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Sample records for interstitial metallic needle

  1. Frameless image guidance improves accuracy in three-dimensional interstitial brachytherapy needle placement

    SciTech Connect

    Krempien, Robert . E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hassfeld, Stefan; Kozak, Josef; Tuemmler, Hans-Peter; Daeuber, Sascha; Treiber, Martina; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to adapt a computer-assisted real-time three-dimensional (3D) navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Methods and materials: The 3-D navigation system Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer System (SPOCS; Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) was adapted for use in interstitial brachytherapy. A special needle holder with mounted infrared-emitting diodes (IRED) for 3D navigation-based needle implantation was developed. Measurements were made on a series of different phantoms to study the feasibility and the overall accuracy and precision of the navigation system with regard to single-needle application and volume implants (multiple-needle implantations). In all, 250 single implants and 20 volume implants were performed. Accuracy was measured as the target registration error (TRE) between the preoperatively defined and the achieved target position. Results: Analyses of the 250 different targets showed a mean TRE for single-needle applications of 1.1 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 0.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm), and 0.7 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm) in the x, y, and z direction, respectively. The maximal deviation was 2.3 mm. The corresponding TRE in the x, y, and z direction for volume implants was 1.6 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 1.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.6 mm), and 1.0 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), respectively. The maximum deviation was 2.9 mm. Conclusions: The adaptation of a commercially available surgical planning and navigation system to interstitial brachytherapy is feasible. It enables virtual planning and improved accuracy in 3D interstitial needle implantation.

  2. Performance and suitability assessment of a real-time 3D electromagnetic needle tracking system for interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boutaleb, Samir; Fillion, Olivier; Bonillas, Antonio; Hautvast, Gilion; Binnekamp, Dirk; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate insertion and overall needle positioning are key requirements for effective brachytherapy treatments. This work aims at demonstrating the accuracy performance and the suitability of the Aurora V1 Planar Field Generator (PFG) electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) for real-time treatment assistance in interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Material and methods The system's performance was characterized in two distinct studies. First, in an environment free of EM disturbance, the boundaries of the detection volume of the EMTS were characterized and a tracking error analysis was performed. Secondly, a distortion analysis was conducted as a means of assessing the tracking accuracy performance of the system in the presence of potential EM disturbance generated by the proximity of standard brachytherapy components. Results The tracking accuracy experiments showed that positional errors were typically 2 1 mm in a zone restricted to the first 30 cm of the detection volume. However, at the edges of the detection volume, sensor position errors of up to 16 mm were recorded. On the other hand, orientation errors remained low at 2 for most of the measurements. The EM distortion analysis showed that the presence of typical brachytherapy components in vicinity of the EMTS had little influence on tracking accuracy. Position errors of less than 1 mm were recorded with all components except with a metallic arm support, which induced a mean absolute error of approximately 1.4 mm when located 10 cm away from the needle sensor. Conclusions The Aurora V1 PFG EMTS possesses a great potential for real-time treatment assistance in general interstitial brachytherapy. In view of our experimental results, we however recommend that the needle axis remains as parallel as possible to the generator surface during treatment and that the tracking zone be restricted to the first 30 cm from the generator surface. PMID:26622231

  3. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  4. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  5. Study of metal distribution in pine and spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, J.; Marshall, G.B.; Bauer, P.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to assess the conditions for foliar uptake of air-borne metallic pollutants on pine and spruce needles. Needles of coniferous trees (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus) were sampled at three locations in the Protected Landscape Area Elbe Sandstone in the Czech Republic. Solid (CR) and water-soluble (WS) fractions of aerosol adhered to the needle surface, and epicuticular waxes were separated from the needle by the two-step stripping procedure. The WS and CR fractions and the needle body after the stripping procedure were separately analyzed for 24 metals. The quantity of each fraction and its elemental composition is discussed regarding the tree species, needle age and locality. Highest aerosol quantities as well as concentration of metals were found in pine needles (Pinus strobus) from the locality most exposed to the local pollution sources. Epicuticular waxes were analyzed for As, Cd and Pb. The concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.2 {micro}g/g for As and Pb, and from 0.2 to 0.6 {micro}g/g for Cd. The highest metal concentrations were found in waxes of pines (Pinus sylvestris). Values of As and Pb concentration differences between WS fraction and the wax, between the wax and the needle body decrease with the needle age while Cd concentration differences do not depend on the needle age.

  6. SU-E-T-507: Interfractional Variation of Fiducial Marker Position During HDR Brachytherapy with Cervical Interstitial Needle Template

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S; Kim, R; Benhabib, S; Araujo, J; Burnett, L; Duan, J; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy using interstitial needle template for cervical cancer is commonly delivered in 4-5 fractions. Routine verification of needle positions before each fraction is often based on radiographic imaging of implanted fiducial markers. The current study evaluated interfractional displacement of implanted fiducial markers using CT images. Methods: 9 sequential patients with cervical interstitial needle implants were evaluated. The superior and inferior borders of the target volumes were defined by fiducial markers in planning CT. The implant position was verified with kV orthogonal images before each fraction. A second CT was acquired prior 3rd fraction (one or 2 days post planning CT). Distances from inferior and superior fiducial markers to pubic symphysis plane (perpendicular to vaginal obtulator)were measured. Distance from needle tip of a reference needle (next to the inferior marker) to the pubic symphysis plane was also determined. The difference in fiducial marker distance or needle tip distance between planning CT and CT prior 3rd fraction were measured to assess markers migration and needle displacement. Results: The mean inferior marker displacement was 4.5 mm and ranged 0.9 to 11.3 mm. The mean superior marker displacement was 2.7 mm and ranged 0 to 10.4 mm. There was a good association between inferior and superior marker displacement (r=0.95). Mean averaged inferior and superior marker displacement was 3.3 mm and ranged from 0.1 to 10.9 mm, with a standard deviation of 3.2 mm. The mean needle displacement was 5.6 mm and ranged 0.2 to 15.6 mm. Needle displacements were reduced (p<0.05) after adjusting according to needle-to-fiducials distance. Conclusion: There were small fiducial marker displacements between HDR fractions. Our study suggests a target margin of 9.7 mm to cover interfractional marker displacements (in 95% cases) for pretreatment verification based on radiographic imaging.

  7. Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Andréanne; Pichette, Julien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Paulsen, Keith D; Roberts, David W; Petrecca, Kevin; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-15

    The extraction of tissue samples during brain needle biopsy can cause life-threatening hemorrhage because of significant blood vessel injury during the procedure. Vessel rupture can have significant consequences for patient health, ranging from transient neurological deficits to death. Here, we present a sub-diffuse optical tomography technique that can be integrated into neurosurgical workflow to detect the presence of blood vessels. A proof-of-concept study performed on a realistic brain tissue phantom is presented and demonstrates that interstitial optical tomography (iOT) can detect several 1 mm diameter high-contrast absorbing objects located <2  mm from the needle. PMID:25679836

  8. Metallic sewing needle ingestion presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Misra, S; Jain, V; Ahmad, F; Kumar, R; Kishore, N

    2013-01-01

    We reported an unusual case of a 26-year-old man presenting to surgical emergency as generalized peritonitis following an ingestion of multiple metallic sewing needles. The X-ray of his abdomen showed pneumoperitoneum and multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity. An ultrasonogram of his abdomen showed multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity and urinary bladder. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. On laparotomy, gastric and duodenal perforation was found through which metallic sewing needles were protruding out. A peritoneal lavage was done, and all the sewing needles were extracted from the perforation site, paracolic gutter, liver parenchyma, and urinary bladder. The primary repair of the perforation with omental patching was done with the drainage of subhepatic space and pelvic cavity. These multiple ingested sewing needles led to the perforation of the stomach and the duodenum, which resulted in perforation peritonitis. PMID:23974755

  9. Daily CT measurement of needle applicator displacement during multifractionated high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for postoperative recurrent uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Takenaka, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Aramoto, Kazumasa; Miyake, Shunsuke; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Ban, Chiaki; Tanaka, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated daily needle applicator displacement during multifractionated high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for postoperative recurrent uterine cancer. Eight patients with postoperative recurrent uterine cancer received HDR-ISBT with or without external beam radiotherapy using our unique ambulatory technique. To analyze displacement, we obtained daily computed tomography (CT) images for 122 flexible needle applicators at 21, 45, 69, and 93 hours after implantation. Displacement was defined as the length between the center of gravity of titanium markers and the needle applicator tips along the daily CT axis. For cases in which displacement was not corrected, we also calculated the dose that covered 90% of the clinical target volume (D90(CTV)) using a dose-volume histogram (DVH). Median caudal needle applicator displacement at 21, 45, 69, and 93 hours was 3, 2, 4, and 5 mm, respectively. More than 15 mm displacement was observed for 2% (2 of 122) and 17% (10 of 60) of needle applicators at 21 and 93 hours, respectively. Cases in which dwell positions were not changed to correct the treatment plan, 2 of 8 patients showed more than 10% reduction in D90(CTV) values compared with the initial treatment plan. Correction of dwell positions of the treatment source improves treatment DVH for multifractionated HDR-ISBT. PMID:22240942

  10. Diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Jun

    1984-11-01

    A particle moving in a metal and interacting with the metallic electrons is discussed first from a general point of view. The electrons cannot follow the particle adiabatically because of low excitation energies across the fermi surface. One of the non-adiabatic effects is to renormalize the tunneling matrix of the particle by a factor (T/D) K, where D is the width of the electron band, K is a coupling between the particle and the electrons. The diffusion constant of the particle tunneling among many sites is proportional to T 2K-1, where T 2K comes from the effective tunneling matrix squared, while T -1 comes from an effective broadening of the level of the particle. This temperature dependence explains the observations for the positive muon in copper when K< {1}/{2}. We also consider interaction of the muon with lattice distortion. With both interactions, we obtain a very good agreement with an observation in the whole temperature range, except the lowest temperature where the diffusion constant tends to a constant. We introduce phenomenologically a broadening of the individual muon level. A width of 0.34K explains the observed leveling off.

  11. SU-F-19A-12: Split-Ring Applicator with Interstitial Needle for Improved Volumetric Coverage in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Colussi, V; Mislmani, M; Traughber, B; Herrmann, K; Podder, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric coverage of a Mick Radionuclear titanium Split-Ring applicator (SRA) with/without interstitial needle compared to an intracavitary Vienna applicator (VA), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary ring and tandem applicator (RTA). Methods: A 57 year-old female with FIGO stage IIB cervical carcinoma was treated following chemoradiotherapy (45Gy pelvic and 5.4Gy parametrial boost) with highdose- rate (HDR) brachytherapy to 30Gy in 5 fractions using a SRA. A single interstitial needle was placed using the Ellis Interstitial Cap for the final three fractions to increase coverage of left-sided gross residual disease identified on 3T-MRI. High-risk (HR) clinical target volume (CTV) and intermediate-risk (IR) CTV were defined using axial T2-weighted 2D and 3D MRI sequences (Philips PET/MRI unit). Organs-at-risks (OARs) were delineated on CT. Oncentra planning system was used for treatment optimization satisfying GEC-ESTRO guidelines for target coverage and OAR constraints. Retrospectively, treatment plans (additional 20 plans) were simulated using intracavitary SRA (without needle), intracavitary VA (without needle), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary RTA with this same patient case. Plans were optimized for each fraction to maintain coverage to HR-CTV. Results: Interstitial-intracavitary SRA achieved the following combined coverage for external radiation and brachytherapy (EQD2): D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy; Bladder-2cc =88.9Gy; Rectum-2cc =65.1Gy; Sigmoid-2cc =48.9Gy; Left vaginal wall (VW) =103Gy, Right VW =99.2Gy. Interstitial-intracavitary VA was able to achieve identical D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy, yet Bladder-2cc =91.9Gy (exceeding GEC-ESTRO recommendations of 2cc<90Gy) and Left VW =120.8Gy and Right VW =115.5Gy. Neither the SRA nor VA without interstitial needle could cover HR-CTV adequately without exceeding dose to Bladder-2cc. Conventional RTA was unable to achieve target coverage for the HR-CTV >80Gy without severely overdosing OARs. Conclusion: The Ellis Interstitial Cap for the SRA offered superior dosimetric coverage as compared to the interstitialintracavitary VA. This represents the first reported use for this devise, and further investigation is warranted.

  12. Evaluation of anelastic evidence for interstitial solute binding in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cost, J.R.; Stanley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A Direct Spectrum Analysis (DSA) technique has been applied to key internal friction and elastic after-effect data which are involved in the controversy over the existance of interstitial clustering in the refractory metals. It is found that at relatively high interstitial solute concentrations some of the Snoek peak broadening is due to relaxations that are distinct from the main relaxation. This finding supports the view that interstitial solutes have an interaction that produces clusters of interstitials.

  13. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125. PMID:25979330

  14. Assessment of daily needle applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer using daily CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tadashi; Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Yamazaki, Hideya; Miyake, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Mineo; Yoshimura, Yasushi; Oka, Toshitsugu; Honda, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    To improve treatment conformity for prostate cancer, we investigated daily applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT). Thirty patients treated with HDR-ISBT as monotherapy were examined. All patients received a treatment dosage of 49 Gy per 7 fractions over 4 days. For dose administration, we examined 376 flexible applicators (1128 points) using our unique ambulatory implant technique. Using CT images with a 3-mm slice thickness, we calculated the relative coordinates of the titanium markers and the tips of the applicators. We calculated the distance between the center of gravity of the markers and the tips of the catheters, and compared the distances measured on the day of implantation and the second, third, and fourth treatment days. The mean displacement distance for all applicators was 4.3 ± 3.4 mm, 4.6 ± 4.1 mm, and 5.8 ± 4.5 mm at 21, 45, and 69 hours after initial planning CT. We used a 15-mm margin for needle displacement and only 2 points of 2 patients (16 mm and 18 mm at 69 hours, 2/1128 = 0.2%) exceeded this range. Almost patients (87%) showed the largest displacement within the first 21 hours. The relative doses that covered 100% of CTV (D100(CTV)) values compared with the initial treatment plan were reduced to 0.96 ± 0.08, 0.96 ± 0.08 and 0.94 ± 0.1 at 21, 45 and 69 hours. However, the relative D90(CTV) values kept acceptable levels (1.01 ± 0.02, 1.01 ± 0.03 and 1.01 ± 0.03). Cranial margin of 15 mm seems to be effective to keep D90(CTV) level if we do not do corrective action. PMID:22485020

  15. Fabrication of a hollow needle structure by dicing, wet etching and metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Hasada, Takehiko; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We previously proposed a novel fabrication process, which combined mechanical dicing and anisotropic wet etching, to reduce the cost of micro-electro-mechanical system devices, and fabricated various solid-type microneedle structures using this process for trans-dermal drug delivery systems. The current research involved us enhancing our previous processes by applying metal plating and using a minimum number of photolithography steps, and we fabricated a hollow-type micro-needle structure, in which a flow channel was formed at the center of the needle projection, for supplying medical solutions from the area behind the needle. We fabricated two different shaped needle structures, pyramidal and flattened needles. The height and pitch of both needle types were 120-250 m and 230-280 m, respectively. The developed process is useful for producing disposable microneedles for bio-medical applications.

  16. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy via a single-needle delivery system: Optimal conditions of ablation, pathological and ultrasonic changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Rong; Fang, Ling-Yun; Yu, Cheng; Sun, Zhen-Xing; Huang, Yan; Chen, Juan; Guo, Tao; Xiang, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Jing; Lu, Cheng-Fa; Yan, Tian-Wei; Lv, Qing; Xie, Ming-Xing

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the optimal conditions of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via a single-needle delivery system, and the ablation-related pathological and ultrasonic changes. Ultrasound (US)-guided LITT (EchoLaser system) was performed at the output power of 2-4 Wattage (W) for 1-10 min in ex vivo bovine liver. Based on the results of the ex vivo study, the output power of 3 and 4 W with different durations was applied to in vivo rabbit livers (n=24), and VX2 tumors implanted in the hind limbs of rabbits (n=24). The ablation area was histologically determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Traditional US and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were used to evaluate the treatment outcomes. The results showed: (1) In the bovine liver, ablation disruption was grossly seen, including a strip-like ablation crater, a carbonization zone anteriorly along the fiber tip, and a surrounding gray-white coagulation zone. The coagulation area, 1.2 cm in length and 1.0 cm in width, was formed in the bovine liver subjected to the ablation at 3 W for 5 min and 4 W for 4 min, and it extended slightly with the ablation time. (2) In the rabbit liver, after LITT at 3 W for 3 min and more, the coagulation area with length greater than or equal to 1.2 cm, and width greater than or equal to 1.0 cm, was found. Similar coagulation area was seen in the implanted VX2 carcinoma at 3 W for 5 min. (3) Gross examination of the liver and carcinoma showed three distinct regions: ablation crater/carbonization, coagulation and congestion distributed from the center outwards. (4) Microscopy revealed four zones after LITT, including ablation crater/carbonization, coagulation, edema and congestion from the center outwards. A large area with coagulative necrosis was observed around a vessel in the peripheral area with edema and hyperemia. (5) The size of coagulation was consistent well to the CEUS findings. It was concluded that EchoLaser system at low power can produce a coagulation area larger than 1.0 cm1.0 cm during a short time period. The real-time US imaging can be used to effectively guide and assess the treatment. PMID:26223931

  17. COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR COLLECTING INTERSTITIAL WATER FOR TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. e compared the concentration of pollutants in doses seawater before ...

  18. Field enhancement factor and field emission from a hemi-ellipsoidal metallic needle.

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, Evgeny G; Zhbanov, Alexander I; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2009-03-01

    We present an exact solution for the electrostatic field between a metallic hemi-ellipsoidal needle on a plate (as a cathode) and a flat anode. The basic idea is to replace the cathode by a linearly charged thread in a uniform electric field and to use a set of "image" charges to reproduce the anode. We calculate the field enhancement factor on the needle surface and ponderomotive force acting on the needle. Using the Fowler-Nordheim theory we obtain an exact analytical formula for the total current. PMID:19232831

  19. METAL-COLLOID PARTITIONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS: INFLUENCES OF SALINITY, PH AND COLLOIDAL ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better ...

  20. The emission characteristics of an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, R. I.

    1989-09-01

    Operational data for an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source are presented. Detailed comparisons are drawn between these characteristics and those of a similar gallium source. The behaviours of the two sources are found to be strikingly similar, indicating a common mechanism of ion emission.

  1. Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

  2. Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ? < 1?mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70?m on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

  3. Ultra-low contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Petr V.; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-08-07

    The ability to form reliable, low-resistance Ohmic contacts is of critical importance to the ongoing development of oxide electronics. Most metals form Schottky barriers when deposited on oxide surfaces. Ohmic contacts rarely occur, and the associated contact resistances are not particularly low. Little is known at an atomistic level about what leads to a good Ohmic contact on a wide-gap oxide. Here we describe the structure of a simple, yet exceptionally low-contact resistance Ohmic metal on an important oxide semiconductor -- epitaxial Cr on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001). Heteroepitaxial growth is accompanied by Cr diffusion into the STO and occupation of interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes. Interstitial Cr is ionized and the resulting electrons occupy the STO conduction band, resulting in effective metallization near the interface.

  4. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

  5. Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. )

    1992-01-01

    We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

  6. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical approaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus techniques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  7. Removal of maxillary sinus metallic foreign body like a hand sewing needle by magnetic iron.

    PubMed

    Shao, Linqin; Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app-roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech-niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route- carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  8. Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J.; Mahony, J.D.

    1996-12-01

    The authors investigated the utility of interstitial water concentrations of metals and simultaneously extracted metal/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to explain the biological availability of sediment-associated divalent metals to benthic organisms exposed in the laboratory to sediments from five saltwater and four freshwater locations in the US, Canada, and China. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita or the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were exposed to 70 sediments from the five saltwater locations, and the amphipod Hyalella azteca or the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to 55 sediments from four freshwater locations in 10-d lethality tests. Almost complete absence of toxicity in spiked sediments and field sediments where metals were the only known source of contamination and where interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs) were < 0.5 indicates that toxicity associated with sediments having SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 from two saltwater locations in industrial harbors was not metals-related as these sediments contained <0.5 IWTU. Metals-associated toxicity was absent in 100% of sediments from the remaining three saltwater field locations, where metals were the only known source of contamination and SEM/AVS ratios were {le} 1.0. Two-thirds of 45 sediments from seven saltwater and freshwater field locations having both IWTUs > 0.5 (55%) were used alone. The difference between the molar concentrations of SEM and AVS (SEM-AVS) can provide important insight into the extent of additional available binding capacity, the magnitude by which AVS binding has been exceeded, and, when organism response is considered, the potential magnitude of importance of other metal binding phases. SEM-AVS should be used instead of SEM/AVS ratios as a measure of metals availability. In published experiments with both metal-spiked and field sediments, SEM-AVS and IWTUs accurately identified absence of sediment toxicity and with less accuracy identified the presence of toxicity.

  9. Medical thoracoscopic removal of a metal needle from the pleural space.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; James, Prince; Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas

    2014-01-01

    Medical thoracoscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for management of pleural diseases. There have been case reports of removal of foreign bodies from pleural spaces with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia by thoracic surgeons. We present a case of successful removal of an 8?cm long metal needle from the pleural space with single port medical semirigid thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia by a chest physician. Removal of a foreign body from the pleural space is one more indication for medical thoracoscopy, however, an experienced chest physician and proper case selection are very important for safety and a successful outcome of this procedure. PMID:25301430

  10. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Interstitial Cystitis Overview What is interstitial cystitis? Interstitial cystitis is chronic inflammation of the bladder. People who have interstitial cystitis have a bladder ...

  11. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in patients without hard metal exposure: analysis of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoor, Andras; Roden, Anja C; Colby, Thomas V; Roggli, Victor L; Elrefaei, Mohamed; Alvarez, Francisco; Erasmus, David B; Mallea, Jorge M; Murray, David L; Keller, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a rare lung disease and is considered pathognomonic for hard metal lung disease, although some cases with no apparent hard metal (tungsten carbide cobalt) exposure have been reported. We aimed to explore the association between giant cell interstitial pneumonia and hard metal exposure. Surgical pathology files from 2001 to 2004 were searched for explanted lungs with the histopathologic diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and we reviewed the associated clinical histories. Mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and human leukocyte antigen typing data were evaluated. Of the 455 lung transplants, 3 met the histologic criteria for giant cell interstitial pneumonia. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old firefighter, patient 2 was a 58-year-old welder, and patient 3 was a 45-year-old environmental inspector. None reported exposure to hard metal or cobalt dust. Patients 1 and 2 received double lung transplants; patient 3 received a left single-lung transplant. Histologically, giant cell interstitial pneumonia presented as chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, alveolar macrophage accumulation, and multinucleated giant cells of both alveolar macrophage and type 2 cell origin. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed no cobalt or tungsten particles in samples from the explanted lungs. None of the samples had detectable tungsten levels, and only patient 2 had elevated cobalt levels. The lack of appropriate inhalation history and negative analytical findings in the tissue from 2 of the 3 patients suggests that giant cell interstitial pneumonia is not limited to individuals with hard metal exposure, and other environmental factors may elicit the same histologic reaction. PMID:26997453

  12. EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

  13. The Detection of Cold Dust in Cassiopeia A: Evidence for the Formation of Metallic Needles in the Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2004-06-01

    Ejecta from core-collapse supernovae contain a few solar masses of refractory elements and therefore can be the most important source of interstellar dust if these elements condense efficiently into solids. However, infrared observations of young supernova remnants, such as Cas A or Kepler, and observations of SN 1987A have detected only ~10-3 Msolar of hot dust in these objects. Recently, Dunne et al. obtained 450 and 850 ?m SCUBA images of Cas A and reported the detection of 2-4 Msolar of cold (18 K) dust in the remnant. Here we show that their interpretation of the observations faces serious difficulties. Their inferred dust mass ignores the effect of grain destruction by sputtering and is larger than the mass of refractory material in the ejecta of a 10-30 Msolar star. The cold dust model faces even more difficulties if the 170 ?m observations of the remnant are included in the analysis, which decreases the cold dust temperature to ~ 8 K and increases its mass to >~ 20 Msolar. We offer here a more plausible interpretation of their observation, in which the cold dust emission is generated by conducting needles in the ejecta. The needle properties are completely determined by the combined submillimeter and X-ray observations of the remnant. The needles are collisionally heated by the shocked gas. They are very efficient emitters at submillimeter wavelengths and, with a resistivity of a few ?? cm, can readily attain a temperature of 8 K. Taking the destruction of needles into account, a dust mass of only 10-4 to 10-3 Msolar is needed to account for the observed SCUBA emission. The needles consist of metallic whiskers with <~1% of embedded impurities, which may have condensed out of blobs of material that were expelled at high velocities from the inner metal-rich layers of the star in an asymmetric explosion. Conductive needles may also be the source of the cold dust emission detected by Morgan et al. in Kepler. When aligned in the magnetic field, needles may give rise to observable polarized emission. The detection of submillimeter polarization will therefore offer definitive proof for a needle origin for the cold dust emission. Supernovae may yet be proven to be important sources of interstellar dust, but the evidence is still inconclusive.

  14. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

    1988-03-01

    A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

  15. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.J.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S.; Mahony, J.D.; Robson, D.L.; Toro, D.M. di; Shipley, B.P.; Rogers, B.; Corbin, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dry weight concentrations of metals in sediments cannot be used to predict toxicity across sediments. However, several studies using sediments from both freshwater and saltwater have shown that interstitial water concentration or normalization involving acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) can be used to predict toxicity in sediments contaminated with cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc across a wide range of sediment types. Six separate experiments were conducted in which two or three sediments of varying AVS concentration were spiked with a series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, or zinc or a mixture of four of these metals. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita was then exposed to the sediments in 10-d toxicity tests. Amphipod mortality was sediment dependent when plotted against dry weight metals concentration but was not sediment dependent when plotted against simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS or interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs). Sediments with SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 were seldom toxic, while sediments with SEM/AVS ratios > 1.0 were frequently toxic. Similarly, sediments with < 0.5 IWTU were seldom toxic (3.0%), while sediments with > 0.5 IWTU were toxic 94.4% of the time. These results, coupled with results from related studies, demonstrate that an understanding of the fundamental chemical reactions which control the availability of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in sediments can be used to explain observed biological responses. The authors believe that using SEM/AVS ratios and IWTUs allows for more accurate predictions of acute mortality, with better casual linkage to metal concentration, than is possible with sediment evaluation tools which rely on dry weight metal concentrations.

  16. Metal-colloid partitioning in artificial interstitial waters of marine sediments: influences of salinity, pH, and colloidal organic carbon concentration.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, M G; Burgess, R M

    2001-11-01

    For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better predictors of bioavailability than sediment metal concentrations. In order to improve our understanding of metals bioavailability in sediments, it is essential to fully comprehend metal speciation. Colloidal organic carbon is ubiquitous in marine interstitial water and readily forms complexes with numerous dissolved metals, greatly reducing their bioavailability. Methods were applied to isolate dissolved and colloidal cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from interstitial waters using centrifugation and stirred cell ultrafiltration. Influences of salinity, pH, and colloidal carbon concentration on partitioning behavior were investigated. In the pH study, colloidal-dissolved partitioning of each metal (Kp) was observed to increase as pH rose. Conversely, in the salinity experiment, metal Kps declined as salinity increased. For the metal-organic colloid study, linear isotherms were calculated for each of the metals, resulting in log Kcocs ranging from 5.90 for zinc to 7.50 for copper. Kp values calculated from metal-spiked field sediments were in good agreement with those measured in the salinity study. These results provide insight into the behavior of metals associated with colloidal organic carbon in marine sediments under the conditions occurring in estuarine systems. PMID:11699764

  17. INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

  18. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rye-tus) is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. Interstitial nephritis reduces the kidneys ability to filter properly. Interstitial nephritis is a serious condition, but ...

  19. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  20. ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

  1. A first principles study of interstitial transition metals in the SrTiO3 bulk and at the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplestone, Steven; Sushko, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in oxide thin film deposition and growth have given a new momentum to the field of oxide electronics. For example, it was found that La-doped SrTiO3 shows high charge carrier mobilities and conductivity was observed near the interface with LaAlO3. However, forming low-resistance Ohmic metal/oxide constants has proven to be a challenge. Recently, the interface formed by a Cr film grown on SrTiO3 (001) surface has been shown to have such properties. This raises the question of whether Cr or another metal provides the lowest resistance possible. To this end, we perform ab initio calculations using the VASP package and the PBE and PBE+U functionals and examine the electronic properties of interstitial transition metal atoms (M) in the bulk SrTiO3 and near SrTiO3 (001) surface. We show that for surface doping, the variation in the formation energy linearly depends on the number of d-electrons in the valence shell of the M atoms. This contrasts with the formation energies of M atoms in the bulk SrTiO3, where no such trend is observed and, instead, the formation energy depends on the occupancy of the eg and t2g sub-bands. EPSRC grant EP/I009973/1

  2. Film and interstitial formation of metals in plasma-sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described to electrodeposit noble metals such as platinum and ordinary metals such as copper on and within plasma-sprayed ceramic materials and ceramic fiber materials. Low-density ceramic fiber bodies were vacuum impregnated with plating solution and attached to an electrode. Light micrographs illustrating the density and location of deposited materials are presented and discussed. Voids in the plasma-sprayed ceramic were filled with deposits that vary from spherical to lens-shaped circular and have particle size corresponding to the full range of void size. Multiple coatings of ceramic and metal can be sequenced.

  3. The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. . Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. ); Mahony, J.D. . Chemistry Dept.)

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

  4. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  5. Interstitial and intercalation chemistry of the double-metal-layered yttrium monochloride

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.E.; Corbett, J.D.; Hwu, S.J.

    1983-09-28

    The incorporation of guest impurity atoms is demonstrated in the chemistry of yttrium chloride(YCl). These new phases are all synthesized as black plates by stoichiometric reaction of metal powder or strips with the trichloride and M/sup I/Cl(M/sup I/ = lithium-cesium (LiCs)), chloride yttrium oxide (Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/), scandium chloride (ScCl), yttrium oxychloride (YOCl), or carbon (C) within sealed tantalum tubing at 950/sup 0/C for 1 to 3 weeks. The new phases are Li/sub 0/ /sub 09/YCl, ScClC/sub 0/ /sub 5/, M/sub 0/ /sub 1//sup I/YClO, and M/sub 0/ /sub 2//sup I/YClC/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The yields for all the compounds except Li/sub 0/ /sub 09/YCl are greater than 90%. The products are stable at high temperatures and well crystallized, in contrast to many reported intercalation compounds. The structure refinement is discussed. 1 figure.

  6. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros BV with AAPM TG43 dose calculation formalism in breast interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy with the use of metal catheters

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Reddy K, Sathyanarayana; Karunanidhi, Gunaseelan; Singhavajala, Vivekanandam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy for breast cancer includes different techniques and methods. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using TG-43 dose formalism and Varian Acuros BV (GBBS) dose calculation algorithm for interstitial implant of breast using metal catheters in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using 192Ir. Material and methods Twenty patients who were considered for breast conservative surgery (BCS), underwent lumpectomy and axillary dissection. These patients received perioperative interstitial HDR brachytherapy as upfront boost using rigid metal implants. Whole breast irradiation was delivered TG-43 after a gap of two weeks. Standard brachytherapy dose calculation was done by dosimetry. This does not take into account tissue heterogeneity, attenuation and scatter in the metal applicator, and effects of patient boundary. Acuros BV is a Grid Based Boltzmann Solver code (GBBS), which takes into consideration all the above, was used to compute dosimetry and the two systems were compared. Results Comparison of GBBS and TG-43 formalism on interstitial metal catheters shows difference in dose prescribed to CTV and other OARs. While the estimated dose to CTV was only marginally different with the two systems, there is a significant difference in estimated doses of starting from 4 to 53% in the mean value of all parameters analyzed. Conclusions TG-43 algorithm seems to significantly overestimate the dose to various volumes of interest; GBBS based dose calculation algorithm has impact on CTV, heart, ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral breast, skin, and ribs of the ipsilateral breast side; the prescription changes occurred due to effect of metal catheters, inhomogeneities, and scatter conditions. PMID:26622230

  7. Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatarenko, Valentine A.; Tsysman, Constantin L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Yelena T.

    1995-01-01

    The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC-60) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distortion relaxation of the host fullerene (C-60) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distortion field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. The given paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of static concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method(*). In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the static inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the 'average-lattice' sites' as well as on the lattice parameter a of a elastically-anysotropic 'cubic' C-60 crystal are taken into account.

  8. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  9. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the care ...

  10. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  11. Past, present, and future for surgical needles and needle holders.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Rodeheaver, G T

    1993-11-01

    During the last two decades, major advances in surgical needle and needle holder technology have markedly improved surgical wound repair. These advances include quantitative tests for surgical needle and needle holders performance, high nickel maraging stainless steels, compound curved needles, needle sharpening methods, laser-drilled holes for swages, needle:suture ratios of 1:1, and the atraumatic needle holder. PMID:8238747

  12. Surgical needle sharpness.

    PubMed

    Thacker, J G; Rodeheaver, G T; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1989-03-01

    We developed a standard reproducible test to determine surgical needle sharpness. This parameter was measured by recording the maximum force required to push a curved surgical needle through a thin laminated synthetic membrane. Three comparable groups of reversed cutting-edge needles were selected from different manufacturers for needle penetration testing. The results of this testing demonstrated that the needle diameter, manufacturing process, and the manufacturer were all important determinants of needle sharpness. Needles with a smaller diameter were sharper than those with a larger diameter. In addition, electrohoned or hand-honed needles were sharper than those subjected to only machine grinding. When comparably sized needles were compared, Ethicon manufactured the sharpest needles, followed by Davis & Geck and Deknatel needles. Scanning electron microscopic photographs and elemental analysis of the surgical needles could be correlated with their sharpness. The sharper needles had long, narrow cutting edge geometries compared with the short wide geometries of duller needles. The sharpest needles were fabricated from an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 45500 stainless steel alloy that has stronger tensile and yield strengths than those of ASTM 42000 and 42020 alloys used in the creation of the other needles. This stronger alloy allows the manufacturer to produce a longer, narrower cutting point geometry with reduced danger of either bending or breakage during surgery compared with needles made from weaker alloys (ASTM 42000 and ASTM 42020), which accounts for the superior sharpness of the Ethicon surgical needles. PMID:2919741

  13. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  17. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  18. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-min; Kim, Young-Kon

    2010-01-01

    Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations. PMID:19098297

  19. Investigations on bipolar radio-frequency current application for interstitial thermotherapy (RF-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Stein, Thomas; Tschepe, Johannes

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of radio-frequency current in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT). A short survey of established methods for interstitial tissue coagulation, e.g. the interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) and microwave exposure are given. In addition, a new concept for interstitial application of bipolar or quasi-bipolar radio- frequency alternating current is presented. Theoretical investigations of the electrical field distribution generated by a dipole model come together in the different mechanisms of heat generation by using radio-frequency alternating current. New concepts of bipolar or quasi- bipolar coaxial layered applicators are presented. This bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon to use a partial and homogeneous exposure of radio-frequency current for interstitial thermotherapy, e.g. for the treatment of BPH or for concha coagulation in ENT. Less power is needed due to the limited current exposition at the immediate operation site and a highly safe procedure is possible. Therefore, to determine the thermal damage of tissue, depending on the rf parameters, a computer model for a real-time simulation of the spatial electrical field distribution especially for a multiple probe application is currently being developed. This is an appropriate tool for dosimetry. A similar program for LITT, called LITCIT, developed at the Laser-Medizin-Zentrum Berlin has already shown its efficiency in clinical use. Furthermore the feasibility of a 'cross-over' applicator is discussed which combines ILP and rf-application by using metallized optical fibers for a simultaneous application of electrical energy and laser radiation.

  20. Directional metal-hydrogen bonding in interstitial hydrides. III. Structural study of ErCo{sub 3}D {sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}4.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Filinchuk, Y.E.; Yvon, K. . E-mail: klaus.yvon@cryst.unige.ch

    2006-04-15

    The ErCo{sub 3}-D{sub 2} system has been studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD) at 60 deg. C and 0-16 bar deuterium pressure. Two deuteride phases were identified, {beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.07-1.38} and {gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7-4.3}. They were structurally characterized at the compositions {beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.37} and {gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7} by high-resolution neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction. In contrast to the analogous nickel systems RNi{sub 3}-D{sub 2} (R=Er, Ho; see part I, J. Alloys and Compds. 404-406 (2005) 89-94, and part II, J. Alloys and Compds. 2005, in press), their structures preserve the symmetry of the parent alloy (PuNi{sub 3}-type, space group R-3m). Deuterium occupies mainly AB{sub 2} building blocks in the {beta}-phase, and AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5} building blocks in the {gamma}-phase. In the AB{sub 2} building blocks cobalt is surrounded by an average of 3.8 ({beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.37}) and 4.4 D-atoms ({gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7}) in disordered distorted octahedral configurations (point symmetry -3), in contrast to nickel that is surrounded by {approx}3 ({beta} {sub 1}- and {beta} {sub 2}-RNi{sub 3}D {sub x} , R=Er, Ho) and {approx}4 ({gamma}-ErNi{sub 3}D{sub 3.7}) D-atoms in disordered trigonal (pyramidal) and tetrahedral configurations, respectively (point symmetry 3). These results indicate that the D-atom distributions in this homologous series depend on the nature of the transition element rather than on geometric factors, and that directional bonding effects similar to those in non-metallic complex transition metal hydrides also prevail in metallic interstitial metal hydrides.

  1. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  2. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  3. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin and into the lining of the lungs and chest wall (pleural membrane). A larger, hollow needle is then placed gently through the skin into the chest cavity. Sometimes, the provider uses ultrasound or CT imaging to guide the needle. A ...

  4. Needle phobia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Searing, Kimberly; Baukus, Mary; Stark, Mary Ann; Morin, Karen H; Rudell, Barb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the experience of a pregnant woman with needle phobia and examine its impact on her antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum experience. A case study format was employed. A 21-year-old primiparous woman with diagnosed needle phobia was interviewed, and her prenatal and delivery records were reviewed. Three tasks during pregnancy were identified: seeking trusting relationships with health care providers; establishing and maintaining control and understanding; and coping with fear of needles, pain, and invasion. As frequent caregivers during childbearing, nurses with an understanding of needle phobia can help to establish trusting relationships with women with this phobia and support them and their families during childbearing and their encounters with needles. PMID:16958714

  5. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  6. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  7. Needle Federated Search Engine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  8. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  9. The needle necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, J C; Slater, D N; Parsons, M A

    1983-01-01

    The technique of limited necropsy by histological examination of needle tissue cores obtained percutaneously is indicated when a full necropsy is not justified owing to the risk of infection or when tissue for special investigations is needed soon after death without recourse to full necropsy facilities. The method is ideal for detecting conditions producing diffuse changes in an organ. Because the cadaver is preserved essentially intact relatives who refuse permission for a standard necropsy might consent to a needle necropsy if this option is offered to them. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6189546

  10. Evaluation of nonholonomic needle steering using a robotic needle driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Ding, Jeinan; Carignan, Craig; Krishnan, Karthik; Avila, Rick; Turner, Wes; Stoianovici, Dan; Yankelevitz, David; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Accurate needle placement is a common need in the medical environment. While the use of small diameter needles for clinical applications such as biopsy, anesthesia and cholangiography is preferred over the use of larger diameter needles, precision placement can often be challenging, particularly for needles with a bevel tip. This is due to deflection of the needle shaft caused by asymmetry of the needle tip. Factors such as the needle shaft material, bevel design, and properties of the tissue penetrated determine the nature and extent to which a needle bends. In recent years, several models have been developed to characterize the bending of the needle, which provides a method of determining the trajectory of the needle through tissue. This paper explores the use of a nonholonomic model to characterize needle bending while providing added capabilities of path planning, obstacle avoidance, and path correction for lung biopsy procedures. We used a ballistic gel media phantom and a robotic needle placement device to experimentally assess the accuracy of simulated needle paths based on the nonholonomic model. Two sets of experiments were conducted, one for a single bend profile of the needle and the second set of tests for double bending of the needle. The tests provided an average error between the simulated path and the actual path of 0.8 mm for the single bend profile and 0.9 mm for the double bend profile tests over a 110 mm long insertion distance. The maximum error was 7.4 mm and 6.9 mm for the single and double bend profile tests respectively. The nonholonomic model is therefore shown to provide a reasonable prediction of needle bending.

  11. Effects of interstitials on the transition metal sublattice anisotropy in YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}Z{sub x} (Z = H, N; x {approx} 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomey, E.; Fruchart, D.; Soubeyroux, J.L.; Gignoux, D.

    1994-03-01

    The effects of interstitial atoms in rare earth (R) intermetallic compounds are: strong increase in Curie temperature, weak increase of saturation magnetization and large influence in the Crystalline Electric Field (CEF) at the R atom. These effects are more remarkable in carbide and nitride compounds than in hydrides. In this paper the authors will show that additional effects concerning the transition metals (T) occur. In YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}, with ThMn{sub 12}-type structure, it is shown that the introduction of H or N leads, also to an increase of both the Curie temperature and Fe moment. The most remarkable effect is that whereas with hydrogen the authors observed an increase of the easy c-axis anisotropy, with nitrogen the anisotropy becomes easy plane.

  12. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  13. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN

  14. Interstitial hydrogen in vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, W. B.; Stavola, M.; Yin, Weikai; Qin, Ying; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-03-01

    It has long been recognized that VO2 has a monoclinic-to-rutile phase transition as the temperature increases through 340K, accompanied by a remarkable increase in conductivity from insulator to metal. Recently it has been found that interstitial hydrogen can modify both the structural and the electronic phase transition. The way hydrogen does this has only recently begun to be studied. We are using infrared spectroscopy to study the properties of Hi, and are also using the CRYSTAL06 code with hybridized DFT Hamiltonian to determine equilibrium positions and vibrational frequencies. IR spectroscopy finds several OH vibrational lines in hydrogenated VO2 samples. Within the monoclinic structure of VO2 there are four inequivalent sites for Hi which may lead to distinct spectroscopic signatures. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1160756.

  15. A new peridural needle-the 'LOLO' needle.

    PubMed

    Delima, L K; Delima, D F

    1989-04-01

    Peridural needles in present day use have a compromised function because of their circular cross section. An ideal peridural needle must be sharp to cut the spinal ligaments and at the same time blunt enough to ensure prevention of dural perforation. This ideal function is only possible if the bevel and tip of the needle are not inversely related as is the case in circular cross section needles. The 'LOLO' peridural needle developed by us is free of this compromise. It has a square cross section with a long, sharp eccentric tip. The bevel is flat and rectangular. The side opening is 4 mms from the tip of the needle through which the catheter is deflected out. Such a design is sharp to traverse the spinal ligaments and also effectively ensures dural tenting and prevent perforation. These properties have been proved by a myelographic study and compared to other conventional needles. PMID:2621665

  16. Robot-Assisted Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation. PMID:23028210

  17. Self-interstitial defects in hexagonal close packed metals revisited: Evidence for low-symmetry configurations in Ti, Zr, and Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrit, G.; Domain, C.; Fu, Chu-Chun; Gasca, P.; Legris, A.; Willaime, F.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to the eight conventional high-symmetry configurations for self-interstitials in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, we show that four other configurations, obtained by breaking the symmetry of some of the original ones, may be low-energy local minima or saddle points. The first two, BC' and C', consist of the basal crowdion and the crowdion buckled perpendicular to their axes in the pyramidal plane, respectively. The two others, PS and P2S, are obtained by rotating the c-axis split dumbbell in the prismatic plane of first and second type, respectively. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations we show that BC', C', and PS are within 0.4 eV of the lowest-energy conventional structure, BO, in Ti, Zr, and Hf. BC' could even be the lowest-energy configuration in hcp-Zr and its symmetry and possible reorientation mechanisms are compatible with internal friction measurements at variance with the conventional structures. The PS and C' configurations exhibit a helicoidal easy glide motion of the dumbbell-crowdion type in the c-axis direction. These configurations therefore constitute an important element to take into account when predicting the microstructural evolution of zirconium-based materials under irradiation.

  18. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ?0.5-0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  19. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ?0.50.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  20. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 ?m thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 ?m thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 05 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%44% if the clinician allows a urethral dose gradient volume of 05 mm around the urethra to receive a dose below the prescription. A multisource approach is necessary in order to deliver the proposed {sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT technique in reasonable treatment times.

  1. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Viero, R M; Cavallo, T

    1995-12-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare condition whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Of 203 renal biopsies performed between 1974 to 1994 in which interstitial nephritis was the predominant change, granulomata occurred in 12. The authors reviewed the records of these patients and performed immunopathologic and immunohistochemical studies in their biopsies to characterize the phenotype of infiltrating cells. The authors used markers for T cells, B cells, and macrophages, and determined whether they were activated through assessment of upregulation of HLA-DR molecules. Additionally, the authors attempted to delineate whether or not tubules contributed to giant cell formation through assessment of intermediate filament for keratins and macrophage markers in epithelioid cells. Drug (aspirin, gentamycin, or combination of drugs), infection (Echerichia coli or various organisms), and sarcoidosis accounted for granulomatous inflammation in three patients each, Wegener's granulomatosis and oxalosis resulting from intestinal bypass in one patient each, and in one patient the possible cause could not be determined. Except for biopsies of granulomatous inflammation resulting from infection, in which neutrophils predominated, in all other biopsies, T cells and macrophages made up most of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. HLA-DR was upregulated in mononuclear cells infiltrating the interstitium and was expressed in proximal tubular cells and endothelial cells in all but biopsies of patients with sarcoidosis. In no instance was there evidence that tubules contributed epithelial cells to giant cell formation. These findings are consistent with the notion that granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a cell-mediated form of tissue injury in which T cell-macrophage seem to play a major role. PMID:8522308

  2. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Altaykan, Asli; Erkin, Gl; Boztepe, Gonca; Gkz, Ayta

    2004-07-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon disorder. In its original description, the presence of linear inflammatory indurations on the lateral aspects of the trunk (the rope sign) in association with arthritis were considered the pathognomonic clinical features. Later cases presenting with plaques and papules have been reported. Herein we describe a case of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis without the rope sign. The present case supports the idea that interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis may have variable clinical appearances. PMID:15257555

  3. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  4. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River. PMID:11367025

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  7. Magnetic resonance-guided interstitial therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N. . E-mail: aviswanathan@partners.org; Cormack, Robert; Holloway, Caroline L.; Tanaka, Cynthia; O'Farrell, Desmond C.; Devlin, Phillip M.; Tempany, Clare

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and to describe the acute toxicity of a real-time intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR)-image guided interstitial approach to treating vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 to April 2005, 10 patients with recurrent endometrial cancer underwent MR-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Parameters evaluated included needle placement, dose-volume histograms (DVH), and complications. Results: Magnetic resonance-image guidance resulted in accurate needle placement. Tumor DVH values included median volume, 47 cc; V100, 89%; V150, 61%; V200, 38%; D90, 71 Gy; and D100, 60 Gy. DVH of organs at risk resulted in a median D2cc of external beam and brachytherapy dose (% of brachytherapy prescription): bladder, 75Gy{sub 3} (88%); rectum, 70Gy{sub 3} (87%); and sigmoid, 56Gy{sub 3} (41%). All patients experienced either a Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity related to the radiation; only 1 patient had Grade 3 toxicity. No toxicities were attributable to the use of MR guidance. Conclusions: Real-time MR guidance during the insertion of interstitial needles reduces the likelihood of an inadvertent insertion of the needles into the bladder and the rectum. Three-dimensional dosimetry allows estimation of the dose to organs at risk. Toxicities are limited.

  8. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  9. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  10. Needle Thoracotomy in Trauma.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Fay, Shmuel; Gendler, Sami; Klein, Yoram; Arkovitz, Marc; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2015-12-01

    Tension pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in trauma patients. Needle thoracotomy (NT) is the currently accepted first-line intervention but has not been well validated. In this review, we have critically discussed the evidence for NT procedure, re-examined the recommendations by the Advanced Trauma Life Support organization and investigated the safest and most effective way of NT. The current evidence to support the use of NT is limited. However, when used, it should be applied in the 2nd intercostal space at midclavicular line using a catheter length of at least 4.5 cm. Alternative measures should be studied for better prehospital management of tension pneumothorax. PMID:26633663

  11. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    SciTech Connect

    Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Pozzi, G.

    2014-07-14

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  12. [Needle tract implantation of thymoma after transthoracic needle biopsy].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Matsumura, A; Tanaka, H; Ohmori, K; Yamamoto, S; Iuchi, K

    2003-06-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of an anterior mediastinal mass. For definite diagnosis, needle biopsy was performed under ultrasonic examination. The histopathological diagnosis was thymoma and thymo-thymectomy was performed. The tumor recurred in the right anterior chest wall 10 years later. It is suggested that the thymoma tissue had been implanted in the needle tract. To our knowledge, this is the 2nd reported case of thymoma which has been implanted in the needle tract. PMID:12795148

  13. Protect Yourself, Protect Others: Safe Options for Home Needle Disposal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used needles should not be thrown in the garbage. Why are used needles dangerous? DON’T Used ... people ♦ Spread germs ♦ Throw loose needles in the garbage ♦ Flush used needles down the toilet ♦ Put needles ...

  14. Self-mutilation with needles.

    PubMed

    Peschel, O; Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W

    1997-04-01

    Two cases of self-mutilation with needles are reported. One of the deceased suffered from chronic schizophrenia and committed suicide by plastic bag suffocation. At autopsy several needles were detected grown into the connective tissue of chest or abdominal organs. In the other case a knitting needle was used for repeated manipulations at the forehead leading to a defect of the skin and the skull. At least one vessel was injured leading to an extensive haemorrhage in the left hemisphere of the brain. The forensic and etiologic aspects of the cases are discussed. PMID:9149514

  15. Characterization of interstitial hydrogen within metal clusters in Zr/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/H and ZrClO/sub x/H/sub y/ by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.J.; Ziebarth, R.P.; Corbett, J.D.; Gerstein, B.C.

    1988-08-03

    Solid-state NMR studies of hydrogen have been performed on samples of the cluster compound Zr/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/H that contained discernible amounts of the layered compound ZrClO/sub x/H/sub y/ (x + y less than or equal to 1). The hydrogen in Zr/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/H resonates at 600 ppm upfield from H/sub 2/O(1) at 298 K and shows a strong Curie-Weiss paramagnetic shift with temperature but no change in line width, consistent with hydrogen located within an odd-electron and paramagnetic Zr/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/H cluster. Total suppression of this resonance under MREV-8 pulse decoupling indicates that the hydridic species therein experiences random motion on a comparable time scale, in accord with the oversized Zr/sub 6/ metal cluster cavity available. These results are consistent with many other observations on other interstitial atoms in Zr/sub 6/ octahedral clusters and with the strong correlation of yield with the presence of H/sub 2/ in earlier syntheses of several Zr/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/ phases. The second hydrogen species observed exhibits a broad temperature-independent resonance with center of mass at -5.0 ppm. A variety of nuclear spin dynamic measurements indicate that the primary contributions to this signal come from pairs of hydride with /anti/d(H-H) = 2.5 /plus minus/ 0.2 /Angstrom/, and each of these protons interacts to a lesser degree with one or more chlorine atoms at a /anti/d(H-Cl) greater than or equal to 2.7 /Angstrom/. These parameters and the orientation of the principal axis of the H-H dipole interaction with respect to the shift tensor agree well with the known structure of ZrClO/sub x/H/sub y/. 34 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  16. [Interstitial Pneumonia and Emphysema].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Kato, Yuko; Ishii, Sachiyo

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative diseases of restrictive pulmonary dysfunction and obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. In the preoperative anesthesia clinic, anesthesiologists are frequently asked to assess the anesthesia management of patients with these diseases. In respiratory function tests, IP is detected as a decrease in % vital capacity (< 80%), and COPD as a decrease in % FEV1.0 (< 70%). Other key factors which affect the assessment are; 1) severity assessment that affects the safety of anesthesia management, 2) prognostic evaluation including the acute exacerbation in the postoperative period, and 3) patient-related factors (age, life degree of autonomy, other comorbidities, surgery-related factors, and anesthesia method). In the patients in the disease stage I or II, anesthesia management is relatively safe. On the other hand, the patients in the disease stage IV have no surgical indication except life-saving emergent situation. In another words, anesthesiologists are required to make the judgment for the anesthesia management of the patient in the disease stage III, based on the assessment of patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and prognosis. PMID:26466494

  17. Gurley Dip Needle Lake Superior Model with Case

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Also known as a Forrester's Compass or Miner's Compass, a dip (or dipping) needle is an instrument for measuring the intensity of the earth's magnetic field. It is used to locate buried or hidden metal. Manufactured by W. & L.E. Gurley, Troy, New York. Object ID: USGS-000345...

  18. A practical MRI-based reconstruction method for a new endocavitary and interstitial gynaecological template

    PubMed Central

    Richart, Jose; Otal, Antonio; Rodriguez, Silvia; Nicols, Ana Isabel; DePiaggio, Marina; Santos, Manuel; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There are perineal templates for interstitial implants such as MUPIT and Syed applicators. Their limitations are the intracavitary component deficit and the necessity to use computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning since both applicators are non-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibles. To overcome these problems, a new template named Template Benidorm (TB) has been recently developed. Titanium needles are usually reconstructed based on their own artifacts, mainly in T1-weighted sequence, using the void on the tip as the needle tip position. Nevertheless, patient tissues surrounding the needles present heterogeneities that complicate the accurate identification of these artifact patterns. The purpose of this work is to improve the titanium needle reconstruction uncertainty for the TB case using a simple method based on the free needle lengths and typical MRI pellets markers. Material and methods The proposed procedure consists on the inclusion of three small A-vitamin pellets (hyperintense on MRI images) compressed by both applicator plates defining the central plane of the plate's arrangement. The needles used are typically 20 cm in length. For each needle, two points are selected defining the straight line. From such line and the plane equations, the intersection can be obtained, and using the free length (knowing the offset distance), the coordinates of the needle tip can be obtained. The method is applied in both T1W and T2W acquisition sequences. To evaluate the inter-observer variation of the method, three implants of T1W and another three of T2W have been reconstructed by two different medical physicists with experience on these reconstructions. Results and conclusions The differences observed in the positioning were significantly smaller than 1 mm in all cases. The presented algorithm also allows the use of only T2W sequence either for contouring or reconstruction purposes. The proposed method is robust and independent of the visibility of the artifact at the tip of the needle. PMID:26622248

  19. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment Treatment for ILD is based ... performance, improving emotional well-being and reducing hospitalizations. Lung Transplant If other therapies fail to adequately treat ...

  20. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  1. Declining interstitial transsudation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarchin, P.; Lagneaux, D.; Lecomte, J.

    1980-01-01

    Results and methodology of experimentation dealing with declining interstitial transsudation are discussed. Concepts of the formation of interstitial fluids are in agreement with measurements of calf volume in normal young women, in horizontal recumbency or after horizontal immersion. The volume of the calf is reduced when the hydrostatic pressure of the blood column is diminished under the phlebostatic level and when the external pressure is increased by the hydrostatic pressure of a water bath.

  2. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  3. Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-12-01

    For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  4. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at {minus}55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  5. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  6. The ACUSITT ultrasonic ablator: the first steerable needle with an integrated interventional tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Rucker, D. Caleb; Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.; Croom, Jordon M.; Clarke, Clyde; Stolka, Philipp; Juang, Titania; Boctor, Emad M.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2010-03-01

    Steerability in percutaneous medical devices is highly desirable, enabling a needle or needle-like instrument to avoid sensitive structures (e.g. nerves or blood vessels), access obstructed anatomical targets, and compensate for the inevitable errors induced by registration accuracy thresholds and tissue deformation during insertion. Thus, mechanisms for needle steering have been of great interest in the engineering community in the past few years, and several have been proposed. While many interventional applications have been hypothesized for steerable needles (essentially anything deliverable via a regular needle), none have yet been demonstrated as far as the authors are aware. Instead, prior studies have focused on model validation, control, and accuracy assessment. In this paper, we present the first integrated steerable needle-interventional device. The ACUSITT integrates a multi-tube steerable Active Cannula (AC) with an Ultrasonic Interstitial Thermal Therapy ablator (USITT) to create a steerable percutaneous device that can deliver a spatially and temporally controllable (both mechanically and electronically) thermal dose profile. We present our initial experiments toward applying the ACUSITT to treat large liver tumors through a single entry point. This involves repositioning the ablator tip to several different locations, without withdrawing it from the liver capsule, under 3D Ultrasound image guidance. In our experiments, the ACUSITT was deployed to three positions, each 2cm apart in a conical pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of ablating large liver tumors 7cm in diameter without multiple parenchyma punctures.

  7. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 79 ??, - 463 51 ?? and - 431 59 ?? for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  8. Outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial cervical brachytherapy: barriers and solutions to implementation of a successful programme a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Poh Wee; Koh, Vicky Y.

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of parametrial disease in locally advanced cervical patients poses a challenge for women undergoing brachytherapy. Current use of the Fletcher suit applicator may not adequately cover the high risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), especially in the parametrial region due to the physical qualities of brachytherapy from the inverse square law and the need to respect organs at risk (OAR) constraints, and leads to lower local control rates. Combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy with the use of 1 or 2 interstitial needles allows adequate coverage of the HR CTV and the clinical evidence have demonstrated a correlation with better clinical results. This procedure is often resource intensive, requiring inpatient stay and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) planning. In departments where such resources are limited, there is a poor uptake of interstitial brachytherapy. This article discusses the technique of combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy in an outpatient setting, and explores the issues and barriers for implementation and suggestions to overcome such barriers. PMID:26207117

  9. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  10. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Mrkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  11. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  12. [Pulmonary biopsy in interstitial pneumopathies].

    PubMed

    Kuffer, T; Kapanci, Y

    1981-12-01

    1119 pulmonary biopsies (two thirds open) have been performed in 108 patients with signs of diffuse interstitial disease of the lung. The results showed 29 cases of fibrosing alveolitis, 4 of granulomatous alveolitis, 8 of diffuse interstitial fibrosis, 12 of eosinophilic granuloma, 12 of pneumoconiosis, 16 of sarcoidosis, and 38 with other pulmonary lesions. Biopsy via thoracotomy is the best diagnostic technique, with a 97.4% yield; with transparietal biopsies the yield is 81% and with transbronchial biopsies 60%. Histology permits exact diagnosis in all pneumopathies except fibrosing alveolitis. In this case the pathologist guides the clinician's investigations towards a search for an allergic etiology. PMID:6977183

  13. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  14. Two case reports of retained steel insulin pump infusion set needles.

    PubMed

    Plager, Phillip; Murati, Michael A; Moran, Antoinette; Sunni, Muna

    2016-03-01

    Insulin pumps are common in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We report two cases of metal insulin infusion set needles which broke off the tubing and remained embedded in the soft tissue of two boys with T1D (five needles in one case, and one needle in the other). The patient with five retained needles was asymptomatic and had a normal physical examination, and the missing needles were only detected using pelvic X-ray; the second patient had only mild discomfort. While these are the first such cases reported in the medical literature, there may be other cases which have gone unnoticed, suggesting the potential need to explore the safety of this product further. PMID:25683199

  15. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  16. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  17. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  18. Drug-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Interstitial pneumonia usually develops gradually. The signs and symptoms are non-specific, and generally include dyspnea, cough, fatigue, and weight loss. In other cases onset is acute, sometimes beginning with a flu-like syndrome. Interstitial pneumonia can lead to acute respiratory failure, sometimes gradual deterioration of respiratory function, and pulmonary fibrosis progressing to respiratory failure. The fibrosis does not regress when the causal factor is withdrawn. (2) There are numerous causes of interstitial pneumonia, including medicinal drugs. (3) Amiodarone generally induces slow and insidious lung disease. (4) Methotrexate induces lung disease. Most cytotoxic drugs cause chronic dose-dependent lung disease and fibrosis, in some cases long after treatment cessation. (5) The many other implicated drugs include nitrofurantoin, Nonsteroidal antiandrogens, drugs that induce connective tissue diseases, laxatives based on mineral oil, and many other drugs, some of which are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions. (6) In practice, a drug-related cause should be kept in mind in cases of interstitial pneumonia, as symptoms generally improve after drug withdrawal, unless fibrosis has already started to develop. PMID:18516814

  19. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  20. Red needles signify dying pines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Reddish, dry needles are a sign of dying trees infested with mountain pine beetles.  Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  6. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A.; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  7. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  8. Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-12-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

  9. Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nomden, Christel N.; Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS{sub clinical}) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC{sub study}). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1-6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4-35%) and 7% (range, 2-14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC{sub study} and the IC/IS{sub clinical} were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10}, respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic resonance imaging-guided (pre)treatment planning with the IC/IS Utrecht applicator.

  10. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-04-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

  11. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  12. Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boeun; Balavenkataraman, Arvind; Sanghavi, Devang; Walter, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness. PMID:26029579

  13. Pulmonary gas conducting interstitial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Gunnar; Jorulf, Hkan; Farkas, rpd; Eden-Strindberg, Jerker; Gennser, Mikael; Jkay, gnes; Krebsz, dm

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing efforts oriented towards revealing different aspects of emphysema, the persistence of the emphysematous or emphysema-like changes (ELCs) is not explored yet in the open literature. In this study we demonstrate the persistence of an ELC for 22 years in a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) patient which indicates a hitherto unknown gas supply to the ELC. For this purpose we used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images processed into three-dimensional (3D) geometry. By the same token, not only a long persistence but also the volume increase of this ELC between 2002 and 2010 was demonstrated. The 3D geometry visualized an aerated interstitial structure between the sites of supposed gas leakage at the wall of the third generation airways and the ELC. This potential gas conducting interstitial pathway is not a continuation and has neither the form nor the structure of a bronchus. The finding suggests that in this patient the intrabronchial gas passes through the bronchial wall and via a gas conducting interstitial pathway reaches the ELC. Despite the availability of the presently employed techniques for at least 15 years, such case and phenomenon have not been described previously. The retrieval of the patient suggests that the findings could be relevant for a considerable proportion of the population. PMID:26500785

  14. Pulmonary gas conducting interstitial pathway.

    PubMed

    Bense, Lszl; Eklund, Gunnar; Jorulf, Hkan; Farkas, rpd; Eden-Strindberg, Jerker; Gennser, Mikael; Jkay, gnes; Krebsz, dm

    2015-10-01

    In spite of the growing efforts oriented towards revealing different aspects of emphysema, the persistence of the emphysematous or emphysema-like changes (ELCs) is not explored yet in the open literature. In this study we demonstrate the persistence of an ELC for 22 years in a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) patient which indicates a hitherto unknown gas supply to the ELC. For this purpose we used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images processed into three-dimensional (3D) geometry. By the same token, not only a long persistence but also the volume increase of this ELC between 2002 and 2010 was demonstrated. The 3D geometry visualized an aerated interstitial structure between the sites of supposed gas leakage at the wall of the third generation airways and the ELC. This potential gas conducting interstitial pathway is not a continuation and has neither the form nor the structure of a bronchus. The finding suggests that in this patient the intrabronchial gas passes through the bronchial wall and via a gas conducting interstitial pathway reaches the ELC. Despite the availability of the presently employed techniques for at least 15 years, such case and phenomenon have not been described previously. The retrieval of the patient suggests that the findings could be relevant for a considerable proportion of the population. PMID:26500785

  15. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  16. Dry needling peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  17. Combined external and interstitial irradiation in the treatment of stage III breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Puthawala, A.A.; Syed, A.M.N.; Sheikh, K.M.; Gowdy, R.A.; McNamara, C.S.

    1984-12-01

    One hundred six patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the breast underwent definitive radiation therapy for loco-regional control following incisional and/or needle biopsy. Doses of external and interstitial irradiation were 5000 rad (50 Gy) in 5 to 6 weeks, and 3000 to 4000 rad (30-40 Gy) in 60 to 80 hours, respectively. Forty-eight of 106 patients (45%) also received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Loco-regional control was observed in 93 of the 106 patients (88%), with five-year disease-free survival of 47%. Distant metastases developed in 59 of the 106 patients (56%). Good to satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in the majority of these patients; morbidity was at an acceptable level. Locally advanced breast cancer can be treated adequately and satisfactorily without mastectomy by a combination of external and interstitial irradiation.

  18. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  19. Docetaxel-related interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Jen; Chang, Hou-Tai; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel (Taxotere) is an agent that is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. In recent years, docetaxel-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported in several case series studies. The onset of ILD occurred ~1020 days (median time: 18 days) after docetaxel administration. Here, we reported the case of a patient who had pulmonary toxicity of ILD within 3 days after using a relatively low-dose docetaxel administration. Although some articles have described patients who progressed to respiratory failure and needed intubation, this patient responded well to steroid treatment and discontinued docetaxel administration. PMID:26677333

  20. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  1. Fiberglass needle electrodes for transmural cardiac mapping.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jack M; Melnick, Sharon B; Huang, Jian

    2002-12-01

    We developed a new method for fabricating plunge needle electrodes for use in cardiac mapping. The needles have 12 electrodes with 1-mm spacing, are 0.5 mm in diameter, and are fabricated from fiberglass reinforced epoxy. They are stiff enough to be easily inserted into beating hearts and durable enough to be reused many times. We found that these new needles elicit smaller, more quickly resolving injury potentials, and when inserted in a row with 2-mm spacing, disrupt ventricular fibrillation activation patterns less than traditional steel needles. PMID:12549747

  2. How needless are Buffon's needles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovi?, Milo; Babovi?, Vukota

    2013-05-01

    The study of statistical physics requires introductory preparation regarding probability theory. Understanding its fundamental concepts (randomness, distributions, fluctuations), and some experience in application of the basic concepts of statistics can be obtained in several ways. We found that the basic training in probability and statistics needed for physics and engineering study can be achieved by focusing on Buffon's needle problem. We believe this approach could help university specialists make study more efficient when probability and statistics play an important role. Buffon's experiment, with its convincing simplicity and flexibility, as well as its attractiveness, is in our opinion a useful tool in physics education at university level.

  3. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    PubMed

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

  4. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  5. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  6. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  7. Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional n...

  8. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  9. Split interstitials in computer models of single-crystal and amorphous copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konchakov, R. A.; Khonik, V. A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of interstitial atoms in a dumbbell configuration on elastic moduli of single crystal copper has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that shear components of the dipole tensor and ?-tensor increase when the concentration of split interstitials exceeds 0.6-0.7%. This is associated with their interaction responsible for a significant change in the distribution of orientations of split interstitials and, hence, for a change in the type of the induced local symmetry breakings of the face-centered cubic structure. It has been found that, in the model of amorphous copper, there are "defects" (elastic dipoles) with properties similar to those of split interstitials in the single crystal. The deviatoric component of their ?-tensor is more than an order of magnitude greater than the dilatation component and is responsible for the decreased value of the shear modulus and thermal effects in noncrystalline metallic materials.

  10. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. Main conclusions: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

  11. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme MayJune drought. Main conclusions These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summerautumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Littles (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Baileys (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

  12. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

  13. Severe needle phobia in the perianesthesia setting.

    PubMed

    Bamgbade, Olumuyiwa A

    2007-10-01

    Needle phobia is a peculiar type of specific phobia, with unique clinical features, that may be encountered in some surgical patients. It may present a serious acute problem to the perianesthesia care team and requires careful psychological and/or pharmacological management. This article provides a clinical report and detailed discussion of severe needle phobia in the perianesthesia setting. PMID:17900504

  14. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  15. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  16. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS

  17. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site) on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y. K.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site. PMID:24159337

  18. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom. PMID:26545874

  19. Interstitial phase of thallium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.P.; Lyons, J.; Gelezunas, V.; Eugene, J.; McColgan, S.; Swan, L.; Karlsberg, R.

    1984-01-01

    Tl-201 an analog of potassium (K/sup +/) does not rigidly parallel K/sup +/ kinetics. Because of the dissimilarity to K/sup +/, the authors studied the second to second change of Tl-201 concentration in the myocardium from central and peripheral injections. The heart was exposed by a left thoracotomy in 13 dogs (20-25 Kg). A 2-5 mCi bolus of Xe-133 in saline was injected through a PE 50 catheter positioned in the proximal LAD and washout recorded with a silicon avalanche radiation detector to measure myocardial perfusion from a small volume (0.5 cm/sup 3/). In 8 dogs 0.5 to 1.5 mCi Tl-201 was injected into the LAD and concentration measured serially. One dog was injected with 1.12 mCi Tl-201 into the left atrial appendage and four received 1-2.4 mCi peripherally I.V. All Tl-201 curves were multiexpotential. The first 20 seconds looked like a washout curve of an interstitial diffusable indicator regardless of the route of injection. Xenon washout curves had essentially the same slope. The Tl-201 curve later became more typical of an intracellular cation. Since the initial slope correlated with blood flow, it resulted in greater initial clearance of the Tl-201 bolus with a poor correlation of the later concentration of Tl-201 and localized myocardial perfusion. A possible explanation for the difference between Tl-201 and K/sup +/ is Tl-201 initially behaves more as a diffusable interstitial agent. While Tl-201 demonstrates areas of reduced flow since no flow means no delivery of radiotracer, it may be less useful in measuring differential flow with increased perfusion.

  20. Ossicular Injury Caused by A Knitting Needle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amritpal; Kaur, Maninder

    2013-01-01

    Ossicular chain injury is a complication of trauma caused to temporal bone, but rarely, it can also occur due to direct trauma caused to ossicular chain by a penetrating injury. Patients usually suffering from conductive hearing loss and vertigo, although a facial nerve injury is also a possibility. We are describing here a case of young male who presented with a penetrating trauma to the left ear, caused by a metallic knitting needle, that resulted in ossicular chain disruption. The patient suffered from severe vertigo and conductive hearing loss. He was advised complete bed rest and vertin for controlling vertigo, after which he recovered. Computed tomography is the investigation of choice for detecting and characterizing such injuries, for proper management of patients. Penetrating middle ear trauma differs from blunt trauma, as the mechanism of injury is distinct. The injury is usually isolated and an urgent repair may be needed. Hearing results after an immediate or a delayed ossiculoplasty are apparently satisfying, although late cases are assumed to be associated with adhesions or fibrosis. PMID:24551716

  1. Ossicular injury caused by a knitting needle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Kaur, Maninder

    2013-12-01

    Ossicular chain injury is a complication of trauma caused to temporal bone, but rarely, it can also occur due to direct trauma caused to ossicular chain by a penetrating injury. Patients usually suffering from conductive hearing loss and vertigo, although a facial nerve injury is also a possibility. We are describing here a case of young male who presented with a penetrating trauma to the left ear, caused by a metallic knitting needle, that resulted in ossicular chain disruption. The patient suffered from severe vertigo and conductive hearing loss. He was advised complete bed rest and vertin for controlling vertigo, after which he recovered. Computed tomography is the investigation of choice for detecting and characterizing such injuries, for proper management of patients. Penetrating middle ear trauma differs from blunt trauma, as the mechanism of injury is distinct. The injury is usually isolated and an urgent repair may be needed. Hearing results after an immediate or a delayed ossiculoplasty are apparently satisfying, although late cases are assumed to be associated with adhesions or fibrosis. PMID:24551716

  2. Energetics of Oxygen Interstitials in Cr and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.; Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen in group IIIA-VA (Nb, Ti, Zr, Y) based alloys is a fundamental problem, affecting both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance, yet details of the phenomenon are poorly understood. In these alloys, oxygen is more stable dissolved in the metal than as an oxide-compound. In contrast, alloys based on Ni, Fe, Al and Cr exhibit almost no oxygen solubility. To improve the performance of Nb and Ti based alloys it is necessary to understand the differences in oxygen solubility between these two groups of metals. As a first step we considered the energetics of interstitial oxygen in alpha-V and alpha-Cr. Both of these metals have a BCC structure, yet the oxygen solubility in V is much higher than that in Cr. We obtain total energies, densities of states and population analyses using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential density functional computer code. The differences in the energetics and electronic structures of the two materials, particularly the partial densities of states associated with the interstitial oxygen, are discussed.

  3. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  4. Needle exchange programs and drug infection behavior.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS prevalence, fixed effects for cities and years and city-specific time trends, the model indicates that the presence of a NEP is associated with declines of 13 percent in drug injection and 20 percent in needle sharing among drug injectors. PMID:15973795

  5. Intracranial sewing needles: Review of 13 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Abbassioun, K; Ameli, N O; Morshed, A A

    1979-01-01

    Three new cases of intracranial sewing needles are reported and are reviewed with 10 other published cases. These needles must have been introduced in infancy before the closure of fontanelles. The intention, at least in most cases, has been infanticide. Except in one case which the mother reported and two cases found at necropsy, the others were diagnosed by skull radiography. Headache and epilepsy were the main symptoms and they often appeared when the patient had reached adulthood. Removal of the needles lessened the symptoms. Images PMID:501369

  6. [Design thinking and clinical basic operation rules of the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Bao, Shou-qian

    2009-03-01

    Shu-needle therapy is a transcutaneous, close and micro-traumatic treatment technique founded on the basis of the theoretical system and the treatment thought of TCM acupuncture eye surgery. This therapy uses the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy of original creation to relieve pressure, relieve tension, relieve spasm, relieve rigid, etc. for chronic pain, and achieves unique clinical therapeutic effects, and it originally creates the diagnostic and therapeutic system of special acupoint selection for human chronic pain and difficult diseases of the vegetable nerves and important treatment rules, in combination with modern medicine. Shu-needle therapy mixes TCM surgery with the cream of other special acupuncture therapies, and it is a new development and supplement of special needling therapies such as small needle knife, etc. and traditional acupuncture treatment. PMID:19358512

  7. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

  8. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  9. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  10. High-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (HF-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-05-01

    For a minimally invasive treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology (ENT), next to the laser- induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) or the monopolar HF- surgery the interstitial thermotherapy with high-frequency alternating current (HF-ITT) in bipolar technique is a good alternative. Investigation results are presented which prove the feasibility and show the performance of this technique. Bipolar needles of different geometries, adapted to the various application fields, such as palliative treatment of metastatic carcinomas in liver and concha hyperplasia, were built and tested. Basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. The efficiency of the developed applicators were examined in in vitro experiments with porcine liver, turkey breast and porcine concha. Coagulation volumes of different needle diameters and power settings are show. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through integrated flushing ports and thus the performance is increased. For the treatment of concha hyperplasia special designs are presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode permits the surgeon the use of a partial application of high frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that it is not necessary to fix the neutral electrode to the patient. Thus an easy to handle and a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  11. Interstitial computing : utilizing spare cycles on supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, Scott Harvey; Kleban, Stephen David

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of utilizing unused cycles on supercomputers through the use of many small jobs. What we call 'interstitial computing,' is important to supercomputer centers for both productivity and political reasons. Interstitial computing makes use of the fact that small jobs are more or less fungible consumers of compute cycles that are more efficient for bin packing than the typical jobs on a supercomputer. An important feature of interstitial computing is that it not have a significant impact on the makespan of native jobs on the machine. Also, a facility can obtain higher utilizations that may only be otherwise possible with more complicated schemes or with very long wait times. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides theoretical and empirical guidelines for users and administrators for how currently unused supercomputer cycles may be exploited. We find that that interstitial computing is a more effective means for increasing machine utilization than increasing native job run times or size.

  12. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  13. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  14. Intracranial sewing needles in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Kazanci, Atilla; Ozdemir, Halil Ibrahim; Kazanci, Burak; Kazanci, Dilek Ozturk; Er, Uygur

    2012-01-01

    A 37-year-old patient is reported with intracranial sewing needles, which were located in the right frontal lobe. Both clinical and radiological findings suggested that these needles must have been introduced in infancy before the closure of anterior fontanelle during an unsuccessful homicide. Usually intracranial foreign objects are placed due to penetrating trauma or surgical procedures. Child abuse has been known for centuries. Many types of physical traumas have been reported, especially in Western countries. In Iran, insertion of sewing needles into the brain aiming to kill the infant have been seen in a lot of cases. This situation takes part in a lot of Persian stories. We reported a 37-year-old man who had 2 intracranial sewing needles with unknown etiology. PMID:23208913

  15. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  16. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  17. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  18. An inexpensive method of improving visualisation of the needle tip in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

    PubMed

    Laine, H R; Rainio, J

    1993-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histological biopsy have often been used to determine the nature of tumours. If the tumour is impalpable and situated deep inside an organ, obtaining the correct specimen requires the needle tip to penetrate into the tumour. To solve this problem we roughened the surface of the needle tip using a sterile ampoule file just before FNAB. We have tested out this method by using 1) a water bath and 2) meat in aspic as an intermediate material. The results indicate that roughening the needle tip improves the visualization. Roughening is the cheapest method and can be performed just before the FNAB. PMID:8323236

  19. Spermiophages on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology: A rare finding.

    PubMed

    Jashnani, Kusum; Desai, Heena; Shetty, Jyothi

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages usually reside in the testicular interstitial tissues and are normally not found within the seminiferous tubules. However, in certain cases of male infertility, the macrophages are activated and can then be found within the tubules where they can ingest spermatozoa and are labeled as "spermiophages." FNAC was performed in a 36 year male with history of primary infertility. On microscopy, smears made from right testis were indicative of hypospermatogenesis. On the contrary, smears made from the left testis were very cellular showing Sertoli cells and the entire spectrum of normal spermatogenesis. Also seen were many isolated spermiophages. The cytological impression given for the left testis was normal spermatogenesis with numerous spermiophages. Thus the patient fell in the category of obstructive azoospermia (OA). According to currently adopted hypothesis, macrophages carry ingested sperm heads with some antigenic components to the basal capillaries which may result in the formation of autoantibodies against the spermatozoa. This situation may further diminish the chances of fertility in men. The origin of these spermiophage cells is unknown. Although commonly reported in semen and epididymal biopsies, they have not been reported to occur on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In our case, no sperms were found on semen examination which were easily picked up on testicular FNAC indicating usefulness of the latter in the diagnosis of cases of male infertility and eliminating the need for a testicular biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:232-234. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875595

  20. Preliminary work of a smart needling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kaiguo; Liu, Tien-I.; Ling, Keck Voon; Yu, Yan; O'Dell, Walter; Sing, Ng Wan

    2005-04-01

    Precise needle placement is vital for the success of a wide variety of percutaneous surgical procedures. Insertions into soft tissues can be difficult to learn and to perform, due to tissue deformation, needle deflection and limited visual feedback. Little quantitative information is known about the interaction between needles and soft tissues during puncture. We are carrying out a "smart needling" project in which a fairly long, but slender biopsy needle will be controlled to hit the target that is inside human body, automatically and precisely. This paper reports the preliminary work which is to prove that translational oscillation of the needle can reduce target movement, and at the same time to find the optimal settings of the important factors that will produce the least target movement. The experiment platform comprises of an oscillatory needle restricted to translate horizontally. A position-trackable catheter was embedded in the phantom to act as the target. Two-Level factorial design was adopted and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) approach was used for analysis. The final results showed that oscillation at high frequency band from 2kHz to 20kHz can reduce target movement. Translation speed, oscillation frequency and amplitude are all important factors. But phantoms with different elasticities may have different best settings of these factors. For example, for soft phantoms, lower frequency, higher speed and smaller amplitude are desired for minimal target movement. Optimization searching engine will be designed correspondingly to control the needle in optimal working conditions that can produce minimal target movement.

  1. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  2. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  3. [The origin and development of fire needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Jin; Huang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chu-Yun

    2013-05-01

    By reading ancient acupuncture-moxibustion literature, the authors expound the origin and development of fire needle therapy from its sprout, development and mature stage, reveal the origin of fire needle, development of needling instrument and manipulation methods, indications of fire needle therapy and so on, in order to have a better learning on fire needle therapy and make it applicative in clinic. PMID:23885626

  4. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. Methods One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. Results By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. Conclusions IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with “early IC” because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs. PMID:26816860

  5. Segregation of Mn2+ Dopants as Interstitials in SrTiO3 Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Kotula, Paul G.; Sato, Yukio; Chi, Miaofang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-10-03

    Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to substitute Ti in bulk SrTiO3, but Mn2+ segregates inside grain boundaries at both Sr and interstitial sites. Mn interstitial doping has never been reported, but is found possible with the formation of Sr vacancies. This finding is significantly different from the amphoteric doping of Mn2+ substituting Sr and Mn4+ substituting Ti sites, therefore leads to different understanding on the defect mediated electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped perovskites.

  6. Incidence and severity of Arcanobacterium pyogenes injection site abscesses with needle or needle-free injection.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Bryce M; Houser, Terry A; Hollis, Larry C; Tokach, Michael D; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Higgins, James J; Anderson, Gary A; Goehring, Brandon L

    2012-12-01

    Nursery-age pigs (n=198) were used to evaluate the difference in abscess formation at needle-free jet and conventional needle-and-syringe injection sites. Needle-free jet injection was used to administer injections in the neck and ham on one side of the animal whereas needle-and-syringe was used for neck and ham injections on the opposite side. Immediately prior to injection, the injection site surfaces were contaminated with an inoculum of Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Each pig was humanely euthanized 27 or 28 days after injections. Histopathological results showed that needle-free jet injection was associated with more abscesses than needle-and-syringe injection at both neck (P=0.0625) and ham (P=0.0313) injection sites. Out of 792 injection sites, only 13 abscesses were observed, with 12 of those present at needle-free jet injection sites. Needle-free jet injection may increase the occurrence of injection site abscesses that necessitate carcass trimming at pork processing plants. PMID:22854129

  7. Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

    2009-02-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

  8. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  9. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFR?+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFR?+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  10. Brain interstitial fluid TNF-? after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hanafy, Khalid A.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Fernandez, Luis; Kurtz, Pedro; Connolly, ES; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schindler, Christian; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective: TNF-? is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in promoting the cascade of events leading to an inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-? may play a key role in the formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and that the underlying cerebral inflammatory response is a major determinate of outcome following subrarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We studied 14 comatose SAH patients who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring with intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral microdialysis as part of their clinical care. Continuous physiological variables were time-locked every 8 hours and recorded at the same point that brain interstitial fluid TNF-? was measured in brain microdialysis samples. Significant associations were determined using generalized estimation equations. Results: Each patient had a mean of 9 brain tissue TNF-? measurements obtained over an average of 72 hours of monitoring. TNF-? levels rose progressively over time. Predictors of elevated brain interstitial TNF-? included higher brain interstitial fluid glucose levels (?=0.066, P<0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (?=0.085, P<0.021), and aneurysm size >6 mm (?=0.14, p<0.001). There was no relationship between TNF-? levels and the burden of cisternal SAH; concurrent measurements of serum glucose, or lactate-pyruvate ratio. Interpretation: Brain interstitial TNF-? levels are elevated after SAH, and are associated with large aneurysm size, the burden of intraventricular blood, and elevation brain interstitial glucose levels. PMID:20110094

  11. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Bo?tsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article. PMID:26234096

  12. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  14. Removal of a sewing needle penetrating the wall of the third portion of the duodenum by double-balloon endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Takayoshi; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Aoyama, Taiki; Watari, Ikue; Imagawa, Hiroki; Yoshida, Shigeto; Hiyama, Toru; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2012-02-01

    We describe successful removal a sewing needle penetrating the wall of the third portion of the duodenum by means of double-balloon endoscopy (DBE). The patient was a 47-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed a sewing needle and was admitted to our hospital. Abdominal radiography and abdominal computed tomography revealed a metallic object in the third portion of the duodenum. DBE performed by the antegrade approach, revealed that the sewing needle had penetrated the duodenal wall. The sewing needle was retrieved with biopsy forceps and pulled out together with the endoscope through the flexible overtube that remained positioned in the duodenum. There was no injury to the patient's esophagus or gastrointestinal wall. Our experience in this case suggests that sharp foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract can be safely removed by means of DBE. PMID:26181881

  15. Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration with 23 gauge needle: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Anghinolfi, Miriam; Scarascia, Alessandro; Nizzoli, Rita; Casalini, Angelo Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (cTBNA) is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high yield for the diagnosis of large lymph nodes (LNs) in favourable locations (LNs >1.5 cm in stations #4R and/or #7). However, it is usually underutilized by pulmonologist. One of the main reasons given for not performing cTBNA is the risk of puncturing vascular structures of the mediastinum. Recently, with the twofold objective of minimize the risk of bleeding and reduce the cTBNA cost, a thinner and less expensive needle has been commercialized. It is a 23 gauge (G) needle that costs 34, 37 . The aim of our study was to analyze the sample adequacy, diagnostic accuracy and safety of this needle in comparison with 21 and 22 G needles (average cost: 6,400 ). Methods We retrospectively analysed medical records from patients who underwent bronchoscopy with cTBNA for the diagnosis of LNs >1.5 cm in stations #4R and/or #7 at the Thoracic Endoscopy Unit of the University Hospital of Parma from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2011. Five hundred patients underwent cTBNA from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2011. In order to reduce the technical and personal bias for sampling procedure we analyzed only cases sampled by a single well-trained bronchoscopist, particularly skilful at cTBNA. Results A total of 222 patients (186 men; mean age 63 years12, range 6-89) with LNs >1.5 cm in stations #4R and/or #7 were identified. A 23 G needle was used in 84 patients (38%), a 21 G needle in 88 patients (40%) and a 22 G needle in 50 patients (22%). No statistically significant differences between the 23 G group and the 21 or 22 G group in sample adequacy (P=0.78 and P=0.12, respectively) and diagnostic accuracy (P=0.9 and P=0.4, respectively) were found. There were no intraprocedural or postprocedural complications irrespective of the size of needle used. Conclusions Transbronchial 23 G needle is as safe and effective as the 21 and 22 G needle for the sampling of LNs >1.5 cm in stations #4R and/or #7. For this reason, to obtain cytology specimens from large LNs in favourable locations, the 23 G needle may represent an alternative and less expensive choice compared to 21 and 22 G needles, even if our observation needs to be confirmed in a larger prospective study. PMID:25973244

  16. Effect of Blinding With a New Pragmatic Placebo Needle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoyan; Xu, Huanfang; Ma, Rui; Mo, Qian; Yan, Shiyan; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Placebo control is a useful method for determining the efficacy of a therapy. In acupuncture researches, the preferred method for placebo control is acupuncture using a placebo needle that has a blunt tip and achieves no skin penetration. We performed a crossover study to validate the blinding effect of a new type of placebo needle. Sixty volunteers were randomized to receive acupuncture using 2 types of needles with different sequences: sequence AB, involving first the pragmatic placebo needle and then the real needle, and sequence BA, in a reverse order. Placebo acupuncture was performed by administering the placebo needle through an adhesive pad without skin penetration on the acupoints LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36. Real acupuncture was performed by needling through the pad and penetrating the skin to 15?mm using a real needle on the same acupoints. The acupuncture was administered every other day with 3 sessions for 1 type of needle. The primary outcome was the perception of needle penetration. Besides degree of acupuncture pain, type, and degree of needle sensation, needle acceptability and factors influencing the subject blinding effect were assessed. Needle penetration was felt by 100%, 90% (54/60), 88.3% (53/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving placebo acupuncture and 98.3% (59/60), 96.7% (58/60), 95% (57/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving real acupuncture on LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36, respectively. Differences of the volunteers perception of needle penetration between the placebo needle and real needle were not significant for the 4 acupoints (all P?>?0.05). Volunteers experienced fewer distension sensations (P?=?0.01), a lower degree of needle sensation (P?=?0.007), and less pain (P?=?0.006) during placebo acupuncture than during real acupuncture. The placebo needle was more easily accepted than the real needle (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI, 1.012.64). The influences of age, sex, educational level, acupuncture experience, needle sensation, acupuncture pain, and needle acceptability on volunteers perception of needle penetration were not significant. The pragmatic placebo needle is a valid control for acupuncture research. It produces a good subject blinding effect with a similar appearance to conventional acupuncture needles and no skin penetration when applied. PMID:25501074

  17. A clinical guide to needle desensitization for the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Greig D; Campbell, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Needle phobia is a common problem encountered by dental practitioners and it can pose a challenge, especially in the paediatric patient. Needle desensitization can be used for patients who have needle fear or phobia and help them overcome this by repeated, non-threatening and controlled contacts. This paper will describe an accepted technique of needle desensitization and work through the steps required to achieve a successful outcome of local anaesthesia being delivered in a calm, safe and controlled manner. Clinical Relevance: Needle desensitization is an effective technique which can be used to enable a needle phobic patient to receive a dental injection. PMID:26062263

  18. Impact of needles in vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marticorena, Rosa M; Donnelly, Sandra M

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews pragmatic aspects of cannulation practice and types of cannulation devices, as well as their impact in vascular access for hemodialysis. Hemodialysis treatment requires successful insertion of two needles for each dialysis treatment. The first needle is the arterial needle; it removes blood with toxin accumulation from the patient and delivers it to the dialysis machine. The second needle, called the venous needle, returns the purified blood from the dialyzer to the patient. Mechanical and hemodynamic trauma related to needle insertions will be discussed. PMID:26951901

  19. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  20. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  1. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  2. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.; Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  3. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Nisky, Ilana; Pressman, Assaf; Pugh, Carla M.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Karniel, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task. PMID:26379813

  4. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject() ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin() and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  5. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  6. PCDD/Fs accumulation in pine needles: variation with species and pine needle age.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Pei; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles have been used for many decades as a cheap and convenient biosampler to monitor atmospheric levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively known as PCDD/Fs. However, it is unknown whether accumulation of PCDD/Fs varies according to pine tree species or pine needle age, which hampers the precise application of this biosampler. We collected 0.3-2.3-year-old pine needles from four different species of pine at three sites in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China. The PCDD/Fs were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results show that Pinus massoniana and Cedrus deodara absorbed more PCDD/Fs than Pinus thunbergii and Pinus parviflora at the same site. More cuticular wax and cuticular cell secretions in the pine needles from P. massoniana and C. deodara, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), might explain this discrepancy. The PCDD/Fs concentrations in 0.3-, 1.3-, and 2.3-year-old pine needles, indicated that concentrations increase with ascending age. This may be ascribed to the enhancement of lipids and cuticular waxes with age in pine needles as indicated by the lipid contents and morphologies observed by SEM. Our results may be useful for selecting the species and age of pine needles used for biosampling, especially for monitoring PCDD/Fs in large areas where the pine species growing in one place may differ from those in another place. PMID:26330320

  7. Penetrating cardiac injury following sewing needle ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sobnach, Sanju; Castillo, Franco; Blanco Vinent, Ren; Kahn, Delawir; Bhyat, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Penetrating cardiac injuries are common in South Africa. Reports describing traumatic lesions to the heart caused by caudo-cranial migration of ingested foreign bodies are however extremely rare. Delayed presentation and intervention are associated with poor outcome in these patients; cardiac tamponade remains the most serious complication. We present the case of a 19 year-old man who sustained a left ventricular injury after intentionally swallowing eight sewing needles. The impacted needle was removed through a median sternotomy and the patient recovered uneventfully. PMID:21315651

  8. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  9. Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

  10. Asbestosis and environmental causes of usual interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Mridu; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent epidemiologic investigations suggest that occupational and environmental exposures contribute to the overall burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This article explores the epidemiologic and clinical challenges to establishing exposure associations, the current literature regarding exposure disease relationships and the diagnostic work-up of IPF and asbestosis patients. Recent findings IPF patients demonstrate a histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the absence of a known cause or association, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern leads to an IPF diagnosis, which is a progressive and often terminal fibrotic lung disease. It has long been recognized that asbestos exposure can cause pathologic and radiographic changes indistinguishable from IPF. Several epidemiologic studies, primarily case control in design, have found that a number of other exposures that can increase risk of developing IPF include cigarette smoke, wood dust, metal dust, sand/silica and agricultural exposures. Lung mineralogic analyses have provided additional support to causal associations. Genetic variation may explain differences in disease susceptibility among the population. Summary An accumulating body of literature suggests that occupational and environmental exposure can contribute to the development of IPF. The impact of exposure on the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease requires further study. PMID:25621562

  11. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    PubMed

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy. PMID:22226270

  12. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic solgel route. The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic solgel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 C. Fired needles were of 12 cm in length and 550 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  13. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  14. Interstitial Digital-Image-Point Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    Resolution of digital imagery increased by calculating estimated values of intensity at coordinate points between original intensity-data points. Calculator implements algorithm that generates such interstitial points using four-by-four array of convolute integer coefficients. Coefficients multiplied by intensities at 16 original image points nearest each interstice to obtain weighted average intensity at each interstice.

  15. 3D ultrasound guidance system for needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Jiang, Hui; Settlemier, Scott; Glossop, Neil; Venkatesan, Aradhana; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Bradford

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound guidance system for needle placement procedures. The system integrates a real-time 3D ultrasound transducer with a 3D localizer and a tracked needle to enable real-time visualization of the needle in ultrasound. The system uses data streaming to transfer real-time ultrasound volumetric images to a separate workstation for visualization. Multi-planar reconstructions of the ultrasound volume are computed at the workstation using the tracking information, allowing for real-time visualization of the needle in ultrasound without aligning the needle with the transducer. The system may simplify the needle placement procedure and potentially reduce the levels of skill and training needed to perform accurate needle placements. The physician can therefore focus on the needle placement procedure without paying extra attention to perfect mid-plane alignment of the needle with the ultrasound image plane. In addition, the physician has real-time visual feedback of the needle and the target, even before the needle enters the patient's skin, allowing the procedure to be easily, safely and accurately planned. The superimposed needle can also greatly improve the sometimes poor visualization of the needle in an ultrasound image (e.g. in between ribs). Since the free-hand needle is not inserted through any fixed needle channel, the physician can enjoy full freedom to select the needle's orientation or position. No cumbersome accessories are attached to the ultrasound transducer, allowing the physician to use his or her previous experience with regular ultrasound transducers. 3D Display of the target in relation to the treatment volume can help verify adequacy of tumor ablation as well.

  16. Primary pulmonary collision tumor with three components in the underlying interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Hato, Tai; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Goto, Taichiro; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Emoto, Katsura; Hayashi, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    A collision tumor of the lung is relatively rare. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with a collision tumor consisting of three neoplastic components in the underlying interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed a parenchymal lesion with an air bronchogram. Transthoracic needle lung biopsy showed chronic inflammation, however, a malignant pulmonary tumor was clinically suspected. The patient underwent a right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. The histological features of the surgical specimen showed lung cancer with three neoplastic components, which were squamous cell carcinoma, invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, and invasive non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision lung tumor with three components.

  17. Ultrasonic Quantification of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Through Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflanzer, Ralph; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jrgen; Hofmann, Matthias

    High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is characteristic of solid tumors. Elevated TIFP inhibits the assimilation of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue as well as it induces mechanical strain triggering cell proliferation in solid tumors. Common solid epithelial tumors of A431 carcinoma cells exhibit a TIFP of about 10-15 mmHg measured conventionally through wick-in-needle technique. A new scheme to determine topography and acoustic impedance in solid tumor is proposed through scanning acoustic microscopy. The change in amplitude and time of flight at 30 MHz acoustic signal is used to quantify the growth pattern and to calibrate elevation of TIFP. The wide variability of amplitude and frequency in topographic sections indicate discrete envelopes of individual tumors with localized TIFP. Further investigations in applying this non-invasive method as a means of measuring TIFP in subcutaneous mice xenograft tumors in situ could also enhance understanding of tumor microenvironment and vessel architecture in living tissue.

  18. Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

    This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

  19. Effect and Safety of Deep Needling and Shallow Needling for Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiani; Liu, Baoyan; Li, Ning; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Liping; Cai, Yuying; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aupuncture is widely used for functional constipation. Effect of acupuncture might be related to the depth of needling; however, the evidence is limited. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of deep needling and shallow needling for functional constipation, and to assess if the deep needling and shallow needling are superior to lactulose. We conducted a prospective, superiority-design, 5-center, 3-arm randomized controlled trial. A total of 475 patients with functional constipation were randomized to the deep needling group (237), shallow needling group (119), and lactulose-controlled group (119) in a ratio of 2:1:1. Sessions lasted 30 minutes each time and took place 5 times a week for 4 weeks in 2 acupuncture groups. Participants in the lactulose group took lactulose orally for 16 continuous weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline of mean weekly spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) during week 1 to 4 (changes from the baselines of the weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in follow-up period were also assessed simultaneously). Secondary outcomes were the weekly SBMs of each assessing week, the mean score change from the baseline of constipation-related symptoms over week 1 to 4, and the time to the first SBM. Emergency drug usage and adverse effects were monitored throughout the study. SBMs and constipation-related symptoms were all improved in the 3 groups compared with baseline at each time frame (P < 0.01, all). The changes in the mean weekly SBMs over week 1 to 4 were 2 (1.75) in the deep needling group, 2 (1.75) in the shallow needling group, and 2 (2) in the lactulose group (P > 0.05, both compared with the lactulose group). The changes of mean weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in the follow-up period were 2 (2), 2 (2.5) in the deep needling group, 2 (3), 1.5 (2.5) in the shallow needling group, and 1 (2), 1 (2) in the lactulose group (P < 0.05, all compared with the lactulose group). No significant difference was observed among the 3 groups regarding the score changes of straining, incomplete evacuation, abdominal distention during spontaneous defecating, or Cleveland Clinic Scores over week 1 to 4. However, the lactulose group got better effect than other 2 acupuncture groups in improving stool consistency (P < 0.01, both) and shortening the time to the first SBM (P < 0.05, both). The percentage of emergency drugs used in the 2 acupuncture groups were both lower than in the lactulose group at each time frame (P < 0.01, all). No obvious adverse event was observed in the deep or shallow needling group. Deep and shallow needling at Tianshu (ST25) can improve intestinal function remarkably and safely. Therapeutic effects of deep and shallow needling are not superior to that of lactulose; however, the sustained effects of deep and shallow needling after stopping the acupuncture treatments are superior to the therapeutic effect of lactulose, which might qualify the superiority of deep and shallow needling. PMID:25526462

  20. Intracranially Retained Sewing Needle in a Child: Does the Rust on the Needle Have any Implication?

    PubMed

    Balak, Naci; Gl, Glhan; Karaca, Ismail; Aksoy, Sema

    2008-04-01

    A penetrating injury with a sewing needle is a rare phenomenon. The pathophysiological mechanism of late epilepsy after penetrating injuries is not clear. A 10-year-old female child had a seizure. An X-ray study of the skull and the cranial computed tomography scans showed a foreign object retained in the skull cavity. She was intact on neurological examination. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that there was bioelectrical disorganization in both hemispheres, being more prominent on the left side. A right posterior frontal median craniotomy was performed in order not to retract the left hemisphere within the interhemispheric fissure and the sewing needle was removed successfully. The sewing needle was rusted. The reason for the patient's seizure, 10 years after the injury, may be the corrosion of the sewing needle and rust formation in this case. PMID:26815622

  1. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Needle-type epilator. 878.5350 Section 878.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type epilator. (a) Identification. A needle-type epilator is...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880.6920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  8. Evaluation of Robotic Needle Steering in ex vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Wedlick, Thomas R.; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers asymmetric-tip needles under fluoroscopic imaging. For bevel-tip needles, we found that larger diameter needles resulted in less curvature, i.e. less steerability, confirming previous experiments in artificial tissue. The needles steered with radii of curvature ranging from 3:4 cm (for the most steerable pre-bent needle) to 2:97m (for the least steerable bevel needle). Pre-bend angle significantly affected needle curvature, but bevel angle did not. We hypothesize that biological tissue characteristics such as inhomogeneity and viscoelasticity significantly increase path variability. These results underscore the need for closed-loop image guidance for needle steering in biological tissues with complex internal structure. PMID:21339851

  9. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section...

  14. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  15. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  16. A new template for MRI-based intracavitary/interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy: design and clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Jose Richart; Palacin, Antonio Otal; Calatayud, Jose Perez; Ortega, Manuel Santos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the potential clinical use of a new brachytherapy applicator for gynecological tumors, with special attention to locally advanced cervical carcinoma. This device allows the combination of intracavitary radiotherapy and MRI-compatible transperineal interstitial needles. The design of this template addresses the disadvantages of currently commercially available templates: the inability of the intracavitary component to reach deep into the cervix (MUPIT), and the MRI-incompatibility of these templates (MUPIT and Syed), which necessitates use of CT imaging for the dosimetry. Material and methods The newly developed Benidorm Template applicator allows titanium needles in a template with straight and angled holes to provide different angles of divergence to be used with currently existing MRI-compatible intrauterine tubes. It can provide total coverage of the craniocaudal and lateral extension of the tumor (intrautherus, parametrial, and paravaginal). This method is mainly indicated in advanced cervical carcinoma with bulky parametrial invasion (medial or distal), with bulky primary disease that responds poorly to external beam radiotherapy extensive paravaginal involvement (tumor thickness greater than 0.5 cm) extending to the middle or lower third of the vagina, or for disease that has invaded the bladder or rectum (stage IVA). Results Between April 2013 until December 2014, we treated 15 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma employing the Benidorm Template. The median dose at D90 for the CTV was 79.8 Gy (71.5-89.9 Gy), at D2cc for the bladder it was 77.6 Gy (69.8-90.8 Gy), and at D2cc for the rectum it was 71.9 Gy (58.3-83.7 Gy). Values expressed in EQD2, assuming ?/? of 10 for CTV and 3 for OAR. Conclusions This new applicator allows the use of MRI-based dosimetry, thus providing the advantages of MRI volume definition. As such, it facilitates determination of complete intracavitary and interstitial CTV coverage and the sparing of normal tissues. PMID:26622229

  17. Interstitial iron impurities at cores of dissociated dislocations in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt; Mrovec, Matous; Elssser, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Dislocations play an important role in semiconductor devices made of crystalline silicon (Si). They are known to be strongly performance-limiting defects in solar cell applications, since they act as preferred segregation sites for metallic impurities. In this work we investigate the segregation of iron (Fe) to the cores of the 30 and 90 partial dislocations in Si using atomistic calculations based on first-principles density functional theory. Our simulations show that interstitial Fe impurities segregate readily to all investigated cores and the driving force for the segregation increases with impurity concentration. Moreover, our analysis of the electronic structure reveals the existence of deep defect levels within the band gap that can be related to experimental observations by deep-level transient spectroscopy.

  18. Creeping Motion of Self Interstitial Atom Clusters in Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2 eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along <111>. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation.

  19. Creeping Motion of Self Interstitial Atom Clusters in Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2?eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along ?111?. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation. PMID:24865470

  20. Removal of a sewing needle from an occult esophageal ingestion in a 9-month-old.

    PubMed

    Nicksa, Grace A; Pigula, Frank A; Giuffrida, Michael J; Buchmiller, Terry L

    2009-07-01

    A healthy 9-month-old boy presented with a 1-month history of cough. A chest x-ray showed a linear metallic foreign body (FB) lying transversely in the posterior mediastinum. Computed tomographic scan confirmed the location and size of the metallic FB and also revealed a large pericardial effusion that was corroborated by echocardiogram. The patient underwent a right thoracotomy revealing a normal esophagus without mediastinitis and a 12-mm needle in the posterior mediastinum embedded in the pericardium with the sharp end abutting the left atrium. The needle was extracted uneventfully, and his postoperative course was unremarkable. The diagnosis and treatment for this case are discussed along with a review of the literature. PMID:19573678

  1. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Site-specific Raman spectroscopy and chemical dynamics of nanoscale interstitial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. Peter

    2005-02-01

    Site-specific spectroscopy is critical for a molecular-level understanding of the mechanisms and dynamics of the inhomogeneous chemical processes crucial for catalysis, surface and interfacial chemistry, and membrane protein dynamics in living cells. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using metal-coated AFM tips have proven to be powerful in spectroscopic analysis of inhomogeneous processes, providing correlated topographic and spectroscopic information at the nanoscale from sites in highly heterogeneous environments. It has recently been observed that SERS spectral fluctuations are pertinent to site-specific spectroscopy and microscopy. Such fluctuations are important in that they hold promise for the study of molecular structure and dynamics at a single-molecule level. This article reviews our recent work on characterization and analysis of SERS spectral fluctuation dynamics at the nanoscale in metallic interstitial sites. Fluctuations were found to accompany nanoscale confined electromagnetic near-field enhancement. The result of such confinement is that only a few molecules dominate the far-field SERS spectral signal detected in microscopic measurements that probe one nanoscale 'hot' site at a time. The fluctuation amplitude significantly decreased with the number of molecules confined at the nanoscale-local field. A new AFM-coupled two-channel photon time-stamping system, enabling in situ correlation of the topographic and spectroscopic information for single nanoparticle clusters, was used to record the Raman intensity fluctuation trajectories at a sub-microsecond resolution. Experimentally, we found that SERS fluctuation dynamics are highly inhomogeneous amongst nanocluster interstitial sites although molecular translational and rotational motions at the interstitial sites can account for the SERS spectral fluctuations. To further understand these fluctuations at the nanoscale interstitial sites and nanostructures, field enhancement and field distribution at different interstitial site topographies and rough fractal surfaces were studied using finite element method computational simulation in a classic electrodynamics approach.

  3. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  4. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Saumen; Santra, Avradip; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  6. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Saumen; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  7. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cador, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-Franois; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  8. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  9. The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

    2013-09-01

    In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

  10. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  11. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  12. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  13. Needle phobia: etiology, adverse consequences, and patient management.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Chester J; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Boynes, Sean G

    2010-10-01

    Needle phobia has profound health, dental, societal, and legal implications, and severe psychological, social, and physiologic consequences. There is genetic evidence for the physiologic response to needle puncture, and a significant familial psychological component, showing evidence of inheritance. Needle phobia is also a learned behavior. The dental practitioner must recognize patients with needle phobia before the administration of local anesthetics to identify patients who are potentially reactive and to prevent untoward sequelae. Needle phobia is highly associated with avoidance behavior, and the dentist must exhibit compassion and respect. To avoid bradycardia, hypotension, unconsciousness, convulsions, and possibly asystole, oral premedication with benzodiazepines or other antianxiety agents must be considered for patients who are needle phobic. Management of needle phobiaeinduced syncope includes perioperative monitoring, oxygen administration, positioning, atropine, and vasopressors. PMID:20831935

  14. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  15. Homogeneous phase separation in binary alloys under ion irradiation conditions: Role of interstitial atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnochtchekov, P.; Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P.

    2007-04-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to investigate homogeneous precipitation in binary metal alloys under ion irradiation conditions. The kinetic model includes defect production, recombination, defect trapping, the formation of defect-solute complexes, and atomic mixing. While no special assumptions are made about vacancy diffusion, interstitial diffusion is assumed fast compared to the characteristic time scales of all other processes. The diffusion path of an interstitial, moreover, ends with one of the three possible outcomes: recombination, trapping in a solute-rich location, or clustering with other interstitials. Interstitials promote solute segregation in this model by the formation of mobile interstitial-solute complexes. Several unusual features of radiation-induced precipitation are revealed in this model. For ideal alloys, we find at a given temperature that for every trapping number [i.e., the minimum number of nearest-neighbor solute (type B) atoms required to trap a migrating interstitial, N{sub BT}], there exists a corresponding defect pair production rate K{sub 0}, below which the alloy becomes a random solution state and above which macroscopic phase separation occurs. K{sub 0} depends on the length scale of trapping sites L as L{sup 4}. Solute-rich precipitates have the composition c{sub B} approaching c{sub B}=N{sub BT}/z, where z is the lattice coordination number. This feature results in 'swelling' of precipitates, i.e., dilution of initially pure (c{sub B}=1) precipitates located in the matrix prior to ion irradiation. Ballistic mixing is observed to erode precipitates, and above some critical rate the system reverts to a random solution. For ideal solutions, and even those with a small tendency for ordering, phase separation occurs due to the interstitial interaction with solutes. At sufficiently high positive values of the heats of mixing, the usual thermal vacancy-driven precipitation prevails. Between these low and high limits, the alloy unexpectedly enters a field of solid solutions. Finally, it is shown that even in the absence of the interstitial trapping (N{sub BT}>z), alloys with a small positive ordering energy can undergo nonequilibrium phase separation at a composition below its solubility limit due to an effective trapping of vacancies in solute-rich locations. The significance of these findings for real alloy systems is discussed.

  16. Expansion of Interstitial Telomeric Sequences in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Anna Y; Han, Gil; Shishkin, Alexander A; Volkov, Kirill V; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2015-11-24

    Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for replication (G orientation). Here, we show that interstitial Ytel repeats in the opposite C orientation prefer to expand rather than cause GCR. A tract of eight Ytel repeats expands at a rate of 4 10(-4) per replication, ranking them among the most expansion-prone DNA microsatellites. A candidate-based genetic analysis implicates both post-replication repair and homologous recombination pathways in the expansion process. We propose a model for Ytel repeat expansions and discuss its applications for genome instability and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT). PMID:26586439

  17. Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

    2009-02-01

    A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

  18. Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Gong, H

    1996-09-01

    Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung disease, or pneumoconiosis, are being increasingly recognized and diagnosed. The fibrogenic potential of numerous types of respirable inorganic particles remains poorly understood but is significantly determined by lung deposition and clearance, the agent's size and solubility, host susceptibility, and other factors. Microanalytic techniques have improved the identification of uncommon or unusual biopersistent particles or elements in fibrotic lung tissue. Recent findings in workers exposed to manmade vitreous fibers, silicon carbide, talc, titanium, cerium, and polyvinyl chloride provide new clinical insights into not only their specific fibrogenic capabilities but also in the broader appreciation that many cases of unexplained interstitial lung disease may be caused by occupational exposures to one or more uncommon airborne substances. PMID:9363175

  19. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the running course of meridians. PMID:24673066

  20. Comparative ecotoxicity of interstitial waters in littoral ecosystems using Microtox{reg_sign} and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Valls, T.A. Del; Forja, J.M.; Lubian, L.M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    1997-11-01

    The toxic effects of sediment interstitial waters collected from seven littoral sites in the Gulf of Cadiz were tested with the Microtox assay and a 7-d Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) decline test. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate), the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd), and the linear alkylbenzensulfonate (LAS) concentrations in the interstitial water were measured. The results of assays were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between toxicity values determined by Brachionus plicatilis and Photobacterium phosphoreum, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity from mixtures of heavy metals. Data derived from interstitial water chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal components analysis). Positive prevalence of these components in cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The interstitial water guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg/L), are: DOC, 12.8; phosphate, 0.28; LAS, 80.4; ammonia, 12.1: chromium, 0.0045.

  1. Needle tip localization using stylet vibration.

    PubMed

    Harmat, Adam; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2006-09-01

    Power Doppler ultrasound is used to localize the tip of a needle by detecting physical vibrations. Two types of vibrations are investigated, lateral and axial. The lateral vibrations are created by rotating a stylet, whose tip is slightly bent, inside a stationary cannula while the stylet is completely within the cannula. The minute deflection at the needle tip when rotated causes tissue motion. The axial vibration is induced by extending and retracting a straight stylet inside a stationary cannula. The stylet's tip makes contact with the tissue and causes it to move. The lateral vibration method was found to perform approximately the same under a variety of configurations (e.g., different insertion angles and depths) and better than the axial vibration method. Tissue stiffness affects the performance of the lateral vibration method, but good images can be obtained through proper tuning of the ultrasound machine. PMID:16965974

  2. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  3. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  4. Belonephobia--a fear of needles.

    PubMed

    Yim, Louisa

    2006-08-01

    Belonephobia is an unreasonable and altered response due to the fear of needles. It affects up to 10% of the population and has implications for treatment and follow up, especially in the paediatric setting (see Case study). A three step behavioural approach involving recognition and relaxation, control and preparation, and graded exposure, can be effective in overcoming belonephobia. This will assist with non-urgent minor procedures being undertaken. PMID:16894439

  5. Fine needle aspiration of Histiocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mallya, Varuna; Bansal, Anju; Kapoor, Sujala

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is derived from histiocytes and is among the rarest of the tumors affecting the lymphoid tissue. We report a case of a histiocytic sarcoma arising from the lymph node in a 35-year-old male who came for a fine needle aspiration cytology and a subsequent biopsy was conducted and the tissue subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. PMID:25745287

  6. Interstitial lung edema triggered by marathon running.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Milne, Eric N C; Lavorini, Federico; Rienzi, Joseph P; Lavin, Kaleen M; Straub, Allison M; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether marathon running causes lung edema, and if so, to determine its effects on runners. Posterior/anterior (PA) radiographs were taken one day before the marathon and at 19, 55, and 98min post-marathon in 26 runners. The pre and post exercise radiographs of each runner were collated, and then read simultaneously. Two physicians interpreted the images independently in a blinded fashion. The PA radiographs were viewed together at each time-point and findings suggestive for interstitial lung edema were rated as 'mild,' 'moderate,' or 'severe' based on four different radiological criteria. Forty-six percent of the runners presented radiographic findings suggestive of mild to severe interstitial lung edema. Radiographic findings persisted until 98-min post-marathon, with at least moderate degree increases found more frequently in women (55%) than men (6%) (p<0.01). In conclusion, about half of the runners developed interstitial lung edema of varying degrees post-exercise with the incidence being higher in women compared to men. PMID:24369923

  7. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  8. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  9. Hardening of irradiated alloys due to the simultaneous formation of vacancy and interstitial loops

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.; Alhajji, J.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model is presented for the simultaneous nucleation and growth of vacancy and interstitial loops in irradiated metals. The model is based on the homogeneous time-dependent rate theory. Conservation equations are developed for single defects as well as defect clusters. Defect-conservation equations include production by irradiation and thermal sources; and destruction by mutual recombination, migration to sinks as well as clustering into loops. Interstitial clustering is assumed to occur by diffusion of interstitial atoms. Vacancy loops, on the other hand, are assumed to form by an athermal cascade-collapse process. The density of such loops is determined as a result of the production of cascades and the finite loop lifetime. Cascade overlap and coalescence are also included in the model. The calculations are extended to the analysis of the radiation-induced changes in tensile properties due to formation of interstitial and vacancy loops. A simpe hardening model relates the microstructural calculations to predictions of changes in tensile strength. The results of this study show good agreement with hardening data for copper irradiated in RTNS-II at room temperature. The results also provide insight on differences in microstructural results observed in various experimental studies on copper. 7 figures.

  10. Influence of dislocation strain fields on the diffusion of interstitial iron impurities in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt; Mrovec, Matous; Elssser, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The efficiency of silicon (Si)-based solar cells is strongly affected by crystal defects and impurities. Metallic impurities, in particular interstitial iron (Fe) atoms, cause large electric losses because they act as recombination centers for photogenerated charge carriers. Here, we present a systematic first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study focusing on the influence of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and shear strains on the thermodynamic stability and the diffusivity of Fe impurities in crystalline Si. Our calculations show that the formation energy of neutral Fe interstitials in tetrahedral interstitial sites is almost unaffected by uniform deformations of the Si crystal up to strains of 5%. In contrast, the migration barrier varies significantly with strain, especially for hydrostatic deformation. In order to determine effective diffusion coefficients for different strain states, a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model was set up based on the activation energy barriers and frequency factors obtained from the DFT simulations. By using the strain dependence of the migration barrier, we examined the migration of Fe interstitials in the vicinity of perfect 1 /2 <110 > screw and 60? mixed dislocations, and 1 /6 <112 > 90? and 30? partial dislocations. While the strain field of the perfect screw dislocation always enhances the local Fe diffusion, the existence of tensile and compressive regions around the 60? mixed dislocation results in a strong anisotropic diffusion profile with significantly faster and slower diffusivities on its tensile and compressive sides. The influences of the partial dislocations are qualitatively similar to that of the 60? mixed dislocation.

  11. Liver abscess due to sewing needle perforation.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Ewoud; Cense, Huib

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a 1-week history of right upper abdominal pain and nausea. Ultrasonography showed a thickened duodenum with infiltration. Subsequent gastroscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. CT scan showed a foreign body perforation at the duodenum and a liver abscess (Fig. 1A,B). A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. During the operation, the abscess was drained (Fig. 2A,B) and a sewing needle was removed (Fig. 3A,B). The patient claimed to have no recollection of swallowing the needle and made a quick recovery. Although rare, gastrointestinal perforations due to ingested foreign bodies most frequently occur at ileocecal, rectosigmoid, and duodenal regions[1]. Sewing needle perforations into the liver have been reported in children, adults, and psychiatric cases. Symptoms can vary from mild gastric pain to signs of peritonitis[2]. "Wait and see" is recommended for asymptomatic patients with no complications. Symptomatic patients (e.g., liver abscess) need surgical intervention[1,2,3]. PMID:20694449

  12. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  13. Use of needle-free injection systems to alleviate needle phobia and pain at injection.

    PubMed

    Szmuk, Peter; Szmuk, Eleonora; Ezri, Tiberiu

    2005-08-01

    Needle phobia affects at least 10% of the general population. Subcutaneous injections are used for many reasons, including immunizations, administration of medications such as insulin and heparin, and to provide local anesthesia, both for surgery and for intravenous cannulation. Whatever the reason for its application, the injection itself may cause discomfort and/or pain. In children, in patients with needle phobia, in those who require frequent intravenous cannulations, or in those who need daily medication, the pain at injection can reach unbearable intensity that could lead to refusal of medical care. Various approaches are employed to alleviate the pain caused by intravenous cannulation. These include the use of topical analgesia [i.e., EMLA, Ametop (tetracaine], Numby Stuff and ethylchloridespray], skin infiltration with lidocaine using 25-30-gauge needles and jet injectors. This article will review the complex topic of needle phobia and needle pain, and will summarize the currently available alternatives and the new developments intended to reduce the intensity of injection pain. PMID:19807264

  14. Randomized Trial of Conventional Transseptal Needle Versus Radiofrequency Energy Needle Puncture for Left Atrial Access (the TRAVERSE?LA Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jonathan C.; Badhwar, Nitish; Gerstenfeld, Edward P.; Lee, Randall J.; Mandyam, Mala C.; Dewland, Thomas A.; Imburgia, Kourtney E.; Hoffmayer, Kurt S.; Vedantham, Vasanth; Lee, Byron K.; Tseng, Zian H.; Scheinman, Melvin M.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Transseptal puncture is a critical step in achieving left atrial (LA) access for a variety of cardiac procedures. Although the mechanical Brockenbrough needle has historically been used for this procedure, a needle employing radiofrequency (RF) energy has more recently been approved for clinical use. We sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of an RF versus conventional needle for transseptal LA access. Methods and Results In this prospective, single?blinded, controlled trial, 72 patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to an RF versus conventional (BRK?1) transseptal needle. In an intention?to?treat analysis, the primary outcome was time required for transseptal LA access. Secondary outcomes included failure of the assigned needle, visible plastic dilator shavings from needle introduction, and any procedural complication. The median transseptal puncture time was 68% shorter using the RF needle compared with the conventional needle (2.3 minutes [interquartile range {IQR}, 1.7 to 3.8 minutes] versus 7.3 minutes [IQR, 2.7 to 14.1 minutes], P=0.005). Failure to achieve transseptal LA access with the assigned needle was less common using the RF versus conventional needle (0/36 [0%] versus 10/36 [27.8%], P<0.001). Plastic shavings were grossly visible after needle advancement through the dilator and sheath in 0 (0%) RF needle cases and 12 (33.3%) conventional needle cases (P<0.001). There were no differences in procedural complications (1/36 [2.8%] versus 1/36 [2.8%]). Conclusions Use of an RF needle resulted in shorter time to transseptal LA access, less failure in achieving transseptal LA access, and fewer visible plastic shavings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01209260. PMID:24045120

  15. Method to Reduce Target Motion Through Needle-Tissue Interactions.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Matthew J; Leibinger, Alexander; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-11-01

    During minimally invasive surgical procedures, it is often important to deliver needles to particular tissue volumes. Needles, when interacting with a substrate, cause deformation and target motion. To reduce reliance on compensatory intra-operative imaging, a needle design and novel delivery mechanism is proposed. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of a multi-segment needle inserted into a pre-existing crack are presented. The motion profiles of the needle segments are varied to identify methods that reduce target motion. Experiments are then performed by inserting a needle into a gelatine tissue phantom and measuring the internal target motion using digital image correlation. Simulations indicate that target motion is reduced when needle segments are stroked cyclically and utilise a small amount of retraction instead of being held stationary. Results are confirmed experimentally by statistically significant target motion reductions of more than 8% during cyclic strokes and 29% when also incorporating retraction, with the same net insertion speed. By using a multi-segment needle and taking advantage of frictional interactions on the needle surface, it is demonstrated that target motion ahead of an advancing needle can be substantially reduced. PMID:25943896

  16. Electrotactile display using microfabricated micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Chim, J.; Miki, N.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes an electrotactile display with micro-needle electrodes. The electrotactile display can produce tactile sensations by stimulating tactile receptors using an electric current. Micro-needle electrodes can drastically decrease the threshold voltage required to stimulate tactile receptors by penetrating the stratum corneum, which has a higher impedance than the dermis. In addition, the optimized length of the needle allows us to stimulate tactile receptors painlessly. In the present study, we developed a process for fabricating a micro-needle array in which the length and tip radius can be controlled using electrochemical etching. A micro-needle array was successfully fabricated to form an electrotactile display. In addition, we experimentally determined the suitable shape of the micro-needle electrodes for electrotactile display applications. When the tip radius of the needle is too small, the impedance between the finger and micro-needles becomes large due to the small contact area. On the other hand, when the tip radius is too large, the needle cannot penetrate the skin surface and the impedance is not sufficiently small. The experiments verified the superiority of needle electrode devices to flat electrode devices with respect to the threshold voltage at each frequency.

  17. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  18. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  19. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  20. The hard metal diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cugell, D.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

  1. The effect of needle dimensions and infusion rates on injection pressures in regional anaesthesia needles: a bench-top study.

    PubMed

    Patil, J J; Ford, S; Egeler, C; Williams, D J

    2015-02-01

    Animal studies have shown that injection pressures > 75 kPa indicate probable intrafascicular needle tip position. This study describes the flow/pressure characteristics of seven common needle systems. A syringe pump delivered flow rates of 5, 6.67, 10, 13.3, 15 and 20 ml.min(-1) through these needle systems, while keeping the needle tips open to atmosphere. A pressure transducer connected between the syringe and needle provided a real-time graphical display for analysis. Mean plateau pressures increased linearly with flow and with decreasing needle diameter (2.7-92 kPa). Flow rates > 17 ml.min(-1) and needle sizes 22 G and smaller produced mean plateau pressures > 75 kPa. Pressure monitors upstream from the needle may produce false-positive alarms at high flow rates due to needle resistance, and unreliable readings due to non-laminar flow. We recommend injection rates ≤ 15 ml.min(-1) (0.25 ml.s(-1) ) to reduce the effect of factors upstream from the needle tip as a cause of high pressure readings. PMID:25290190

  2. Comparison of 21-Gauge and 22-Gauge Aspiration Needle in Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Akulian, Jason; Lechtzin, Noah; Yasin, Faiza; Kamdar, Biren; Ernst, Armin; Ost, David E.; Ray, Cynthia; Greenhill, Sarah R.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Filner, Joshua; Feller-Kopman, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure originally performed using a 22-gauge (22G) needle. A recently introduced 21-gauge (21G) needle may improve the diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA, but prior smaller studies have shown conflicting results. To our knowledge, this is the largest study undertaken to date to determine whether the 21G needle adds diagnostic benefit. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of 1,299 patients from the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Registry, Education, and Evaluation (AQuIRE) Diagnostic Registry who underwent EBUS-TBNA between February 2009 and September 2010 at six centers throughout the United States. Data collection included patient demographics, sample adequacy, and diagnostic yield. Analysis consisted of univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression comparing diagnostic yield and sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA specimens by needle gauge. Results: A total of 1,235 patients met inclusion criteria. Sample adequacy was obtained in 94.9% of the 22G needle group and in 94.6% of the 21G needle group (P = .81). A diagnosis was made in 51.4% of the 22G and 51.3% of the 21G groups (P = .98). Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression showed no statistical difference in sample adequacy or diagnostic yield between the two groups. The presence of rapid onsite cytologic evaluation was associated with significantly fewer needle passes per procedure when using the 21G needle (P < .001). Conclusions: There is no difference in specimen adequacy or diagnostic yield between the 21G and 22G needle groups. EBUS-TBNA in conjunction with rapid onsite cytologic evaluation and a 21G needle is associated with fewer needle passes compared with a 22G needle. PMID:23632441

  3. Neck needle foreign bodies: an added risk for autopsy pathologists.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, K D; Williams, A W; Natarajan, G A

    2001-06-01

    The risk to pathologists of contracting diseases due to cuts or needles punctures while performing autopsies is well known. An additional risk is an accidental needle puncture due to retained needle fragments within the subcutaneous tissues or internal organs of intravenous drug addicts. We report 4 cases of drug addicted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who came to autopsy and had retained needle fragments within their cervical-clavicular soft tissues. The presence of retained needle fragments increases the risk to the autopsy pathologist of accidental needle puncture and exposure to disease. Because of this phenomenon, the pathologist should take precautions in addition to those currently prescribed when performing autopsies on possible drug abusers. PMID:11371232

  4. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14??m and a thickness of approximately 3??m. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40??m without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  5. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle’s inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve. PMID:26509189

  6. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  7. Iatrogenic Extraprostatic Extension of Prostate Cancer From a Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael H.; Khani, Francesca; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Seeding of prostate cancer along a needle biopsy track is a rare complication. The diagnosis of this presents a significant upstaging of the disease and profound potential changes to the treatment strategy. In this report, we present a 71 year-old male with otherwise low-risk prostate cancer on final pathology except for extraprostatic extension (EPE) along a probable needle track. We further review the relevant literature regarding this rare but important complication with prostate needle biopsy.

  8. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic and ultrastructural features of intraluminal organizing and fibrotic changes were studied in open lung biopsies and autopsy specimens from 373 patients with interstitial lung disorders, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 44), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 92), collagen-vascular diseases (n = 20), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 10), pulmonary histiocytosis X (n-90), pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 62), pneumoconioses (n = 25), Legionnaire's disease (n = 5), drug- and toxin-induced pneumonitis (n = 4), radiation-induced pneumonitis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 11), and chronic organizing pneumonia of unknown cause (n = 8). Three patterns of intraluminal organization and fibrosis were recognized: 1) intraluminal buds, which partially filled the alveoli, alveolar ducts and/or distal bronchioles; 2) obliterative changes, in which loose connective tissue masses obliterated the lumens of alveoli, alveolar ducts or distal bronchioles, and 3) mural incorporation of previously intraluminal connective tissue masses, which fused with alveolar, alveolar ductal, or bronchiolar structures and frequently became reepithelialized. All three patterns had common morphologic features, suggesting that, regardless of their severity, they resulted from a common pathogenetic mechanism, ie, the migration of activated connective tissue cells, through defects in the epithelial lining and its basement membrane, from the interstitial into the intraluminal compartment. Intraluminal buds were observed most frequently in hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and organizing pneumonia of unknown cause. Mural incorporation and, to a lesser extent, obliterative changes were observed in most interstitial disorders and were very prominent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mural incorporation and obliterative changes play an important role in pulmonary remodeling, especially when several adjacent alveoli and/or other air spaces are involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  9. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  10. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy. PMID:26449764

  11. [Lymphocytic interstitial pneumopathy and primary pulmonary lymphoma. Differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Valeyre, D; Amouroux, J; Schmitt-Hausman, I; Battesti, J P

    1985-10-12

    Two cases of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed according to Liebow's criteria, are reported. In both cases an extra-thoracic lymphoma developed 3 and 6 years respectively after the interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Simultaneously, the radiological images of the lungs became more pronounced. Only a few similar cases have been published. This raises the question of whether lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and lymphomas are distinct entities, especially since the histological and immunopathological discriminating criteria seem to be discussed. PMID:2933658

  12. First-principles study of diffusion of interstitial and vacancy in ? U-Zr.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Yang; Wirth, Brian D

    2011-05-25

    Metallic uranium-zirconium alloys are of interest for a variety of fast reactor designs, and there is substantial experience with the behavior of metallic fuels. Yet, there remain a number of questions regarding the mechanisms controlling fission-gas-driven swelling in these alloys. Here we present results of ab initio calculations of the diffusion behavior of interstitial and vacancy point defects in ? U-Zr alloys. The formation energy and migration barrier of vacancy and interstitial defects, and the influence of Zr on these values, is obtained and compared with experimental results. Our results confirm that self-diffusion in pure ? U is via a simple vacancy mechanism, and shows anisotropic character. The calculated values of activation energy are consistent with the experimental results in the literature. For interstitial diffusion, the kick-out mechanism was found to have the smallest energy barrier. The calculations of point defects, and later Xe, in U-Zr alloys will provide a foundation for computational modeling of fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. PMID:21540501

  13. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  14. A sewing needle in the liver: 6 years later.

    PubMed

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Minkar, Tahsin; Oyar, Orhan

    2010-04-01

    A 27-year-old male patient was admitted for renal colic. In the radiographic findings of his kidney-ureter-bladder, a 6-cm-long sewing needle was detected in the right upper abdominal region. The needle displayed a direction toward the diaphragm, and the center of the needle had a radiolucent discontinuity. He refused to be operated. No complication was observed during the 6-year follow-up. Foreign bodies in the liver are generally recommended to be removed. This case is the first one in the literature with a needle in the liver remaining for 6 years without a change of location or causing a complication. PMID:20224315

  15. [Needle-like nonasbestos particles in Bulgarian mineral raw materials].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova-Docheva, L

    1988-01-01

    The spreading of needle-like minerals in the country is studied, which are of no industrial importance, but are contained in some of course and nonmetallic mineral raw materials. On the basis of their classification are chosen standards: sepiolite, wollastonite, palygorskite, etc., and their dispersion in needle-like fine dispersive particles, is studied. On the basis of a preliminary prognosis are established needle-like particles in ore dust of one iron ore location. The importance of the needle-like nonasbestos components can be expressed with "dose" inhaled needles on the basis of the concentration of the needle-like components, the duration of one work shift and the work load in a definite work operation. The quantity of inhaled needles by an operator on a filling machine for mineral flour, containing minimum quantity of needles (0.5%) with pollution above MAC is near to that during packing of asbestos. The results received are useful for future classification of the biological activity of needle-like nonasbestos components. PMID:3241796

  16. The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly in many locales, becoming the purview of professional administration that advocates needle exchange as a necessary public health measure. This article is interested in the ways in which needle exchange has become implicated in and appropriated by networks of power seeking to discipline and regulate injection drug use. Drawing theoretically on Michel Foucault’s writings concerning biopower and governmentality, it will examine the proliferation of discourses, knowledges, and rules surrounding needle exchange in the United States. At the same time, this article will avoid a characterization of needle exchange that envisions the unilateral control of drug users by governmental power, illuminating instead both its negative and productive effects for drug users. Namely, it will explore how needle exchange creates both subjects of interest and subjects of resistance among drug users – that is to say, the governmentalization of needle exchange and its ‘clients’. PMID:22389572

  17. Thinking ethically about needle and syringe programs.

    PubMed

    Kleinig, John

    2006-01-01

    Accepting-for the sake of argument-our current legal policies concerning heroin use and its users, what ethical questions are raised for needle and syringe program (NSPs)? Do they weaken drug laws, send the wrong message or obscure the right message, do little to eliminate the harm of drugs, detract from alternatives, and/or constitute a counsel of despair? I suggest that in the absence of established better alternatives, NSPs constitute a morally acceptable and in some cases even desirable option despite the continued criminalization of injecting drug use. Yet they must be conceived and administered in ways that do not reinforce prevailing social prejudices. PMID:16809168

  18. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  19. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-01

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. PMID:25986434

  20. Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

  1. Surgeon's satisfaction on the use of invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Hashem; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers, especially operating room personnel, are at increased risk for sharps injury and transmission of blood-borne pathogens as a result of their occupation. Infection with these pathogens occurs mainly by percutaneous or mucocutaneous exposure to blood-borne pathogens. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room. Materials and Methods: The needle magnet device is consisted of three parts: a cap, a magnet and a metal container. It was invented by the authors for the first time in Iran. The average weight of this device is 200 g and it can be easily placed near the surgery field or on the myostand. It has magnetic properties that attracts the sharp pointed particles during surgery and preserve them in a protected space. The device was used in surgical field by 33 surgeons during 90 surgical operations. Then, the satisfaction of participants and effectiveness of the device in protection against sharps injury was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: Thirty-one surgeons (94%) believed that needle magnet reduces dispersion of sharp instruments; 79% of the participants suggested that our device reduces sharps injury during operation; 29 surgeons (88%) intended to use this device during operation. Thus, the use of needle magnet within surgical field may reduce the chances of sharps injury during surgery. Conclusion: The use of needle magnet within surgical field reduces the chance of sharp injury during surgery and the surgeons were satisfied with its use. PMID:25013253

  2. A serious mediastinum abscess induced by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA): a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Uchimura, Keigo; Oda, Keishi; Takenaka, Masaru; Kawanami, Toshinori; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old man with interstitial pneumonia and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). He developed a high-grade fever seven days after EBUS-TBNA was performed; laboratory and radiologic findings showed intense inflammatory reactions, with swelling of the mediastinal lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Mediastinal lymph node abscess was diagnosed, and it worsened in spite of systemic antibacterial treatment. Surgical treatment using a median sternotomy was performed, and the cultivation of surgically obtained mediastinal lymph node abscess fluid revealed Streptococcus intermedius. Combined treatment with antibiotics and surgical treatment was effective, leading to remission. PMID:26466704

  3. Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

  4. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  5. Interstitial collagenase gene expression in colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, S. T.; Yun, K.; Motoori, T.; Kuys, Y. M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are complex phenomena believed to be facilitated by the disruption of collagen and elastin fibers in the extracellular matrix. Interstitial collagenase gene expression was studied in colonic adenocarcinoma and adenoma using in situ hybridization. The data indicated that three cell types within the tumor stroma expressed collagenase transcripts; they were eosinophils, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelium. In all 12 adenocarcinomas, a high to moderate level of expression was seen in 1 to 5% of eosinophils and in occasional fibroblasts, whereas these cell types in non-neoplastic mucosa adjacent to tumor showed no detectable expression. Two adenocarcinomas showed expression in hyperplastic endothelium in vascularized granulation tissue. Two out of three adenomas showed expression in eosinophils and fibroblasts at a reduced level. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene expression was, however, negligible in all tissue examined. These results suggest that interstitial collagenase gene activation in the tumor stroma, especially eosinophils, may have an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8362969

  6. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  7. Multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ricken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study formulates a theory for multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues whereby each generation has a distinct reference configuration determined at the time of its deposition. In this model, the solid matrix of a growing tissue consists of a multiplicity of intermingled porous permeable bodies, each of which represents a generation, all of which are constrained to move together in the current configuration. Each generations reference configuration has a one-to-one mapping with the master reference configuration, which is typically that of the first generation. This mapping is postulated based on a constitutive assumption with regard to that generations state of stress at the time of its deposition. For example, the newly deposited generation may be assumed to be in a stress-free state, even though the underlying tissue is in a loaded configuration. The mass content of each generation may vary over time as a result of growth or degradation, thereby altering the material properties of the tissue. A finite element implementation of this framework is used to provide several illustrative examples, including interstitial growth by cell division followed by matrix turnover. PMID:20238138

  8. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  9. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; B?ttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  10. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  11. Development and application of needle trap devices.

    PubMed

    Eom, In-Yong; Tugulea, Anca-Maria; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-07-01

    Needle trap devices (NTDs), like solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, represent a new approach to one-step, solvent-free sample preparation and injection. New NTDs, packed with divinylbenzene (DVB) or Carboxen 1000 particles, are prepared, characterized, and used for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzne, and xylene (BTEX) sampling in our laboratory. This paper describes optimization parameters, performance evaluation, and application of NTDs for the analysis of a BTEX mixture from air. For active sampling, a sampling flow rate is an essential optimization parameter. Using a very small amount of sorbent particles (less than 1mg DVB or Carboxen), 1.9 mL/min was the highest sampling flow rate that could be used with no breakthrough of any BTEX components. A single NTD was used to study breakthrough volumes (BTVs) and the breakthrough volume was proportional to the quantity of sorbent packed inside the needle. The Carboxen-packed NTD showed higher BTVs for all BTEX compared to the DVB-packed NTD. The performance of home-made NTDs was evaluated at different sampling flow rates, storage times, and for reusability. Finally, DVB packed NTDs were used to sample and analyze a BTEX mixture from permanent marker fumes, mosquito coil smoke, and at various points in the interior of a house. A very low concentration (10 pg/mL) of toluene was detected in the garage. PMID:18355830

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Palash; Basu, Nandita; Gupta, Sanjay Sen; Bhattacharya, Nirmal; Mallick, Mamata Guha

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33), schwannoma (3), neurofibroma (11), paraganglioma (5), angiofibroma (1) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1). Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation. PMID:21938166

  13. Fabrication of Metallic Microneedle by Electroplating and Sharpening of it by Electrochemical Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Hao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Takaoki, Yutaka; Izumi, Hayato; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato; Aoyagi, Seiji

    Aiming at the use in low-invasive medical treatments, this paper reports a fabrication of metallic microneedle, which has a three-dimensionally sharp tip. Compared to a silicon or polymer needle which we previously proposed, a metallic needle has toughness to evade breakage. Even if it is broken, it does not become small pieces thanks to its ductility, which increases the safety for a human body. A nickel needle was fabricated using electroplating, followed by sharpening it by electrochemical etching. A smooth tip surface is obtained due to electrochemical etching reactions. Sharpness and smoothness of the tip are effective for easy insertion in the viewpoint of large stress concentration and small friction, respectively. An experiment of inserting the fabricated needle into an artificial skin of silicone rubber was carried out. The resistance force during insertion was much reduced compared to that of commercial stainless needle (23 G: shank diameter 650 µm). Although a fabricated metallic needle was inserted and pulled-out for several times, it was not broken in any trial. By changing the angle between object surface and needle axis, the insertion experiments were carried out. Fabricated nickel needle was not broken for any angle, while silicon needle was broken in case the angle is small, i.e., the needle is much inclined from normal direction of the surface, which ensures the safety of metallic microneedle to human body in the viewpoint of breakage.

  14. MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of difficult vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an active MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

  15. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36

  16. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  17. [Influences of pine needles physiological properties on the PAH accumulation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Wen; Tian, Fu-Lin; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2008-07-01

    The lipid contents, specific surface areas and stomata density of two kinds of pine (Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii) needles were determined simultaneously with the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The influences of the physiological properties of two species on the accumulation of PAHs in pine needles were investigated. The PAH concentrations in Cedrus deodar needles are higher than that in Pinus thunbergii needles, and the average total PAH concentrations (PAHs) in two species are (1 101 +/- 692) ng/g and (518 +/- 339) ng/g, respectively. The capabilities of accumulating PAHs for two species are different. The lipid content is the principal factor influencing the levels of pine needle PAHs. In Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii needles, 3-ring (> 56%) and 4-ring (> 31%) PAHs make up large proportions of sigma PAHs. The accumulation capabilities of pine needles for 3-ring PAHs are greater than 4-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-ring PAHs are about two times of those of 4-ring PAHs. There are no significant correlations between the levels of 5- and 6-ring PAHs and lipid contents for two species. For two species, the correlations between lipid contents and specific surface areas are different, which results in the contrary correlations between the PAH levels and specific surface areas for Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii. Specific surface areas and stomata density affect the levels of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in pine needles significantly. PMID:18828394

  18. A Magnetic Needle Rheometer to Measure Langmuir Monolayers Shear Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Coralie; Ding, Junqi; Zasadzinski, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    A magnetic needle viscometer was designed to measure the shear viscosity of thin films spread at the air-liquid interface: a magnetic needle floating at the interface is dragged across the Langmuir trough by application of a constant magnetic field generated by Helhmotz coils. The needle motion is recorded by a camera placed above the experiment and the velocity versus time profile extracted from the digitized images. A simple analysis shows that the needle speed varies exponentially with time. The asymptotic regime, as the needle starts moving, gives the value of the magnetic force Fm, which varies linearly with the current applied in the coils, the proportionality coefficient being specific to one needle. The terminal velocity is Fm/C where C is the drag coefficient of the system. Unless the viscosity m which is a parameter intrinsic to the system, C depends on the probe geometry but for a given needle it is directly proportional to m. Different needles of different sizes can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the experiment. Results obtained for simple surfactants monolayers demonstrate the accuracy of the set-up. For samples undergoing first order transition upon compression, such as a DPPC monolayer, the shear viscosity can be described according to a free-area model as was previously reported. Second order phase transitions can also be detected for fatty acids monolayers for example: the shear viscosity changes drastically at the transition showing a strong dependency on the molecular organization.

  19. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  20. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  1. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  2. Design of a Slender Tuned Ultrasonic Needle for Bone Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Rebecca; Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle, particularly focusing on design guidelines applicable for any slender tuned ultrasonic device component. Ultrasonic surgical devices are routinely used to cut a range of biological tissues, such as bone. However the realisation of an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle is particularly challenging. This is due to the requirement to generate sufficient vibrational amplitude capable of penetrating mineralised tissue, while avoiding flexural vibrational responses, which are known to reduce the performance and reliability of slender ultrasonic devices. This investigation uses finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the vibrational behaviour of a resonant needle which has dimensions that match closely to an 8Gx4inch bone marrow biopsy needle. Features of the needle, including changes in material and repeated changes in diameter, have been included and systematically altered to demonstrate that the location of and geometry of these features can significantly affect the resonant frequency of bending and torsional modes of vibration while having a limited effect on the frequency and shape of the tuned longitudinal mode. Experimental modal analysis was used to identify the modal parameters of the selected needle design, validating the FEA model predictions of the longitudinal mode and the close flexural modes. This verifies that modal coupling can be avoided by judicious small geometry modifications. Finally, the tuned needle assembly was driven under typical operational excitation conditions to demonstrate that an ultrasonic biopsy needle can be designed to operate in a purely longitudinal motion.

  3. Pigment-based identification of ozone-damaged pine needles as a basis for spectral segregation of needle conditions.

    PubMed

    Di Vittorio, Alan V

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution affects large areas of forest, and field assessment of these effects is a costly, site-specific process. This paper establishes a biochemical basis for identifying ozone-damaged pine trees to facilitate efficient remote sensing assessment of air pollution damage. Several thousand live needles were collected from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi) trees at three sites in Plumas National Forest and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. These needles were assembled into 504 samples (based on the abaxial surface) and grouped according to five dominant needle conditions (green, winter fleck, sucking insect damage, scale insect damage, and ozone damage) and a random mixture of needles. Pigment concentrations per unit needle area of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotenoids were measured. The following pigment concentration ratios were calculated for all samples: chlorophyll a/total carotenoids, chlorophyll b/total carotenoids, total chlorophyll/carotenoids, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b. The group of ozone-damaged needles had significantly lower mean pigment concentrations (family-wise p < 0.01) and significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/total carotenoid and total chlorophyll/total carotenoid ratios (family-wise p < 0.01) than all other groups of needles. Ozone-damaged needles had a significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio than all other groups except one (family-wise p < 0.01). Linear discriminant analysis with three factors (chlorophyll a concentration, the chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio, and the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio) and subsequent maximum likelihood classification of damaged and non-damaged needles gave an overall cross-validated accuracy of 96%. These ozone-damaged needles are biochemically unique in relation to other needle conditions in this study, and further research is needed to generalize these results. PMID:19329674

  4. Dynamics and Topography of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular topography covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.

  5. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

    2006-10-30

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

  6. Use of swine in brain interstitial radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, G.M.; Eddy, H.A.; Better, W.E.; Carlyle, J.R.

    1986-08-01

    Swine offer an excellent, but previously unused, model for brain interstitial ionizing and non-ionizing radiation research. Significant advantages include size, cost, maneuverability, availability and conditioning. The methodology and some experimental results from studies of the effects of interstitial microwave hyperthermia and iridium-192 irradiation are presented.

  7. Limited retention of micro-organisms using commercialized needle filters.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, W; McCarthy, G; Mawhinney, T; Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E

    2015-03-01

    A study was undertaken to compare a commercialized needle filter with a 0.2-?m filtered epidural set and a non-filtered standard needle. No culturable bacteria were detected following filtration through the 0.2-?m filter. Bacterial breakthrough was observed with the filtered needle (pore size 5 ?m) and the non-filtered needle. Filtered systems (0.2 ?m) should be employed to achieve total bacterial retention. This highlights that filtration systems with different pore sizes will have varying ability to retain bacteria. Healthcare professionals need to know what type/capability of filter is implied on labels used by manufacturers, and to assess whether the specification has the desired functionality to prevent bacterial translocation through needles. PMID:25618235

  8. Progress towards a needle-free hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lebre, Filipa; Borchard, Gerrit; de Lima, Maria Conceição Pedroso; Borges, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. Vaccination is the most efficient way to prevent hepatitis B. Despite the success of the currently available vaccine, there is a clear need for the development of new generation of HBV vaccines. Needle-free immunization is an attractive approach for mass immunization campaigns, since avoiding the use of needles reduces the risk of needle-borne diseases and prevents needle-stick injuries and pain, thus augmenting patient compliance and eliminating the need for trained medical personnel. Moreover, this kind of immunization was shown to induce good systemic as well as mucosal immunological responses, which is important for the creation of both a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine. In order to produce a better, safer, more efficient and more suitable vaccine, adjuvants have been used. In this article, several adjuvants tested over the years for their potential to help create a needle-free vaccine against HBV are reviewed. PMID:21088986

  9. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  10. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  11. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  12. CUDA accelerated simulation of needle insertions in deformable tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriciu, Alexandru

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a stiff needle-deformable tissue interaction model. The model uses a mesh-less discretization of continuum; avoiding thus the expensive remeshing required by the finite element models. The proposed model can accommodate both linear and nonlinear material characteristics. The needle-deformable tissue interaction is modeled through fundamental boundaries. The forces applied by the needle on the tissue are divided in tangent forces and constraint forces. The constraint forces are adaptively computed such that the material is properly constrained by the needle. The implementation is accelerated using NVidia CUDA. We present detailed analysis of the execution timing in both serial and parallel case. The proposed needle insertion model was integrated in a custom software that loads DICOM images, generate the deformable model, and can simulate different insertion strategies.

  13. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department. PMID:26722162

  14. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.; Blendis, L.; Evans, W.K.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In this group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.

  15. Phase ordering of hard needles on a quasicrystalline substrate.

    PubMed

    Khlitz, Philipp; Stark, Holger

    2012-05-01

    Quasicrystals possess long-range positional and orientational order. However, they cannot be periodic in space due to their non-crystallographic symmetries such as a 10-fold rotational axis. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional hard-needle systems subject to a quasiperiodic substrate potential. We determine phase diagrams as a function of density and potential strength for two needle lengths. With increasing potential strength short needles tend to form isolated clusters that display directional order along the decagonal directions. Long needles create interacting clusters that stabilize the nematic phase. At large potential strengths the clusters position themselves on two interwoven Fibonacci sequences perpendicular to the cluster orientation. Alternatively, one obtains extended domains of needle clusters which are aligned along all decagonal symmetry directions. PMID:22583263

  16. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Klovenski, Victoria; Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department. PMID:26722162

  17. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A review.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Harari, Sergio; Caminati, Antonella; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2016-01-01

    For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). Other entities in which smoking has a definite or suggested role include pulmonary Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of smoking-related lung damage and on the clinical aspects of these disorders with the exception of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which will be reviewed elsewhere in this review series. PMID:26138798

  18. Interstitial and substitutional solute effects in intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Noebe, R.D.; George, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume addresses recent developments in the understanding of the effects of interstitial and substitutional solute atoms on the physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds. Topics discussed include the theory, modeling, and experimental verification of such effects as static and dynamic strain aging, the Portevin-le Chatelier effect, solid solution hardening behavior, dislocation-solute interactions, and related topics such as the amelioration of environmental embrittlement by various solutes. Topics covered include: (1) Vacancy-solute interactions in FeAl-based alloys; (2) Static and dynamic strain aging in microalloyed NiAl-based alloys; (3) Design fundamentals for Gamma TiAl alloys; and (4) Strain rate sensitivity of Cr-stabilized cubic titanium trialuminides.

  19. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the urethra.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, G P; Thornbury, K D; McHale, N G; Hollywood, M A

    2006-01-01

    The smooth muscle layer of the urethra generates spontaneous myogenic tone that is thought to make a major contribution to urinary continence. The mechanisms underlying generation of tone remain unclear, however recent studies from our laboratory highlighted a role for a specialised population of pacemaker cells which we originally referred to as interstitial cells (IC) and now term ICC. Urethra ICC possess an electrical pacemaker mechanism characterised by rhythmic activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels leading to spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp and spontaneous transient depolarisations (STDs) under current clamp conditions. Both STICS and STDs are now known to be associated with spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations that result from a complex interplay between release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. In this review we will consider some of the precise mechanisms involved in the generation of pacemaker activity and discuss how these are modulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. PMID:16796799

  20. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  1. Genetic Susceptibility and Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Susan K.; Schwartz, David A.; Warg, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Recent genetic findings have identified new targets of investigation in the field of interstitial lung diseases and have the potential to change clinical care. Recent Findings These findings implicate abnormalities in (1) host defense, (2) cell-cell adhesion, and (3) aging and senescence in the pathophysiology of pulmonary fibrosis. At least one common genetic variant strongly associated with pulmonary fibrosis appears to have prognostic implications for patients. Summary The inherited risk for pulmonary fibrosis is substantial, and recent data suggests that genetic risk for familial and sporadic forms of the disease are similar. Further characterization of the genetic risk will influence clinical practice in terms of categorization, diagnosis, and screening of individuals for this disease. PMID:25022318

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ascherman, Dana P.; Cottin, Vincent; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Danoff, Sonye K.; Oddis, Chester V.

    2011-01-01

    The lung is one of the most common extra-muscular targets in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prevalent and often devastating manifestation of IIM. IIM-associated ILD (IIM-ILD) contributes to nearly 80% of the mortality in IIM with a reported prevalence of 65% of newly diagnosed IIM cases. Although ILD frequently accompanies clinical and laboratory findings of myositis, overt signs of muscle disease may be absent in the setting of significant lung disease. Understanding the varied scope of presentation of these diseases is essential to providing optimal patient care. This review will provide an in depth examination of ILD in IIM both from a rheumatologic and pulmonary perspective and will discuss the scope of disease, presenting features, genetic associations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, radiographic and histopathologic findings, along with biomarker assessment and a rationale for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21941374

  3. Electron microscopy of desquamative interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Shortland, J. R.; Darke, C. S.; Crane, W. A. J.

    1969-01-01

    The clinical, radiographical, and physiological picture of two patients suffering from desquamative interstitial pneumonia is described. The diagnosis was established by lung biopsy when the characteristic histological features were found on light microscopy. The dramatic response to adequate corticosteroid therapy is recorded, and attention is directed to the danger of serious relapse on early withdrawal of this treatment and the subsequent satisfactory response to a second course. Electron microscopical studies of the tissue from one patient add materially to the understanding of the clinical course and the nature of the tissue response. At the ultrastructural level the attenuated membranous (type 1) pneumonocytes which normally line the alveoli were replaced by granular (type 2) pneumonocytes. The desquamated intra-alveolar cells comprised two main groups. These were granular pneumonocytes, similar to those lining the alveoli, and smaller numbers of macrophages. The cytopathic effects of virus infection were not detected by light or electron microscopy. Images PMID:5821622

  4. Bortezomib-induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Leung, Nelson; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2015-07-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from inflammatory tubulointerstitial injury induced by medications, infections and systemic diseases. Bortezomib has been increasingly used especially in renal related indications such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Severe allergic reactions from bortezomib treatment including AIN have not been described in the literature. We report a 47-year-old white man who developed biopsy-proven allergic AIN after treatment with bortezomib for his C3 glomerulonephritis. The patient's kidney function improved after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib, but worsened with recurrent AKI episode after re-initiation of bortezomib. His renal function improved after glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biopsy-proven AIN from bortezomib. PMID:26109684

  5. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  6. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  7. Optical Flow-Based Tracking of Needles and Needle-Tip Localization Using Circular Hough Transform in Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2015-08-01

    Image-guided interventions have become the standard of care for needle-based procedures. The success of the image-guided procedures depends on the ability to precisely locate and track the needle. This work is primarily focused on 2D ultrasound-based tracking of a hollow needle (cannula) that is composed of straight segments connected by shape memory alloy actuators. An in-plane tracking algorithm based on optical flow was proposed to track the cannula configuration in real-time. Optical flow is a robust tracking algorithm that can easily run on a CPU. However, the algorithm does not perform well when it is applied to the ultrasound images directly due to the intensity variation in the images. The method presented in this work enables using the optical flow algorithm on ultrasound images to track features of the needle. By taking advantage of the bevel tip, Circular Hough transform was used to accurately locate the needle tip when the imaging is out-of-plane. Through experiments inside tissue phantom and ex-vivo experiments in bovine kidney, the success of the proposed tracking methods were demonstrated. Using the methods presented in this work, quantitative information about the needle configuration is obtained in real-time which is crucial for generating control inputs for the needle and automating the needle insertion. PMID:25503523

  8. Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-10-17

    A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

  9. Tree- and needle-age-dependent variations in antioxidants and photoprotective pigments in Norway spruce needles at the alpine timberline.

    PubMed

    Tegischer, K; Tausz, M; Wieser, G; Grill, D

    2002-06-01

    To cope with environmental stress, plants are equipped with antioxidative (e.g., ascorbate, glutathione and alpha-tocopherol) and photoprotective (e.g., xanthophyll cycle pigments) defense systems. We investigated the defense capacities of three tree age classes (mature, sapling and seedling) of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at a field site near the timberline. Biochemical data were expressed on both a needle dry mass and a surface area basis. Compared with current-year needles, previous-year needles contained higher mass- and area-based concentrations of chlorophylls and alpha-tocopherol, and a larger xanthophyll cycle pool that was in a more epoxidized state. Total glutathione concentration was lower, the glutathione pool was more reduced and the ascorbate pool was more oxidized in previous-year needles than in current-year needles. Needle concentrations of glutathione and alpha-tocopherol increased and chlorophyll concentration decreased with increasing tree age when expressed on a surface area basis. On a dry mass basis, these trends were reversed or nonexistent. The ascorbate pool was more reduced and the glutathione pool was more oxidized in needles of mature trees than in needles of saplings and seedlings. The proportion of protective xanthophyll cycle pigments decreased and the de-epoxidation state increased with increasing tree age. We conclude that tree age and the basis of expression of antioxidant concentration--surface area or dry mass--are important in scaling from seedlings to large trees. PMID:12045031

  10. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lmmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cellcell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  11. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation. PMID:26062195

  12. Method for the production of needle coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kokot, H.; Kolling, G.; Romey, I.

    1982-06-08

    Coal tar pitch is liquified at temperature of from about 135 to 280/sup 0/ C. The liquid coal tar pitch is filtered through a sieve with apertures from about 100 to 220 mu M and with a closed surface area of at least 75 percent of the total sieve surface under pressures of from about 2 to 10 bar until a filter cake of a height of from about 40 to 80 mm forms above the sieve for separating ash, soot and quinoline insoluble particles from the liquid. Then the filtrate obtained is subjected to a coking process. The needle cokes resulting in accordance with the invention provide excellent materials for the production of graphite electrodes.

  13. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  14. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized. PMID:23960981

  15. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    New applications of confocal laser endomicroscopy were developed as pCLE in the bile duct and nCLE for pancreatic cystic tumors, pancreatic masses and lymph nodes. The aim of this paper would be to give you an update in this new technology and to try to define its place in the diagnosis of cystic and solid pancreatic masses. The material used was a 19G EUS-needle in which the stylet was replaced by the Confocal mini-probe. The mini-probe (0.632 mm of diameter) is pre-loaded and screwed by a locking device in the EUS-Needle and guided endosonographically in the target. Regarding pancreatic cystic lesion, the presence of epithelial villous structures based on nCLE was associated with pancreatic cystic neoplasm (IPMN) (P = 0.004) and provided a sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%. A superficial vascular network pattern visualized on nCLE was identified in serous cystadenomas. It corresponded on pathological specimen to a dense and subepithelial capillary vascularization. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this sign for the diagnosis of SCA were 87%, 69%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. In pancreatic adenocarcinomas, nCLE found vascular leakage with irregular vessels with leakage of fluorescein into the tumor, large dark clumps which correspond to humps of malignant cells. These criteria correlate with the histological structure of those tumors which are characterized by tumoral glands, surrounded by fibrosis in case of fibrous stroma tumor. Neuroendocrine tumors showed a dense network of small vessels on a dark background, which fits with the histological structure based on cord of cells surrounded by vessels and by fibrosis. nCLE is feasible during a EUS examination; these preliminary results are very encouraging and may be used in the future in case of inconclusive EUS-FNA. PMID:26643694

  16. Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  17. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  18. Comparative studies on extraction of sediment interstitial waters: Discussion and comment on the current state of interstitial water studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The implication by Murthy and Ferrell (1972)that interstitial water studies are in a confused state is criticized on the basis that the authors have not drawn on a considerable body of data, especially Soviet studies since the 1950's, and results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Pressure filtration systems for extracting interstitial waters are currently the methods of choice for marine studies and have achieved substantial reliability and reproducibility. Although gaps and problems remain, many aspects of interstitial composition of marine sediments have been clarified; these include the substantial constancy of composition of interstitial waters in deep sea pelagic deposits, depletion of interstitial cations owing to authigenic mineral formation in more rapidly accumulated (especially terrigenous) sediments, and special phenomena in sediments overlying salt deposits. ?? 1974.

  19. Primary rat Sertoli and interstitial cells exhibit a differential response to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, S.R.; Welsh, M.J.; Payne, A.H.; Brown, C.D.; Brabec, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Two cell types central to the support of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell and the interstitial (Leydig) cell, were isolated from the same cohort of young male rats and challenged with cadmium chloride to compare their susceptibility to the metal. Both cell types were cultured under similar conditions, and similar biochemical endpoints were chosen to minimize experimental variability. These endpoints include the uptake of 109Cd, reduction of the vital tetrazolium dye MTT, incorporation of 3H-leucine, change in heat-stable cadmium binding capacity, and production of lactate. Using these parameters, it was observed that the Sertoli cell cultures were adversely affected in a dose-and time-dependent manner, while the interstitial cell cultures, treated with identical concentrations of CdCl2, were less affected. The 72-hr LC50's for Sertoli cells and interstitial cells were 4.1 and 19.6 microM CdCl2, respectively. Thus, different cell populations within the same tissue may differ markedly in susceptibility to a toxicant. These in vitro data suggest that the Sertoli cell, in relation to the interstitium, is particularly sensitive to cadmium. Because the Sertoli cell provides functional support for the seminiferous epithelium, the differential sensitivity of this cell type may, in part, explain cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction, particularly at doses that leave the vascular epithelium intact.

  20. Solving the puzzle of <100> interstitial loop formation in bcc Iron.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E; Osetsky, Yury N; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2013-06-28

    The interstitial loop is a unique signature of radiation damage in structural materials for nuclear and other advanced energy systems. Unlike other bcc metals, two types of interstitial loops, 1/2<111> and <100>, are formed in bcc iron and its alloys. However, the mechanism by which <100> interstitial dislocation loops are formed has remained undetermined since they were first observed more than fifty years ago. We describe our atomistic simulations that have provided the first direct observation of <100> loop formation. The process was initially observed using our self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method, and subsequently confirmed using molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of <100> loops involves a distinctly atomistic interaction between two 1/2<111> loops, and does not follow the conventional assumption of dislocation theory, which is Burgers vector conservation between the reactants and the product. The process observed is different from all previously proposed mechanisms. Thus, our observations might provide a direct link between experiments and simulations and new insights into defect formation that may provide a basis to increase the radiation resistance of these strategic materials. PMID:23848895

  1. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

  2. Projector-Based Augmented Reality for Intuitive Intraoperative Guidance in Image-Guided 3D Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Krempien, Robert Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lueder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver; Eggers, Georg; Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. Methods and Materials: The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. Results: In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). Conclusions: The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation.

  3. Biopsy needle artifact localization in MRI-guided robotic transrectal prostate intervention.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan Bongjoon; Iordachita, Iulian I; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Kaushal, Aradhana; Camphausen, Kevin; Whitcomb, Louis L

    2012-07-01

    Recently a number of robotic intervention systems for magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided needle placement in the prostate have been reported. In MRI-guided needle interventions, after a needle is inserted, the needle position is often confirmed with a volumetric MRI scan. Commonly used titanium needles are not directly visible in an MRI, but they generate a susceptibility artifact in the immediate neighborhood of the needle. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the relationship between the true position of titanium biopsy needle and the corresponding needle artifact position in MRI, thereby providing a better understanding of the influence of needle artifact on targeting errors. The titanium needle tip artifact extended 9 mm beyond the actual needle tip location with tendency to bend toward the scanner's B (0) magnetic field direction, and axially displaced 0.38 and 0.32 mm (mean) in scanner's frequency and phase encoding direction, respectively. PMID:22481805

  4. Transport and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil Interstitial Water Across Forested, Montane Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, M. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of compounds formed from the degradation of both terrestrial and microbial material. The abundance and composition of the DOM present in stream water is important to stream processes such as UV light attenuation, nutrient supply and metal sorption. However, an excess of DOM can cause reactions with chlorination compounds at drinking water treatment plants, creating potentially harmful disinfection byproducts. Currently, little is known regarding the influence of soil interstitial water on stream DOM composition. In this study, we explore the role of interstitial water on DOM transport and transformation from the hillslope to the stream in a montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Colorado. We installed a suite of tension lysimeters located within the rooting zone across representative north- and south-facing slopes. Interstitial water and stream samples were collected daily for approximately seven weeks during the 2013 spring snow melt period and analyzed for DOM composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. To date, we have used fluorescence index (FI) to evaluate differences between microbial and terrestrial DOM inputs and humification index (HIX) to assess degree of humification undergone by the DOM. Preliminary results indicate that FI was significantly correlated with hillslope aspect (p<.01), with higher FI on north-facing slopes, suggesting more microbial precursor material. Stream samples reveal greater humification throughout the snowmelt period (p<.01). This increase could suggest a transition from deeper groundwater sources to shallow soil interstitial water inputs into the stream during snowmelt. These preliminary results suggest that changes in DOM composition through the catchment during snowmelt can be linked to hydrologic transport. Further site specific model development will reveal explicit changes in the DOM chemistry and will increase our understanding of fundamental nutrient cycling processes at the hillslope to catchment scale.

  5. Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

    2010-01-01

    Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:20431694

  6. Carbon Nanotube Micro-Needles for Rapid Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradley; Aria, Adrianus Indrat; Gat, Amir; Cosse, Julia; Montemayor, Lauren; Beizaie, Masoud; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    By catalyst patterning, bundles of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be assembled to create 2D arrays of hollow micro-needles with feature size as small as a few microns. For transdermal drug delivery, the most challenging mechanical requirement is to make the CNT micro-needle small enough so that delivery is painless yet large enough so that the micro-needle can achieve skin penetration. By taking advantage of capillary action and the nanoporosity of CNT bundles, we can wick high strength polymer into the inter-spacing between nanotubes to augment the stiffness of our micro-needles. For low viscous polymers, the large ratio between the micron sized center hole of the micro-needle and the nanopores of the surrounding CNT allow us to wick polymer through the nanotubes while maintaining an open central hole for drug transport. For a transdermal patch prototype with a delivery area less than 1cm x 1cm square, we can fabricate 50 CNT micro-needles that produces a total flow rate up to 100 uL/s with actuation pressure provided by a mere finger tap. From in vitro experiments, we will demonstrate that CNT micro-needles provide a much faster convective delivery of drugs than conventional topical diffusion based patches. We acknowledge Zcube s.r.l for their support of this work.

  7. Comparison of vertebroplasty using directional versus straight needle

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Ryan K; Timothy, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed to treat pain and immobility associated with vertebral compression fractures. Previous studies have shown that a single injection can achieve adequate fill across the midline of the vertebral body. Purpose To compare the radiological outcomes of using a novel steerable needle with using a conventional, straight needle in unipedicular vertebroplasty. Material and Methods Data were collected from 19 patients who were operated at our institute between 1 September 2010 and 31 March 2011. Outcomes were measured in terms of radiological evidence of midline crossing of cement. The available pre- and postoperative pain scores and complications were reviewed. Students t-test was used to compare mean cement projection across the midline in both groups with P?needle (58%) compared with the straight needle (35%) (P?=?0.046). Cement leakage was higher with the steerable needle (44% versus 30%); however no clinical complications were reported in either group. Conclusion Percutaneous vertebroplasty using a directional needle is an excellent example of advancement and refinement in spinal surgery without increased clinical risk. Our results indicate that the novel technique can potentially provide better radiological outcomes when compared with a straight needle. A larger, randomized multicenter prospective trial would be valuable in confirming these findings. PMID:25815210

  8. Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration: a hybrid method

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (cTBNA) was first performed approximately 30 years ago; however TBNA was not widely adopted until the development of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Current EBUS-TBNA needle sizes are limited to 21- and 22-gauge. In order to determine whether a 19-gauge (19G) needle in EBUS-TBNA can further improve the diagnostic yield and simplify the methodology of EBUS-TBNA we developed a hybrid method. Here we report our initial experience in assessing the feasibility of performing EBUS-TBNA using a conventional 19G TBNA needle. Methods Ten patients with diagnosed or suspected lung cancer with or without lymphadenopathy (LAD) were sampled for diagnostic and/or staging purposes. Patients with suspected benign processes were sampled only for diagnosis. A 19G cTBNA needle was deployed through the working channel of the EBUS bronchoscope. Samples obtained were evaluated for cyto- and histopathologic adequacy. Results All 10 patients successfully underwent hybrid 19G EBUS-TBNA. All samples were considered adequate for cyto- and histopathologic evaluation. Conclusions Hybrid EBUS-TBNA utilizing a 19G cTBNA needle through an EBUS scope is feasible and may be able to reliably acquire histologic specimens. PMID:26807276

  9. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute interstitial nephritis Symptoms: Difficulty breathing headache numbness oliguria Medication: Methylprednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasma exchange Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Case Report: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. Conclusions: This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  10. Hybrid reflection type metasurface of nano-antennas designed for optical needle field generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-01

    We propose a reflection type metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurface composed of hybrid optical antennas for comprehensive spatial engineering the properties of optical fields. Its capability is illustrated with an example to create a radially polarized vectorial beam for optical needle field generation. Functioning as local quarter-wave-plates (QWP), the MIM metasurface is designed to convert circularly polarized incident into local linear polarization to create an overall radial polarization with corresponding binary phases and desired normalized amplitude modulation ranged from 0.07 to 1. To obtain enough degrees of freedom, the optical-antenna layer comprises periodic arrangements of double metallic nano-bars with perpendicular placement and single nano-bars respectively for different amplitude modulation requirements. Both of the antennas enable to introduce π/2 retardation while reaching the desired modulation range both for phase and amplitude. Through adjusting the antennas' geometry and array carefully, we shift the gap-surface plasmon resonances facilitated by optical antennas to realize the manipulation of vectorial properties. Designed at 1064 nm wavelength, the particularly generated vectorial light output can be further tightly focused by a high numerical aperture objective to obtain longitudinally polarized flat-top focal field. The so-called optical needle field is a promising candidate for novel applications that transcend disciplinary boundaries. The proposed metasurface establishes a new class of compact optical components based on nano-scale structures, leading to compound functions for vectorial light generation.

  11. Neutral-carrier-based needle-type sensor for the determination of calcium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Hong, Daqing; Li, Yiyong; Lin, Zhihong; Ren, Shu

    2001-09-01

    Calcium ion is a very important messenger not only between cell and cell, but also in meridian main and collateral channels. A new neutral carrier PVC membrane based needle- type potential sensor was prepared, which shows a good selectivity for Ca2+. Response characteristics, pH, response time of sensor, other metal ions such as Mg2+, Na+, and K+ in measuring calcium ion were investigated. The resulting sensor has a liner range from 1.0 X 10-6 to 9.1 X 10-3 mol. L. The sensor will be used in the detection of Ca2+ in vivo in muscular tissues of the mice.

  12. Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

    2012-07-01

    Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

  13. [Skin fragments carried by spinal needles in cadavers].

    PubMed

    Reina, M A; Lpez, A; Manzarbeitia, F; Amador, V; Goxencia, I; Olmedilla, M C

    1995-11-01

    Epidural or intradural puncture with inappropriately stiffened or improperly placed needles can carry cells or fragments of epithelial tissue into the epidural or intradural space. These skin fragments feed by imbibition, possibly leading to the development of epidermoid cysts. We aimed to study the ability of today's needles to transport cells or epithelial fragments. We studied 120 needles in 6 groups of 20, as follows: group 1, Touhy G-16; group 2, Touhy G-17; group 3, Quincke G-22; group 4, Quincke G-26; group 5, Sprotte G-22, and group 6, Sprotte G-24. These needles were used to make intradural and epidural insertions, as indicated, with stiffeners fully in place. Insertions were made into 3 cadavers, epidermal cells or skin fragments were then isolated from the solutions used to wash the needles, and the samples were studied under an optical microscope. We identified groups of cells or epidermal tissues in 45% of the Touhy G-16 samples and in 30% of the Touhy G-17 samples. Squamous epithelial cells were found in 15% of the Quincke G-22 samples and in 30% of the Sprotte G-22 samples. There was a significant difference between the amount of tissue transported by the Touhy needles in comparison with the Quincke (p < 0.01) and Sprotte (p < 0.05) needles. Needles from some manufacturers transport epithelial fragments during lumbar puncture. We believe that better quality control during manufacture of epidural and intradural needles can help to eradicate the rare neurological complications derived from the removal of epithelial cells and their subsequent deposit inside the spinal channel. PMID:8584775

  14. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device. PMID:12494285

  15. Efficient needle plasma actuators for flow control and surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Portugal, Sherlie; Roy, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a milliwatt class needle actuator suitable for plasma channels, vortex generation, and surface cooling. Electrode configurations tested for a channel configuration show 1400% and 300% increase in energy conversion efficiency as compared to conventional surface and channel corona actuators, respectively, generating up to 3.4 m/s air jet across the channel outlet. The positive polarity of the needle is shown to have a beneficial effect on actuator efficiency. Needle-plate configuration is demonstrated for improving cooling of a flat surface with a 57% increase in convective heat transfer coefficient. Vortex generation by selective input signal manipulation is also demonstrated.

  16. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  17. Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Chung, H J

    2000-04-01

    Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea were analyzed and identified in this study. Eighty-one and 39 kinds of flavor compounds were detected in pine sprout tea and pine needle tea by GC, respectively. Among them, 55 and 29 flavor compounds were identified by GC-MS, respectively. Major flavor compounds of pine sprout tea were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-thujene, terpinene-4-ol, and delta-cadinene, and major flavor compounds of pine needle tea were alpha-pinene, isoamyl alcohol, trans-caryophyllene, terpinene-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, and delta-cadinene. PMID:10775384

  18. Control of interstitial fluid pressure: role of beta1-integrins.

    PubMed

    Reed, R K; Berg, A; Gjerde, E A; Rubin, K

    2001-05-01

    This review has summarized experiments which show that the connective tissue cells can actively modulate the physical properties of the interstitial matrix so that it becomes an "active" participant in transcapillary fluid exchange and thereby interstitial fluid homeostasis. The beta1-integrin system seems to provide a common pathway by which the cells can both raise and lower the interstitial fluid pressure. The experiments with alpha-trinositol and platelet-derived growth factor-BB suggest that the connective tissue can serve as a novel target for pharmacologic intervention in inflammation. PMID:11320485

  19. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4m) and more densely-packed (up to 110(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1l/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. PMID:25601169

  20. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the design optimization and construction of the first prototype directional source. Potential clinical applications and potential benefits of directional sources have been shown for prostate and breast tumors.

  1. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  2. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  3. Relaxation of interstitials in spherical colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshal, D. S.; Myasnikova, A. E.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical colloidal crystals (CCs) self-assemble on the interface between two liquids. These 2D structures unconventionally combine local hexagonal order and spherical geometry. Nowadays CCs are actively studied by altering their structures. However, the statistical analysis of such experiments results is limited by uniqueness of self-assembled structures and their short lifetime. Here we perform numerical experiments to investigate pathways of CC structure relaxation after the intrusion of interstitial. The process is simulated in the frames of overdamped molecular dynamics method. The relaxation occurs due to interaction with extended topological defects (ETDs) mandatory induced in spherical CCs by their intrinsic Gaussian curvature. Types of relaxation pathways are classified and their probabilities are estimated in the low-temperature region. To analyze the structural changes during the relaxation we use a parent phase approach allowing us to describe the global organization of spherical order. This organization is preserved by only the most typical relaxation pathway resulting in filling one of vacancies integrated inside the ETD areas. In contrast with this pathway the other ones shift the ETDs centers and can strongly reconstruct the internal structure of ETDs. Temperature dependence of the relaxation processes and the mechanism of dislocation unbinding are discussed. Common peculiarities in relaxation of spherical structures and particular fragments of planar hexagonal lattice are found.

  4. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  5. Design and fabrication of tri-axial capillary needles in flow focusing for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Ting; Feng, Hanxin; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents is significant for various biomedical applications. In this work we describe a novel method based on flow focusing geometry using tri-axial metallic capillary needles manufactured by a laser beam welding process. The tri-axial needle can be readily cleaned, assembled, and aligned. With this needle assembly, we develop a tri-axial capillary flow focusing device in which different combinations of liquids are focused in the core of a high-speed gas stream coflowing through a small orifice. Under appropriate working conditions, stable cone-jet configurations with three layers of liquids in an external gas stream can be obtained, resulting in multilayered microparticles with outer shell, middle layer, and inner core. The new design of tri-axial needles enables reliable encapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in biodegradable microcapsules with the enhanced size distribution, increased productivity, and improved drug-loading efficiency. Furthermore, in this method the outer and the middle shell fluids can be released to produce monodisperse microparticles at smaller scales which have potential applications in multi-modal imaging, drug delivery, material processing and biomedicine.

  6. Long term follow-up of patients with Cushing's disease treated by interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, L.M.; Richards, N.T.; Carr, D.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    The first 86 patients with Cushing's disease treated with interstitial irradiation (by needle implantation) as the sole therapy were reviewed. In the 82 patients who were reassessed 1 yr after treatment 63 (77%) achieved remission. This study comprises the outcome and complications in the 54 patients who had a remission and whom we were able to follow. The follow-up period ranged from 3-26 yr (mean, 10.5) from the time of remission. No instance of clinical or radiological relapse has occurred. Of these 54 patients, yttrium-90 alone was used in 32, of whom 12 (37%) required corticosteroid or T4 replacement therapy in a mean time of 3.5 months; in 7 of these 12 we elected to give an ablative dose. Gold-198 alone was used in 15 patients, of whom 7 (47%) developed hypopituitarism in a mean time of 76 months. Both isotopes were used in 7 patients. A diurnal serum cortisol rhythm was found in 28 of the 31 patients who were not receiving corticosteroid therapy. In 5 of the 7 patients with an initially abnormal pituitary fossa, serial radiological studies revealed remodelling in 3. There have been no complications in the last 17 years. Pituitary implantation with yttrium-90 is an effective alternative to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, with a high remission rate, no recurrence (as yet), no operative complications, and avoidance of hormone replacement in the majority.

  7. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  8. Needle phobia--changing venepuncture practice in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Thurgate, Claire; Heppell, Sue

    2005-11-01

    Needle phobia is a term used in practice to describe an anticipatory fear of needle insertion. A proportion of children display high levels of fear, pain and behavioural distress when exposed to, or anticipating, needle insertion. A difficult routine venepuncture in our ambulatory care unit led staff to review practice and develop a three-step approach to overcoming 'needle phobia': relaxation, control and graded exposure. These developments have resulted in the unit becoming a local referral centre for children and young people between the ages of 5-19 years with this problem. Time and skill are needed to prevent or overcome this distressing problem which can be caused by health care professionals not listening to children and young people. PMID:16315811

  9. Guidelines for processing and reporting of prostatic needle biopsies

    PubMed Central

    van der Kwast, Th H; Lopes, C; Santonja, C; Pihl, C-G; Neetens, I; Martikainen, P; Di Lollo, S; Bubendorf, L; Hoedemaeker, R F

    2003-01-01

    The reported detection rate of prostate cancer, lesions suspicious for cancer, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in needle biopsies is highly variable. In part, technical factors, including the quality of the biopsies, the tissue processing, and histopathological reporting, may account for these differences. It has been thought that standardisation of tissue processing might reduce the observed variations in detection rate. Consensus among the members of the pathology committee of the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) concerning the optimal methodology of tissue embedding resulting in guidelines for prostatic needle biopsy processing was reached. The adoption of an unequivocal and uniform way of reporting lesions encountered in prostatic needle biopsies is considered helpful for decision taking by the clinician. The definition of parameters for quality control of prostatic needle biopsy diagnostics will further facilitate clinical epidemiological multicentre studies of prostate cancer. PMID:12719451

  10. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. 48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Video endoscopy: removal of retained sewing needles from the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, Ashok S; Gajbhiye, Raj N; Tirupude, Bhupesh H; Bajaj, Prasang P; Gupta, Tarush H

    2013-06-01

    We report an interesting case of a 21-year-old unmarried girl who swallowed six sewing needles. Her complaints were pain in the epigastrium, associated with nausea and vomiting. On examination, there was mild tenderness in the epigastrium. X-ray of the abdomen and endoscopy confirmed the presence of six needles in the duodenum, with tips lodged in the duodenal wall. Psychiatric opinion was sought which was normal. Under video endoscope (Pentax 2.8, EG 27708) guidance with Captura biopsy forceps without spikes (Cook DBF-2.4-160-S), six sewing needles were removed successfully from the duodenum through the endoscope channel without any complications. However, a video endoscopic removal of the retained six needles from duodenum is probably being reported for the first time. PMID:24426531

  16. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Miniature oxygen-hydrogen cutting torch constructed from hypodermic needle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P.

    1964-01-01

    A miniature cutting torch consisting of a main body member, upon which the hydrogen and oxygen containers are mounted, valves for controlling gas flow, and a hypodermic needle that acts as a mixing tube and flame tip is constructed.

  18. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  20. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  1. 60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  3. Dry needling as a method of tendinopathy treatment.

    PubMed

    Nagraba, Łukasz; Tuchalska, Julia; Mitek, Tomasz; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a broad concept that describes any painful condition that occurs in or around a tendon.The ideal treatment for tendinopathy is still nebulous. Dry needling is a treatment method in which a special needle is placed into the focus of tendinosis. The aim of this procedure is to form fenestrations which may initiateadvantageous bleeding and thus bring about the influx of growth factors (activating healing and regeneration). Relevant clinical studies have often combineddry needling with autologous blood injection therapy. Results from these studies are encouraging. This review of English-language literature aims to present this noteworthy method of tendino- and enthesopathytreatmentm by describing the results of several trials, hypotheses explaining the underlying mechanism and the application of dry needling in other fields of medicine. PMID:23652530

  4. Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Interstitial lung disease in children genetic background and associated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Dominik; Griese, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children represents a group of rare chronic respiratory disorders. There is growing evidence that mutations in the surfactant protein C gene play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of pediatric interstitial lung disease. Recently, mutations in the ABCA3 transporter were found as an underlying cause of fatal respiratory failure in neonates without surfactant protein B deficiency. Especially in familiar cases or in children of consanguineous parents, genetic diagnosis provides an useful tool to identify the underlying etiology of interstitial lung disease. The aim of this review is to summarize and to describe in detail the clinical features of hereditary interstitial lung disease in children. The knowledge of gene variants and associated phenotypes is crucial to identify relevant patients in clinical practice. PMID:15819986

  6. Interstitial pulmonary disease induced by occupational exposure to paraffin.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J L; Barnon, G; Bousquet, J; Michel, F B; Godard, P

    1990-01-01

    An occupational interstitial pulmonary disease was observed in a 59-year-old workman after five years of massive exposure to aerosolized paraffin. Histologic studies of open-lung biopsy showed a lipoid pneumonia characterized by (1) alveolitis involving large lipid-laden macrophages and (2) interstitial fibrosis. Electron microscopy of AMs disclosed features of paraffin-laden cytoplasmic vacuoles. Successive treatments included prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Despite these treatments and withdrawal from exposure, the pulmonary function became impaired progressively, resulting in restrictive syndrome and severe exertional dyspnea. Concomitantly, PMNs harvested by BAL increased, whereas initial lymphocytosis decreased. This is the first case observed of occupational interstitial fibrosis in which electron-microscopic findings clearly established a relationship with an exposure to paraffin. This observation also emphasizes the switch from alveolitis to fibrosis in the pathogenesis of interstitial pulmonary disease. PMID:2295245

  7. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ?80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  8. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  9. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  11. Intraoperative interstitial implantation of Iridium 192 in the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Intraoperative interstitial implantation of iridium 192 during a lumpectomy for carcinoma of the breast has been well tolerated by the patient. This procedure has decreased the need for anesthesia and repeat hospitalization.

  12. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots. PMID:26737606

  13. 'Needle with ease': rapid stress management techniques.

    PubMed

    Mackereth, Peter; Hackman, Eileen; Tomlinson, Lynne; Manifold, Julie; Orrett, Linda

    For some patients, even looking at a needle is enough to make them feel anxious. Repeated cannulation for bloods and all other intravenous therapies, such as scans and chemotherapy treatment can become so frightening that they escalate to feeling overwhelmed and panicky. If this response persists without any intervention, it may eventually become a phobia (Choy et al, 2007). Four-hundred-thousand patients are treated at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust each year, with many receiving intravenous chemotherapy treatments. The 'CALM' service was initiated over 5 years ago to enable and support patients to achieve a calm state during procedural-related anxieties and panic. Thanks to recent funding from 'Walk the Walk' Breast Cancer Charity, the service has grown, enabling more patients to access the service. Increasing skill has led to development of training courses for health professionals. The training provides easy-to-learn skills, some of which are described here, that can be used to prevent and/or interrupt panic states triggered by medical procedures. PMID:23252177

  14. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  15. Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in community practice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) provides an opportunity to diagnose mediastinal lesions and stage bronchogenic carcinoma in a minimally invasive fashion. The procedure is easy to learn and requires zero upfront cost. Any community pulmonologist can acquire and maintain the skills of C-TBNA without undergoing formal interventional pulmonary fellowship training. Besides being used for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, C-TBNA can be used in patients suspected to have benign conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. It also contributes in improving the diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy while dealing with endobronchial, submucosal, peribronchial, or peripheral lesions. C-TBNA may be the only diagnostic modality that can be performed in patients in whom mediastinoscopy is contraindicated due to a bleeding diathesis. The procedure is safe and has great potential to augment the welfare of patients with pulmonary ailments. The learning curve of the procedure is short and steep. Every community pulmonologist should be able to perform C-TBNA. PMID:26807272

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  17. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Prez-Cambrod, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodrguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  18. What's Next for Gastrointestinal Disorders: No Needles?

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Au, Andrew S; Dai, Si Yuan; Mozafari, Masoud; Prakash, Satya

    2016-01-10

    A myriad of pathologies affect the gastrointestinal tract, citing this affected area as a significant target for therapeutic intervention. One group of therapeutic agents, antisense and oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, offer a promising platform for treating a wide variety of diseases ranging from cancer to auto-immune diseases. Current delivery methods are carried out either systemically or locally into diseased areas, both of which involve needles. The challenge in orally administering this type of treatment lies in the complications that arise due to the vast environmental extremes found within the gastrointestinal tract, owing to the fact that, as the drug travels down the gastrointestinal tract, it is subjected to pH changes and interactions with bacteria and a variety of digestive and protective enzymes including proteases, DNAses, and RNAses. Overcoming these challenges to allow the practical application of these drugs is a priority that has invoked a multitude of research in the chemical, biological, and material sciences. In this review, we will address common gastrointestinal pathologies, the barriers to oral-based therapies and antisense-interfering technologies, the approaches that have already been applied for their delivery, and the current status of antisense drug therapy clinical trials for gastrointestinal-related disorders. PMID:26646543

  19. Scots pine needle surfaces on radial transects across the north boreal area of Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.

    PubMed

    Turunen, M; Huttunen, S

    1996-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the characteristics of the needle surfaces of naturally regenerated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and their geographical distribution, eight physicochemical variables were investigated within the north boreal forest area. The visibly undamaged needles were collected in autumn 1990 from 114 plots (3-5 pines per plot) along radial transects from the Monchegorsk and Nikel smelters, emitting SO2 and heavy metals, on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, to Finnish Lapland. The needles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measured for surface wettability using the droplet contact angle (DCA) method. Significant geographical south-north and west-east patterns could be observed in needle surface characteristics, correlating with emissions from the smelters and to climate. Despite the slightly higher initial DCAs (61.4-87.6 degrees) towards the north, the pine needle surfaces of the northernmost transects exhibited higher annual needle wettability change (ANWC) and wax erosion rate (AWER), expressed as the reduction in DCAs and epistomatal wax tube distribution (WTD) during one year, respectively, but a lower occurrence of particles and fungal hyphae than those of more southern transects. The higher ANWC was related to higher atmospheric SO2 concentration, and to the lower long-term temperature sum, but not clearly to annual precipitation. In the Monchegorsk smelter area, the current needles exhibited, on average, a 15% higher WTD and seven degree larger DCA, resulting in more hydrophobic needle surfaces than in Finnish Lapland, but during their first year, both the AWER and ANWC, were greatly increased. In Finnish Lapland, 30%, of all the epistomatal wax tubes disappeared from the needle surface during the first year, the value being 70% for the pines located 8 km from the smelter. The mineral composition of the particles deposited on the needle surfaces mirrored that of the minerals being produced by the smelters (e.g. FexSx, CuFeS2, NixSx, FexOx). Stomatal densities were in the range of 71.1-141.7 stomata mm(-2). The lower densities of stomata on needles close to the smelters correlated with reduced number of needle age classes of the pines, higher dry weights, higher pollutant accumulation and lower Mn and Zn concentrations in the needles. The AWER and ANWC were able to indicate the most seriously deteriorated needle surfaces on a regional scale, e.g. including the surroundings of both smelters, although the plot-specific relationships between 'needle surface variables' and 'pollution variables' were generally weak. The present study showed that the exposure of pine needles to the combined effects of ambient pollutants and harsh climate led to a deterioration in the physicochemical characteristics of the epicuticular wax, which may have serious ecophysiological consequences in the long term. PMID:15091357

  20. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  1. Interaction between oxygen and single self-interstitials in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, N.; Coutinho, J.; Jones, R.; Briddon, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    Unlike vacancy-oxygen defects, the role of Si interstitials (I) when trapped by interstitial oxygen (Oi) is far from clear. In an attempt to enlighten this interaction between these complexes, we report ab initio modeling of IOi defects. The calculated properties such as vibrational modes and spin density are compared with the available experimental data. We conclude with the assignment of the A18 EPR signal to a C1h symmetry IOi defect in the positive charge state.

  2. Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, Hans Jrgen Timm; Indreb, Marianne; Nedreb, Torbjrn; Norgrd, Gunnar; Wiig, Helge; Berg, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of plasma and interstitial fluid play important roles in transvascular fluid exchange. COP values for monitoring fluid balance in healthy and sick children have not been established. This study set out to determine reference values of COP in healthy children. Materials and Methods COP in plasma and interstitial fluid harvested from nylon wicks was measured in 99 healthy children from 2 to 10 years of age. Nylon wicks were implanted subcutaneously in arm and leg while patients were sedated and intubated during a minor surgical procedure. COP was analyzed in a colloid osmometer designed for small fluid samples. Results The mean plasma COP in all children was 25.6 3.3 mmHg. Arbitrary division of children in four different age groups, showed no significant difference in plasma or interstitial fluid COP values for patients less than 8 years, whereas patients of 8-10 years had significant higher COP both in plasma and interstitial fluid. There were no gender difference or correlation between COP in interstitial fluid sampled from arm and leg and no significant effect on interstitial COP of gravity. Prolonged implantation time did not affect interstitial COP. Conclusion Plasma and interstitial COP in healthy children are comparable to adults and COP seems to increase with age in children. Knowledge of the interaction between colloid osmotic forces can be helpful in diseases associated with fluid imbalance and may be crucial in deciding different fluid treatment options. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044641 PMID:25853713

  3. Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Interstitial Hernia: Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Gallesio, J. M.; Schlottmann, F.; Sadava, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial hernias are a rare entity. Most of them are detected incidentally on imaging studies. We present a case of abdominal bowel obstruction secondary to interstitial hernia on the fifth postoperative day of an open incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and led to an accurate treatment avoiding a new laparotomy. In this case, prompt surgical decision based on clinical and CT scan findings allowed a mini-invasive approach with satisfactory outcome. PMID:26576315

  4. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thas Helena; Cunha, Thas do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  5. [Dental anxiety and needle phobia in children. A relationship?].

    PubMed

    Veerkamp, J S J; Majstorovic, M

    2006-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at explaining the nature of needle phobia and its relationship in dental phobic children with evidence on age-related differences. The patient sample included randomly selected patients and an group of referred anxious children. The children were divided into three age groups and arranged into three anxiety groups. Needle phobia was demonstrated to be age-related, but should be considered as a separate phenomenon, being not specific for dental anxiety. PMID:16821467

  6. Cardiac tamponade caused by a migrating sewing needle.

    PubMed

    Affronti, Alessandro; Di Bella, Isidoro; Di Lazzaro, Davide; Capozzi, Rosanna; Scarnecchia, Elisa; Ragni, Temistocle

    2014-06-28

    Penetrating injuries of the heart caused by migrating needles have been rarely described. They usually occur accidentally or are self-inflicted in the setting of an underlying psychiatric disorder. We present an unusual case of cardiac tamponade caused by a sewing needle that migrated to the heart from the chest wall through the lung. The lesions were successfully repaired through a median sternotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The pathophysiological mechanism and the pertinent literature are briefly analysed. PMID:24979123

  7. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  8. Mathematical analysis of the temperature field during ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) in breast tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Pandya, Nish; Denham, David B.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Robinson, David S.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: Laser interstitial thermotherapy is a promising minimally- invasive technique for the treatment of small cancers of the breast that are currently removed surgically lumpectomy. The purpose of this work was to analyze in situ temperature fields recorded with stainless-steel thermocoupled probes during experimental laser interstitial thermo-therapy (LITT). Methods: Both a CW Nd:YAG laser system emitting 20W for 25 to 30s and a 980 nm diode laser emitting 10 to 20 W for up to 1200s delivered through a fiber-optic probe were used to create localized heating in fatty cadaver pig tissue and milk as phantoms. To quantify an artifact due to direct heating of the thermocouple probes by laser radiation, experiments were also performed in air, water and intralipid solution. The temperature field around the fiber-optic probe during laser irradiation was measured every 0.3 s or 1 s with an array of up to fifteen needle thermocoupled probes. The effect of light absorption by the thermocouples probes was quantified and the time-dependence of the temperature distribution was analyzed. Results: After removal of the thermocouple artifact, the temperature was found to vary exponentially with time with a time constant of 600 to 700 s. Conclusions:The time-dependence of the interstitial temperature can be modeled by exponential functions both during ex vivo and in vivo experiments.

  9. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  10. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  11. Nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy treating ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe. PMID:25796147

  12. Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

  13. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

  14. A STUDY OF PRECIPITATION IN INTERSTITIAL ALLOYS. I. PRECIPITATION SEQUENCE IN Ta-C ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, U.; Westmacott, K.H.; Thomas, G.

    1980-08-01

    A systematic transmission electron microscopy study of carbide precipitation in quenched-aged tantalum-carbon alloys has clarified the mechanism of precipitation in refractory BCC metal-carbon alloys. Diffraction contrast analysis shows that the precipitate platelets lie on {l_brace}310{r_brace} planes of the matrix, are interstitial in nature, and fully coherent before they thicken further and lose coherency. The precipitation sequence is continuous and involves no renucleation during the formation of the non-coherent phase. Thus, the final orientation relationship of the precipitate with the matrix already is found at the earliest stage at which it is possible to detect it. The interpretation of the results indicates that, as in FCC alloys, vacancies play an important role in the precipitation process during the nucleation and early growth stages and permit the formation of the hexagonal equilibrium M{sub 2}C structure early in the sequence. The model proposed to explain the observations is also consistent with the multistage hardening observed in quenched-aged refractory metal interstitial alloys.

  15. Heating of industrial sewing machine needles: FEA model and verification using IR radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinwen; Liasi, Evangelos; Simon, Daniel L.; Du, Ruxu; Bujas-Dimitrijevic, Jasmina; Chen, Anshi

    1999-03-01

    With the use of synthetic fabrics and threads in high speed sewing, needle heating due to friction between the needle and the fabric becomes a serious problem which limits further increase of the sewing speed. The high temperature in the needle can accelerate thread wear, cause wear at the needle eye, and damage the thread. It can also scorch the fabric, as well as temper and weaken the needle itself. Experimental methods, such as: infrared radiometry, infrared pyrometry, etc., have been applied to analyze this problem in previous studies. They revealed some important factors that affect the needle peak steady state temperature. In this study the numerical (FEA) model developed to simulate the needle heating is fine tuned and verified via infrared radiometry. The FEA model incorporates detailed needle geometry and the effects of thread on needle heating. It deals with a transient heat transfer process with time and position dependent boundary conditions. It correlates various important factors that affect the needle heating, such as needle characteristics, fabric properties, and sewing conditions to the needle temperature distribution. Given various needle geometries, sewing conditions, and fabric properties, the model can simulate the needle heating process, including the initial heating phase and the steady state. It can also predict the temperature distribution in the needle as well as the time to reach steady state. The trends of the simulation results correlate well with experiments.

  16. Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

  17. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  18. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  19. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  20. Effect of Interstitial Mg in Mg2+ x Si on Electrical Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubouchi, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Takamatsu, T.; Miyazaki, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure, thermoelectric properties, and microstructure of polycrystalline samples with nominal compositions Mg2+ x Si ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) have been investigated. It is revealed that the Mg2+ x Si samples were composites consisting of Mg2Si matrix with dispersed Mg metal. The Mg2Si crystals contained a small amount of Mg atoms at interstitial (1/2 1/2 1/2) site (Mgi). In addition, Mg metal was present at grain boundaries between Mg2Si crystal grains (MgGB). Regarding thermoelectric properties, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of Mg2+ x Si were measured and their x dependences were discussed in terms of the amounts of Mgi and MgGB. The amount of MgGB and the electrical conductivity indicate quite similar x dependences.

  1. Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle

    PubMed Central

    Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS)1,2 to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells36. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies712, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models1317. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunitsubunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be ?-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen. PMID:22699623

  2. Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2012-06-14

    Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunit-subunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be ?-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen. PMID:22699623

  3. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal. PMID:7382928

  4. Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38

    SciTech Connect

    Thampy, Vivek; Kang, Jian; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Bao, Wei; Savici, Andrei T; Hu, Jin; Liu, Tijiang; Qian, Bin; Fobes, David; Mao, Z Q; Fu, Changbo; Chen, W. C.; Ye, Qiang; Erwin, R; Gentile, T. R.; Tesanovic, Zlatko; Broholm, Collin L

    2012-01-01

    Using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering we show that interstitial Fe in superconducting Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{1-x}$Se$_x$ induces a magnetic Friedel-like oscillation that diffracts at ${\\bf Q}_{\\perp}=(\\frac{1}{2}0)$ and involves $>$50 neighboring Fe sites. The interstitial $>2$~$\\mu_B$ moment is surrounded by compensating ferromagnetic four spin clusters that may seed double stripe ordering in Fe$_{1+y}$Te. A semi-metallic 5-band model with $(\\frac{1}{2}\\frac{1}{2})$ Fermi surface nesting and four fold symmetric super-exchange between interstitial Fe and two in-plane nearest neighbors largely accounts for the observed diffraction.

  5. Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-10-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution. PMID:23674421

  6. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  7. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy. PMID:24658888

  8. From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2003-11-01

    Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

  9. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  10. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patients vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  11. The histopathology of Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii on Douglas-fir needles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jeffrey K; Capitano, Bryan R; Kerrigan, Julia L

    2008-01-01

    Germinating ascospores of Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii produce suprastomatal appressoria from which penetration pegs enter needles. Initial infection occurs between late May and early Jul and coincides with budbreak and shoot elongation. Colonization within needles is exclusively intercellular and increases continuously during Jul-May. No intracellular hyphae or haustoria were observed, but hyphae closely appressed to mesophyll and palisade cell walls are abundant by 3-5 mo after initial infection. Pseudothecial primordia begin to form in epistomatal chambers Oct-Apr, 4-9 mo after initial infection. Pseudothecial primordia developing in the epistomatal chamber are connected to the endophytic thallus by specialized cells in the substomatal chamber that have thickened apical walls and resemble phialides but are not involved in asexual reproduction. The apical wall thickenings instead appear to function as reinforcement against the turgor pressure of the guard cells, allowing cytoplasmic continuity to be maintained between the developing pseudothecium and vegetative hyphae within the needle. Concurrent with the formation of pseudothecial primorida, epiphytic hyphae emerge from the periphery of developing pseudothecia, grow across the needle surface, form numerous anastomoses and reenter the needle by producing appressoria above unoccupied stomata. Epiphytic hyphae and their associated appressoria gradually become more abundant during Oct-Jan. PMID:18751550

  12. Augmented reality needle guidance improves facet joint injection training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungi, Tamas; Yeo, Caitlin T.; U-Thainual, Paweena; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if medical trainees would benefit from augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance in learning how to set the correct orientation of a needle for percutaneous facet joint injection. METHODS: A total of 28 medical students were randomized into two groups: (1) The Overlay group received a training session of four insertions with image and laser guidance followed by two insertions with laser overlay only; (2) The Control group was trained by carrying out six freehand insertions. After the training session, needle trajectories of two facet joint injections without any guidance were recorded by an electromagnetic tracker and were analyzed. Number of successful needle placements, distance covered by needle tip inside the phantom and procedural time were measured to evaluate performance. RESULTS: Number of successful placements was significantly higher in the Overlay group compared to the Control group (85.7% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.038). Procedure time and distance covered inside phantom have both been found to be less in the Overlay group, although not significantly. CONCLUSION: Training with augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance improves the accuracy of facet joint injections in medical students learning image-guided facet joint needle placement.

  13. Surgical motion characterization in simulated needle insertion procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Matthew S.; Ungi, Tamas; Sargent, Derek; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of surgical performance in image-guided needle insertions is of emerging interest, to both promote patient safety and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Markov model-based algorithm can more accurately segment a needle-based surgical procedure into its five constituent tasks than a simple threshold-based algorithm. METHODS: Simulated needle trajectories were generated with known ground truth segmentation by a synthetic procedural data generator, with random noise added to each degree of freedom of motion. The respective learning algorithms were trained, and then tested on different procedures to determine task segmentation accuracy. In the threshold-based algorithm, a change in tasks was detected when the needle crossed a position/velocity threshold. In the Markov model-based algorithm, task segmentation was performed by identifying the sequence of Markov models most likely to have produced the series of observations. RESULTS: For amplitudes of translational noise greater than 0.01mm, the Markov model-based algorithm was significantly more accurate in task segmentation than the threshold-based algorithm (82.3% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001 for amplitude 10.0mm). For amplitudes less than 0.01mm, the two algorithms produced insignificantly different results. CONCLUSION: Task segmentation of simulated needle insertion procedures was improved by using a Markov model-based algorithm as opposed to a threshold-based algorithm for procedures involving translational noise.

  14. Contributions of deposited particles to pine needle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Zhen; Qiao, Xianliang; Cai, Xiyun; Tian, Fulin; Ge, Linke

    2007-11-01

    The contributions of deposited particles (P) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in pine (Cedrus deodar) needles sampled from the Dalian region were evaluated by washing off the particles from pine needle surfaces. P values ranged from 4.4 +/- 2.2% for fluorene to 69.9 +/- 4.0% for indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and positively correlated with the logarithm of octanol-air partition coefficients (log K OA) of each PAH significantly. P and the total levels of 14 PAHs under study ( summation PAHs), that ranged from 490 to 3241 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) with median value of 1521 ng g(-1) dw, were high for traffic areas, and low for residential or park areas, implying the significant contributions of PAHs in both gas and particle phases emitted by vehicles. However, PAH profiles in pine needles were not significantly altered by the washing, due to the low fractions (2-5%) of the 5- and 6-ring PAHs in summation PAHs. The high wind speed and frequently alternating wind directions in the Dalian spring could quicken the depuration processes of pine needle PAHs. Thus, the local meteorological conditions and source variations should be taken into account when using pine needles to implicate seasonal variations of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds. PMID:17968452

  15. Numerical description of discharge characteristics of the plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Dijk, J. van; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-07-01

    The plasma needle is a small atmospheric, nonthermal, radio-frequency discharge, generated at the tip of a needle, which can be used for localized disinfection of biological tissues. Although several experiments have characterized various qualities of the plasma needle, discharge characteristics and electrical properties are still not well known. In order to provide initial estimates on electrical properties and quantities such as particle densities, we employed a two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model to describe the plasma needle. In this model the balance equation is solved in the drift-diffusion approach for various species and the electron energy, as well as Poisson's equation. We found that the plasma production occurs in the sheath region and results in a steady flux of reactive species outwards. Even at small (<0.1%) admixtures of N{sub 2} to the He background, N{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. The electron density is typically 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and the dissipated power is in the order of 10 mW. These results are consistent with the experimental data available and can give direction to the practical development of the plasma needle.

  16. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in diagnosing musculoskeletal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ivreet; Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of musculoskeletal neoplasms requires an accurate diagnosis, histologic type, and degree of tumor differentiation. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors and further to compare the results with histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Grading of malignant tumors was also compared on these techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms. Detailed history, clinical examination, and radiological investigations were undertaken. FNAC followed by CNB were performed in each case. The tumors were categorized as benign and malignant with a definitive histotype diagnosis. For malignant neoplasms, cytologic and histologic gradings were done into three grades. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC and CNB were compared. Results: Of the 50 cases with musculoskeletal neoplasms, 32 (64%) were bone tumors and 18 (36%) were soft tissue tumors. The sensitivity of FNAC and CNB for categorizing bone tumors into benign and malignant was 94.7%. For soft tissue tumors, FNAC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and CNB had a sensitivity of 100%. The specificity of both the techniques, FNA and CNB for bone and soft tissue tumors was 100%. For malignant bone tumors, cytologic grade was concordant with CNB grade in 72.2% of the cases. Cytologic grade was concordant with the grade on CNB in 81.8% cases for malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Conclusion: FNAC and CNB alleviate the need for an open biopsy in diagnosing and grading musculoskeletal neoplasms, thus facilitating appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  17. NOTE: A technique for simultaneous needle insertion in prostate seed implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Suorsa, Niina

    2008-02-01

    The purpose was to develop a fast needle insertion system to shorten the implantation time and to restrain prostate swelling during the implantation, thus reducing the seed setup error. The basic idea is to insert all the needles simultaneously using ultrasound guidance. The developed system consists of two similar templates that are connected. All the needles are set and locked to a moveable rear template according to the dose plan. The needle pack is then pushed into position, the lock released and seeds implanted needle by needle. A test and training phantom was also built.

  18. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.

  19. A case of psychosis induced self-insertion of intracranial hypodermic needles causing seizures

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Arjun S.; Honeybul, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Self-insertion of foreign bodies is a rare event. This report details a 56-year-old male who had self-inserted six hypodermic needles into his left frontal lobe 6 years previously. He subsequently presented with seizures and went on to have the needles surgically removed. This represents the first case of its type involving hypodermic needles. Given that intracranial needles are a rare finding, the management of such patients is complex. Two management issues in particular that require consideration are: (i) can the needles be left in situ and (ii) does removal of the needles reduce the risk of seizures in the long term? PMID:25600130

  20. Effect of blinding with a new pragmatic placebo needle: a randomized controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyan; Xu, Huanfang; Ma, Rui; Mo, Qian; Yan, Shiyan; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-12-01

    Placebo control is a useful method for determining the efficacy of a therapy. In acupuncture researches, the preferred method for placebo control is acupuncture using a placebo needle that has a blunt tip and achieves no skin penetration. We performed a crossover study to validate the blinding effect of a new type of placebo needle. Sixty volunteers were randomized to receive acupuncture using 2 types of needles with different sequences: sequence AB, involving first the pragmatic placebo needle and then the real needle, and sequence BA, in a reverse order. Placebo acupuncture was performed by administering the placebo needle through an adhesive pad without skin penetration on the acupoints LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36. Real acupuncture was performed by needling through the pad and penetrating the skin to 15 mm using a real needle on the same acupoints. The acupuncture was administered every other day with 3 sessions for 1 type of needle. The primary outcome was the perception of needle penetration. Besides degree of acupuncture pain, type, and degree of needle sensation, needle acceptability and factors influencing the subject blinding effect were assessed. Needle penetration was felt by 100%, 90% (54/60), 88.3% (53/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving placebo acupuncture and 98.3% (59/60), 96.7% (58/60), 95% (57/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving real acupuncture on LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36, respectively. Differences of the volunteers' perception of needle penetration between the placebo needle and real needle were not significant for the 4 acupoints (all P > 0.05). Volunteers experienced fewer distension sensations (P = 0.01), a lower degree of needle sensation (P = 0.007), and less pain (P = 0.006) during placebo acupuncture than during real acupuncture. The placebo needle was more easily accepted than the real needle (OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.01-2.64). The influences of age, sex, educational level, acupuncture experience, needle sensation, acupuncture pain, and needle acceptability on volunteers' perception of needle penetration were not significant. The pragmatic placebo needle is a valid control for acupuncture research. It produces a good subject blinding effect with a similar appearance to conventional acupuncture needles and no skin penetration when applied. PMID:25501074

  1. Image-based tracking of the suturing needle during laparoscopic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kroehnert, A.; Bodenstedt, S.; Kenngott, H.; Mller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most complex and difficult tasks for surgeons during minimally invasive interventions is suturing. A prerequisite to assist the suturing process is the tracking of the needle. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for needle tracking. In this paper, we present an image-based method for markerless needle tracking. The method uses a color-based and geometry-based segmentation to detect the needle. Once an initial needle detection is obtained, a region of interest enclosing the extracted needle contour is passed on to a reduced segmentation. It is evaluated with in vivo images from da Vinci interventions.

  2. Role of inflammation in bladder function and interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lee, Richard; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Te, Alexis E.

    2011-01-01

    Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which is usually reserved for refractory cases. PMID:21789096

  3. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  4. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  5. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  6. [Renal arterial disease-induced tubulo-interstitial lesions].

    PubMed

    Kida, H; Yoshimura, M

    1995-08-01

    Renal arterial disease-induced tubulo-interstitial lesions described in this chapter include benign arterio- and/or arteriolo-sclerotic and malignant nephrosclerosis, renal infarction and renal cortical necrosis. In these conditions renal glomeruli as well as tubules are always involved, and consequent loss of nephrons, or renal parenchyma results in interstitial fibrotic changes. The parenchymal lesions have a spectrum from slowly progressive atrophy and loss to necrosis of abrupt onset and disappearance of glomeruli and tubules. As for glomerular reactions to the ischemia, the intermediate type consisted of mesangial degeneration and epithelial cell proliferation described as "alterative glomerulitis" is noteworthy. Briefly, in renal arterial diseases, glomeruli are rather variably involved than tubules and loss of the parenchyma results in interstitial fibrosis. PMID:7563646

  7. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-04-24

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  8. Treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy with ultrasound guided dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Settergren, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment of a patient with tendinopathy using sonographically guided dry needling. Tendinopathies are a highly prevalent problem in musculoskeletal medicine, and no one form of treatment has gained universal acceptance as being superior to another. Clinical Features A 30-year-old woman with a 4-month history of anterolateral right shoulder pain was diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy upon physical examination, which was confirmed with diagnostic sonography. Intervention and Outcome Sonography was used to guide an acupuncture needle into the pathologic tissue to induce a humoral healing response. Therapeutic exercise was also prescribed. At 10-day follow-up, increased echogenicity was found in the previously heterogenous hypoechoic areas. The patient also experienced a subjective resolution of her shoulder pain, which did not return with increased physical activity. Conclusions Sonographically guided dry needling was shown to be beneficial for this patient as evident by sonographic changes pre- and postprocedure. PMID:23997721

  9. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  10. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-01-01

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  11. Transbronchial needle aspiration: development history, current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huizhen; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ko-Pen

    2015-01-01

    Background Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) technology was underutilized by clinicians because it is “blind”. Recent development of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) renewed the interest and confident of TBNA. TBNA without EBUS is referred as conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA). Methods This paper focuses on C-TBNA technology development history, present situation and future development to do a detailed introduction. Results TBNA is a simple, cost effective and minimally invasive technique for diagnosing disease of the mediastinum and lung in adult as well as children patients. Conclusions More improvements of TBNA technology should be made, including employing technological advances to perfect the instruments and techniques, focusing on patient comfort, optimizing yield, simplifying instruments, maximizing ease of use and minimizing training requirements for the pulmonologist. The ideal TBNA scope deserves further evaluation and study. PMID:26807275

  12. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  13. Biocompatible optical needle array for antibacterial blue light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Caio; An, Jeesoo; Humar, Matjaz; Goth, Will; Yun, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Biocompatible Optical Needle Array (BONA) is showing to be a powerful tool complementing the novel antibacterial blue light therapy. BONA is able to deliver light to deeper skin tissue layers successfully as shown in experiments. In this study, we will discuss BONA's design, mechanical and optical properties, production method, plus propose improvements to optimize it all. A special skin phantom with photosensitizer was developed in order to investigate how light is delivered inside the tissue. The phantom shows the light scattering pattern through photobleach, allowing us to determine length, thickness and spacing between needles. Other quantitative optical properties as penetration depth were determined using a different phantom (using PDMS). Mechanical properties as needle resistance were determined using one axis of a custom biaxial tensile strain device. The results led us to conclude that besides the great results, there is still room for improvements regarding tip sharpness and manufacturing time and cost, which would be solved with the enhanced fabrication method proposed.

  14. Granular Materials Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. L.; Brennen, C. E.; Campbell, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    In 1954, R.A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of liquid-solid flows. We recently completed an extensive reevaluation of Bagnold's work, and our analysis and simulations indicate that the rheological measurements of Bagnold were affected significantly by secondary flows within the experimental apparatus. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed by Bagnold to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range for solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime. As the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward at the midheight of the annulus. These cells contribute significantly to the measured torque, and obscured any accurate measurements of the shear or normal stresses. Before doing the reevaluation of Bagnold's work, our research objective was to examine the effects of the interstitial fluid for flows in which the densities of the two phases were different. After reevaluating Bagnold's work, we redesigned our experimental facility to minimize secondary flow effects. Like Bagnold's facility, we use a concentric cylinder rheometer with a rotating outer wall. The inner cylinder also is able to rotate slightly but will also be restrained by flexible supports; the torque is measured from the deformation of the flexures. The normal force is measured using piezoelectric transducers that record both impacts with the surface and fluid pressure variations resulting from particle collisions. Unlike Bagnold's apparatus, the top and bottom plates of the annulus will not rotate, and the torque measurement will be measured only in the center region of the inner annulus; these changes will minimize the secondary flow effects. The experiments will cover a range of particle sizes (from d = 1.5 to 4 mm), particle concentrations (up to 55% solids concentration by volume), shear rates (gamma = 10-160/sec) and solid-to-fluid densities (rhop = 1.2 to 8). During one flight of the KC-135 we will change two parameters: the rotational speed and the fluid viscosity (mu). At one time during a flight, we plan to withdraw some of the fluid (water for example) within the annulus while injecting some fluid of a different viscosity (water-glycerin mixture). Hence, the experiments will cover flows where the particle inertia dominates the fluid effects (granular flows) to flows in which the fluid inertia dominates that of the particles (dilute suspension). The range of Stokes numbers (St=d2 gamma rhop)/mu will be from about 5 to 3000. Currently, the experimental facility has just been completed. We have calibrated the normal impact measurements using carefully controlled single particle impacts with the transducers. The torque measurements have also been calibrated by mounting the inner cylinder in such a way that we could impose a known load on the drum. We use reluctance transducers to measure the motion and deformation of the flexures and calibrate the device with the imposed load. Measurements will also be made of the fluid temperature, acceleration and rotational speed of the outer drum.. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  15. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  16. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  17. Self-Trapped Interstitial-Type Defects in Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyev, D. A.; Malerba, L.; Klaver, T. P. C.; Olsson, P.; Domain, C.; Marinica, M.-C.; Willaime, F.

    2008-04-11

    Small interstitial-type defects in iron with complex structures and very low mobilities are revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. The stability of these defect clusters formed by nonparallel <110> dumbbells is confirmed by density functional theory calculations, and it is shown to increase with increasing temperature due to large vibrational formation entropies. This new family of defects provides an explanation for the low mobility of clusters needed to account for experimental observations of microstructure evolution under irradiation at variance with the fast migration obtained from previous atomistic simulations for conventional self-interstitial clusters.

  18. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Complications of needle thoracostomy: A comprehensive clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Wernick, Brian; Hon, Heidi H; Mubang, Ronnie N; Cipriano, Anthony; Hughes, Ronson; Rankin, Demicha D; Evans, David C; Burfeind, William R; Hoey, Brian A; Cipolla, James; Galwankar, Sagar C; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Needle thoracostomy (NT) is a valuable adjunct in the management of tension pneumothorax (tPTX), a life-threatening condition encountered mainly in trauma and critical care environments. Most commonly, needle thoracostomies are used in the prehospital setting and during acute trauma resuscitation to temporize the affected individuals prior to the placement of definitive tube thoracostomy (TT). Because it is both an invasive and emergent maneuver, NT can be associated with a number of potential complications, some of which may be life-threatening. Due to relatively common use of this procedure, it is important that healthcare providers are familiar, and ready to deal with, potential complications of NT. PMID:26557486

  20. Sub-process irradiation of naturally contaminated hypodermic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doolan, P. T.; Halls, N. A.; Tallentire, A.

    The proportion of nonsterile hypodermic needles within a population of needles ( P), contaminated initially with native microflora, has been measured as a function of gamma-radiation dose ( D) over the range 0 - 4 kGy. The relationship between P and D was regular and allowed extrapolation to higher doses corresponding to the generally accepted probability of occurence of a nonsterile item or sterility assurance level (SAL), and beyond. An absorbed dose of 7.5 kGy was estimated to be sufficient to give a value of P of 10 -6, whereas a dose of 25 kGy would be expected to give a P of 10 -18.

  1. Micromachined needles and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Hubbard, Timothy

    2004-08-01

    A new method of micromachining hollow needles and two-dimensional needle arrays from single crystal silicon is described. The process involves a combination of fusion bonding, photolithography and anisotropic plasma etching. The cannula produced with this process can have design adjustable bevel angles, wall thickness and channel dimensions. A subset of processing steps can be employed to produce silicon blades and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles and shaft dimensions. Applications for this technology include painless drug infusion, blood diagnosis, glucose monitoring, cellular injection and the manufacture of microkeratomes for ocular, vascular and neural microsurgery.

  2. The needling technique and clinical application of point Zhibian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuandong

    2004-09-01

    Point Zhibian (BL 54) is often used for treatment of lumbago and scelalgia, flaccidity and arthralgia of the lower limb, constipation and dysuria, and hemorrhoid. As for the needling, the direction of the needle tip may vary, generally in three directions: 1) along the channel itself, 2) pointing to the genitals, and 3) pointing to the anus, the purpose of which is "leading qi to the diseased area" so as to obtain "effectiveness upon the arrival of qi". This point can also be used in combination with moxa stick, cupping, and point injection according to the individual conditions. However, only by differential application, can this point produce better therapeutic effects. PMID:15510794

  3. Laparoscopic removal of a needle from the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Nag, Hirdaya Hulas; Goel, Neeraj; Gupta, Nikhil; Agarwal, Anil Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas. PMID:23741114

  4. Needle tract seeding following percutaneous biopsy of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Hariom; Lozinskiy, Mikhail; Wallace, David M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Two months later he underwent partial nephrectomy. Histology revealed a 30-mm clear cell renal cell carcinoma, up to Fuhrman grade 3. An area of the capsule was interrupted, which corresponded to a hemorrhagic area on the cortical surface. Under microscopy, this area showed a tongue of tumor tissue protruding through the renal capsule. A tumor deposit was found in the perinephric fat. These features suggest that tumor seeding may have occurred during the needle biopsy. PMID:26366280

  5. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  6. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Stallknecht, Bente; Madsen, Nils Berg; Kildegaard, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today most research on pen needle design revolves around pain perception statements through clinical trials, but these are both costly, timely, and require high sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to test if tissue damage, caused by different types of needles, can be assessed by evaluating skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Method: Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after the insertions. Seven pigs were included in the study and a total of 118 randomized needle insertions were conducted. Histology was made of tissue samples inserted with 18G, 28G, and 32G needles, and stained to quantify red and white blood cell response. Results: Based on area under curve, calculated for each individual blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P < .05) and 32G (P < .01) needles. Histology results were not significant, but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Conclusions: Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when analyzing histology was also suggested. PMID:24876418

  7. Estimation of flexible needle deflection in layered soft tissues with different elastic moduli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Jung

    2014-09-01

    The estimation of needle deflection when the needle interacts with biological tissue is challenging in needle steering. Most previous studies have used homogeneous tissue models to estimate the deflection of a needle. However, biological tissue typically has a layered structure with variable mechanical properties and geometric features. In this study, we propose a needle deflection model with a double-layered elastic medium. Each layer possesses distinct mechanical properties, which result in inconsistent degrees of friction force on the needle surface, needle-cutting force, and forces caused by the stiffness of the elastic medium. The model uses the Rayleigh-Ritz method to analytically estimate the needle deflection. To validate the model, needle steering experiments were performed using double-layered tissue phantoms and porcine tissues. The experimental results revealed that changes in reaction force at the needle base occurred when the needle passed through the boundary between the two layers. The mean absolute error between the estimated and measured needle tip trajectory was 0.880.30mm for the double-layered tissue phantom and 1.850.73mm for the porcine tissue. These results are comparable with previous studies of homogeneous tissue. The proposed model could improve needle steering in biological tissues, which consist of multiple layers. PMID:25008003

  8. Surface-blended texturing of medical needles for friction reduction using a picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingsheng; Han, Peidong; Kang, Min; Ehmann, Kornel

    2016-04-01

    The success of percutaneous procedures depends on the accuracy of the medical needle insertion. Reducing the insertion force and using better needle visualization during needle insertion can reduce needle placement errors. Surface texturing is frequently used to create micro-features on medical needle's tip portion to improve the visibility in ultrasound-guided percutaneous procedures. However, these micro-features usually increase the friction between the needle and tissue because of stress concentrations. This paper explores a method for creating micro-features with blended edges on echogenic needles and studies the friction behavior between textured echogenic needles and phantom tissue to identify blended texture patterns that would minimize the friction during needle insertion. Laser surface texturing was used to create regular micro-circumferential channels and micro-corner-cube-like dimples along the needle's axial direction. Variations of the overlap in the feed direction were used to blend the edges of micro-channels and micro-dimples with different fillet radii. Both needles with regular and blended surface textures were experimentally investigated through needle extraction experiments from phantom tissue. It was found that the blended textured needles with large fillet radii exhibit a much better friction behavior.

  9. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.510(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.910(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles. PMID:21593348

  10. Highly Coherent Electron Beam from a Laser-Triggered Tungsten Needle Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehberger, Dominik; Hammer, Jakob; Eisele, Max; Krger, Michael; Noe, Jonathan; Hgele, Alexander; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We report on a quantitative measurement of the spatial coherence of electrons emitted from a sharp metal needle tip. We investigate the coherence in photoemission triggered by a near-ultraviolet laser with a photon energy of 3.1 eV and compare it to dc-field emission. A carbon nanotube is brought into close proximity to the emitter tip to act as an electrostatic biprism. From the resulting electron matter wave interference fringes, we deduce an upper limit of the effective source radius both in laser-triggered and dc-field emission mode, which quantifies the spatial coherence of the emitted electron beam. We obtain (0.80 0.05 ) nm in laser-triggered and (0.55 0.02 ) nm in dc-field emission mode, revealing that the outstanding coherence properties of electron beams from needle tip field emitters are largely maintained in laser-induced emission. In addition, the relative coherence width of 0.36 of the photoemitted electron beam is the largest observed so far. The preservation of electronic coherence during emission as well as ramifications for time-resolved electron imaging techniques are discussed.

  11. Self-Inserted Needles in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Marco; Guidi, Benedetta; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Emdin, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Cardiac injuries due to penetration by sharp foreign bodies usually have a clear clinical presentation. A case of a 38-year-old man with self-inserted cardiac lesions and a misleading presentation is reported. The patient was admitted to the emergency room because of chest pain, with increase in biomarkers of myocardial necrosis, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities inducing initial diagnostic and therapeutic workup of acute coronary syndrome. Once clinical destabilization followed by death had occurred, the suspicion of an alternative diagnosis came from delayed chest radiography, confirmed by autopsy, revealing the presence of multiple metallic objects within the thorax. PMID:26277296

  12. Energetic evaluation of possible interstitial compound formation of BaSi2 with 2p-, 3s-, and 3d-elements using first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yoji; Sohma, Mitsugu; Suemasu, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The energy changes in the formation of interstitially doped BaSi2, caused by doping with Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne, are calculated using the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximations of the density functional theory. It is predicted that the majority of the elements, apart from Na, Mg, Zn, and Ne, are capable of forming interstitially doped compounds with BaSi2, if these elements are provided as an isolated atom. However, the energetic stabilities of the standard states of these elements (metals, diatomic gases, etc.) exceed the energy gain accompanying the formation of the interstitial compounds and, therefore, the conventional diffusion method using metals or gaseous source materials cannot produce the interstitial compounds. From the energetic perspective, B, C, N, O, and F appear to be favorably inserted into the BaSi2 lattice, but the observed behavior of B-implanted BaSi2 suggests that substitution of B for Si may occur.

  13. Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy: A Proposal of the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Min, Hye Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jang Hee; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In recent years throughout Korea, the use of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has become common for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, there is no consensus on the pathology reporting system for thyroid CNB. The Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group held a conference on thyroid CNB pathology and developed guidelines through contributions from the participants. This article discusses the outcome of the discussions that led to a consensus on the pathology reporting of thyroid CNB. PMID:26081825

  14. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic printing of silver nanoparticle ink via commercial hypodermic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongjun; Jang, Shin; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the needle shape on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was investigated by comparing flat outlet needles and hypodermic needles. Line fabrication was performed to confirm the tendency of jetting stability and the printed line width with various driving voltage and stage speed by using Ag nanoparticle ink as a jetting solution on a hydrophobic surface. We verified that the hypodermic needle greatly improves the resolution in EHD printing. The ink slips down the inner wall of the hypodermic needle, and a very small meniscus is generated at the tip of the needle. Due to this phenomenon, high-resolution printing can be accomplished. The narrowest line that was fabricated using a hypodermic needle has a line width of 0.7 ?m, and it is smaller than 1% of the needle inner diameter.

  15. Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Resende, T.; Balan, T.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Bouvier, S.; Sablin, S.-S.

    2010-06-01

    With a view to environmental, economic and safety concerns, car manufacturers need to design lighter and safer vehicles in ever shorter development times. In recent years, High Strength Steels (HSS) like Interstitial Free (IF) steels which have higher ratios of yield strength to elastic modulus, are increasingly used for sheet metal parts in automotive industry to meet the demands. Moreover, the application of sheet metal forming simulations has proven to be beneficial to reduce tool costs in the design stage and to optimize current processes. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is quite successful to simulate metal forming processes but accuracy largely depends on the quality of the material properties provided as input to the material model. Common phenomenological models roughly consist in the fitting of functions on experimental results and do not provide any predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Therefore, the use of accurate plasticity models based on physics would increase predictive capability, reduce parameter identification cost and allow for robust and time-effective finite element simulations. For this purpose, a 3D physically based model at large strain with dislocation density evolution approach was presented in IDDRG2009 by the authors [1]. This model allows the description of work-hardening's behavior for different loading paths (i.e. uni-axial tensile, simple shear and Bauschinger tests) taking into account several data from microstructure (i.e. grain size, texture, etc…). The originality of this model consists in the introduction of microstructure data in a classical phenomenological model in order to achieve work-hardening's predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Indeed, thanks to a microstructure parameter set for an Interstitial Free steel, it is possible to describe work-hardening behavior for different loading paths of other IF steels by only changing the mean grain size and the chemical composition. During sheet metal forming processes local material points may experience multi-axial and multi-path loadings. Before simulating actual industrial parts, automotive manufacturers use validation tools—e.g. the Cross-Die stamping test. Such typical stamping tests enable the evaluation of a complex distribution of strains. The work described is an implementation [2] of a 3D dislocation based model in ABAQUS/Explicit and its validation on a Finite Element (FE) Cross-Die model. In order to assess the performance and relevance of the 3D dislocation based model in the simulation of industrial forming applications, the results of thinning profiles predicted along several directions and the strain distribution were obtained and compared with experimental results for IF steels with grain sizes varying in the 8-22 μm value range.

  16. The intra-tumoral relationship between microcirculation, interstitial fluid pressure and liposome accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Shawn; Milosevic, Michael; Tannock, Ian F; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A

    2015-08-10

    The heterogeneous intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes has been linked to both the chaotic tumor microcirculation and to elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we explored the relationship between tumor microcirculation, IFP, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Measurements of the tumor microcirculation using perfusion imaging, IFP using a novel image-guided robotic needle positioning system, and the intra-tumoral distribution of liposomes using volumetric micro-CT imaging were performed in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors. Intra-tumoral perfusion and IFP were substantially different between the two tumor implantation sites. Tumor perfusion and not vascular permeability was found to be the primary mediator of the intra-tumoral accumulation of CT-liposomes. A strong relationship was observed between the radial distribution of IFP, metrics of tumor perfusion, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Tumors with elevated central IFP that decreased at the periphery had low perfusion and low levels of CT-liposome accumulation that increased towards the periphery. Conversely, tumors with low and radially uniform IFP exhibited higher levels of tumor perfusion and CT-liposome accumulation. Both tumor perfusion and elevated IFP exhibit substantial intra-tumoral heterogeneity and both play an integral role in mediating the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes through a complex interactive effect. Measuring IFP in the clinical setting remains challenging and these results demonstrate that tumor perfusion imaging alone provides a robust non-invasive method to identify factors that contribute to poor liposome accumulation and may allow for pre-selection of patients that are more likely to respond to nanoparticle therapy. PMID:26070245

  17. Formation Mechanism of Interstitial Hydrogen Molecules in Crystalline Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Kunie; Umehara, Naomasa; Fukuda, Sin-ya; Mori, Toshiki; Hishita, Shun-ichi; Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime; Kitajima, Masahiro; Murakami, Kouichi

    2003-09-01

    The formation mechanism of interstitial H2 in crystalline silicon was investigated by varying the dopant concentration and hydrogenation temperature. At low temperatures such as 125°C, the Raman peak of the interstitial H2 is observed only in heavily doped n-type silicon, suggesting that the formation of H2 includes a metastable donor-hydrogen complex as the precursor and that H2 formation out of two isolated hydrogen atoms is hindered by the Coulombic repulsion between two equally charged atoms at this temperature. At moderate temperatures such as 235°C, the interstitial H2 is formed also for intrinsic and p-type silicon. The absence of the dopant-concentration dependence in p-type silicon indicates that the H2 is created from two hydrogen atoms, at least one of which is neutralized by capturing a thermally excited electron. The formation of the interstitial H2 competes with that of extended planar defects (platelets) at high temperatures such as 305°C.

  18. Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. P.; Good, R. R.; Bartone, F. F.

    1990-01-01

    We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2319613

  19. Interstitial pulmonary edema in children and adolescents with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, W H; Locksmith, J P; Burton, E M; Hobbs, E; Passmore, G G; Pearson-Shaver, A L; Deane, D A; Beaudreau, M; Bassali, R W

    1998-01-01

    The acute complications of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents are well recognized but not completely understood. Clinical studies have focused primarily on brain edema. We have investigated the prevalence and course of interstitial pulmonary edema in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis all of whom had uneventful clinical courses. High resolution computed tomography scans of the lungs were analyzed by determining the Hounsfield attenuation level and then converting to physical density values. All seven patients had evidence of interstitial pulmonary edema on the first scan, which was performed within 1 h of hydration and prior to receiving insulin; six of the seven patients had increased pulmonary density 6-8 h into treatment, and all had complete resolution of the interstitial changes at discharge. Our study suggests that subclinical interstitial pulmonary edema may be a frequent occurrence in children and adolescents with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and may very well be present prior to treatment. The study also supports the philosophy of cautious rehydration and the close monitoring of children and adolescents with diabetic ketoacidosis until a more complete understanding of this pathophysiologic event is achieved. PMID:9877465

  20. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.