 95 specimens of Batillus cornutus were collected at the Tongyeong fish market on the southern coast of Korea between May 2009 and December 2010. OA, DTX1, and YTX were detected in meat and digestive glands in all gastropod species studied. Pectenotoxin-2 was not found in any sample tested. Lipophilic toxins were detected in the digestive glands of gastropods; no lipophilic toxin was detected in the salivary glands of the carnivorous gastropods, N. cumingii and R. venosa. The highest concentrations of OA (21.5 ng/g) and DTX1 (8.4 ng/g) were detected in the digestive glands of R. venosa, and the maximum concentration of YTX (13.7 ng/g) was found in the digestive glands of N. cumingii. The maximum toxicities in gastropod tissues were lower than the European standard for acceptable levels. The concentrations of lipophilic toxins in carnivorous gastropods showed a high degree of seasonal variation; lipophilic toxins in carnivorous gastropods were found predominantly in spring and summer. This is the first report of the occurrence of lipophilic toxins in Korean gastropods. PMID:23127709

  9. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  10. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Gastropod Assemblages in Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  11. Abundance, diversity, and latitudinal gradients of southeastern Atlantic and Antarctic abyssal gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödl, M.; Bohn, J. M.; Brenke, N.; Rolán, E.; Schwabe, E.

    2011-03-01

    Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656 m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m -2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica.

  12. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffery C.

    2014-01-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1–5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon(Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa..

  13. Suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Murray, K M; Wilson, M G

    1990-04-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a rare but serious adverse effect of many drugs and usually is diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, eosinophilia, fever, azotemia, and rash. Ciprofloxacin is one drug that has been reported to cause interstitial nephritis. Renal toxicities have been reported in less than one percent of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy. Limited documentation of this adverse effect exists in the literature. This article describes a patient with suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. PMID:2327115

  14. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sjoerd A M E G; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A; Stifft, Frank; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; van Paassen, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis has been observed in <1% of native renal biopsies. Here, we describe two patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis in relation to Crohn's disease. Circulating helper and cytotoxic T cells were highly activated, and both cell types predominated in the interstitial infiltrate, indicating a cellular autoimmune response. After immunosuppressive treatment, renal function either improved or stabilized in both patients. In conclusion, granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a genuine extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the treatment of which should include immunosuppressive agents. PMID:27478596

  15. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  16. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2013-09-01

    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ˜12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ˜40 ka should

  17. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeff S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ∼12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ∼40 ka should

  18. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  19. Symmetry breaking in gastropod locomotion through acceleration or deceleration of the pedal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    Marine and terrestrial gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot that is lubricated by secreted mucus (terrestrial) or simply by water (marine). The rim of the ventral foot generates suction forces that keep the animal adhered to the substrate. The central part of the foot produces a forward traction force by generating trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions. Recent experiments show that, in some gastropods, these pedal waves become faster and longer as they move forward, suggesting a mechanism for breaking the symmetry in the flow between the pedal waves and the substrate. To investigate this mechanism, we have analyzed theoretically a two-dimensional lubrication layer between a train of waves of slowly varying length and speed, and a flat, rigid, impermeable surface. The inhomogeneity of the pedal waves has been modeled through multiple-scale asymptotics. We have considered a Newtonian fluid to separate the effect of this inhomogeneity from the viscoelastic symmetry breaking reported in previous works.

  20. [Interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking].

    PubMed

    Nová, Markéta; Hornychová, Helena; Matěj, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    There are many different interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking. This short review describes officially recognized disorders (desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and pulmonary Langerhans´cells histiocytosis) and entities with uncertain relationship to smoking, which have recently been published in the literature. Histopathological pictures and differential diagnosis of smoking-related diseases of the lungs are discussed. PMID:27223588

  1. New gastropods from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps off West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warén, Anders; Bouchet, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    Thirteen new species of gastropods are described from the Zairov 1-2 and Biozaire 1-3 cruises to the methane seeps off the Congo River: Patellogastropoda: Paralepetopsis sasakii sp. nov. (Neolepetopsidae); Cocculiniformia: Pyropelta oluae sp. nov. and P. sibuetae sp. nov. (Pyropeltidae); Tentaoculus granulatus sp. nov. (Pseudococculinidae); Neomphalina: Leptogyra costellata sp. nov. (Family uncertain); Vetigastropoda: Puncturella similis sp. nov. (Fissurellidae); Lepetodrilus shannonae sp. nov. (Lepetodrilidae); Caenogastropoda: Provanna reticulata sp. nov. and P. chevalieri sp. nov., Cordesia provannoides gen. et sp. nov. (Provannidae); Phymorhynchus coseli sp. nov. and P. cingulata sp. nov. (Conidae); Heterobranchia: Hyalogyrina rissoella sp. nov. (Hyalogyrinidae). All species except T. granulatus (from a settlement trap) belong to groups known from cold seeps and the entire seep fauna here is new to science. Biogeographical affinity of this gastropod fauna is to the West Atlantic seeps, not to the Mediterranean seeps or Mid-Atlantic vents. Fragments of the autecology of the species are presented. The evolution of the seep gastropod fauna is briefly discussed and a continuous immigration of taxa is supported. The oldest verified occurrences of modern taxa in the seeps date back to Cenomanian (Cretaceous) time, while some taxa seem not to appear until very late Tertiary.

  2. Neuromuscular development in Patellogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and its importance for reconstructing ancestral gastropod bodyplan features

    PubMed Central

    Kristof, Alen; de Oliveira, André Luiz; Kolbin, Konstantin G.; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Within Gastropoda, limpets (Patellogastropoda) are considered the most basal branching taxon and its representatives are thus crucial for research into evolutionary questions. Here, we describe the development of the neuromuscular system in Lottia cf. kogamogai. In trochophore larvae, first serotonin-like immunoreactivity (lir) appears in the apical organ and in the prototroch nerve ring. The arrangement and number of serotonin-lir cells in the apical organ (three flask-shaped, two round cells) are strikingly similar to those in putatively derived gastropods. First, FMRFamide-lir appears in veliger larvae in the Anlagen of the future adult nervous system including the cerebral and pedal ganglia. As in other gastropods, the larvae of this limpet show one main and one accessory retractor as well as a pedal retractor and a prototroch muscle ring. Of these, only the pedal retractor persists until after metamorphosis and is part of the adult shell musculature. We found a hitherto undescribed, paired muscle that inserts at the base of the foot and runs towards the base of the tentacles. An apical organ with flask-shaped cells, one main and one accessory retractor muscle is commonly found among gastropod larvae and thus might have been part of the last common ancestor. PMID:26869747

  3. Dominant species of the gastropod fauna from the littoral region in Lake Ohrid of R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Smiljkov, S; Budzakoska-Gjoreska, B; Sapkarev, J; Trajanovski, S

    2007-07-01

    The class of Gastropoda is one of the Lake Ohrid' macrozoobenthic groups, which characterize highest level of endemism. Since the first published references until now, studying the Lake Ohrid's snail fauna represents huge scientific challenge for many malacologists from the world. The high percent of endemic as well as relic forms among the lake's gastropods could be explained by the processes of intralacustric speciation during the history and evolution of this aquatic ecosystem. These processes no doubt have been enabled by the complexity and stability of the Lake's basin. This work represents the results of the dominant species, from both qualitative and quantitative sense of the gastropod fauna from 19 investigated littoral localities of Lake Ohrid. The results from the investigations on gastropod fauna has shown that following species: Chilopyrgula sturanyi, Radix relicta and Valvata stenotrema quailtatively predominates in the samples from the littoral region of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid. The quantitative analyses (according to their presence on m2), has shown that the following species predominate: Chilopyrgula sturanyi (6879 No x m2), Theodoxus fluviatilis dalmaticus (6412 No x m2), Pyrgohydrobia grochmalickii (5504 No x m2) and Valvata stenotrema (5009 No x m2). PMID:17921924

  4. Update on lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Fishback, N; Koss, M

    1996-09-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) involves a clinicopathologic pattern of pulmonary disease characterized by diffuse interstitial reactive lymphoid infiltrates. In adults, it occurs most commonly in autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome (0.9% of these patients) and primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas in children it is usually seen in HIV infection. Dysproteinemias (hyper- and hypogammaglobulinemia) are found in more than 60% of patients. Children can show CD8-lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, peripheral blood, and salivary gland, associated with HLA-DR5 haplotype. Radiographically, most patients with LIP have reticulonodular infiltrates, with or without patchy areas of consolidation. CT scans can show both small nodular and ground glass patterns, patterns that are diagnostically nonspecific. Reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacities are consistent and sensitive indicators of disease in LIP. In an experimental model, diffusing capacity was the single most sensitive functional index of disease progression. Microscopically, LIP is part of a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoid proliferations, ranging from follicular bronchitis-bronchiolitis and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (the latter in AIDS patients), proliferations largely limited to airways, to low-grade malignant lymphoma. These patterns may be difficult to differentiate from each other. It appears that LIP sometimes evolves to lymphoma; the frequency of this evolution is probably low but is difficult to assess because low-grade lymphomas may mimic LIP. A relatively high frequency of LIP patients have Epstein-Barr virus DNA in their lungs but not all patients with LIP show this finding, suggesting other possible etiologies. PMID:9363179

  5. Functional respiratory assessment in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect, to a greater or lesser degree, the alveolus, peripheral airway, and septal interstitium. Functional assessment in patients suspected of having an interstitial lung disease has implications for diagnosis and makes it possible to objectively analyze both response to treatment and prognosis. Recently the clinical value of lung-diffusing capacity and the six-minute walking test has been confirmed, and these are now important additions to the traditional assessment of lung function that is based on spirometry. Here we review the state-of-the-art methods for the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease. PMID:25857578

  6. Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24960482

  7. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  8. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  9. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  10. Lupus-erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marmon, Shoshana; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Franks, Andrew G

    2012-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of lupus erythematous presented with a five-year history of small, erythematous, flesh-colored papules and nodules that coalesced into symmetrically-distributed plaques on her upper back. A biopsy specimen showed an interstitial, granulomatous mixed-cell dermatitis with eosinophils. These clinicopathologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of lupus erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. PMID:23286821

  11. Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

    2013-12-01

    Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

  12. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Xiong, Yuanyan; Kim, Hyeung; He, Quanyuan; Li, Yumei; Chen, Rui; Songyang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription. PMID:21423278

  13. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  14. Freshwater gastropods of Neogene and Quaternary lake systems of Europe - state of the art and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Globally, about 4000 extant species of freshwater gastropod species have been described. In contrast, only 225 species are listed by MollBase2012 for North- and Central Europe. Many of these are rare species, limited to certain springs and in fact the typical diversity of gastropods in lakes of North and Central Europe is much lower. The high number is boosted by several highly speciose endemic radiations in long-lived ancient lakes, which are hotspots for biodiversity. These long-lived ancient lakes provide key examples for understanding evolutionary processes and therefore are intensively studied. During the Neogene, Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several such long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, these lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their geologically temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems. Apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Building upon a great amount of existing literature, a new project will provide the first detailed assessment of the composition of European freshwater gastropods during the Neogene and Quaternary at species, genus and family levels, with emphasis on lake faunas. The γ-diversity of several hundred modern and fossil European lakes will be evaluated. Data will be made available permanently for

  15. Bivalves and gastropods from the middle Campanian Anacacho limestone, South Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Anacacho Limestone was deposited during the Campanian and represents two depositional intervals, one of early Campanian and one of middle Campanian age. These two intervals correspond to periods of major eustatic sea level rise. This study focuses on the molluscan paleontology of the middle Campanian interval in the eastern part of the Anacacho exposure belt in Medina County, Texas. Molluscan assemblages in this area are indicative of inner to mid-shelf environments. No significant reef components are present. These eastern Anacacho deposits are interpreted to represent more offshore, deeper water environments than those to the southwest, where reef and lagoonal deposits have been reported. Analysis of the macrofossil components from these eastern localities has expanded the number of invertebrate species known from the Anacacho Limestone by nearly three-fold. This increase in diversity, based on a small amount of new work, suggests that many more taxa are yet to be identified, particularly in the western part of the exposure belt in Uvalde and Kinney Counties. This paper documents the bivalve and gastropod fauna, discussing and illustrating 24 bivalve taxa and 11 gastropod species. Two new bivalve species are named, Panopea anacachoensis new species and Spondylus siccus new species, and two potentially new gastropod species are identified but not named herein due to inadequate material. This paper expands the distribution of many eastern Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast taxa westward into Texas and shows strong ties between the Anacacho fauna and that of the Campanian Tar Heel and Bladen Formations of the Black Creek Group in North Carolina. The taxonomic ties between these two areas probably reflect the thorough documentation of the North Carolina fauna, which is the best documented Campanian bivalve fauna in the Gulf or Atlantic Coast regions.

  16. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  17. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  18. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800–13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  19. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  20. A pioneer survey and DNA barcoding of some commonly found gastropod molluscs on Robben Island

    PubMed Central

    van der Bank, Herman; Greenfield, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilus algosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxystele impervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences. PMID:25685029

  1. Cap-shaped gastropods from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northern East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzhov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Cap-shaped gastropods are first identified in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sections of northern East Siberia. They belong to three new genera of the subclass Pectinibranchia ( Boreioconus gen. nov., Nixepileolus gen. nov., and Taimyroconus gen. nov.), which are identified at the species level ( B. bojarkensis sp. nov., N. depressus sp. nov., T. zakharovi sp. nov.), and several species with the open nomenclature. The genus Taimyroconus attributed to the family Calyptraeidae is considered as an ancestral form of the genus Crepidula. The stratigraphic position of each taxon is determined for several sections. The facies confinement, habitat conditions, and ethology of defined genera are considered with the analysis of their geographic distribution.

  2. Subtidal Gastropods Consume Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria: Evidence from Coastal Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jeffrey L.

    1984-02-01

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  3. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Stein, J L

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy. PMID:17841030

  4. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) During the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States to establish the environmental context for the Ordovician gastropod radiation. Gastropods are present within every facies examined, but their relative abundance and distribution varies. Gastropods are rare in normal marine settings and abundant in harsh (i.e., dysoxic, hypersaline) environments. Their environmental context is shown to impact survivorship through the end-Ordovician extinction event and throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Collecting accurate density data for fossil deposits can prove challenging, especially when beds are not exposed in plane view. In these cases, paleontologists are tasked with reconstructing shellbed density from cross section exposure. This study presents a mathematical model to calculate the density of fossil material within a bed from bedding cross section counts. The model is calibrated against an Ordovician biofacies comprised of oncoids, macluritid gastropods and receptaculitids exposed in the Arrow Canyon Range of Southern Nevada, where unique preservation provides both cross section exposures and plan view of fossil concentrations. University Earth Science Departments seeking to establish impactful geoscience outreach programs often pursue large-scale, grant funded programs. While this type of outreach is highly successful, it is also extremely costly, and grant funding can be difficult to secure. Here, we present the Geoscience Education Outreach Program (GEOP), a small-scale, very affordable model tested over five years in the Department of Earth Sciences at UCR. GEOP provides a variety of outreach events and allows UCR Earth Sciences to

  5. Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction with a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Lacour, J P; Castanet, J; Michiels, J F

    2001-08-01

    The interstitial granulomatous drug reaction (IGDR) is a novel drug-associated entity, characterized by violaceous plaques with a predilection for skin fold areas. Light microscopically, it resembles the incipient diffuse interstitial phase of granuloma annulare. Differentiating light microscopic features include the absence of complete collagen necrobiosis, the presence of interface dermatitis, and variable lymphoid atypia. The lack of vasculitis rules out the extravascular necrotizing granuloma (Winkelmann granuloma) associated with systemic disease. The differential diagnosis with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis as defined by Ackerman et al. has not been studied until now. Our aim was to determine the histologic criteria allowing us to differentiate IGDR without interface dermatitis and lymphoid atypia from interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We report three patients with IGDR triggered, in two cases by respectively angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and furosemide, and in one case by the association of an ACE inhibitor, furosemide, and fluindione. Histologic examination showed a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We found a dense, diffuse histiocytic infiltrate distributed interstitially and in palisaded array within the reticular dermis. Eosinophils and some neutrophils were scattered throughout the infiltrate. In some tiny foci, enveloped by histiocytes, thick collagen bundles associated with basophilic nuclear debris or "flame figures" were seen. Vasculitis, interface dermatitis, or lymphoid atypia were absent. Our study allowed us to expand the histological spectrum of IGDR including a histological pattern similar to interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. The lack of degenerated collagen could be a subtle clue in favor of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis triggered by a drug. PMID:11481519

  6. Rhodopsin and retinochrome in the retina of a marine gastropod, Conomulex luhuanus.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, K; Terakita, A; Hara, R; Hara, T

    1986-01-01

    Photopigments in the conch retina were examined with special attention given to the photic vesicles characteristic of gastropod photoreceptors. Three different fractions of visual cell fragments were prepared from the retina: the MV-fraction containing the rhabdomal microvilli, and the PVH- and PVL-fractions containing the photic vesicles located in the visual cell body. Rhodopsin was found in the MV-fraction (lambda max = 474 nm), and yielded a photoequilibrium mixture with metarhodopsin (lambda max = 512 nm) on irradiation with blue light. Retinochrome was found in both of the PVH- and PVL-fractions (lambda max = approximately 510 nm), and was bleached into metaretinochrome by exposure to orange light, showing no marked shift of the absorption peak. Unlike the PVH-fraction, the PVL-fraction contains much aporetinochrome in addition to retinochrome, suggesting that the large mass of photic vesicles around the nucleus may serve as storage for retinal in retinochrome and for newly synthesized aporetinochrome. The total amount of retinochrome in the retina was several times higher than that of rhodopsin, distinguishing the gastropod eye from the cephalopod eye. PMID:3750849

  7. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  8. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    PubMed

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  9. The role of the ventral pedal waves in the locomotion of terrestrial gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    The locomotion of terrestrial gastropods exhibits unique characteristics which allow these animals to crawl on steep surfaces. Gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot lubricated by mucus. They generate trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions in the central portion of the ventral foot, producing a forward traction, while the rim of the foot adheres to the substrate and generates suction forces. We analyzed the kinematics and dynamics of locomotion by conducting two sets of experiments. In the first set, we used digital image processing to correlate the frequency and wavelength of the pedal waves to the migration velocity. In the second set, we computed the traction and adhesion forces produced by these animals from measurements of the deformation of an elastic substrate of known properties. We found that the strain energy exerted by the animal on the substrate is quasi-periodic, and explored a possible correlation between the mean speed of migration and the period of this energy fluctuation. In addition, we found that the pedal waves accelerate as they move forward along the ventral foot producing the symmetry break necessary for the generation of a net traction force.

  10. Parasitic infection alters the physiological response of a marine gastropod to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Macleod, C D; Poulin, R

    2016-09-01

    Increased hydrogen ion concentration and decreased carbonate ion concentration in seawater are the most physiologically relevant consequences of ocean acidification (OA). Changes to either chemical species may increase the metabolic cost of physiological processes in marine organisms, and reduce the energy available for growth, reproduction and survival. Parasitic infection also increases the energetic demands experienced by marine organisms, and may reduce host tolerance to stressors associated with OA. This study assessed the combined metabolic effects of parasitic infection and OA on an intertidal gastropod, Zeacumantus subcarinatus. Oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content were recorded in snails infected with one of three trematode parasites, and an uninfected control group, maintained in acidified (7·6 and 7·4 pH) or unmodified (8·1 pH) seawater. Exposure to acidified seawater significantly altered the oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content of infected and uninfected snails, and there were clear differences in the magnitude of these changes between snails infected with different species of trematode. These results indicate that the combined effects of OA and parasitic infection significantly alter the energy requirements of Z. subcarinatus, and that the species of the infecting parasite may play an important role in determining the tolerance of marine gastropods to OA. PMID:27222227

  11. Hydrothermal vent gastropods from the same family (Provannidae) harbour epsilon- and gamma-proteobacterial endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Dubilier, Nicole; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Cunningham, Dale E; Kojima, Shigeaki; Stahl, David A

    2005-05-01

    The discovery of new hydrothermal vent systems in the back-arc basins of the Western Pacific revealed chemosynthesis-based faunal communities distinct from those of other vents. These vents are dominated by two related gastropods (Alviniconcha spp. and Ifremeria nautilei) that harbour symbiotic bacteria in their gills. We used comparative 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted probes to characterize the bacterial symbionts of Alviniconcha sp. and I. nautilei from the Manus Basin in the Western Pacific. The analyses revealed that these two gastropod species, although affiliated with the same family, harbour phylogenetically distant chemosymbionts, suggesting independent origins of these endosymbioses. The I. nautilei endosymbiont clusters with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within the gamma-Proteobacteria, as is the case for all previously characterized endosymbionts from a wide diversity of host taxa harbouring thioautotrophic prokaryotes. In contrast, the Alviniconcha endosymbiont is affiliated with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within the epsilon-Proteobacteria. These results show that bacteria from the epsilon-Proteobacteria are also capable of forming endosymbiotic associations with marine invertebrates from chemosynthetic environments. More generally, the endosymbiotic lifestyle is now shown to be distributed throughout all recognized classes of the Proteobacteria. PMID:15819856

  12. The Heritability of Shell Morphometrics in the Freshwater Pulmonate Gastropod Physa

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Robert T.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan freshwater pulmonate snail Physa acuta hybridizes readily with Physa carolinae in the laboratory, although their F1 progeny are sterile. The two species differ qualitatively in shell shape, the former bearing a more globose shell and the latter more fusiform. We performed a hybridization experiment, measuring a set of 14 traditional (linear) and landmark-based shell morphological variables on even-aged parents and their offspring from both hybrids and purebred control lines. Parent-offspring regression yielded a strikingly high heritability estimate for score on the first relative warp axis, h2 = 0.819 ± 0.073, a result that would seem to confirm the value of geometric morphometrics as a tool for retrieving evolutionary relationships from gastropod shell form. Score on the second relative warp axis was also significantly heritable (h2 = 0.312 ± 0.123), although more moderate, as were scores on second principal components extracted from traditional measurements (correlation h2 = 0.308 ± 0.069, covariance h2 = 0.314 ± 0.050). Although score on the first relative warp axis was significantly correlated with centroid size (p < 0.001), scores on none of the three second axes were so correlated. This result suggests that second axis score might prove especially useful for estimating genetic divergence among mixed-age populations of gastropods sampled from the field. PMID:25876155

  13. Effects of gastropod predation on the reproductive output of an overexploited deep octocoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, C.; Erra, F.; Angiolillo, M.; Santangelo, G.

    2015-03-01

    The study presented herein is aimed at quantifying the effects of the partial predation exerted by the gastropod Pseudosimnia carnea on the reproductive features of the highly valuable, slow-growing, and long-lived red coral, Corallium rubrum. Seventy-five colonies were collected just before annual spawning from a red coral population living between 85 and 90 m deep in the NW Mediterranean; of these, 35 % were affected by P. carnea. Female colonies were more frequently preyed upon than males (3:1 ratio). Overall, 1,100 polyps were dissected and examined for their reproductive content. The mean number of polyps per colony and the mean fecundity of female polyps and colonies were significantly reduced by gastropod predation, which affected colonies independently of their size; in particular, colony fecundity was reduced by 81 %. The consequent reduction in population reproductive output is likely to have long-term effects on preyed-upon populations and thereby limit their resilience to intense commercial harvesting.

  14. What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, P E; Butlin, R K; Brönmark, C; Edgell, T C; Hoverman, J T; Hollander, J

    2015-10-01

    There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced shell form, snail growth rates and life history parameters of a few model taxa, accounting for 67% of all studies reviewed. Meta-analyses indicated average plastic responses in shell thickness, shell shape, and growth and fecundity of freshwater species was at least three times larger than in marine species. Within marine gastropods, species with planktonic development had similar average plastic responses to species with benthic development. We discuss these findings in the context of the role of costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity and environmental heterogeneity as important constraints on the evolution of plasticity. We also consider potential publication biases and discuss areas for future research, indicating well-studied areas and important knowledge gaps. PMID:26219231

  15. Vermetid gastropods reduce foraging by herbivorous fishes on algae on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tootell, Jesse S.; Steele, Mark A.

    2014-12-01

    Vermetid gastropods have the potential to reduce foraging by herbivorous fishes on algae on coral reefs because they produce mucous nets that cover the surfaces of coral skeletons, potentially inhibiting foraging by fishes. We assessed this possibility using both observational and experimental approaches in Moorea, French Polynesia. Foraging rates of herbivorous fishes (total number of bites by all species per minute) were recorded in plots that varied naturally in the cover of vermetid mucous nets. This study, done at six sites, revealed that foraging on algal turf declined with increasing cover of vermetid mucous nets, ranging from ~2 to 22 bites m-2 min-1 at 0 % coverage to 0-5 bites m-2 min-1 at 100 % coverage. The magnitude of this effect of vermetid nets varied among microhabitats (high, mid, and low bommies) and sites, presumably due to variation in the intensity of herbivory. Experimental removal of vermetid mucous nets from plots more than doubled the foraging intensity on turf algae relative to when vermetid nets were present at high (≥70 %) cover. Our results indicate that algal turf on coral reefs may benefit from associational refuge from grazing provided by vermetid gastropods, which might in turn harm corals via increased competition with algal turf.

  16. Body Size Extinction and Origination Selectivity: A Case Study of Marine Gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, E.; Seixas, G.; Faerber, M.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size has received exceptional interest in evolutionary biology because of its correlation with many ecological and physiological traits. Because large size is typically associated with long generation time and small population size, it has been widely assumed that extinction risk is positively correlated with body size. Data from Pleistocene and Holocene terrestrial mammals and birds support this inference. However, there have been few studies on size bias of marine invertebrate animals, so the true extent of this pattern remains unknown. For this study, we compiled genus-level body size data for marine gastropods spanning the entire Phanerozoic. We use this dataset to examine the statistical evidence for size bias in both origination and extinction of marine gastropods. We perform logistic regression analyses on the data from each Phanerozoic stage to determine the association of body size with origination and extinction. Contrary to previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates, we observe no strong or persistent association between body size and the probability that a genus either originated or went extinct during that stage. Hence, our findings indicate that size bias in extinction risk may reflect particular aspects of mammalian biology or anthropogenic environmental change rather than a general pattern of animal evolution.

  17. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  18. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  19. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article. PMID:26234096

  20. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  1. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  2. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  3. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  4. Interstitial Pneumonitis from Treatment with Gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brolin B.; Brockman, Megan M.; Byrd, Debbie C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of gemcitabine may lead to numerous adverse effects ranging from mild to very severe, such as interstitial pneumonitis. The diagnosis of this complication is based on multiple laboratory findings, radiographic evidence, and high clinical suspicion. Presented is a case report of a patient who met these criteria and had onset consistent with drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Case Presentation: A 76-year-old White female was treated with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Two months after the initiation of therapy, she was admitted to the hospital for worsening dyspnea and cough. High clinical suspicion, bilateral interstitial opacities on chest x-ray, worsening pulmonary status, and onset 2 months after initiation of therapy led to the diagnosis of gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Steroid therapy with prednisone was initiated, and the patient’s clinical symptoms and radiographic findings improved. Discussion: Gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis is well described in the literature. It is a rare but serious complication associated with gemcitabine therapy in which patients present with worsening dyspnea. Most patients only require supportive care and discontinuation of the drug for treatment, but in severe cases supplemental oxygen and steroid therapy must be used before resolution of symptoms. It is important to obtain an accurate medication history to evaluate for other potentially pulmonary toxic medications. Radiographic findings such as bilateral infiltrates should be completely resolved after therapy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical suspicion can lead to early recognition of interstitial pneumonitis from gemcitabine. Physician awareness of this adverse effect and early recognition are keys to providing prompt treatment in resolving symptoms and decreasing mortality. PMID:25477616

  5. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline. PMID:20679058

  6. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22365253

  7. Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

  8. Mica-associated pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Landas, S K; Schwartz, D A

    1991-09-01

    We present the clinical and biopsy findings of a 63-yr-old white male with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and a long history of extensive exposure to mica while working in the rubber industry. The patient presented 30 yr after the initial exposure with complaints of progressive shortness of breath and a chronic nonproductive cough. Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive lung function with a mild reduction in the total lung capacity (80% of predicted) and a moderate-to-severe reduction in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (50% of predicted). The chest radiogram and high-resolution chest CT scan showed diffuse fibrosis and focal honeycombing involving the upper and lower lung zones bilaterally. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 20% neutrophils in the lavage fluid with abundant rectangular flaking crystals. Open-lung biopsy exhibited extensive fibrosis and architectural remodeling with abundant sheets and fragments of engulfed polarizable crystalline material. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron diffraction studies confirmed the material to have the features of mica. Asbestos and other silicates were not identified. The documentation of prolonged exposure to mica, the clinical and radiographic features of severe interstitial fibrosis, and the histopathologic delineation of the interstitial lesion, including spectroscopic and crystallographic verification of crystalline mica, support the causal relationship between mica and interstitial fibrosis. PMID:1892315

  9. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  10. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  11. Five new cryptic freshwater gastropod species from New Caledonia (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea, Tateidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Martin; Zielske, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the course of a project aiming at the reconstruction of the colonization of the South Pacific islands by tateid gastropods based on molecular data we discovered five new species on New Caledonia belonging to the genera Hemistomia and Leiorhagium, respectively. We describe these species based on morphological, anatomical and genetic data. All five species are morphologically cryptic as they closely resemble or are even indistinguishable from known species stressing the importance of a comprehensive taxonomic approach integrating several methods. As a consequence of their small and fragmented geographic ranges and the rapidly progressing anthropogenic land cover changes on New Caledonia, all five species qualify as critically endangered according to the criteria of the IUCN. PMID:26478699

  12. Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Ruth; Cleall-Harding, Polly; Rundle, Simon; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John

    2007-12-22

    Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation. The intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea produced thicker shells in the presence of predation (crab) cues but this response was disrupted at low seawater pH. This response was accompanied by a marked depression in metabolic rate (hypometabolism) under the joint stress of high predation risk and reduced pH. However, snails in this treatment apparently compensated for a lack of morphological defence, by increasing their avoidance behaviour, which, in turn, could affect their interactions with other organisms. Together, these findings suggest that biological effects from ocean acidification may be complex and extend beyond simple direct effects. PMID:17939976

  13. Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-10-01

    The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

  14. Gonyautoxin-3 as a minor toxin in the gastropod Niotha clathrata in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D F; Cheng, C A; Jeng, S S

    1994-12-01

    Paralytic toxicity was detected in the gastropod mollusc Niotha clathrata collected from South Taiwan in April and November 1993. Each seasonal toxin was partially purified from toxic specimens of N. clathrata by ultrafiltration using a membrane (Diaflo YM-2), followed by chromatography on a column (Bio-Gel P-2). Two toxin fractions (I and II) were then obtained for each seasonal shell toxin. The ratio of fraction I to fraction II for each seasonal shell toxin was about 4:1 according to tetrodotoxin bioassay. Based on analyses by TLC, electrophoresis, and HPLC, fraction I toxin contained tetrodotoxin and its derivative anhydrotetrodotoxin, and fraction II toxin contained gonyautoxin-3 for each seasonal shell toxin. PMID:7725326

  15. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications. PMID:20133823

  16. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  17. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  18. New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Rodriguez, Paula; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2012-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species—Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns. PMID:22690139

  19. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  20. Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair.

    PubMed

    Hickman, C S

    2001-01-01

    The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine-tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary-developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton. PMID:11256430

  1. 3D-Ultrastructure, Functions and Stress Responses of Gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) Rhogocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M. Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the “slit apparatus”, local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed–though not proven–that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory

  2. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis

    PubMed Central

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring) were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species. PMID:23805291

  3. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring) were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species. PMID:23805291

  4. Microstructures in shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus viviparus: a potential sensor for temperature change?

    PubMed

    Füllenbach, Christoph S; Schöne, Bernd R; Branscheid, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Mollusk shells contain a plethora of information on past climate variability. However, only a limited toolkit is currently available to reconstruct such data from the shells. The environmental data of some proxies (e.g. Sr/Ca ratios) is obscured by physiological effects, whereas other proxies, such as δ(18)O, simultaneously provide information on two or more different environmental variables. The present study investigates whether microstructures of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus viviparus provide an alternative means to reconstruct past water temperature. Cold and highly variable temperature regimes resulted in the precipitation of highly unordered first-order lamellae of simple crossed-lamellar (XLM) structures if new shell formed from scratch. However, during stable and warm conditions, well-ordered first-order lamellae were laid down irrespective of pre-existing shell material. Homogeneous first-order lamellae also formed during times of cold and highly variable temperatures if the new shell was deposited onto existing shell material with well-ordered first-order lamellae. The growth front seems to contain instructions for building specific microstructure variants, irrespective of environmental conditions. However, if this template is missing, the animal forms a deviating microstructure. Under extremely stressful situations (e.g. removal from habitat, calcein staining, extreme temperature shifts), the gastropod precipitates an evolutionarily older microstructure (irregular simple prisms) rather than XLM structures. These shell portions were macroscopically described as disturbance lines. In addition, repetitive, presumably periodic growth patterns were observed, which consisted of gradually changing third-order lamellae between consecutive faint, organic-rich growth lines. These growth patterns were probably controlled by intrinsic biological clocks and exhibited a two-daily periodicity. The results of this study may provide the basis for using changes in

  5. 17β-Oestradiol may prolong reproduction in seasonally breeding freshwater gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Benstead, Rachel S; Baynes, Alice; Casey, Daire; Routledge, Edwin J; Jobling, Susan

    2011-01-25

    Whilst the effects of oestrogenic contaminants in the aquatic environment are well documented in fish, effects in invertebrate species has been subject to debate, possibly due to differences in experimental conditions (temperature, timing and duration of exposure) between studies. It has been suggested that molluscs are only susceptible to oestrogens in periods either following the main spawning or leading up to the maturation of gametes. To investigate this possibility, two temperate, seasonally reproducing gastropods (Planorbarius corneus and Viviparus viviparus) were exposed to two concentrations of 17β-oestradiol (E2; 10ng/l and 100ng/l nominal) in an outdoor mesocosm (subject to natural seasons). In addition, P. corneus was also exposed to E2 (1, 10 and 100ng/l) in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods to simulate summer and autumn. In the mesocosm, both snail species produced similar numbers of eggs/embryos as reference groups in the summer, but the groups exposed to 10ngE2/l (nominal) had significantly higher productivities after the onset of autumn, when entering their quiescent phase, whilst the snails exposed to a higher concentration (100ng/l, nominal) had an increased rate of mortality, and did not experience increased reproduction. In the laboratory, the rate of egg laying in P. corneus was unaffected in simulated summer (20°C, 16h photoperiod), but snails exposed to 10 and 100ng/l (nominal) in simulated autumn (15°C, 12h photoperiod) showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the natural decline in egg laying observed in the control snails. Overall, rather than an increase in reproductive rate, the response of this species was a perpetuation of summer reproductive rates into autumn. We conclude that exposure to E2 can affect reproduction in the freshwater gastropods studied, but in P. corneus at least, this is dependent on the seasonal conditions (temperature and photoperiod) at which exposures are made. PMID:21216342

  6. [Composition, abundance and distribution of populations of commercially important gastropods in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Nieto-Bernal, Ramón; Luis, Chasqui; Rodriguez, Angélica María; Castro, Erick; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L

    2013-06-01

    In the continental Colombian Caribbean the conch resource exploitation and the status of snails populations has been poorly studied, which are reflected in the lack of fisheries management. This study assesses composition, population density and distribution of the gastropods species that make conch resource in La Guajira region. Underwater visual censuses for snails were performed between September-November 2009 in 145100x4m (400m2) transects, spanning a total area of 56920m2 between Riohacha and Cabo de la Vela. The study was complemented with the evaluation of composition, abundance and size of gastropods conch found in the discarded-by-fishermen shell mounds in 13 beaches. In October 2010 another 40 transects were evaluated (16 000 m2) from the Southern of Riohacha to the Camarones village (La Guajira). We found a total of 9911 snails belonging to 12 species, the most abundant being Strombus pugilis with 8 912 individuals and an average density of 1 538.4 +/- 3 662.6 ind./ha, followed by Vasum muricatum with 374 individuals and an average density of 51.8 +/- 91.2 ind./ha. Calculating the importance value index (IVI) for both living organisms as the empty shells on beaches, shows that Turbinella angulata is the most used species by artisanal fishermen in the region. Cassis madagascariensis and Cassis tuberosa are also important snail resources in the region (as suggested by the number of empty shells found in beaches), but its densities were low. Strombus gigas, with only three living organisms found in the area, presented the lowest abundance ever found in the Colombian Caribbean (0.52 +/- 3.6 ind./ha), showing that queen conch population in La Guajira cannot support commercial exploitation. The abundance of discarded S. gigas shells on beaches suggests resource exploitation in the recent past. Results remarks the urgency of implementing management plans for snail fisheries in the region. PMID:23885583

  7. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermiogenesis in pyramidellid gastropods, and its systematic importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, John M.

    1988-06-01

    Ultrastructural observations on spermiogenesis and spermatozoa of selected pyramidellid gastropods (species of Turbonilla, Pyrgulina, Cingulina and Hinemoa) are presented. During spermatid developement, the condensing nucleus becomes initially anterio-posteriorly compressed or sometimes cup-shaped. Concurrently, the acrosomal complex attaches to an electrondense layer at the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus, while at the opposite (posterior) pole of the nucleus a shallow invagination is formed to accommodate the centriolar derivative. Midpiece formation begins soon after these events have taken place, and involves the following processes: (1) the wrapping of individual mitochondria around the axoneme/coarse fibre complex; (2) later internal metamorphosis resulting in replacement of cristae by paracrystalline layers which envelope the matrix material; and (3) formation of a glycogen-filled helix within the mitochondrial derivative (via a secondary wrapping of mitochondria). Advanced stages of nuclear condensation (elongation, transformation of fibres into lamellae, subsequent compaction) and midpiece formation proceed within a microtubular sheath (‘manchette’). Pyramidellid spermatozoa consist of an acrosomal complex (round to ovoid apical vesicle; column-shaped acrosomal pedestal), helically-keeled nucleus (short, 7 10 μm long, shallow basal invagination for axoneme/coarse fibre attachment), elongate helical midpiece (composed of axoneme, coarse fibres, paracrystalline and matrix materials, glycogen-filled helix), glycogen piece (length variable, preceeded by a dense ring structure at junction with midpiece). The features of developing and mature spermatozoa observed in the Pyramidellidae are as observed in opisthobranch and pulmonate gastropods indicating that the Pyramidelloidea should be placed within the Euthyneura/Heterobranchia, most appropriately as a member group of the Opisthobranchia.

  8. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  9. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods

  10. 3D-ultrastructure, functions and stress responses of gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) rhogocytes.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the "slit apparatus", local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed-though not proven-that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins

  11. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Sporadic and Familial Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in understanding the biology and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia, the etiology of this disease remains elusive. Epidemiologic studies have consistently identified cigarette smoke as an important exposure; however, most smokers do not develop interstitial pneumonia and many individuals with interstitial pneumonia do not smoke cigarettes. Moreover, interstitial pneumonias have been reported to cluster in families. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the genetic etiology of interstitial pneumonia may prove critically important in defining the biology and clinical course of this complex human disease. PMID:18403331

  13. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  14. Irradiation system for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; De la Rosa, J.

    2013-11-01

    Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) is a promising form of treatment of deep-seated and bulky malignant tumors, based on the lethal cell response to the photochemical reactions when drug is light activated in presence of oxygen. In order to accomplish an effective internal illumination, laser sources are preferably used because of two important reasons: the monochromatic light can be confined to the narrow absorption band of the drug and the laser beam is easily focused into optical fibers. In this work the development of a diode-laser-light-source is presented. The system is tuned by temperature to get a better match in the 5-ALA absorption band. This system also comprises a trifurcated fiber system to accomplish interstitial illumination.

  15. Surface effects in Si interstitial formation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Armiento, Rickard

    2007-03-01

    We are calculating Si self-interstitial formation energies using Density Functional Theory and several different exchange-correlation energy functionals. We show that the difference in results obtained with the LDA, PBE, PW91, and AM05 [1] functionals can be explained by the functionals' different surface intrinsic errors. We explain why surface effects are important for formation energies of interstitials in semi-conductors. Surface effects have previously been studied for metal vacancy formation energies. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [1] R. Armiento and A. E. Mattsson, Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005).

  16. [Computer-assisted system for interstitial hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Kneschaurek, P; Weisser, M

    1987-03-01

    The combination of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia is more promising in the treatment of tumors than one of these methods alone. The unit developed by us uses the afterloading needles for heating up the tumor tissue with ohm current and for controlling the distribution of temperature in the target volume. Up to twelve needles are provided by one commutator with the R.F. current controlled by the computer. The temperature is measured by three thermistors per needle which are arranged at an axial distance of 2 cm each. The linearization of the thermistor characteristics and the control of cummutator and R.F. generator is performed by the computer over an interface constructed by us. In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of temperature in the target volume and to avoid hot spots, we have examined several needle configurations by measuring in an homogeneous phantom. PMID:3563878

  17. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Alis Kolter

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, painful bladder syndrome primarily found in women. Although the direct cause(s) of IC are unknown, several theories exist. Common symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, and pain. Treatment options include behavioral therapies, use of pharmacologic agents, and surgery. Patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatments. Important clinical features of IC in women including the pathology, common symptoms, and recommended evaluation and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:17390922

  18. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  19. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  20. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  1. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  2. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+ / PDGFRβ+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRβ+ / αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  3. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  4. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed. PMID:19069417

  5. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. PMID:19640623

  6. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Glöer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania). The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts. PMID:23794834

  7. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to

  8. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  9. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Sevigny, Joseph L.; Kirouac, Lauren E.; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S.; Lawlor, Kayla E.; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A.; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A.; Newcomb, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  10. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  11. Gastropod growth and survival as bioindicators of stress associated with high nutrients in the intertidal of a shallow temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Baharuddin, Nursalwa

    2015-04-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms are not well understood. Using cage experiments we measured the survival and growth of the pulmonate gastropod Amphibola crenata at five locations which differed contaminant levels. Water nutrients came from a nearby sewage treatment works and the sediment contained low levels of trace metals. Over 6 weeks of exposure, sediment surface chlorophyll levels varied amongst locations. The Chl a values were positively correlated with sediment N and P and trace metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Pulmonate survival depended on location, highest mortality was from a site close to the treatment plant and mortality rate of large individuals decreased significantly with distance away from it. For four locations, medium A. crenata had higher survival than small (juveniles) or adults. Growth rates of small individuals exceeded those for medium and large A. crenata. The mean length increment/week for medium gastropods ranged between 0.49 and 1.11 mm and was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in the surface sediment, suggesting the negative effects of eutrophication on gastropod growth. Growth rate of the pulmonate was not correlated with nutrient concentration or trace metal concentrations in the sediment. The dry weight condition index (CI) did not correlate with the growth rate, and for medium individuals, was unaffected by any of the environmental variables. The CI of small individuals was negatively affected by increasing water nutrient levels and the CI of large individuals negatively affected by increasing sediment nutrients and trace metal concentrations. The results from this study suggest that gastropod growth and survival could be used as tools to monitor the effects of changing nutrient levels and recovery from eutrophication within temperate estuaries.

  12. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. PMID:25102639

  13. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  14. A cellular and metabolic assessment of the thermal stress responses in the endemic gastropod Benedictia limnaeoides ongurensis from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Bedulina, Daria S; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Vereshchagina, Kseniya P; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if the Lake Baikal endemic gastropod Benedictia limnaeoides ongurensis, which inhabits in stable cold waters expresses a thermal stress response. We hypothesized that the evolution of this species in the stable cold waters of Lake Baikal resulted in a reduction of its thermal stress-response mechanisms at the biochemical and cellular levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results show that exposure to a thermal challenge activates the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of thermal resistance, such as heat shock proteins and antioxidative enzymes, and alters energetic metabolism in B. limnaeoides ongurensis. Thermal stress caused the elevation of heat shock protein 70 and the products of anaerobic glycolysis together with the depletion of glucose and phosphagens in the studied species. Thus, a temperature increase activates the complex biochemical system of stress response and alters the energetic metabolism in this endemic Baikal gastropod. It is concluded that the deepwater Lake Baikal endemic gastropod B. limnaeoides ongurensis retains the ability to activate well-developed biochemical stress-response mechanisms when exposed to a thermal challenge. PMID:24076104

  15. Species diversity of planktonic gastropods (Pteropoda and Heteropoda) from six ocean regions based on DNA barcode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Robert M.; Bucklin, Ann; Ossenbrügger, Holger; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2010-12-01

    Pteropods and heteropods are two distinct groups of holoplanktonic gastropods whose species and genetic diversity remain poorly understood, despite their ubiquity in the world's oceans. Some species apparently attain near cosmopolitan distributions, implying long-distance dispersal or cryptic species assemblages. We present the first multi-regional and species-rich molecular dataset of holoplanktonic gastropods, comprising DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I subunit gene (COI) from 115 individuals of 41 species sampled from six ocean regions across the globe. Molecular analysis and assessment of barcoding utility supported the validity of several morphological subspecies and forms (e.g. of Creseis virgula and Limacina helicina), while others were not supported (e.g. Cavolinia uncinata). Significant genetic variation was observed among conspecific specimens collected in different geographic regions for some species, particularly in euthecosomatous pteropods. Several species of euthecosomes showed no evidence of genetic separation among distant ocean regions. Overall, we suggest some taxonomic revision of the holoplanktonic gastropods will be required, pending a more complete molecular inventory of these groups.

  16. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  17. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  18. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-08-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four modes are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help unrevealing the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot and diversification-rate analyses we found that this monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the rate homogeneity observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only contributes to one of the overall goals of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program - inferring the driving forces for

  19. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  20. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  1. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four types are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help reveal the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot, and diversification-rate analyses we found that this potentially monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the constant diversification rate observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a probably high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only

  2. Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained

  3. Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease. PMID:23969008

  4. Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

  5. Global change and the dynamics of ecological systems: Cretaceous through Oligocene naticid gastropods and their prey

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.H. . Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering); Hansen, T.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Most studies of global change, particularly events that produced mass extinctions, document extinction and survivorship within taxonomic groups or trophic levels. Studies that consider effects of such events on ecological systems are less common. Global events nevertheless affect interaction of species; to predict the consequences of future global change, one must consider interactions within ecological systems. Vermeij has suggested that escalation involving adaptation to enemies has been a major theme of Phanerozoic life, but that such escalation has proceeded at highly variable rates depending on extrinsic events. He has predicted that escalation should be fostered by climatic warming, marine transgression, and high primary productivity. Mass extinctions involving global cooling, regression, or reduction in productivity should temporarily halt escalation, but rapid rebound may occur because post-crisis assemblages provide the raw material for escalation. A comprehensive survey (40,000 specimens) of naticid gastropod predation in the Coastal Plain Cretaceous through Oligocene supports this hypothesis. Drilling frequencies dropped at the K/T and E/O boundaries, which were marked by decreases in productivity and/or cooling. Drilling recovered very rapidly after these events, and in the Paleocene far exceeded Cretaceous drilling, reaching modern levels. This suggests the K/T extinction produced a major reorganization of the ecosystem. Other indicators of escalation (frequency of incomplete and multiple drillholes), however, do not correspond as neatly to global change. Nevertheless, results suggest that global change may be a major determinant of long-term evolutionary patterns, such as escalation.

  6. Intraspecific Scaling Relationships Between Crawling Speed and Body Size in a Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Hemmert, Heather M; Baltzley, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Across various modes of locomotion, body size and speed are often correlated both between and within species. Among the gastropods, however, current data are minimal for interspecific and intraspecific scaling relationships. In this study, we tested the relationships between various measurements of body size and crawling speed in the terrestrial snail Cornu aspersum. We also investigated the relationships between crawling speed, muscular wave frequency, and muscular wavelength, because--while these relationships within individuals are well studied--the relationships among individuals are unknown. We recorded snails crawling on both a horizontal and a vertical surface. We found that when they crawled on a horizontal surface, foot length was positively correlated with pedal wavelength and crawling speed, but was not correlated with wave frequency. In comparison, when they crawled on a vertical surface, foot length was positively correlated with wavelength, negatively correlated with wave frequency, and not correlated with crawling speed. Body mass had no correlation with crawling speed when snails were crawling on a horizontal surface, but was negatively correlated with speed when snails crawled on a vertical surface. PMID:26896180

  7. Larval settlement and metamorphosis in a marine gastropod in response to multiple conspecific cues.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Abigail E; Koury, Spencer A

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata must complete a transition from the plankton, where they are highly dispersed, to an aggregated group of benthic adults. Previous research has shown that selective settlement of larvae on conspecific adults is mediated by a water-borne chemical cue. However, variable experimental conditions have been used to study this cue, and standardization is needed in order to investigate factors that may have weak effects on settlement. In this study, we developed a time-course bioassay based on a full-factorial design with temporal blocking and statistical analysis of larval settlement rates in the lab. We tested this bioassay by examining settlement in the presence of an abiotic cue (KCl), and biotic cues (water conditioned with adult conspecifics and conspecific pedal mucus). Results confirmed settlement in the presence of both KCl and adult-conditioned water, and discovered the induction of settlement by pedal mucus. This optimized, standardized bioassay will be used in future experiments to characterize the complex process of larval settlement in C. fornicata, particularly to measure components of potentially small effect. PMID:27547586

  8. Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

  9. Heavy-tailed distributions in the intermittent motion behaviour of the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, Laurent; Duponchel, Anne-Charlotte; Chapperon, Coraline

    2007-11-01

    The two-dimensional motion behaviour of the common intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea is investigated as a function of the immersion time from three sampling sites on an exposed rocky shore. A total of 90 individuals have been individually marked and tracked over 14 consecutive daylight low tide. Successive displacements show very intermittent behaviour, with a few localised large displacements over a wide range of small displacements. We show that successive displacements are described by flight length l d heavy-tailed distributions with P(ld)∼ld-μ. The very low values of the exponent μ ( μ≈2.22, 2.43 and 2.67) indicate that L. littorea flights fall into the category of super-diffusive processes. These exponents were significantly higher than the special value μ≈2 analytically and theoretically predicted to be the most advantageous in optimising long-term encounter statistics, especially for low-prey-density scenario. As natural selection should favour flexible behaviour, leading to different optimum searching statistics, under different conditions, our results support the idea that the differences in food concentration and distribution encountered at the different sites by L. littorea led to different heavy-tailed distributions observed for the most extreme displacements.

  10. Cadmium and metallothionein turnover in different tissues of the gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Bebianno, M J; Langston, W J

    1998-06-01

    This paper attempts to link the kinetics of Cd and metallothionein turnover in the intertidal marine snail Littorina littorea. The results demonstrate that the turnover of metallothionein is tissue dependent. Metallothionein has an estimated half-life of 69 and 160 days in the gills and kidney, respectively. The half-life could not be calculated for metallothionein in the digestive gland and is probably much longer than the other two tissues. Cadmium elimination from the gill and kidney is considerably slower than the respective metallothioneins (half-life in excess of 300 days) indicating closed cycling of the metal in these tissues. In contrast, cadmium levels in the digestive gland continue to increase during the detoxification period reflecting some remobilization from other tissues. Metallothionein turnover is extremely slow in Littorina when compared with mammals and other bivalve molluscs: even though metallothionein degradation is measurable in some gastropod tissues, the released cadmium may induce de novo metallothionein synthesis to which cadmium becomes resequestered. The slow metallothionein turnover rates and the lack of significant cadmium excretion testify to the relatively stable nature of the cadmium-metallothionein complex in this invertebrate. PMID:18967152

  11. Metabolic mechanisms for anoxia tolerance and freezing survival in the intertidal gastropod, Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Lant, Benjamin; Anozie, Obiajulu O; Storey, Janet M

    2013-08-01

    The gastropod mollusk, Littorina littorea L., is a common inhabitant of the intertidal zone along rocky coastlines of the north Atlantic. This species has well-developed anoxia tolerance and freeze tolerance and is extensively used as a model for exploring the biochemical adaptations that support these tolerances as well as for toxicological studies aimed at identifying effective biomarkers of aquatic pollution. This article highlights our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anaerobiosis and freezing survival of periwinkles, particularly with respect to anoxia-induced metabolic rate depression. Analysis of foot muscle and hepatopancreas metabolism includes anoxia-responsive changes in enzyme regulation, signal transduction, gene expression, post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA, control of translation, and cytoprotective strategies including chaperones and antioxidant defenses. New studies describe the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by reversible protein phosphorylation, the role of microRNAs in suppressing mRNA translation in the hypometabolic state, modulation of glutathione S-transferase isozyme patterns, and the regulation of the unfolded protein response. PMID:23507570

  12. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:19370997

  13. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  14. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts. PMID:26840497

  15. Autonomous changes in the swimming direction of sperm in the gastropod Strombus luhuanus.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kogiku; Shibata, Daisuke; Inaba, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    The sperm of the gastropod Strombus luhuanus show dimorphism. The eusperm have a nucleus and fertilize the egg, whereas the other type of sperm, parasperm, are anucleate and are thought to assist fertilization. Here we report the autonomous changes in the swimming pattern of S. luhuanus eusperm. In artificial seawater, the eusperm collected from S. luhuanus sperm ducts formed sperm bundles and initially swam backward with asymmetric flagellar waveforms to detach from the bundles. One hour later, the sperm began to swim forward and in a circle. After an additional 1 h incubation, the sperm swam straight, with a change in the flagellar waveforms from asymmetric to symmetric. Spontaneous backward swimming with symmetric waveforms was also observed. The eusperm stored in the female seminal receptacle were motile and showed forward symmetric swimming with spontaneous backward swimming, which appeared necessary for detachment from the wall of receptacle. All of these motility changes were observed in the absence of parasperm, suggesting that these changes autonomously occur in eusperm. Our waveform analysis of these swimming patterns revealed that only the swimming with symmetric waveform showed reverse propagation of the flagellar waveforms. Both types of backward swimming were diminished in Ca(2+)-free seawater and in seawater containing Ni(2+), indicating the regulation of swimming direction by Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction. PMID:24311809

  16. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  17. Phylogenomics supports Panpulmonata: opisthobranch paraphyly and key evolutionary steps in a major radiation of gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Kocot, Kevin M; Halanych, Kenneth M; Krug, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonates, with over 30,000 described species, represent the largest radiation of non-marine animals outside of Arthropoda. The pulmonate lung was a key evolutionary innovation enabling diversification of terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. However, recent studies drew conflicting conclusions about pulmonate monophyly, and support for a sister group is lacking, hindering our understanding of this major animal radiation. Analyses of mitochondrial protein-coding genes recovered a paraphyletic Pulmonata grading into a monophyletic Opisthobranchia, a traditional group of sea slugs long considered sister to pulmonates. Conversely, analyses of datsets dominated by nuclear rDNA indicated Opisthobranchia is paraphyletic with respect to Pulmonata. No study resolved the placement of two key taxa: Sacoglossa, an opisthobranch group including photosynthetic sea slugs, and Siphonarioidea, intertidal limpet-like snails traditionally in Pulmonata. To examine evolutionary relationships at the base of the pulmonate radiation, we performed a phylogenomic analysis of 102 nuclear protein-coding gene regions for 19 gastropods. Opisthobranchia was recovered as paraphyletic with respect to Panpulmonata, a clade in which Sacoglossa was sister to Pulmonata, with Siphonarioidea as the basal pulmonate lineage. Siphonarioideans share a similar gill structure with shelled sacoglossans but lack the contractile pneumostome of pulmonates, suggesting descent from an evolutionary intermediate that facilitated the pulmonate radiation into non-marine habitats. PMID:23850501

  18. Upper Miocene endemic lacustrine gastropod fauna of the Turiec Basin: addressing taxonomic, paleobiogeographic and stratigraphic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Pipík, Radovan

    2015-04-01

    The present work displays the first detailed taxonomic study on the freshwater gastropod fauna of the Upper Miocene Lake Turiec. Apart from several mentions of species and genus names in the literature, the mollusc fauna has been poorly studied up to now. Some of the cited genera implied peculiar paleobiogeographic relationships, urging a taxonomic investigation to either prove or revise such arising claims. Variable degrees of preservation, however, limited the possibility to identify all the fossils at species level. The fauna includes at least ten species, of which five turned out to be new to science. Four of those were sufficiently well preserved to be described as new species, namely Viviparus pipiki Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., Melanopsis glaubrechti Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., Tournouerina turiecensis Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., and Radix kovaci Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp. Additionally, the new genus Popovicia Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. gen. is introduced for the primary homonym Metohia Popović, 1964 non Absolon, 1927. Most importantly, this taxonomic study revises many of the names cited in the literature and proves most of the alleged paleobiogeographic relationships wrong. The only biogeographic and stratigraphic surprise is the record of Popovicia cf. compressa, a species described from lower Pliocene deposits of the Metohia Basin in Kosovo. The majority of the fauna, however, has only been documented for the Turiec Basin, once more confirming the high degree of its endemicity. The faunal relationships indicate a latest Middle to early Late Pannonian (Middle to Late Tortonian) age, which is in agreement with available age models.

  19. Larval settlement and metamorphosis in a marine gastropod in response to multiple conspecific cues

    PubMed Central

    Koury, Spencer A.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata must complete a transition from the plankton, where they are highly dispersed, to an aggregated group of benthic adults. Previous research has shown that selective settlement of larvae on conspecific adults is mediated by a water-borne chemical cue. However, variable experimental conditions have been used to study this cue, and standardization is needed in order to investigate factors that may have weak effects on settlement. In this study, we developed a time-course bioassay based on a full-factorial design with temporal blocking and statistical analysis of larval settlement rates in the lab. We tested this bioassay by examining settlement in the presence of an abiotic cue (KCl), and biotic cues (water conditioned with adult conspecifics and conspecific pedal mucus). Results confirmed settlement in the presence of both KCl and adult-conditioned water, and discovered the induction of settlement by pedal mucus. This optimized, standardized bioassay will be used in future experiments to characterize the complex process of larval settlement in C. fornicata, particularly to measure components of potentially small effect. PMID:27547586

  20. Bacterial diversity and tetrodotoxin analysis in the viscera of the gastropods from Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Pratheepa, Vijayakumari; Alex, Anoop; Silva, Marisa; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2016-09-01

    To trace the pathway of tetrodotoxin (TTX) producing microorganism in the Atlantic coast of Portugal, culture-dependent evaluation of the bacterial isolates from the viscera of the gastropods Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Nucella lapillus and Patella intermedia, and from the environmental samples (biofilm and surrounding sea water) was carried out. Samples were collected from eight different coastal locations of Northern Portugal. A total of 311 isolates were identified. The observed bacterial diversity was distributed over five different classes (Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria) with the greatest number of 16S rRNA gene sequence derived from the Gammaproteobacteria (75%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that bacterial isolates were highly diverse and most of which were found in other marine environment. Among the different species isolated, Vibrio was found abundant. Eventhough TTX was not detected (UPLC-MS/MS) in the isolates from this study, PCR screening identified some natural product biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS) involved in its assembly. Further PCR screening of the TTX producing two ATCC Vibrio sp. reveals that NRPS might be involved in the biosynthesis of TTX through the incorporation of arginine. PMID:27312988

  1. Biological strategy for the fabrication of highly ordered aragonite helices: the microstructure of the cavolinioidean gastropods.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The Cavolinioidea are planktonic gastropods which construct their shells with the so-called aragonitic helical fibrous microstructure, consisting of a highly ordered arrangement of helically coiled interlocking continuous crystalline aragonite fibres. Our study reveals that, despite the high and continuous degree of interlocking between fibres, every fibre has a differentiated organic-rich thin external band, which is never invaded by neighbouring fibres. In this way, fibres avoid extinction. These intra-fibre organic-rich bands appear on the growth surface of the shell as minuscule elevations, which have to be secreted differentially by the outer mantle cells. We propose that, as the shell thickens during mineralization, fibre secretion proceeds by a mechanism of contact recognition and displacement of the tips along circular trajectories by the cells of the outer mantle surface. Given the sizes of the tips, this mechanism has to operate at the subcellular level. Accordingly, the fabrication of the helical microstructure is under strict biological control. This mechanism of fibre-by-fibre fabrication by the mantle cells is unlike that any other shell microstructure. PMID:27181457

  2. Biokinetics of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the freshwater gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramskov, Tina; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is recognized as a major environmental sink for contaminants, including engineered nanoparticles (NPs). Consequently, sediment-living organisms are likely to be exposed to NPs. There is evidence that both accumulation and toxicity of metal NPs to sediment-dwellers increase with decreasing particle size, although NP size does not always predict effects. In contrast, not much is known about the influence of particle shape on bioaccumulation and toxicity. Here, we examined the influence of copper oxide (CuO) NP shape (rods, spheres, and platelets) on their bioaccumulation kinetics and toxicity to the sediment-dwelling gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The influence of Cu added as CuCl2 (i.e., aqueous Cu treatment) was also examined. Exposure to sediment mixed with aqueous Cu or with different-shaped CuO NPs at an average measured exposure concentration of 207 μg Cu per g dry weight sediment for 14 days did not significantly affect snail mortality. However, growth decreased for snails exposed to sediment amended with CuO NP spheres and platelets. P. antipodarum accumulated Cu from all Cu forms/shapes in significant amounts compared to control snails. In addition, once accumulated, Cu was efficiently retained (i.e., elimination rate constants were generally not significantly different from zero). Consequently, snails are likely to concentrate Cu over time, from both aqueous and NP sources, resulting in a high potential for toxicity.

  3. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Nikitin, Mikhail A; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts. PMID:26840497

  4. AFLPs and Mitochondrial Haplotypes Reveal Local Adaptation to Extreme Thermal Environments in a Freshwater Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Johansson, Magnus P.; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K.; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher FST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci under selection may help disentangle the effects of gene flow, genetic drift and selection among populations living in contrasting environments. Using the gastropod Radix balthica as a system, we analyzed 376 AFLP markers and 25 mtDNA COI haplotypes for candidate loci and associations with local adaptation among contrasting thermal environments in Lake Mývatn, a volcanic lake in northern Iceland. We found that 2% of the analysed AFLP markers were under directional selection and 12% of the mitochondrial haplotypes correlated with differing thermal habitats. The genetic networks were concordant for AFLP markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting distinct topologies at neutral and candidate loci. Neutral topologies were characterized by intense gene flow revealed by dense nets with edges connecting contrasting thermal habitats, whereas the connections at candidate loci were mostly restricted to populations within each thermal habitat and the number of edges decreased with temperature. Our results suggest microgeographic adaptation within Lake Mývatn and highlight the utility of genome scans in detecting adaptive divergence. PMID:25007329

  5. A Whole Mount In Situ Hybridization Method for the Gastropod Mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daniel J; Herlitze, Ines; Hohagen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH) is a technique that allows for the spatial resolution of nucleic acid molecules (often mRNAs) within a 'whole mount' tissue preparation, or developmental stage (such as an embryo or larva) of interest. WMISH is extremely powerful because it can significantly contribute to the functional characterization of complex metazoan genomes, a challenge that is becoming more of a bottleneck with the deluge of next generation sequence data. Despite the conceptual simplicity of the technique much time is often needed to optimize the various parameters inherent to WMISH experiments for novel model systems; subtle differences in the cellular and biochemical properties between tissue types and developmental stages mean that a single WMISH method may not be appropriate for all situations. We have developed a set of WMISH methods for the re-emerging gastropod model Lymnaea stagnalis that generate consistent and clear WMISH signals for a range of genes, and across all developmental stages. These methods include the assignment of larvae of unknown chronological age to an ontogenetic window, the efficient removal of embryos and larvae from their egg capsules, the application of an appropriate Proteinase-K treatment for each ontogenetic window, and hybridization, post-hybridization and immunodetection steps. These methods provide a foundation from which the resulting signal for a given RNA transcript can be further refined with probe specific adjustments (primarily probe concentration and hybridization temperature). PMID:27023483

  6. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated. PMID:22350107

  7. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  8. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  9. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  10. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  11. Old fossils–young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600 000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift. PMID:19439440

  12. Biological strategy for the fabrication of highly ordered aragonite helices: the microstructure of the cavolinioidean gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The Cavolinioidea are planktonic gastropods which construct their shells with the so-called aragonitic helical fibrous microstructure, consisting of a highly ordered arrangement of helically coiled interlocking continuous crystalline aragonite fibres. Our study reveals that, despite the high and continuous degree of interlocking between fibres, every fibre has a differentiated organic-rich thin external band, which is never invaded by neighbouring fibres. In this way, fibres avoid extinction. These intra-fibre organic-rich bands appear on the growth surface of the shell as minuscule elevations, which have to be secreted differentially by the outer mantle cells. We propose that, as the shell thickens during mineralization, fibre secretion proceeds by a mechanism of contact recognition and displacement of the tips along circular trajectories by the cells of the outer mantle surface. Given the sizes of the tips, this mechanism has to operate at the subcellular level. Accordingly, the fabrication of the helical microstructure is under strict biological control. This mechanism of fibre-by-fibre fabrication by the mantle cells is unlike that any other shell microstructure. PMID:27181457

  13. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods.

    PubMed

    Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2012-11-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures. PMID:22865709

  14. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic and ultrastructural features of intraluminal organizing and fibrotic changes were studied in open lung biopsies and autopsy specimens from 373 patients with interstitial lung disorders, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 44), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 92), collagen-vascular diseases (n = 20), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 10), pulmonary histiocytosis X (n-90), pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 62), pneumoconioses (n = 25), Legionnaire's disease (n = 5), drug- and toxin-induced pneumonitis (n = 4), radiation-induced pneumonitis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 11), and chronic organizing pneumonia of unknown cause (n = 8). Three patterns of intraluminal organization and fibrosis were recognized: 1) intraluminal buds, which partially filled the alveoli, alveolar ducts and/or distal bronchioles; 2) obliterative changes, in which loose connective tissue masses obliterated the lumens of alveoli, alveolar ducts or distal bronchioles, and 3) mural incorporation of previously intraluminal connective tissue masses, which fused with alveolar, alveolar ductal, or bronchiolar structures and frequently became reepithelialized. All three patterns had common morphologic features, suggesting that, regardless of their severity, they resulted from a common pathogenetic mechanism, ie, the migration of activated connective tissue cells, through defects in the epithelial lining and its basement membrane, from the interstitial into the intraluminal compartment. Intraluminal buds were observed most frequently in hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and organizing pneumonia of unknown cause. Mural incorporation and, to a lesser extent, obliterative changes were observed in most interstitial disorders and were very prominent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mural incorporation and obliterative changes play an important role in pulmonary remodeling, especially when several adjacent alveoli and/or other air spaces are

  15. Macrophage polarization in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewski, Michał; Osińska, Iwona; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The role of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) examination in differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was established. Currently, functional polarization into M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) subpopulations is emphasized. The aim of our study was to compare the proportion of M1 and M2 in BALf of patients with different ILD. BALf samples were collected from 75 ILD patients: sarcoidosis (SA, 36), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, 10), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, 8), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, 6) and other ILD (15). Phenotyping was performed by immunocytochemistry with anti-CD40 and CD163 antibodies (for M1 and M2, respectively). For both, CD40 and CD163, three populations of cells have been specified: small cells with strong (+++), large cells with weak (+) and cells with no (–) reaction. Due to lack of statistically significant differences between patients with HP, NSIP and IPF, they were classified into a common group and compared to the group of patients with sarcoidosis. The median proportion of macrophage population was as follows: for CD40: 61%, 35%, 2% in patients with SA and 49%, 47%, 3% in patients with other ILD and for CD163: 55%, 35%, 5% in SA and 53%, 43%, 1% in ILD patients, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of M1 in SA when compared with other ILD. Our study showed no evidence of defined polarization of alveolar macrophages in different types of interstitial lung diseases. However, we emphasized the role of CD40 positive cells in sarcoidosis and the role of CD163 positive cells in fibrotic diffuse lung diseases. PMID:27536201

  16. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  17. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  18. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasurya, R.; Srinivas, B. H.; Ponraj, M.; Haridasan, S.; Parameswaran, S.; Priyamvada, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids. PMID:27512305

  19. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  20. Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

  1. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  2. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  3. Expansion of Interstitial Telomeric Sequences in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Anna Y; Han, Gil; Shishkin, Alexander A; Volkov, Kirill V; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2015-11-24

    Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for replication (G orientation). Here, we show that interstitial Ytel repeats in the opposite C orientation prefer to expand rather than cause GCR. A tract of eight Ytel repeats expands at a rate of 4 × 10(-4) per replication, ranking them among the most expansion-prone DNA microsatellites. A candidate-based genetic analysis implicates both post-replication repair and homologous recombination pathways in the expansion process. We propose a model for Ytel repeat expansions and discuss its applications for genome instability and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT). PMID:26586439

  4. Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lee C. L.; Lloyd, Brendan; Whelan, William M.; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2009-05-01

    We present an optical technique, point radiance spectroscopy, to directly recover chromophore concentrations and the reduced optical scattering coefficient spectrum from continuous wave interstitial point radiance measurements at a single-source-detector separation in turbid, tissuelike media. The method employs a spectral algorithm to fit the relative radiance data, using the P3 approximation, at only two detection angles (0° and 90°). The spectral fitting algorithm is applied to simulated data of relative point fluence and relative point radiance data with added 1% noise and shows that even under realistic experimental conditions, only point radiance information is able to provide quantitative information regarding chromophore concentrations and scattering power at distances greater than two to three mean free paths from the source. Furthermore, experimental measurements in tissue-simulating phantoms demonstrate that dye concentrations and scattering parameters can be recovered to within ˜10%. The developed point radiance technique bridges a technological gap between local surface reflectance and spatially resolved interstitial fluence methods in optical assessment of random media such as biological tissue.

  5. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  6. Reconstruction of Regional Environments in the Caribbean During the Neogene Using Gastropod Stable Isotope Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, J. A.; Grossman, E. L.; O'Dea, A.; Tao, K.

    2011-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) ca. 3.8-3.6 Ma triggered changes in nearshore environments in the Caribbean, causing changes in marine annual range of temperature (MART), carbonate deposition, and the benthic ecosystem. The associated extinction event began ca. 3-2 Ma, peaking between 2-1 Ma. More than two dozen "faunules", discreet packages of fauna which lived under similar environmental conditions, represent time just prior to, during, and after the uplift of the CAI. Multiple parameters including the amount and types of fauna present in each faunule have been used to estimate factors such as paleodepth, MART, extinction rates, and changes in ecological structure over time. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod shells serially-sampled about the spire provide records of seasonal environmental conditions. In the tropics, gastropods that live under conditions of strong seasonal upwelling and freshwater input have a greater range of δ18O values in their profiles compared to those animals that live in non-upwelling waters with little freshwater input. Low δ13C values often represent the isotopically low terrestrial carbon found in river runoff, and may be coupled with low δ18O values during seasonal freshening of marine waters. Preliminary data from Strombus shells representing four faunules ranging in age from before the rise of the isthmus through its completion demonstrate the effectiveness of using these mollusks to study ancient tropical environments. Rio Limoncito (~3 Ma), which is believed to represent water depths of 20-40m based on foraminiferal assemblage, yielded the lowest δ18O values (-0.6±0.4%, representing the warmest temperatures/lowest salinities). The samples from Pueblo Nuevo (~1.6 Ma), with an estimated paleodepth between 50 and 100m, had an average value of 0.4±0.3% and therefore represent cooler waters/higher salinity. A shell from NE Escudo de Veraguas (~3.55 Ma) shows a shift from essentially

  7. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

    2006-10-30

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

  8. Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial-Free Steels

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial-free (IF) steels are defined by their low amounts of solute interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen. During secondary forming, strain can be localized at the grain boundaries of these steels, resulting in secondary cold work embrittlement (CWE).

  9. Free-floating collagen fibers in interstitial mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Crisman, Giuliana; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2010-06-01

    We present a case of interstitial mycosis fungoides showing pseudodovascular clefts with "free-floating" collagen fibers surrounded by neoplastic T lymphocytes. Such a finding further expands the histopathologic spectrum of mycosis fungoides and could be taken into account in its differential diagnosis from granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous drug reaction. PMID:20145533

  10. Ecophenotypic plasticity leads to extraordinary gastropod shells found on the “Roof of the World”

    PubMed Central

    Clewing, Catharina; Riedel, Frank; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The often extraordinary shell forms and shapes of gastropods found in palaeolakes, such as the highly diverse Gyraulus fauna of the famous Steinheim Basin, have been puzzling evolutionary biologists for centuries, and there is an ongoing debate whether these aberrant shell forms are indicative of true species (or subspecies) or ecophenotypic morphs. Interestingly, one of the Steinheim Gyraulus morphs – a corkscrew-like open-coiled shell – has a recent analogue in the Lake Bangong drainage system on the western Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, a combination of morphological, molecular, palaeolimnological, and ecological analyses was used in this study to assess whether the extraordinary shell shape in Gyraulus sp. from this drainage system represents a (young) ecophenotypic phenomenon or if it has been genetically fixed over an extended period of time. Our morphological, ecological, and palaeolimnological data suggest that the corkscrew-like specimens remain restricted to a small pond near Lake Bangong with an elevated pH value and that the colonization may have occurred recently. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on two gene fragments shows that these nonplanispiral specimens cluster within the previous described Tibetan Plateau Gyraulus clade N2. A network analysis indicates that some haplotypes are even shared by planispiral and nonplanispiral specimens. Given the ephemerality of the phenomenon, the compact network patterns inferred, the likely young phylogenetic age of the aberrant Gyraulus shells studied, and the ecological peculiarities of the study site, we suggest that the evolution of the aberrant shell forms on the Tibetan Plateau could likely be considered as a rapid ecophenotypic response, possibly induced by ecological stress. This finding may thus have implications for the ongoing debate about the processes that have caused the extraordinary shell diversity in palaeolakes such as the Steinheim Basin. PMID:26306180