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Sample records for interstitial metallic needle

  1. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  2. Performance and suitability assessment of a real-time 3D electromagnetic needle tracking system for interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boutaleb, Samir; Fillion, Olivier; Bonillas, Antonio; Hautvast, Gilion; Binnekamp, Dirk; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate insertion and overall needle positioning are key requirements for effective brachytherapy treatments. This work aims at demonstrating the accuracy performance and the suitability of the Aurora® V1 Planar Field Generator (PFG) electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) for real-time treatment assistance in interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Material and methods The system's performance was characterized in two distinct studies. First, in an environment free of EM disturbance, the boundaries of the detection volume of the EMTS were characterized and a tracking error analysis was performed. Secondly, a distortion analysis was conducted as a means of assessing the tracking accuracy performance of the system in the presence of potential EM disturbance generated by the proximity of standard brachytherapy components. Results The tracking accuracy experiments showed that positional errors were typically 2 ± 1 mm in a zone restricted to the first 30 cm of the detection volume. However, at the edges of the detection volume, sensor position errors of up to 16 mm were recorded. On the other hand, orientation errors remained low at ± 2° for most of the measurements. The EM distortion analysis showed that the presence of typical brachytherapy components in vicinity of the EMTS had little influence on tracking accuracy. Position errors of less than 1 mm were recorded with all components except with a metallic arm support, which induced a mean absolute error of approximately 1.4 mm when located 10 cm away from the needle sensor. Conclusions The Aurora® V1 PFG EMTS possesses a great potential for real-time treatment assistance in general interstitial brachytherapy. In view of our experimental results, we however recommend that the needle axis remains as parallel as possible to the generator surface during treatment and that the tracking zone be restricted to the first 30 cm from the generator surface. PMID:26622231

  3. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  4. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  5. Study of metal distribution in pine and spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, J.; Marshall, G.B.; Bauer, P.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to assess the conditions for foliar uptake of air-borne metallic pollutants on pine and spruce needles. Needles of coniferous trees (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus) were sampled at three locations in the Protected Landscape Area Elbe Sandstone in the Czech Republic. Solid (CR) and water-soluble (WS) fractions of aerosol adhered to the needle surface, and epicuticular waxes were separated from the needle by the two-step stripping procedure. The WS and CR fractions and the needle body after the stripping procedure were separately analyzed for 24 metals. The quantity of each fraction and its elemental composition is discussed regarding the tree species, needle age and locality. Highest aerosol quantities as well as concentration of metals were found in pine needles (Pinus strobus) from the locality most exposed to the local pollution sources. Epicuticular waxes were analyzed for As, Cd and Pb. The concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.2 {micro}g/g for As and Pb, and from 0.2 to 0.6 {micro}g/g for Cd. The highest metal concentrations were found in waxes of pines (Pinus sylvestris). Values of As and Pb concentration differences between WS fraction and the wax, between the wax and the needle body decrease with the needle age while Cd concentration differences do not depend on the needle age.

  6. SU-E-T-507: Interfractional Variation of Fiducial Marker Position During HDR Brachytherapy with Cervical Interstitial Needle Template

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S; Kim, R; Benhabib, S; Araujo, J; Burnett, L; Duan, J; Popple, R; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy using interstitial needle template for cervical cancer is commonly delivered in 4-5 fractions. Routine verification of needle positions before each fraction is often based on radiographic imaging of implanted fiducial markers. The current study evaluated interfractional displacement of implanted fiducial markers using CT images. Methods: 9 sequential patients with cervical interstitial needle implants were evaluated. The superior and inferior borders of the target volumes were defined by fiducial markers in planning CT. The implant position was verified with kV orthogonal images before each fraction. A second CT was acquired prior 3rd fraction (one or 2 days post planning CT). Distances from inferior and superior fiducial markers to pubic symphysis plane (perpendicular to vaginal obtulator)were measured. Distance from needle tip of a reference needle (next to the inferior marker) to the pubic symphysis plane was also determined. The difference in fiducial marker distance or needle tip distance between planning CT and CT prior 3rd fraction were measured to assess markers migration and needle displacement. Results: The mean inferior marker displacement was 4.5 mm and ranged 0.9 to 11.3 mm. The mean superior marker displacement was 2.7 mm and ranged 0 to 10.4 mm. There was a good association between inferior and superior marker displacement (r=0.95). Mean averaged inferior and superior marker displacement was 3.3 mm and ranged from 0.1 to 10.9 mm, with a standard deviation of 3.2 mm. The mean needle displacement was 5.6 mm and ranged 0.2 to 15.6 mm. Needle displacements were reduced (p<0.05) after adjusting according to needle-to-fiducials distance. Conclusion: There were small fiducial marker displacements between HDR fractions. Our study suggests a target margin of 9.7 mm to cover interfractional marker displacements (in 95% cases) for pretreatment verification based on radiographic imaging.

  7. Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Andréanne; Pichette, Julien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Paulsen, Keith D; Roberts, David W; Petrecca, Kevin; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-15

    The extraction of tissue samples during brain needle biopsy can cause life-threatening hemorrhage because of significant blood vessel injury during the procedure. Vessel rupture can have significant consequences for patient health, ranging from transient neurological deficits to death. Here, we present a sub-diffuse optical tomography technique that can be integrated into neurosurgical workflow to detect the presence of blood vessels. A proof-of-concept study performed on a realistic brain tissue phantom is presented and demonstrates that interstitial optical tomography (iOT) can detect several 1 mm diameter high-contrast absorbing objects located <2  mm from the needle. PMID:25679836

  8. Diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Jun

    1984-11-01

    A particle moving in a metal and interacting with the metallic electrons is discussed first from a general point of view. The electrons cannot follow the particle adiabatically because of low excitation energies across the fermi surface. One of the non-adiabatic effects is to renormalize the tunneling matrix of the particle by a factor (T/D) K, where D is the width of the electron band, K is a coupling between the particle and the electrons. The diffusion constant of the particle tunneling among many sites is proportional to T 2K-1, where T 2K comes from the effective tunneling matrix squared, while T -1 comes from an effective broadening of the level of the particle. This temperature dependence explains the observations for the positive muon in copper when K< {1}/{2}. We also consider interaction of the muon with lattice distortion. With both interactions, we obtain a very good agreement with an observation in the whole temperature range, except the lowest temperature where the diffusion constant tends to a constant. We introduce phenomenologically a broadening of the individual muon level. A width of 0.34K explains the observed leveling off.

  9. Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.

    2009-11-01

    Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

  10. SU-F-19A-12: Split-Ring Applicator with Interstitial Needle for Improved Volumetric Coverage in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Colussi, V; Mislmani, M; Traughber, B; Herrmann, K; Podder, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric coverage of a Mick Radionuclear titanium Split-Ring applicator (SRA) with/without interstitial needle compared to an intracavitary Vienna applicator (VA), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary ring and tandem applicator (RTA). Methods: A 57 year-old female with FIGO stage IIB cervical carcinoma was treated following chemoradiotherapy (45Gy pelvic and 5.4Gy parametrial boost) with highdose- rate (HDR) brachytherapy to 30Gy in 5 fractions using a SRA. A single interstitial needle was placed using the Ellis Interstitial Cap for the final three fractions to increase coverage of left-sided gross residual disease identified on 3T-MRI. High-risk (HR) clinical target volume (CTV) and intermediate-risk (IR) CTV were defined using axial T2-weighted 2D and 3D MRI sequences (Philips PET/MRI unit). Organs-at-risks (OARs) were delineated on CT. Oncentra planning system was used for treatment optimization satisfying GEC-ESTRO guidelines for target coverage and OAR constraints. Retrospectively, treatment plans (additional 20 plans) were simulated using intracavitary SRA (without needle), intracavitary VA (without needle), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary RTA with this same patient case. Plans were optimized for each fraction to maintain coverage to HR-CTV. Results: Interstitial-intracavitary SRA achieved the following combined coverage for external radiation and brachytherapy (EQD2): D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy; Bladder-2cc =88.9Gy; Rectum-2cc =65.1Gy; Sigmoid-2cc =48.9Gy; Left vaginal wall (VW) =103Gy, Right VW =99.2Gy. Interstitial-intracavitary VA was able to achieve identical D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy, yet Bladder-2cc =91.9Gy (exceeding GEC-ESTRO recommendations of 2cc<90Gy) and Left VW =120.8Gy and Right VW =115.5Gy. Neither the SRA nor VA without interstitial needle could cover HR-CTV adequately without exceeding dose to Bladder-2cc. Conventional RTA was unable to achieve target coverage for the HR-CTV >80Gy without severely overdosing OARs. Conclusion: The Ellis Interstitial Cap for the SRA offered superior dosimetric coverage as compared to the interstitialintracavitary VA. This represents the first reported use for this devise, and further investigation is warranted.

  11. Evaluation of anelastic evidence for interstitial solute binding in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cost, J.R.; Stanley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A Direct Spectrum Analysis (DSA) technique has been applied to key internal friction and elastic after-effect data which are involved in the controversy over the existance of interstitial clustering in the refractory metals. It is found that at relatively high interstitial solute concentrations some of the Snoek peak broadening is due to relaxations that are distinct from the main relaxation. This finding supports the view that interstitial solutes have an interaction that produces clusters of interstitials.

  12. Assessment of daily needle applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer using daily CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tadashi; Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Yamazaki, Hideya; Miyake, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Mineo; Yoshimura, Yasushi; Oka, Toshitsugu; Honda, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    To improve treatment conformity for prostate cancer, we investigated daily applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT). Thirty patients treated with HDR-ISBT as monotherapy were examined. All patients received a treatment dosage of 49 Gy per 7 fractions over 4 days. For dose administration, we examined 376 flexible applicators (1128 points) using our unique ambulatory implant technique. Using CT images with a 3-mm slice thickness, we calculated the relative coordinates of the titanium markers and the tips of the applicators. We calculated the distance between the center of gravity of the markers and the tips of the catheters, and compared the distances measured on the day of implantation and the second, third, and fourth treatment days. The mean displacement distance for all applicators was 4.3 ± 3.4 mm, 4.6 ± 4.1 mm, and 5.8 ± 4.5 mm at 21, 45, and 69 hours after initial planning CT. We used a 15-mm margin for needle displacement and only 2 points of 2 patients (16 mm and 18 mm at 69 hours, 2/1128 = 0.2%) exceeded this range. Almost patients (87%) showed the largest displacement within the first 21 hours. The relative doses that covered 100% of CTV (D100(CTV)) values compared with the initial treatment plan were reduced to 0.96 ± 0.08, 0.96 ± 0.08 and 0.94 ± 0.1 at 21, 45 and 69 hours. However, the relative D90(CTV) values kept acceptable levels (1.01 ± 0.02, 1.01 ± 0.03 and 1.01 ± 0.03). Cranial margin of 15 mm seems to be effective to keep D90(CTV) level if we do not do corrective action. PMID:22485020

  13. Fabrication of a hollow needle structure by dicing, wet etching and metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Hasada, Takehiko; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We previously proposed a novel fabrication process, which combined mechanical dicing and anisotropic wet etching, to reduce the cost of micro-electro-mechanical system devices, and fabricated various solid-type microneedle structures using this process for trans-dermal drug delivery systems. The current research involved us enhancing our previous processes by applying metal plating and using a minimum number of photolithography steps, and we fabricated a hollow-type micro-needle structure, in which a flow channel was formed at the center of the needle projection, for supplying medical solutions from the area behind the needle. We fabricated two different shaped needle structures, pyramidal and flattened needles. The height and pitch of both needle types were 120-250 µm and 230-280 µm, respectively. The developed process is useful for producing disposable microneedles for bio-medical applications.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR COLLECTING INTERSTITIAL WATER FOR TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. e compared the concentration of pollutants in doses seawater before ...

  15. METAL-COLLOID PARTITIONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS: INFLUENCES OF SALINITY, PH AND COLLOIDAL ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better ...

  16. Experimental evidence for thermal generation of interstitials in a metallic crystal near the melting temperature.

    PubMed

    Safonova, E V; Mitrofanov, Yu P; Konchakov, R A; Yu Vinogradov, A; Kobelev, N P; Khonik, V A

    2016-06-01

    The only intrinsic point defects of simple crystalline metals known from solid state physics are vacancies and interstitials. It is widely believed that while vacancies play a major role in crystal properties and their concentration reaches relatively big values near the melting temperature T m, interstitials essentially do not occur in thermodynamic equilibrium and their influence on properties is minor. Here, taking aluminum single crystals as an example, we present compelling experimental evidence for rapid thermoactivated growth of interstitial concentration upon approaching T m. Using high precision measurements of the shear modulus we found a diaelastic effect of up to [Formula: see text] near T m. It is argued that this effect is mostly due to the generation of dumbbell (split) interstitials. The interstitial concentration c i rapidly increases upon approaching T m and becomes only 2-3 times smaller than that of vacancies just below T m. The reason for this c i -increase is conditioned by a decrease of the Gibbs free energy with temperature, which in turn originates from the high formation entropy of dumbbell interstitials and a decrease of their formation enthalpy at high c i . Special molecular dynamic simulation confirmed all basic aspects of the proposed interpretation. The results obtained (i) demonstrate the significance of interstitial concentration near T m that could lead to the revaluation of vacancy concentration at high temperatures, (ii) suggest that dumbbell interstitials play a major role in the melting mechanism of monatomic metallic crystals and (iii) support a new avenue for in-depth understanding of glassy metals. PMID:27143564

  17. Experimental evidence for thermal generation of interstitials in a metallic crystal near the melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, E. V.; Mitrofanov, Yu P.; Konchakov, R. A.; Vinogradov, A. Yu; Kobelev, N. P.; Khonik, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    The only intrinsic point defects of simple crystalline metals known from solid state physics are vacancies and interstitials. It is widely believed that while vacancies play a major role in crystal properties and their concentration reaches relatively big values near the melting temperature T m, interstitials essentially do not occur in thermodynamic equilibrium and their influence on properties is minor. Here, taking aluminum single crystals as an example, we present compelling experimental evidence for rapid thermoactivated growth of interstitial concentration upon approaching T m. Using high precision measurements of the shear modulus we found a diaelastic effect of up to -1.5% near T m. It is argued that this effect is mostly due to the generation of dumbbell (split) interstitials. The interstitial concentration c i rapidly increases upon approaching T m and becomes only 2–3 times smaller than that of vacancies just below T m. The reason for this c i -increase is conditioned by a decrease of the Gibbs free energy with temperature, which in turn originates from the high formation entropy of dumbbell interstitials and a decrease of their formation enthalpy at high c i . Special molecular dynamic simulation confirmed all basic aspects of the proposed interpretation. The results obtained (i) demonstrate the significance of interstitial concentration near T m that could lead to the revaluation of vacancy concentration at high temperatures, (ii) suggest that dumbbell interstitials play a major role in the melting mechanism of monatomic metallic crystals and (iii) support a new avenue for in-depth understanding of glassy metals.

  18. Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

  19. Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ρ < 1 mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70 µm on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

  20. Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils.

    PubMed

    Otero, Xosé L; Macías, Felipe

    2002-01-01

    The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the same variations. Soils not colonized by plants had the highest pH and lowest heavy metal concentrations in the summer. These results support the idea that higher temperatures lead to an increase in the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which in turn leads to an increase in alkalinity and concentration of sulfides in the water. Trace metals tend to precipitate with sulfides under these conditions and are removed from the interstitial water. In contrast, in the soils colonized by Spartina maritima, the oxidation of metal sulfides during the summer led to a decrease in pH and an increase in the metal concentrations in the interstitial water. The results obtained concur with those found for seasonal variations in metal sulfides in soils from the same salt marsh. PMID:12395829

  1. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

  2. On the interaction between a vacancy and interstitial loops in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Puigvi, Mary Angels; de Diego, Nieves; Serra, Anna; Osetskiy, Yury N; Bacon, David J

    2007-01-01

    Atomic-scale computer simulation is used to study interaction between a vacancy and clusters of self-interstitial atoms in metals with hcp, fcc and bcc crystal structure: -zirconium, copper and -iron. Effects of cluster size, atomic structure, dislocation nature of the cluster side and temperature are investigated. A vacancy can recombine with any interstitial in small clusters and this does not affect cluster mobility. In large clusters interaction depends on whether the cluster sides dissociate into partial dislocations. A vacancy recombines only on undissociated sides and corners created with undissociated segments. Vacancies inside the cluster perimeter do not recombine but restrict cluster mobility. Temperature enhances recombination by either increasing the number of recombination sites or assisting vacancy diffusion towards such sites. The results are relevant to differences in bcc, fcc and hcp metals microstructure evolution under irradiation observed experimentally and studied by theoretical or higher level modelling techniques.

  3. Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J.; Mahony, J.D.

    1996-12-01

    The authors investigated the utility of interstitial water concentrations of metals and simultaneously extracted metal/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to explain the biological availability of sediment-associated divalent metals to benthic organisms exposed in the laboratory to sediments from five saltwater and four freshwater locations in the US, Canada, and China. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita or the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were exposed to 70 sediments from the five saltwater locations, and the amphipod Hyalella azteca or the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to 55 sediments from four freshwater locations in 10-d lethality tests. Almost complete absence of toxicity in spiked sediments and field sediments where metals were the only known source of contamination and where interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs) were < 0.5 indicates that toxicity associated with sediments having SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 from two saltwater locations in industrial harbors was not metals-related as these sediments contained <0.5 IWTU. Metals-associated toxicity was absent in 100% of sediments from the remaining three saltwater field locations, where metals were the only known source of contamination and SEM/AVS ratios were {le} 1.0. Two-thirds of 45 sediments from seven saltwater and freshwater field locations having both IWTUs > 0.5 (55%) were used alone. The difference between the molar concentrations of SEM and AVS (SEM-AVS) can provide important insight into the extent of additional available binding capacity, the magnitude by which AVS binding has been exceeded, and, when organism response is considered, the potential magnitude of importance of other metal binding phases. SEM-AVS should be used instead of SEM/AVS ratios as a measure of metals availability. In published experiments with both metal-spiked and field sediments, SEM-AVS and IWTUs accurately identified absence of sediment toxicity and with less accuracy identified the presence of toxicity.

  4. NEXAFS investigations of transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, sulfides and other interstitial compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. G.

    Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, transition metal compounds, especially transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides, have been the subject of many surface science investigations. In this article we will review applications of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique in the investigations of electronic and structural properties of transition metal compounds. This review covers NEXAFS studies of compounds in various physical forms, including bulk single crystals, well-characterized overlayers on surfaces of corresponding parent metals, and amorphous powder materials. In addition to transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides, we will also briefly discuss NEXAFS studies of interstitial compounds containing other 2p and 3p non-metal components, namely boron, fluorine, silicon, phosphorus and chlorine. We will discuss the correlation between experimental NEXAFS spectra and the local bonding environment of these compounds, such as the number of d-electrons, spin configurations, ligand-field splitting, coordination numbers, local symmetries, and crystal structures. In addition, NEXAFS investigations of the adsorption and reaction of probing molecules will also be discussed to reveal the underlying chemical reactivities of these materials. We will use many examples to demonstrate the importance of NEXAFS studies in the overall understanding of the physical and chemical properties of transition metal compounds. Finally, we will conclude this review by summarizing the current applications, as well as potential research opportunities, of NEXAFS in several technologically important research areas, including materials science, catalysis, biological science, earth science and environmental science.

  5. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in patients without hard metal exposure: analysis of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoor, Andras; Roden, Anja C; Colby, Thomas V; Roggli, Victor L; Elrefaei, Mohamed; Alvarez, Francisco; Erasmus, David B; Mallea, Jorge M; Murray, David L; Keller, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a rare lung disease and is considered pathognomonic for hard metal lung disease, although some cases with no apparent hard metal (tungsten carbide cobalt) exposure have been reported. We aimed to explore the association between giant cell interstitial pneumonia and hard metal exposure. Surgical pathology files from 2001 to 2004 were searched for explanted lungs with the histopathologic diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and we reviewed the associated clinical histories. Mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and human leukocyte antigen typing data were evaluated. Of the 455 lung transplants, 3 met the histologic criteria for giant cell interstitial pneumonia. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old firefighter, patient 2 was a 58-year-old welder, and patient 3 was a 45-year-old environmental inspector. None reported exposure to hard metal or cobalt dust. Patients 1 and 2 received double lung transplants; patient 3 received a left single-lung transplant. Histologically, giant cell interstitial pneumonia presented as chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, alveolar macrophage accumulation, and multinucleated giant cells of both alveolar macrophage and type 2 cell origin. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed no cobalt or tungsten particles in samples from the explanted lungs. None of the samples had detectable tungsten levels, and only patient 2 had elevated cobalt levels. The lack of appropriate inhalation history and negative analytical findings in the tissue from 2 of the 3 patients suggests that giant cell interstitial pneumonia is not limited to individuals with hard metal exposure, and other environmental factors may elicit the same histologic reaction. PMID:26997453

  6. Predicting the toxicity of metals-contaminated field sediments using interstitial water metal and acid volatile sulfide normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.; Hansen, D.; Boothman, W.; Pesch, C.; Robson, D.; Mahony, J.; Di Toro, D.; Ankley, G.; Ma, D.; Yan, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have investigated the utility of interstitial metals concentrations and simultaneously extracted metals/acid volatile sulfide ratios (SEM/AVS) in explaining the bioavailability of sediment-associated metals to benthic organisms in the laboratory and field. These studies have used both metal-spiked and field-contaminated freshwater and saltwater sediments, with acute, chronic, and colonization designs. Organism responses were generally predictable given known metals-sediment chemistry interactions. Sediment toxicity was not related to dry weight metals concentrations. Spiked sediments with SEM/AVS ratios {<=}1.0 or IWTU {<=}0.5 did not show metals-related toxicity. Spiked sediments with SEM/AVS > 1 or IWTU > 0.5 were generally toxic. Metals were available in the order of their sulfide solubility product constants. The presence of non-metal contaminants and other metal-binding phases in field sediments can confuse interpretation of organism response. However, SEM/AVS ratios and IWTUs can provide valuable insight into the role of metals in the toxicity of field sediments, relationship between the chemistry of anaerobic sediments and their toxicity to aerobic organisms, and importance of the seasonal cycle of metal sulfides. The difference (SEM-AVS) between the molar concentrations should be used over the previously recommended SEM/AVS ratios; toxicity predictions are identical and insight can be gained into the amount of additional available sulfide metal-binding capacity, or the extent to which it has been exceeded, and, along with organism response, the potential importance of other metal binding phases.

  7. Accumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant responses in Pinus sylvestris L. needles in polluted and non-polluted sites.

    PubMed

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in current-year, 1-year old and 2-year old needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Trees were from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecologically clean site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response and contents of protein, proline, total glutathione, non-protein thiols and activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in the needles. Generally, in pine needles from the polluted sites, the concentrations of the metals were higher and increased with the age of needles, and in most cases, antioxidant responses also were elevated. The highest levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were found in 2-year old pine needles collected near the polluted zinc smelter (respectively: 6.15, 256.49, 393.5 mg kg(-1)), Fe in 2-year old pine needles in the vicinity of the iron smelter (206.82 mg kg(-1)) and Mn in 2-year old needles at the ecologically clean site (180.32 mg kg(-1)). Positive correlations were found between Fe, Mn and Pb and the content of proteins and NPTs, between Cd and non-protein -SH groups, and between Zn and proline levels. The activity of GPX increased under the influence of Mn, while glutathione levels tended to decrease as Mn levels rose. The data obtained show that the levels of protein and non-protein -SH groups may be useful in biological monitoring, and that these ecophysiological parameters seem to be good evidence of elevated oxidative stress caused by heavy metals. PMID:27033856

  8. EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

  9. On the interaction between perfect interstitial clusters and a vacancy in BCC, FCC and HCP metals

    SciTech Connect

    Puigvi, Mary Angels; Serra, Anna; de Diego, Nieves; Osetskiy, Yury N; Bacon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Point defects and defect clusters have been observed in metals irradiated by high-energy particles. Interactions of these defects between themselves and with existing microstructure features cause microstructure evolution and lead to changes in mechanical and physical properties of the irradiated materials. Models for prediction of radiation-induced changes should include details of reactions involving defects, and so in this paper we present the results of atomic-scale computer modelling of interactions between a cluster of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and a single vacancy in models of bcc, fcc and hcp metals. The vacancy is taken to lie on or within the glide prism of the cluster. This type of reaction is considered to be one of the most frequent because formation of SIA clusters, particularly glissile clusters, is commonly observed in high-energy displacement cascades in all metals. The interaction depends strongly on the dislocation nature of the cluster and therefore these interactions are different in the three crystal structures. Vacancy-SIA recombination, in particular, is inhibited by dissociation of the SIA loop on its glide prism.

  10. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

    1988-03-01

    A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

  11. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.J.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S.; Mahony, J.D.; Robson, D.L.; Toro, D.M. di; Shipley, B.P.; Rogers, B.; Corbin, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dry weight concentrations of metals in sediments cannot be used to predict toxicity across sediments. However, several studies using sediments from both freshwater and saltwater have shown that interstitial water concentration or normalization involving acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) can be used to predict toxicity in sediments contaminated with cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc across a wide range of sediment types. Six separate experiments were conducted in which two or three sediments of varying AVS concentration were spiked with a series of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, or zinc or a mixture of four of these metals. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita was then exposed to the sediments in 10-d toxicity tests. Amphipod mortality was sediment dependent when plotted against dry weight metals concentration but was not sediment dependent when plotted against simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS or interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs). Sediments with SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 were seldom toxic, while sediments with SEM/AVS ratios > 1.0 were frequently toxic. Similarly, sediments with < 0.5 IWTU were seldom toxic (3.0%), while sediments with > 0.5 IWTU were toxic 94.4% of the time. These results, coupled with results from related studies, demonstrate that an understanding of the fundamental chemical reactions which control the availability of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in sediments can be used to explain observed biological responses. The authors believe that using SEM/AVS ratios and IWTUs allows for more accurate predictions of acute mortality, with better casual linkage to metal concentration, than is possible with sediment evaluation tools which rely on dry weight metal concentrations.

  12. Interstitial atoms in metal-metal bonded arrays: The synthesis and characterization of heptascandium decachlorodicarbide, Sc 7Cl 10C 2, and comparison with the interstitial-free Sc 7Cl 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Corbett, John D.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    1985-03-01

    Reaction of Sc strips, ScCl 3, and graphite at 860-1000°C gives Sc 7Cl 10C 2 in quantitative yields, with transport occurring at the higher temperatures; adventitious carbon will also produce the phase. The compound has been shown to be isostructural with Er 7I 10 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction ( a=18.620 (4) Å, b=3.4975 (6) Å, c=11.810 (2) Å, β=99.81 (2) o; space group C2/m, Z=2, R=0.029, R w=0.046 for 676 reflections, Mo Kα, 2<50°). The phase contains double chains of condensed scandium octahedra sharing edges with a carbon approximately centered in each ((Sc-C)=2.31 Å) together with isolated scandium atoms in a parallel chain of chloride octahedra. The arrangement is very similar to that in the previously known Sc 7Cl 10, from which the heavy atom arrangement can be derived by displacement of all metal atoms by b/2 so as to convert chlorine functions on the metal chain from face-capping to edge-bridging. The driving force for this is thought to be the reduction of carbon-chlorine repulsive interactions. Core and valence XPS data for Sc 7Cl 10, Sc 7Cl 10Cl 2, Sc 2Cl 2C, ScCl 3, and Sc are presented to demonstrate the appearance of a carbide-like state for the interstitial, the presence of two different types of scandium in the first two comopounds, the oxidation of the chain that accompanies the carbon insertion, and a substantial Sc-C covalency. The latter arises through mixing of the interstitial's 2 s and 2 p valence orbitals with metal-metal bonding cluster orbitals of the same symmetry.

  13. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  14. ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

  15. The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. . Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. ); Mahony, J.D. . Chemistry Dept.)

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

  16. A ferrite core/metallic sheath thermoseed for interstitial thermal therapies.

    PubMed

    Cetas, T C; Gross, E J; Contractor, Y

    1998-01-01

    An alternative form of ferromagnetic seed for thermal therapy has been developed following Matsuki, Murakami, and their colleagues [1]-[4]. A nearly lossless ceramic ferrite core (FC) is surrounded by an electrically conductive sheath. The FC has a high relative intrinsic permeability, typically 3000 at low magnetic field strengths, and a sharp transition from the ferrimagnetic state to the nonmagnetic state. The sheath is either a metallic tube or coating on the core. When this composite seed is excited with a radiofrequency magnetic field, large eddy currents are induced in the metallic sheath (MS) due to the concentrated magnetic flux in the core leading to Joule heating. Advantages of this configuration are that this ferrite core/metallic sheath (FC/MS) thermoseed has high power absorption efficiency and a sharp transition compared to ferromagnetic alloy systems; means of optimizing efficiency are apparent from simple expressions; the outer sheath can be of any biocompatible metal; the production method for the ferrites leads to large quantities of seeds with reproducible properties. The FC/MS configuration solves many of the technical problems that have hindered the clinical implementation of thermally regulating ferromagnetic implants for thermal therapies. PMID:9444841

  17. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  18. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros™ BV with AAPM TG43 dose calculation formalism in breast interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy with the use of metal catheters

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Reddy K, Sathyanarayana; Karunanidhi, Gunaseelan; Singhavajala, Vivekanandam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy for breast cancer includes different techniques and methods. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using TG-43 dose formalism and Varian Acuros™ BV (GBBS) dose calculation algorithm for interstitial implant of breast using metal catheters in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using 192Ir. Material and methods Twenty patients who were considered for breast conservative surgery (BCS), underwent lumpectomy and axillary dissection. These patients received perioperative interstitial HDR brachytherapy as upfront boost using rigid metal implants. Whole breast irradiation was delivered TG-43 after a gap of two weeks. Standard brachytherapy dose calculation was done by dosimetry. This does not take into account tissue heterogeneity, attenuation and scatter in the metal applicator, and effects of patient boundary. Acuros™ BV is a Grid Based Boltzmann Solver code (GBBS), which takes into consideration all the above, was used to compute dosimetry and the two systems were compared. Results Comparison of GBBS and TG-43 formalism on interstitial metal catheters shows difference in dose prescribed to CTV and other OARs. While the estimated dose to CTV was only marginally different with the two systems, there is a significant difference in estimated doses of starting from 4 to 53% in the mean value of all parameters analyzed. Conclusions TG-43 algorithm seems to significantly overestimate the dose to various volumes of interest; GBBS based dose calculation algorithm has impact on CTV, heart, ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral breast, skin, and ribs of the ipsilateral breast side; the prescription changes occurred due to effect of metal catheters, inhomogeneities, and scatter conditions. PMID:26622230

  19. Mn 5Si 3-type host-interstitial boron rare-earth metal silicide compounds RE5Si 3: Crystal structures, physical properties and theoretical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Jérome; Ben Yahia, Mouna; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Bauer, Joseph; Cordier, Stéphane; Guérin, Roland; Hiebl, Kurt; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Halet, Jean-François

    2006-08-01

    A series of binary rare-earth metal silicides RE5Si 3 and ternary boron-interstitial phases RE5Si 3B x ( RE=Gd, Dy, Ho, Lu, and Y) adopting the Mn 5Si 3-type structure, have been prepared from the elemental components by arc melting. Boron "stuffed" phases were subsequently heated at 1750 K within a high-frequency furnace. Crystal structures were determined for both binary and ternary series of compounds from single-crystal X-ray data: hexagonal symmetry, space group P6 3/ mcm, Z=2. Boron insertion in the host binary silicides results in a very small decrease of the unit cell parameters with respect to those of the binaries. According to X-ray data, partial or nearly full boron occupancy of the interstitial octahedral sites in the range 0.6-1 is found. The magnetic properties of these compounds were characterized by the onset of magnetic ordering below 100 K. Boron insertion induces a modification of the transition temperature and θp values in most of the antiferromagnetic binary silicides, with the exception of the ternary phase Er 5Si 3B x which was found to undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 14 K. The electrical resistivities for all binary silicides and ternary boron-interstitial phases resemble the temperature dependence of metals, with characteristic changes of slope in the resistivity curves due to the reduced electron scattering in the magnetically ordered states. Zintl-Klemm concept would predict a limiting composition RE5Si 3B 0.6 for a valence compound and should then preclude the stoichiometric formula RE 5Si 3B. Density functional theory calculations carried out on some RE5Si 3Z x systems for different interstitial heteroatoms Z and different x contents from 0 to 1 give some support to this statement.

  20. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... intercourse In men, discomfort or pain in the penis or scrotum For many women, the symptoms get ... you pass. Your doctor will rule out other diseases such as urinary tract ... bleeding or ulcers. These things could indicate that you have interstitial ...

  1. Interstitial hyperthermia of experimental brain tumor using implant heating system.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Tanaka, T; Kida, Y; Matsui, M; Ikeda, T

    1989-07-01

    New experimental system of induction hyperthermia for brain tumor using ferromagnetic implant with low Curie point has been developed. The metal implant is cylindrical needle and made of Fe-Pt alloy with low Curie point suitable for hyperthermia (50-60 degrees C). Induction coil and generator which produce maximum power of 200W and variable frequency of 100-500kHz, yielding magnetic power of 16.7Oe, have been developed. Interstitial hyperthermia was made on rat brain tumor model (T9 gliosarcoma) by this system. Significant effects of single hyperthermia (45 degrees C for 30 minutes) were observed by the extension of life span and morphological changes of the tumor. PMID:2778493

  2. Past, present, and future for surgical needles and needle holders.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Rodeheaver, G T

    1993-11-01

    During the last two decades, major advances in surgical needle and needle holder technology have markedly improved surgical wound repair. These advances include quantitative tests for surgical needle and needle holders performance, high nickel maraging stainless steels, compound curved needles, needle sharpening methods, laser-drilled holes for swages, needle:suture ratios of 1:1, and the atraumatic needle holder. PMID:8238747

  3. Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatarenko, Valentine A.; Tsysman, Constantin L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Yelena T.

    1995-01-01

    The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC-60) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distortion relaxation of the host fullerene (C-60) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distortion field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. The given paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of static concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method(*). In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the static inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the 'average-lattice' sites' as well as on the lattice parameter a of a elastically-anysotropic 'cubic' C-60 crystal are taken into account.

  4. Surgical needle sharpness.

    PubMed

    Thacker, J G; Rodeheaver, G T; Towler, M A; Edlich, R F

    1989-03-01

    We developed a standard reproducible test to determine surgical needle sharpness. This parameter was measured by recording the maximum force required to push a curved surgical needle through a thin laminated synthetic membrane. Three comparable groups of reversed cutting-edge needles were selected from different manufacturers for needle penetration testing. The results of this testing demonstrated that the needle diameter, manufacturing process, and the manufacturer were all important determinants of needle sharpness. Needles with a smaller diameter were sharper than those with a larger diameter. In addition, electrohoned or hand-honed needles were sharper than those subjected to only machine grinding. When comparably sized needles were compared, Ethicon manufactured the sharpest needles, followed by Davis & Geck and Deknatel needles. Scanning electron microscopic photographs and elemental analysis of the surgical needles could be correlated with their sharpness. The sharper needles had long, narrow cutting edge geometries compared with the short wide geometries of duller needles. The sharpest needles were fabricated from an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 45500 stainless steel alloy that has stronger tensile and yield strengths than those of ASTM 42000 and 42020 alloys used in the creation of the other needles. This stronger alloy allows the manufacturer to produce a longer, narrower cutting point geometry with reduced danger of either bending or breakage during surgery compared with needles made from weaker alloys (ASTM 42000 and ASTM 42020), which accounts for the superior sharpness of the Ethicon surgical needles. PMID:2919741

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  6. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  9. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  10. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained from the sediments do not exceed concentrations to which laboratory cultures of Euploteshave been found to acquire tolerance.

  11. Acuity of biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Malangoni, M A

    1989-01-01

    The acuities of the conventional biopsy device and of a new design of biopsy needle holder were determined in an in vitro study using fresh pork kidney. A second study, using fresh beef kidney, evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the acuity of biopsy needles. Only minor clinical differences were found in the acuities of the two types of biopsy needle. It was established, however, that silicone surface treatment and cryogenic treatment of biopsy needles significantly increases their acuity. PMID:2713435

  12. Investigations on bipolar radio-frequency current application for interstitial thermotherapy (RF-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Stein, Thomas; Tschepe, Johannes

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of radio-frequency current in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT). A short survey of established methods for interstitial tissue coagulation, e.g. the interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) and microwave exposure are given. In addition, a new concept for interstitial application of bipolar or quasi-bipolar radio- frequency alternating current is presented. Theoretical investigations of the electrical field distribution generated by a dipole model come together in the different mechanisms of heat generation by using radio-frequency alternating current. New concepts of bipolar or quasi- bipolar coaxial layered applicators are presented. This bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon to use a partial and homogeneous exposure of radio-frequency current for interstitial thermotherapy, e.g. for the treatment of BPH or for concha coagulation in ENT. Less power is needed due to the limited current exposition at the immediate operation site and a highly safe procedure is possible. Therefore, to determine the thermal damage of tissue, depending on the rf parameters, a computer model for a real-time simulation of the spatial electrical field distribution especially for a multiple probe application is currently being developed. This is an appropriate tool for dosimetry. A similar program for LITT, called LITCIT, developed at the Laser-Medizin-Zentrum Berlin has already shown its efficiency in clinical use. Furthermore the feasibility of a 'cross-over' applicator is discussed which combines ILP and rf-application by using metallized optical fibers for a simultaneous application of electrical energy and laser radiation.

  13. Directional metal-hydrogen bonding in interstitial hydrides. III. Structural study of ErCo{sub 3}D {sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}4.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Filinchuk, Y.E.; Yvon, K. . E-mail: klaus.yvon@cryst.unige.ch

    2006-04-15

    The ErCo{sub 3}-D{sub 2} system has been studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD) at 60 deg. C and 0-16 bar deuterium pressure. Two deuteride phases were identified, {beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.07-1.38} and {gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7-4.3}. They were structurally characterized at the compositions {beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.37} and {gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7} by high-resolution neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction. In contrast to the analogous nickel systems RNi{sub 3}-D{sub 2} (R=Er, Ho; see part I, J. Alloys and Compds. 404-406 (2005) 89-94, and part II, J. Alloys and Compds. 2005, in press), their structures preserve the symmetry of the parent alloy (PuNi{sub 3}-type, space group R-3m). Deuterium occupies mainly AB{sub 2} building blocks in the {beta}-phase, and AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5} building blocks in the {gamma}-phase. In the AB{sub 2} building blocks cobalt is surrounded by an average of 3.8 ({beta}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 1.37}) and 4.4 D-atoms ({gamma}-ErCo{sub 3}D{sub 3.7}) in disordered distorted octahedral configurations (point symmetry -3), in contrast to nickel that is surrounded by {approx}3 ({beta} {sub 1}- and {beta} {sub 2}-RNi{sub 3}D {sub x} , R=Er, Ho) and {approx}4 ({gamma}-ErNi{sub 3}D{sub 3.7}) D-atoms in disordered trigonal (pyramidal) and tetrahedral configurations, respectively (point symmetry 3). These results indicate that the D-atom distributions in this homologous series depend on the nature of the transition element rather than on geometric factors, and that directional bonding effects similar to those in non-metallic complex transition metal hydrides also prevail in metallic interstitial metal hydrides.

  14. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  15. Update on interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Lascola, Kara M

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial pneumonias encompass a wide variety of acute and chronic respiratory diseases and include the specific diseases equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress. These diseases have been diagnosed in all age groups of horses, and numerous agents have been identified as potential causes of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the varied causes, interstitial pneumonia is uniformly recognized by the severity of respiratory disease and often poor clinical outcome. This article reviews the causal agents that have been associated with the development of interstitial pneumonia in horses. Pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25770067

  16. Examination of surface conditions and other physical properties of commonly used stainless steel acupuncture needles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi Min; Xu, Shanqing; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries. Methods Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out. Results The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users. PMID:24522003

  17. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin and into the lining of the lungs and chest wall (pleural membrane). A larger, hollow needle is then placed gently through the skin into the chest cavity. Sometimes, the provider uses ultrasound or CT imaging to guide the needle. A ...

  18. [Atraumatic needles for cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Harnisch, J P

    1985-12-01

    The author reports on his experience with spatula needles and cutting needles with micropoint in cataract surgery. Configuration and edge treatment of the different needles were demonstrated by scanning electron microscope. The characteristics of the tested needles seem to depend mainly upon their profile. In cataract surgery the spatula needles proved to be superior to the needles with cutting micropoint due to their ski-shaped design. PMID:3912601

  19. Generation of Interstitial Atoms in FCC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starenchenko, V. A.; Cherepanov, D. N.; Selivanikova, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    A mathematical model of generation and accumulation of interstitial atoms in plastically deformable pure FCC metals is suggested based on the concept of hardening and recovery that links the phenomena proceeding in the deformable crystal material with the behavior of crystal structure defects. The model comprises kinetics equations for point defects - mono- and bivacancies and interstitial atoms - written with allowance for mechanisms of their generation and precipitation on sinks. Special attention is given to investigation of the influence of the velocity and character of motion of helical segments of expanding dislocation loops on generation of interstitial atoms. Concentrations of interstitial atoms generated in the process of plastic deformation are calculated.

  20. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  1. Unified theory of kink dragging with a special reference to the flow stress and the Snoek-Köster relaxation in anisotropic body-centered-cubic metals with heavy interstitials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurtani, Tarik Ö.; Seeger, Alfred K.

    1985-01-01

    The drag force acting on a kink moving rigidly and uniformly along the dislocation line and in the atmosphere of mobile octahedral (heavy) interstitials is investigated numerically in anisotropic body-centered-cubic metals. It is shown by extensive computer modeling experiments that the drag force versus normalized kink velocity plot goes through a maximum which is composed of three subpeaks, one acoustic and two optical in character. The acoustic part and the optical mode-2 are strongly and selectively associated with the isotropic and the pure shear parts of the elastic dipole tensor of the interstitial species, respectively. An extremely accurate and the concise analytical expression is deduced for the linear viscosity regime which exhibits the behavior of Navier-Stokes fluids, which can be used directly in Snoek-Köster relaxation. The flow stress theory of Seeger for the ultrahigh-purity body-centered-cubic metals is extended and coupled with the present treatment of the kink dragging which yields an excellent agreement with the dynamical strain aging experiments in Fe-C and Fe-N alloys.

  2. Perineal template techniques for interstitial implantation of gynecological cancers using the Paris system of dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S. )

    1990-09-01

    Since 1984, perineal template/needle techniques for interstitial implantation of gynecologic cancer-cervix, vagina, vulva-have been developed at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute. The Paris System of dosimetry has been used resulting in greater dose homogeneity, fewer needles and radioactive sources and considerable simplification and ease of implantation compared with comparable techniques developed in the United States. Principles and techniques of implantation are described in detail.

  3. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get enough oxygen. The scarring is called pulmonary fibrosis. Breathing in dust or other particles in the air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  4. Needle Federated Search Engine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  5. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  6. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  7. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  8. Effects of interstitials on the transition metal sublattice anisotropy in YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}Z{sub x} (Z = H, N; x {approx} 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomey, E.; Fruchart, D.; Soubeyroux, J.L.; Gignoux, D.

    1994-03-01

    The effects of interstitial atoms in rare earth (R) intermetallic compounds are: strong increase in Curie temperature, weak increase of saturation magnetization and large influence in the Crystalline Electric Field (CEF) at the R atom. These effects are more remarkable in carbide and nitride compounds than in hydrides. In this paper the authors will show that additional effects concerning the transition metals (T) occur. In YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}, with ThMn{sub 12}-type structure, it is shown that the introduction of H or N leads, also to an increase of both the Curie temperature and Fe moment. The most remarkable effect is that whereas with hydrogen the authors observed an increase of the easy c-axis anisotropy, with nitrogen the anisotropy becomes easy plane.

  9. Handling sharps and needles

    MedlinePlus

    ... recap or bend a sharp object. Keep your fingers away from the tip of the object. If the object is reusable, ... when they are two-thirds full. Other important tips include: Never put your fingers into the sharps container. If the needle has ...

  10. A new peridural needle-the 'LOLO' needle.

    PubMed

    Delima, L K; Delima, D F

    1989-04-01

    Peridural needles in present day use have a compromised function because of their circular cross section. An ideal peridural needle must be sharp to cut the spinal ligaments and at the same time blunt enough to ensure prevention of dural perforation. This ideal function is only possible if the bevel and tip of the needle are not inversely related as is the case in circular cross section needles. The 'LOLO' peridural needle developed by us is free of this compromise. It has a square cross section with a long, sharp eccentric tip. The bevel is flat and rectangular. The side opening is 4 mms from the tip of the needle through which the catheter is deflected out. Such a design is sharp to traverse the spinal ligaments and also effectively ensures dural tenting and prevent perforation. These properties have been proved by a myelographic study and compared to other conventional needles. PMID:2621665

  11. Self-interstitial defects in hexagonal close packed metals revisited: Evidence for low-symmetry configurations in Ti, Zr, and Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrit, G.; Domain, C.; Fu, Chu-Chun; Gasca, P.; Legris, A.; Willaime, F.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to the eight conventional high-symmetry configurations for self-interstitials in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, we show that four other configurations, obtained by breaking the symmetry of some of the original ones, may be low-energy local minima or saddle points. The first two, BC' and C', consist of the basal crowdion and the crowdion buckled perpendicular to their axes in the pyramidal plane, respectively. The two others, PS and P2S, are obtained by rotating the c-axis split dumbbell in the prismatic plane of first and second type, respectively. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations we show that BC', C', and PS are within 0.4 eV of the lowest-energy conventional structure, BO, in Ti, Zr, and Hf. BC' could even be the lowest-energy configuration in hcp-Zr and its symmetry and possible reorientation mechanisms are compatible with internal friction measurements at variance with the conventional structures. The PS and C' configurations exhibit a helicoidal easy glide motion of the dumbbell-crowdion type in the c-axis direction. These configurations therefore constitute an important element to take into account when predicting the microstructural evolution of zirconium-based materials under irradiation.

  12. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows a urethral dose gradient volume of 0–5 mm around the urethra to receive a dose below the prescription. A multisource approach is necessary in order to deliver the proposed {sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT technique in reasonable treatment times.

  13. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ?0.5-0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  14. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  16. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River. PMID:11367025

  17. Magnetic resonance-guided interstitial therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N. . E-mail: aviswanathan@partners.org; Cormack, Robert; Holloway, Caroline L.; Tanaka, Cynthia; O'Farrell, Desmond C.; Devlin, Phillip M.; Tempany, Clare

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and to describe the acute toxicity of a real-time intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR)-image guided interstitial approach to treating vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 to April 2005, 10 patients with recurrent endometrial cancer underwent MR-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Parameters evaluated included needle placement, dose-volume histograms (DVH), and complications. Results: Magnetic resonance-image guidance resulted in accurate needle placement. Tumor DVH values included median volume, 47 cc; V100, 89%; V150, 61%; V200, 38%; D90, 71 Gy; and D100, 60 Gy. DVH of organs at risk resulted in a median D2cc of external beam and brachytherapy dose (% of brachytherapy prescription): bladder, 75Gy{sub 3} (88%); rectum, 70Gy{sub 3} (87%); and sigmoid, 56Gy{sub 3} (41%). All patients experienced either a Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity related to the radiation; only 1 patient had Grade 3 toxicity. No toxicities were attributable to the use of MR guidance. Conclusions: Real-time MR guidance during the insertion of interstitial needles reduces the likelihood of an inadvertent insertion of the needles into the bladder and the rectum. Three-dimensional dosimetry allows estimation of the dose to organs at risk. Toxicities are limited.

  18. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Viero, R M; Cavallo, T

    1995-12-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare condition whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Of 203 renal biopsies performed between 1974 to 1994 in which interstitial nephritis was the predominant change, granulomata occurred in 12. The authors reviewed the records of these patients and performed immunopathologic and immunohistochemical studies in their biopsies to characterize the phenotype of infiltrating cells. The authors used markers for T cells, B cells, and macrophages, and determined whether they were activated through assessment of upregulation of HLA-DR molecules. Additionally, the authors attempted to delineate whether or not tubules contributed to giant cell formation through assessment of intermediate filament for keratins and macrophage markers in epithelioid cells. Drug (aspirin, gentamycin, or combination of drugs), infection (Echerichia coli or various organisms), and sarcoidosis accounted for granulomatous inflammation in three patients each, Wegener's granulomatosis and oxalosis resulting from intestinal bypass in one patient each, and in one patient the possible cause could not be determined. Except for biopsies of granulomatous inflammation resulting from infection, in which neutrophils predominated, in all other biopsies, T cells and macrophages made up most of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. HLA-DR was upregulated in mononuclear cells infiltrating the interstitium and was expressed in proximal tubular cells and endothelial cells in all but biopsies of patients with sarcoidosis. In no instance was there evidence that tubules contributed epithelial cells to giant cell formation. These findings are consistent with the notion that granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a cell-mediated form of tissue injury in which T cell-macrophage seem to play a major role. PMID:8522308

  19. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  20. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  2. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    SciTech Connect

    Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Pozzi, G.

    2014-07-14

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  3. [Needle tract implantation of thymoma after transthoracic needle biopsy].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Matsumura, A; Tanaka, H; Ohmori, K; Yamamoto, S; Iuchi, K

    2003-06-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of an anterior mediastinal mass. For definite diagnosis, needle biopsy was performed under ultrasonic examination. The histopathological diagnosis was thymoma and thymo-thymectomy was performed. The tumor recurred in the right anterior chest wall 10 years later. It is suggested that the thymoma tissue had been implanted in the needle tract. To our knowledge, this is the 2nd reported case of thymoma which has been implanted in the needle tract. PMID:12795148

  4. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  5. Self-mutilation with needles.

    PubMed

    Peschel, O; Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W

    1997-04-01

    Two cases of self-mutilation with needles are reported. One of the deceased suffered from chronic schizophrenia and committed suicide by plastic bag suffocation. At autopsy several needles were detected grown into the connective tissue of chest or abdominal organs. In the other case a knitting needle was used for repeated manipulations at the forehead leading to a defect of the skin and the skull. At least one vessel was injured leading to an extensive haemorrhage in the left hemisphere of the brain. The forensic and etiologic aspects of the cases are discussed. PMID:9149514

  6. Gurley Dip Needle Lake Superior Model with Case

    Also known as a Forrester's Compass or Miner's Compass, a dip (or dipping) needle is an instrument for measuring the intensity of the earth's magnetic field. It is used to locate buried or hidden metal. Manufactured by W. & L.E. Gurley, Troy, New York. Object ID: USGS-000345...

  7. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  8. A practical MRI-based reconstruction method for a new endocavitary and interstitial gynaecological template

    PubMed Central

    Richart, Jose; Otal, Antonio; Rodriguez, Silvia; Nicolás, Ana Isabel; DePiaggio, Marina; Santos, Manuel; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There are perineal templates for interstitial implants such as MUPIT and Syed applicators. Their limitations are the intracavitary component deficit and the necessity to use computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning since both applicators are non-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibles. To overcome these problems, a new template named Template Benidorm (TB) has been recently developed. Titanium needles are usually reconstructed based on their own artifacts, mainly in T1-weighted sequence, using the void on the tip as the needle tip position. Nevertheless, patient tissues surrounding the needles present heterogeneities that complicate the accurate identification of these artifact patterns. The purpose of this work is to improve the titanium needle reconstruction uncertainty for the TB case using a simple method based on the free needle lengths and typical MRI pellets markers. Material and methods The proposed procedure consists on the inclusion of three small A-vitamin pellets (hyperintense on MRI images) compressed by both applicator plates defining the central plane of the plate's arrangement. The needles used are typically 20 cm in length. For each needle, two points are selected defining the straight line. From such line and the plane equations, the intersection can be obtained, and using the free length (knowing the offset distance), the coordinates of the needle tip can be obtained. The method is applied in both T1W and T2W acquisition sequences. To evaluate the inter-observer variation of the method, three implants of T1W and another three of T2W have been reconstructed by two different medical physicists with experience on these reconstructions. Results and conclusions The differences observed in the positioning were significantly smaller than 1 mm in all cases. The presented algorithm also allows the use of only T2W sequence either for contouring or reconstruction purposes. The proposed method is robust and independent of the visibility of the artifact at the tip of the needle. PMID:26622248

  9. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  10. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, David C. O.; Bown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.

    2001-10-01

    Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) is a method of destroying lesions in the center of solid organs without the need for open surgery. Under image guidance, up to four needles are inserted percutaneously into the tumor through which thin optic fibers are passed into the target lesion. Low power laser light from a semiconductor laser is delivered to gently coagulate the tissue. This dead tissue is subsequently resorbed by the body's normal healing processes. Follow up is achieved with ultrasound imaging. One study is described for assessing ILP for benign fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas were treated to assess how laser treated breast tissue healed in the long term and we have shown that the necrosed tissue is resorbed without complications over a period of months. Nevertheless, by following treated fibroadenomas (up to 35mm diameter) with ultrasound measurement at 3, 6 and 12 months, in 14 patients, only one lesion was still detectable 12 months after ILP. In appropriate cases, ILP could be an attractive option, as it leaves no scars and should not change the shape or size of the breast. If the present studies are successful, the plan is for a multi-center trial of minimally invasive, thermal ablation of breast cancers.

  11. Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-12-01

    For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  12. Technique for interstitial nasopharyngeal brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.B.; Weissberg, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    Two patients have recently been seen with recurrent epidermoid carcinoma in the nasopharynx. Both have achieved local control and are disease-free after a brachytherapy procedure. The technique for interstitial nasopharyngeal brachytherapy is described.

  13. Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Resize Text: Toggle navigation Find a Urologist Submit About Us What We Do Foundation History Leadership ... org Interstitial Cystitis Network www.ic-network.com Advertisement Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education ...

  14. [Interstitial Pneumonia and Emphysema].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Kato, Yuko; Ishii, Sachiyo

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative diseases of restrictive pulmonary dysfunction and obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. In the preoperative anesthesia clinic, anesthesiologists are frequently asked to assess the anesthesia management of patients with these diseases. In respiratory function tests, IP is detected as a decrease in % vital capacity (< 80%), and COPD as a decrease in % FEV1.0 (< 70%). Other key factors which affect the assessment are; 1) severity assessment that affects the safety of anesthesia management, 2) prognostic evaluation including the acute exacerbation in the postoperative period, and 3) patient-related factors (age, life degree of autonomy, other comorbidities, surgery-related factors, and anesthesia method). In the patients in the disease stage I or II, anesthesia management is relatively safe. On the other hand, the patients in the disease stage IV have no surgical indication except life-saving emergent situation. In another words, anesthesiologists are required to make the judgment for the anesthesia management of the patient in the disease stage III, based on the assessment of patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and prognosis. PMID:26466494

  15. Declining interstitial transsudation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarchin, P.; Lagneaux, D.; Lecomte, J.

    1980-01-01

    Results and methodology of experimentation dealing with declining interstitial transsudation are discussed. Concepts of the formation of interstitial fluids are in agreement with measurements of calf volume in normal young women, in horizontal recumbency or after horizontal immersion. The volume of the calf is reduced when the hydrostatic pressure of the blood column is diminished under the phlebostatic level and when the external pressure is increased by the hydrostatic pressure of a water bath.

  16. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at {minus}55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  17. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  18. Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien

    2015-04-01

    Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture. PMID:25952124

  19. Interactive simulation of needle insertion models.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Simon P; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2005-07-01

    A novel interactive virtual needle insertion simulation is presented. The simulation models are based on measured planar tissue deformations and needle insertion forces. Since the force-displacement relationship is only of interest along the needle shaft, a condensation technique is shown to reduce the computational complexity of linear simulation models significantly. As the needle penetrates or is withdrawn from the tissue model, the boundary conditions that determine the tissue and needle motion change. Boundary condition and local material coordinate changes are facilitated by fast low-rank matrix updates. A large-strain elastic needle model is coupled to the tissue models to account for needle deflection and bending during simulated insertion. A haptic environment, based on these novel interactive simulation techniques, allows users to manipulate a three-degree-of-freedom virtual needle as it penetrates virtual tissue models, while experiencing steering torques and lateral needle forces through a planar haptic interface. PMID:16041980

  20. Outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial cervical brachytherapy: barriers and solutions to implementation of a successful programme a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Poh Wee; Koh, Vicky Y.

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of parametrial disease in locally advanced cervical patients poses a challenge for women undergoing brachytherapy. Current use of the Fletcher suit applicator may not adequately cover the high risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), especially in the parametrial region due to the physical qualities of brachytherapy from the inverse square law and the need to respect organs at risk (OAR) constraints, and leads to lower local control rates. Combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy with the use of 1 or 2 interstitial needles allows adequate coverage of the HR CTV and the clinical evidence have demonstrated a correlation with better clinical results. This procedure is often resource intensive, requiring inpatient stay and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) planning. In departments where such resources are limited, there is a poor uptake of interstitial brachytherapy. This article discusses the technique of combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy in an outpatient setting, and explores the issues and barriers for implementation and suggestions to overcome such barriers. PMID:26207117

  1. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood. PMID:17664592

  2. Two case reports of retained steel insulin pump infusion set needles.

    PubMed

    Plager, Phillip; Murati, Michael A; Moran, Antoinette; Sunni, Muna

    2016-03-01

    Insulin pumps are common in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We report two cases of metal insulin infusion set needles which broke off the tubing and remained embedded in the soft tissue of two boys with T1D (five needles in one case, and one needle in the other). The patient with five retained needles was asymptomatic and had a normal physical examination, and the missing needles were only detected using pelvic X-ray; the second patient had only mild discomfort. While these are the first such cases reported in the medical literature, there may be other cases which have gone unnoticed, suggesting the potential need to explore the safety of this product further. PMID:25683199

  3. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  4. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  5. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  6. Diagnosis of asbestosis by needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Walton, M.; Skeoch, T.

    1968-01-01

    Nine patients from Teesside who had asbestosis are briefly described. In seven of them a needle biopsy was made to confirm the diagnosis. The advantages of the procedure, using the Jack needle (Smith, 1964a), are discussed. Images PMID:5680241

  7. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  8. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  9. Red needles signify dying pines

    Reddish, dry needles are a sign of dying trees infested with mountain pine beetles.  Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa...

  10. [Annual review of Archivos de Neumología in interventional pneumology, interstitial diseases and lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Disdier, Carlos; Bollo, Elena; Morales, Pilar; Montero, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    A review has been made of original articles on invasive pneumology techniques, interstitial diseases and lung transplantation, published in the Archivos de Bronconeumología during the year 2008. We have selected the publication by Martínez-Olondrins et al on the mediastinal staging of bronchogenic carcinoma by transbronchial needle aspiration to highlight the role of this simple, safe and cost-effective technique at a time when aspiration by ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy is profiled as an alternative to staging by mediastinoscopy. Besides its usefulness in the study of lymph nodes, transbronchial needle aspiration increases the overall performance of bronchoscopy by 20%, which means that it should be considered as a basic tool in the study of lung cancer. We also comment on the work by Galvis-Caravajal et al, who describe percutaneous radiofrequency as an alternative to radiotherapy in small lung or metastasic tumours. In diffuse interstitial disease, Morell et al analysed the diagnostic methods in 500 patients with this clinical-radiological presentation in which a definitive diagnosis was achieved in 85%, with 25% of them being obtained by non-invasively. Baloira et al analysed the characteristics of 19 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis associated-interstitial lung disease obtained from the National register of Interstitial Diseases. PMID:19303530

  11. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  17. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  18. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  1. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  2. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  3. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  4. Drug-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Interstitial pneumonia usually develops gradually. The signs and symptoms are non-specific, and generally include dyspnea, cough, fatigue, and weight loss. In other cases onset is acute, sometimes beginning with a flu-like syndrome. Interstitial pneumonia can lead to acute respiratory failure, sometimes gradual deterioration of respiratory function, and pulmonary fibrosis progressing to respiratory failure. The fibrosis does not regress when the causal factor is withdrawn. (2) There are numerous causes of interstitial pneumonia, including medicinal drugs. (3) Amiodarone generally induces slow and insidious lung disease. (4) Methotrexate induces lung disease. Most cytotoxic drugs cause chronic dose-dependent lung disease and fibrosis, in some cases long after treatment cessation. (5) The many other implicated drugs include nitrofurantoin, Nonsteroidal antiandrogens, drugs that induce connective tissue diseases, laxatives based on mineral oil, and many other drugs, some of which are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions. (6) In practice, a drug-related cause should be kept in mind in cases of interstitial pneumonia, as symptoms generally improve after drug withdrawal, unless fibrosis has already started to develop. PMID:18516814

  5. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  6. Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-12-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

  7. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-04-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

  8. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  9. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  10. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  11. Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boeun; Balavenkataraman, Arvind; Sanghavi, Devang; Walter, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness. PMID:26029579

  12. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siauve, N.; Lormel, C.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  13. Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Michio; Akiyama, Yuji; Akiba, Haruhiko; Adachi, Daisuke; Hirano, Motoharu; Mimura, Toshihide

    2005-06-01

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who developed acute respiratory failure 2 weeks after cessation of 6-week treatment with leflunomide. We diagnosed interstitial pneumonia, probably induced by leflunomide because acute respiratory failure was preceded by elevated serum liver enzyme concentration and hypertension. She showed dramatic improvement with prednisolone and cholestyramine. Prompt treatment may improve the prognosis. In Japan, leflunomide has been implicated as a possible cause to initiate or exacerbate interstitial pneumonia in patients with RA according to postmarketing surveillance. Clinicians should exclude pulmonary disease prior to initiating leflunomide treatment in patients with RA on the basis of a thorough history and physical examination, and chest radiograph. PMID:15940779

  14. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ebschner, U; Hartschuh, W; Petzoldt, D

    2000-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a rare dermatologic disorder seen in patients suffering from diseases in which circulating immune complexes occur. The typical cutaneous signs are linear cords usually located on the lateral aspect of the trunk. The characteristic, although not specific, histology reveals a dense diffuse infiltrate composed mostly of histiocytes, accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils, and degenerated collagen surrounded by palisades of histiocytes. We discuss this disorder and its differential diagnosis. PMID:10743580

  15. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  16. Nontraditional Considerations With Insulin Needle Length Selection.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Katherine S; Johnson, Jeremy; Swar, Sajidah

    2015-11-01

    Ensuring the correct delivery of insulin is essential in the treatment of diabetes. Both proper injection technique and needle length are important considerations for adequate insulin delivery. There have been several studies demonstrating that BMI does not affect efficacy or insulin leakage with shorter pen needles (e.g., 4 or 5 mm vs. 12.7 mm). Additionally, the International Scientific Advisory Board for the Third Injection Technique Workshop released recommendations in 2010 on best practices for injection technique for patients with diabetes, which, with regard to needle length, concluded that 4-mm pen needles were efficacious in all patients regardless of BMI. However, regardless of patients' BMI, insulin injection technique should always be assessed and physically disabling comorbid conditions taken into consideration when choosing a needle length that will be manageable for patients. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of unique patient circumstances that may warrant the use of the longer 12.7-mm needle. PMID:26600728

  17. Dimensions of stabident intraosseous perforators and needles.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, R A; Whitworth, J

    2001-09-01

    Problems can be encountered inserting intraosseous injection needles through perforation sites. This in vitro study examined the variability and size compatibility of Stabident intraosseous injection components. The diameters of 40 needles and perforators from a single Stabident kit were measured in triplicate with a toolmakers microscope. One-way ANOVA revealed that mean needle diameter (0.411 mm) was significantly narrower than mean perforator diameter (0.427 mm) (p < 0.001). A frequency distribution plot revealed that needle diameter followed a normal distribution, indicating tight quality control during manufacture. The diameter of perforators was haphazardly distributed, with a clustering of 15% at the lower limit of the size range. However on no occasion was the diameter of a perforator smaller than that of an injection needle. We conclude that components of the Stabident intraosseous anaesthetic system are size-compatible, but there is greater and more haphazard variability in the diameter of perforators than injection needles. PMID:11556563

  18. Phosphorous-diffusion gettering in the presence of a nonequilibrium concentration of silicon interstitials: A quantitative model

    SciTech Connect

    Spiecker, E.; Seibt, M.; Schroeter, W.

    1997-04-01

    A quantitative model of phosphorous-diffusion gettering in silicon is presented, which combines the effects of segregation and self-interstitial injection on the distribution of dissolved metallic impurities. The model describes metal diffusion both in the bulk and in the highly phosphorous-doped layer and makes it possible to include phosphorous-diffusion models. By analyzing an approximate solution for the quasi-steady-state metal distribution, we show that for impurities like gold and platinum self-interstitial injection enhances the gettering efficiency compared to pure segregation. We apply the results to phosphorous-diffusion gettering of gold and demonstrate that all relevant features of recently measured gold distributions can be interpreted consistently. For 3d metals, which are predominantly dissolved on interstitial sites in intrinsic silicon, the model allows us to include the formation of precipitates resulting from self-interstitial injection as proposed earlier. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected. PMID:26148740

  20. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  1. Observations of Needle-Tissue Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Needles with asymmetric bevel tips naturally bend when they are inserted into soft tissue. In this study, we present an analytical model for the loads developed at the bevel tip during needle-tissue interaction. The model calculates the loads based on the geometry of the bevel edge and gel material properties. The modeled transverse force developed at the tip is compared to forces measured experimentally. The analytical model explains the trends observed in the experiments. In addition to macroscopic studies, we also present microscopic observations of needle-tissue interactions. These results contribute to a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:19963709

  2. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    PubMed

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

  3. Combined external and interstitial irradiation in the treatment of stage III breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Puthawala, A.A.; Syed, A.M.N.; Sheikh, K.M.; Gowdy, R.A.; McNamara, C.S.

    1984-12-01

    One hundred six patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the breast underwent definitive radiation therapy for loco-regional control following incisional and/or needle biopsy. Doses of external and interstitial irradiation were 5000 rad (50 Gy) in 5 to 6 weeks, and 3000 to 4000 rad (30-40 Gy) in 60 to 80 hours, respectively. Forty-eight of 106 patients (45%) also received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Loco-regional control was observed in 93 of the 106 patients (88%), with five-year disease-free survival of 47%. Distant metastases developed in 59 of the 106 patients (56%). Good to satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in the majority of these patients; morbidity was at an acceptable level. Locally advanced breast cancer can be treated adequately and satisfactorily without mastectomy by a combination of external and interstitial irradiation.

  4. Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional n...

  5. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  6. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May–June drought. Main conclusions These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer–autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little’s (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey’s (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

  7. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. Main conclusions: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

  8. Docetaxel-related interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Jen; Chang, Hou-Tai; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel (Taxotere®) is an agent that is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. In recent years, docetaxel-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported in several case series studies. The onset of ILD occurred ~10–20 days (median time: 18 days) after docetaxel administration. Here, we reported the case of a patient who had pulmonary toxicity of ILD within 3 days after using a relatively low-dose docetaxel administration. Although some articles have described patients who progressed to respiratory failure and needed intubation, this patient responded well to steroid treatment and discontinued docetaxel administration. PMID:26677333

  9. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  10. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  11. Simultaneous formation of interstitial-and vacancy-type loops during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.G.; Si-Ahmed, A.

    1980-01-01

    During the irradiation of metals at temperatures above Stage III, dislocation loops are formed. Both interstitial-and vacancy-type loops are observed. Their simultaneous formation is possible because of a difference in their capture efficiency for interstitials which is due to non-linear elasticity effects on the strain fields of loops. This difference is only a necessary condition for the nucleation of vacancy-type loops. Other conditions, such as temperature, dose rate, and the average interstitial capture efficiency of the entire sink structure must also be met. These conditions are investigated, and it is found that vacancy loops can nucleate at low temperatures and when the capture efficiency of the entire sink structure exceeds a critical value. With continuing irradiation, both interstitial-and vacancy loops grow to large radii, and the capture efficiency drops below the critical value. At this point, further vacancy-loop nucleation is terminated.

  12. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  13. Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site) on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y. K.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site. PMID:24159337

  14. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil. PMID:24707414

  15. The effect of interstitial gaseous pressure on the thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 lunar soil sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horai, K.-I.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 soil sample is measured as a function of interstitial gas density, and implications for the thermal properties of lunar and Martian regolith are discussed. Measurements were performed for samples consisting of a mixture of Knippa and Berkely basalt powders with a grain size distribution identical to that of Apollo 12 lunar soil samples by the needle probe technique at interstitial pressures of He, N2, Ar and CO2 from 133,000 to 0.0133 Pa. It is shown that sample thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing interstitial gas pressure down to 1.0 Pa, due to the decreasing effective thermal conductivity of interstitial gas with decreasing gas pressure. Constant thermal conductivity values of 8.8 mW/m per K and 10.9 mW/m per K are obtained for sample densities of 1.70 and 1.85 g/cu cm, respectively, in agreement with in situ lunar regolith measurements. The results, which are greater than those obtained in previous soil studies, are explained by the dense packing of soil particles and enhanced intergranular thermal contact in the present experimental configuration, rather than the influence of interstitial gas pressure. The differences in conductivity between loose soils and packed regolith may also be used to account for the two peaks observed in Martian surface thermal inertia data.

  16. [Comparative investigation of the discharge characteristics of a single needle jet and needle-plate jet].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Peng-Ying; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Liu, Run-Fu; Di, Cong

    2013-04-01

    In the present paper, discharge characteristics were studied in atmospheric pressure argon by a single needle jet and needle-plate jet through combination of optical measurement and electrical one. Results show that the length and cross-sectional area of the plasmas generated in the two jets increase with increasing the peak value of the applied voltage. The cross-sectional area generated by needle-plate jet is bigger than that of the single needle jet at the same voltage. A lower inception voltage is needed for the needle-plate jet compared with the single needle jet at the same U(p). Through the spectra emitted from the two jets, electron temperature and vibration temperature wee compared for the plasmas generated by the single needle jet and needle-plate jet, respectively. It can be found that the electron temperature and the vibrational temperature of the two jets increase with increasing U(p). The needle-plate jet has higher values of electron temperature and vibrational temperature than the single needle jet at the same U(p). These results have significant values for the industrial application of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:23841400

  17. Uptake of airborne tetrachloroethene by spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, H.; Frank, W.

    1989-03-01

    Tetrachloroethene in spruce needles is quantitatively determined by extraction with hexane, separation by capillary gas chromatography, and detection by chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, monitoring the negatively charged chlorine ions. Needle samples from spruces growing in forests and in a city in Southwest Germany and from spruces in exposure chambers have been analyzed; concurrently, the respectively air levels have been determined. The concentrations in the needles are correlated to atmospheric levels; below an air concentration of 5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, the partition ratio is 520, above it is 50.

  18. Energetics of Oxygen Interstitials in Cr and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian S.; Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen in group IIIA-VA (Nb, Ti, Zr, Y) based alloys is a fundamental problem, affecting both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance, yet details of the phenomenon are poorly understood. In these alloys, oxygen is more stable dissolved in the metal than as an oxide-compound. In contrast, alloys based on Ni, Fe, Al and Cr exhibit almost no oxygen solubility. To improve the performance of Nb and Ti based alloys it is necessary to understand the differences in oxygen solubility between these two groups of metals. As a first step we considered the energetics of interstitial oxygen in alpha-V and alpha-Cr. Both of these metals have a BCC structure, yet the oxygen solubility in V is much higher than that in Cr. We obtain total energies, densities of states and population analyses using the CASTEP plane-wave pseudopotential density functional computer code. The differences in the energetics and electronic structures of the two materials, particularly the partial densities of states associated with the interstitial oxygen, are discussed.

  19. Optimal needle design for minimal insertion force and bevel length.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yancheng; Chen, Roland K; Tai, Bruce L; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Shih, Albert J

    2014-09-01

    This research presents a methodology for optimal design of the needle geometry to minimize the insertion force and bevel length based on mathematical models of cutting edge inclination and rake angles and the insertion force. In brachytherapy, the needle with lower insertion force typically is easier for guidance and has less deflection. In this study, the needle with lancet point (denoted as lancet needle) is applied to demonstrate the model-based optimization for needle design. Mathematical models to calculate the bevel length and inclination and rake angles for lancet needle are presented. A needle insertion force model is developed to predict the insertion force for lancet needle. The genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the needle geometry for two cases. One is to minimize the needle insertion force. Using the geometry of a commercial lancet needle as the baseline, the optimized needle has 11% lower insertion force with the same bevel length. The other case is to minimize the bevel length under the same needle insertion force. The optimized design can reduce the bevel length by 46%. Both optimized needle designs were validated experimentally in ex vivo porcine liver needle insertion tests and demonstrated the methodology of the model-based optimal needle design. PMID:24957487

  20. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  1. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations. PMID:27046579

  2. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  3. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  4. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or buccal smear. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Mar 1;108(2):120-7. OMIM: MELNICK-NEEDLES ... 2003 Apr;33(4):487-91. Epub 2003 Mar 3. Robertson SP. Otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders: otopalatodigital ...

  6. Spermiophages on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology: A rare finding.

    PubMed

    Jashnani, Kusum; Desai, Heena; Shetty, Jyothi

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages usually reside in the testicular interstitial tissues and are normally not found within the seminiferous tubules. However, in certain cases of male infertility, the macrophages are activated and can then be found within the tubules where they can ingest spermatozoa and are labeled as "spermiophages." FNAC was performed in a 36 year male with history of primary infertility. On microscopy, smears made from right testis were indicative of hypospermatogenesis. On the contrary, smears made from the left testis were very cellular showing Sertoli cells and the entire spectrum of normal spermatogenesis. Also seen were many isolated spermiophages. The cytological impression given for the left testis was normal spermatogenesis with numerous spermiophages. Thus the patient fell in the category of obstructive azoospermia (OA). According to currently adopted hypothesis, macrophages carry ingested sperm heads with some antigenic components to the basal capillaries which may result in the formation of autoantibodies against the spermatozoa. This situation may further diminish the chances of fertility in men. The origin of these spermiophage cells is unknown. Although commonly reported in semen and epididymal biopsies, they have not been reported to occur on testicular fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In our case, no sperms were found on semen examination which were easily picked up on testicular FNAC indicating usefulness of the latter in the diagnosis of cases of male infertility and eliminating the need for a testicular biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:232-234. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875595

  7. Preliminary work of a smart needling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kaiguo; Liu, Tien-I.; Ling, Keck Voon; Yu, Yan; O'Dell, Walter; Sing, Ng Wan

    2005-04-01

    Precise needle placement is vital for the success of a wide variety of percutaneous surgical procedures. Insertions into soft tissues can be difficult to learn and to perform, due to tissue deformation, needle deflection and limited visual feedback. Little quantitative information is known about the interaction between needles and soft tissues during puncture. We are carrying out a "smart needling" project in which a fairly long, but slender biopsy needle will be controlled to hit the target that is inside human body, automatically and precisely. This paper reports the preliminary work which is to prove that translational oscillation of the needle can reduce target movement, and at the same time to find the optimal settings of the important factors that will produce the least target movement. The experiment platform comprises of an oscillatory needle restricted to translate horizontally. A position-trackable catheter was embedded in the phantom to act as the target. Two-Level factorial design was adopted and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) approach was used for analysis. The final results showed that oscillation at high frequency band from 2kHz to 20kHz can reduce target movement. Translation speed, oscillation frequency and amplitude are all important factors. But phantoms with different elasticities may have different best settings of these factors. For example, for soft phantoms, lower frequency, higher speed and smaller amplitude are desired for minimal target movement. Optimization searching engine will be designed correspondingly to control the needle in optimal working conditions that can produce minimal target movement.

  8. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  9. High-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (HF-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-05-01

    For a minimally invasive treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology (ENT), next to the laser- induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) or the monopolar HF- surgery the interstitial thermotherapy with high-frequency alternating current (HF-ITT) in bipolar technique is a good alternative. Investigation results are presented which prove the feasibility and show the performance of this technique. Bipolar needles of different geometries, adapted to the various application fields, such as palliative treatment of metastatic carcinomas in liver and concha hyperplasia, were built and tested. Basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. The efficiency of the developed applicators were examined in in vitro experiments with porcine liver, turkey breast and porcine concha. Coagulation volumes of different needle diameters and power settings are show. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through integrated flushing ports and thus the performance is increased. For the treatment of concha hyperplasia special designs are presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode permits the surgeon the use of a partial application of high frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that it is not necessary to fix the neutral electrode to the patient. Thus an easy to handle and a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  10. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  11. The impact of a needle exchange's closure.

    PubMed Central

    Broadhead, R S; van Hulst, Y; Heckathorn, D D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Windham, Connecticut, needle exchange closed in May 1997 after becoming embroiled in a public controversy in which it was blamed for the city's drug problem, discarded syringes, and even the economic decline of the city itself. The authors interviewed injection drug users and conducted a community survey of discarded drug paraphernalia to explore the effects of the needle exchange's closure. METHODS: After the needle exchange was closed in March 1997, the authors re-recruited former participants in an AIDS prevention research project, the majority of whom were clients of the needle exchange. The authors analyzed responses from these respondents' pre-closure interviews and from III post-closure initial interviews and 78 post-closure follow-up interviews as well as data on discarded syringes and "dope bags". RESULTS: Following the closure of the needle exchange, significant increases were found in the percentage of respondents who reported an unreliable source as their primary source of syringes, in respondents' reports of the frequency of reusing syringes, and in the percentage of respondents who reported sharing of syringes. Surveys of outdoor drug-use areas found that the closure of the needle exchange did not reduce the volume of discarded syringes and other drug-injection debris. CONCLUSIONS: The problems in Windham that led to the closure of the exchange still remain, and the city's drug injectors are engaging in higher levels of HIV risk behavior. PMID:10590766

  12. Toxicity Associated With Bowel or Bladder Puncture During Gynecologic Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand P.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Gielda, Benjamin T.; Zusag, Thomas W.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies is associated with significant toxicity. Some reports have correlated this toxicity with needle puncture of the visceral organs. This study examined our experience with interstitial brachytherapy and investigated the relationship between the visceral puncture and toxicity. Methods and Materials: The outcomes of 36 patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Computed tomography was used to guide needle placement based solely on tumor coverage. No attempts were made to avoid visceral puncture; however, the source dwell times were minimized in these areas. Results: At a median follow-up of 21 months, the crude locoregional control rate was 78%. Bowel puncture was noted in 26 patients and bladder puncture in 19. The mean operating time was 50 min, and 86% of patients were discharged in <=3 days. The incidence of acute and late toxicity was similar between patients with and without visceral puncture according to the log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves. No patients with bowel puncture experienced Grade 2 or greater acute gastrointestinal toxicity and only 1 had Grade 3 or greater late gastrointestinal toxicity. No patients with bladder puncture experienced greater than Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity and only 2 had late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The operating time, length of hospital stay, and treatment-induced morbidity in this cohort compared favorably to series using techniques to avoid visceral puncture. Additionally, visceral puncture did not correlate with the occurrence of acute or late toxicity. These data suggest that visceral puncture in the absence of source loading carries a low risk of morbidity.

  13. Imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation of liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Zahir; Donald, J. J.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.; Paley, Martyn; Lees, William R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1993-07-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the treatment of liver tumors by interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP). Ultrasound allows location of the tumors and enables guided placement of thin hollow needles (through which the optical fibers are passed) into the appropriate part of the tumor. Heating of the tumor during ILP is seen as an enlarging echogenic zone around the fiber tips. However, the margins of the echogenic zone are often ill-defined and irregular and ultrasound cannot clearly differentiate treated from untreated tumor on follow-up scans. CT (pre-contrast, dynamic, and delayed) is used to define the number and sizes of metastases prior to ILP. 24 hrs after ILP dynamic enhanced CT clearly shows the laser-induced necrosis as a well-defined non-enhancing area, although real-time CT monitoring of ILP shows very little change around the fiber tip. MRI (standard spin-echo sequences) has been used to evaluate lesions post-ILP. On T1-weighted images the lesions appear heterogenous with areas of high and low signal intensity. With these current sequences the lesion-to-liver contrast is not as good as with dynamic enhanced CT. Conclusion: Ultrasound plays a useful role in treatment delivery. At present the post-ILP evaluation is best performed using CT. MRI has the potential for real-time monitoring of ILP using temperature sensitive sequences.

  14. [The origin and development of fire needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Jin; Huang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chu-Yun

    2013-05-01

    By reading ancient acupuncture-moxibustion literature, the authors expound the origin and development of fire needle therapy from its sprout, development and mature stage, reveal the origin of fire needle, development of needling instrument and manipulation methods, indications of fire needle therapy and so on, in order to have a better learning on fire needle therapy and make it applicative in clinic. PMID:23885626

  15. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  16. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H; Friedman, Avner

    2014-09-30

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  17. Interstitial computing : utilizing spare cycles on supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, Scott Harvey; Kleban, Stephen David

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of utilizing unused cycles on supercomputers through the use of many small jobs. What we call 'interstitial computing,' is important to supercomputer centers for both productivity and political reasons. Interstitial computing makes use of the fact that small jobs are more or less fungible consumers of compute cycles that are more efficient for bin packing than the typical jobs on a supercomputer. An important feature of interstitial computing is that it not have a significant impact on the makespan of native jobs on the machine. Also, a facility can obtain higher utilizations that may only be otherwise possible with more complicated schemes or with very long wait times. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides theoretical and empirical guidelines for users and administrators for how currently unused supercomputer cycles may be exploited. We find that that interstitial computing is a more effective means for increasing machine utilization than increasing native job run times or size.

  18. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  19. Interstitial lung disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172

  20. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  1. Current status of idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Romagnoli, Micaela; Piciucchi, Sara; Chilosi, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary pathologists were aware of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) that morphologically did not fit Liebow's classification scheme. These cases were labeled as "cellular interstitial pneumonia" or "chronic interstitial pneumonia not otherwise specified." The term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was first used in relation to a pattern of lung interstitial inflammation seen in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In 1994 NSIP was used to indicate a group of subacute or chronic interstitial pneumonias characterized morphologically by interstitial inflammation or fibrosis or both, with preservation of the lung architecture and the absence of typical findings for any of the other main categories of IIP (mainly usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). Although these patients presented with "nonspecific" lung histology (categorized as cellular and fibrotic variants), and with a broad spectrum of associated clinical conditions, such as connective tissue diseases (CTDs), environmental exposure, and previous acute lung injury, they showed some peculiar clinical aspects, including favorable response to corticosteroid treatment and overall good prognosis.The clinical and radiographic profiles were better defined in the last decade. The NSIP pattern is the histological background of a subacute/chronic interstitial pneumonitis that may be observed in many conditions, including CTD, drug-induced lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, slowly healing diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), relapsing organizing pneumonia, occupational exposure, immunodeficiency (mainly HIV infection), graft versus host disease (GVHD), familial pulmonary fibrosis, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease, with or without overlap features with Rosai-Dorfman disease, multicentric Castleman disease, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Rarely, NSIP is the histology recognized in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, in whom efforts to find potential causative exposures are futile. This entity occurs mostly in middle-aged, never-smoker women, with a likely association with an autoimmune background. High-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans typically demonstrate ground-glass attenuation with a bibasilar distribution, or in the fibrotic variant, ground-glass attenuation along with reticular lines and traction bronchiectasis. The prognosis is good compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and therapeutic options include mainly corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Recently a more precise definition of clinical profiles and radiographic findings of idiopathic NSIP allows consideration of less invasive diagnostic procedures (bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy). Better understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms might widen the therapeutic horizon giving a role to new therapeutic options in more severe cases. PMID:23001799

  2. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  3. Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

    2013-12-01

    Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

  4. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy. PMID:20854464

  5. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 μɛ, - 463 ± 51 μɛ and - 431 ± 59 μɛ for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  6. Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

    2009-02-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

  7. Incidence and severity of Arcanobacterium pyogenes injection site abscesses with needle or needle-free injection.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Bryce M; Houser, Terry A; Hollis, Larry C; Tokach, Michael D; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Higgins, James J; Anderson, Gary A; Goehring, Brandon L

    2012-12-01

    Nursery-age pigs (n=198) were used to evaluate the difference in abscess formation at needle-free jet and conventional needle-and-syringe injection sites. Needle-free jet injection was used to administer injections in the neck and ham on one side of the animal whereas needle-and-syringe was used for neck and ham injections on the opposite side. Immediately prior to injection, the injection site surfaces were contaminated with an inoculum of Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Each pig was humanely euthanized 27 or 28 days after injections. Histopathological results showed that needle-free jet injection was associated with more abscesses than needle-and-syringe injection at both neck (P=0.0625) and ham (P=0.0313) injection sites. Out of 792 injection sites, only 13 abscesses were observed, with 12 of those present at needle-free jet injection sites. Needle-free jet injection may increase the occurrence of injection site abscesses that necessitate carcass trimming at pork processing plants. PMID:22854129

  8. Segregation of Mn2+ Dopants as Interstitials in SrTiO3 Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Kotula, Paul G.; Sato, Yukio; Chi, Miaofang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-10-03

    Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to substitute Ti in bulk SrTiO3, but Mn2+ segregates inside grain boundaries at both Sr and interstitial sites. Mn interstitial doping has never been reported, but is found possible with the formation of Sr vacancies. This finding is significantly different from the amphoteric doping of Mn2+ substituting Sr and Mn4+ substituting Ti sites, therefore leads to different understanding on the defect mediated electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped perovskites.

  9. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. Methods One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. Results By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. Conclusions IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with “early IC” because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs. PMID:26816860

  10. Percutaneous needle biopsy and synovial histology.

    PubMed

    Saaibi, D L; Schumacher, H R

    1996-08-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsies of synovium are successfully used for diagnosis and investigation of joint disease by an increasing number of groups around the world. This procedure can be done in the office with little morbidity; a large number of samples can minimize the potential limitation of sampling error. Clinical indications for 'imaging the joint' by looking at morphological and other features of the actual tissue include undiagnosed acute or chronic mono- or oligoarthritis, haemarthrosis, suspected deposition diseases, new developments in previous stable disease and less often unexplained polyarthritis. Research into any joint disease can be helped by study of synovium especially using newer immunohistochemical, EM and molecular techniques. This report has reviewed other methods used for obtaining synovium, described the different percutaneous biopsy needles, detailed the methods used for biopsy with the Parker-Pearson needle and described how our group handles tissue so as to obtain maximal impact. The very few side effects of needle biopsy include haemarthrosis and, rarely, needle breakage. Finally, we have provided a brief overview of normal synovium and some aspects of synovium in a variety of joint diseases. PMID:8876958

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  12. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  13. DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR).

    PubMed

    Paik, Ji-Sun; Kim, Su-Ah; Doh, Sang-Hee

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we introduce DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR), in which a guide needle helps in measuring the initial Jones tube length for insertion and reduces unnecessary handling for tube changes. Three CDCR procedures were conducted in which the length of the Jones tube was calculated using a 22-gauge DIY guide needle, and a prospective study of tube position change and migration, (a major cause of CDCR failure) was done. Wound healing was almost complete within 4 weeks postoperatively in the osteotomy site, but in cases of partial middle turbinectomy, a little more time was necessary. There was a slight change in Jones tube position in the nasal cavity compared with the expected position of original tube tip, but no tube migration from the caruncle fixation position had occurred by the final follow-up time. This guide-needle-assisted CDCR has multiple advantages, such as easy measurement of the proper initial tube size, utilization of the initial needle path, and easy replacement of tubes. Finally, this approach to CDCR can be readily applied because it uses materials ordinarily found in hospitals to create the devices needed for the procedure, so there is no additional cost. PMID:22526574

  14. Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction with a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Lacour, J P; Castanet, J; Michiels, J F

    2001-08-01

    The interstitial granulomatous drug reaction (IGDR) is a novel drug-associated entity, characterized by violaceous plaques with a predilection for skin fold areas. Light microscopically, it resembles the incipient diffuse interstitial phase of granuloma annulare. Differentiating light microscopic features include the absence of complete collagen necrobiosis, the presence of interface dermatitis, and variable lymphoid atypia. The lack of vasculitis rules out the extravascular necrotizing granuloma (Winkelmann granuloma) associated with systemic disease. The differential diagnosis with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis as defined by Ackerman et al. has not been studied until now. Our aim was to determine the histologic criteria allowing us to differentiate IGDR without interface dermatitis and lymphoid atypia from interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We report three patients with IGDR triggered, in two cases by respectively angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and furosemide, and in one case by the association of an ACE inhibitor, furosemide, and fluindione. Histologic examination showed a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We found a dense, diffuse histiocytic infiltrate distributed interstitially and in palisaded array within the reticular dermis. Eosinophils and some neutrophils were scattered throughout the infiltrate. In some tiny foci, enveloped by histiocytes, thick collagen bundles associated with basophilic nuclear debris or "flame figures" were seen. Vasculitis, interface dermatitis, or lymphoid atypia were absent. Our study allowed us to expand the histological spectrum of IGDR including a histological pattern similar to interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. The lack of degenerated collagen could be a subtle clue in favor of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis triggered by a drug. PMID:11481519

  15. Impact of needles in vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marticorena, Rosa M; Donnelly, Sandra M

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews pragmatic aspects of cannulation practice and types of cannulation devices, as well as their impact in vascular access for hemodialysis. Hemodialysis treatment requires successful insertion of two needles for each dialysis treatment. The first needle is the arterial needle; it removes blood with toxin accumulation from the patient and delivers it to the dialysis machine. The second needle, called the venous needle, returns the purified blood from the dialyzer to the patient. Mechanical and hemodynamic trauma related to needle insertions will be discussed. PMID:26951901

  16. Semicircular thermocouple needle depth gauge for cryoprocedures.

    PubMed

    Pappenfort, R B

    1981-06-01

    A semicircular thermocouple needle depth gauge made of an aluminum alloy drilled with tracks at different angles to place thermocouple needles at various depths below the surface is described herein. Its shape offers definite advantages over circular jigs (templates) when doing cryoexperimentation and when used clinically. The material of which it is made is more durable than plastic. Grommets that firmly snap in place within the inner rim of the instrument permit accurate placement of liquid gas spray, cryoprobes, and other applicators directly over the thermocouple needle tips. This is of special importance when doing cryoexperiments. Furthermore, with this design, the advancing ice front and possible liquid gas runoff are more easily seen. By using both halves it is suitable for monitoring the temperature when freezing large tumors at two different sites and a different depths. PMID:7238111

  17. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Nisky, Ilana; Pressman, Assaf; Pugh, Carla M.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Karniel, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task. PMID:26379813

  18. Brain interstitial fluid TNF-? after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hanafy, Khalid A.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Fernandez, Luis; Kurtz, Pedro; Connolly, ES; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schindler, Christian; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective: TNF-? is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in promoting the cascade of events leading to an inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-? may play a key role in the formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and that the underlying cerebral inflammatory response is a major determinate of outcome following subrarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We studied 14 comatose SAH patients who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring with intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral microdialysis as part of their clinical care. Continuous physiological variables were time-locked every 8 hours and recorded at the same point that brain interstitial fluid TNF-? was measured in brain microdialysis samples. Significant associations were determined using generalized estimation equations. Results: Each patient had a mean of 9 brain tissue TNF-? measurements obtained over an average of 72 hours of monitoring. TNF-? levels rose progressively over time. Predictors of elevated brain interstitial TNF-? included higher brain interstitial fluid glucose levels (?=0.066, P<0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (?=0.085, P<0.021), and aneurysm size >6 mm (?=0.14, p<0.001). There was no relationship between TNF-? levels and the burden of cisternal SAH; concurrent measurements of serum glucose, or lactate-pyruvate ratio. Interpretation: Brain interstitial TNF-? levels are elevated after SAH, and are associated with large aneurysm size, the burden of intraventricular blood, and elevation brain interstitial glucose levels. PMID:20110094

  19. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  20. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  1. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  2. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  3. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  4. PCDD/Fs accumulation in pine needles: variation with species and pine needle age.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Pei; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles have been used for many decades as a cheap and convenient biosampler to monitor atmospheric levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively known as PCDD/Fs. However, it is unknown whether accumulation of PCDD/Fs varies according to pine tree species or pine needle age, which hampers the precise application of this biosampler. We collected 0.3-2.3-year-old pine needles from four different species of pine at three sites in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China. The PCDD/Fs were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results show that Pinus massoniana and Cedrus deodara absorbed more PCDD/Fs than Pinus thunbergii and Pinus parviflora at the same site. More cuticular wax and cuticular cell secretions in the pine needles from P. massoniana and C. deodara, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), might explain this discrepancy. The PCDD/Fs concentrations in 0.3-, 1.3-, and 2.3-year-old pine needles, indicated that concentrations increase with ascending age. This may be ascribed to the enhancement of lipids and cuticular waxes with age in pine needles as indicated by the lipid contents and morphologies observed by SEM. Our results may be useful for selecting the species and age of pine needles used for biosampling, especially for monitoring PCDD/Fs in large areas where the pine species growing in one place may differ from those in another place. PMID:26330320

  5. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion. PMID:21170164

  6. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  7. Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

  8. Microengineered needle micro-coils for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Ahmad, M. M.; Young, I. R.; Gilderdale, D. J.; Collins, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    A process for batch fabrication of low-cost needle-shaped micro-coils for magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy is demonstrated. The conductors are embedded inside a cross-section designed to avoid the signal cancellation effects that can occur with completely immersed detectors. Simple models are developed for the sensitivity of an immersed coil and for the electrical performance of coils on silicon substrates. Conductors are fabricated on oxidized Si by electroplating metals inside a deep photoresist mould, and then capped with a thick layer of plastic. Through-wafer deep reactive ion etching is used to define needle shapes. At 63.8 MHz frequency, Q-factors obtained on Si are comparable to those on glass, and resonators based on single-turn coils have Q-factors of ap14. Total immersion 1H MR imaging and spectroscopy are demonstrated in a 1.5 T magnetic field using tomato fruits. Q-factors are raised at higher frequencies (to >30 at 255 MHz) using thick polymer isolation, and hybrid integration of additional circuitry is demonstrated.

  9. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  10. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  11. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  12. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  13. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.; Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup −1}, which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup −1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  14. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  15. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline. PMID:20679058

  16. Fatal encephalopathy complicating lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Michael; Riddoch, D.; Smith, W. Thomas

    1971-01-01

    The case is reported of a young woman who suffered from lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Involvement of the brain by what appeared to be an identical pathological process led to her death, and the orbital tissues were also involved at one stage. The cause of this condition is unknown, but the hypotheses are put forward that it may represent one facet of delayed hypersensitivity or that a slow virus is the responsible aetiological agent. Although lymphoid interstitial pneumonia has previously been reported as an isolated entity, the evidence from this case suggests that it might represent part of pluri-systemic disease. Images PMID:5571322

  17. 3D ultrasound guidance system for needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Jiang, Hui; Settlemier, Scott; Glossop, Neil; Venkatesan, Aradhana; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Bradford

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound guidance system for needle placement procedures. The system integrates a real-time 3D ultrasound transducer with a 3D localizer and a tracked needle to enable real-time visualization of the needle in ultrasound. The system uses data streaming to transfer real-time ultrasound volumetric images to a separate workstation for visualization. Multi-planar reconstructions of the ultrasound volume are computed at the workstation using the tracking information, allowing for real-time visualization of the needle in ultrasound without aligning the needle with the transducer. The system may simplify the needle placement procedure and potentially reduce the levels of skill and training needed to perform accurate needle placements. The physician can therefore focus on the needle placement procedure without paying extra attention to perfect mid-plane alignment of the needle with the ultrasound image plane. In addition, the physician has real-time visual feedback of the needle and the target, even before the needle enters the patient's skin, allowing the procedure to be easily, safely and accurately planned. The superimposed needle can also greatly improve the sometimes poor visualization of the needle in an ultrasound image (e.g. in between ribs). Since the free-hand needle is not inserted through any fixed needle channel, the physician can enjoy full freedom to select the needle's orientation or position. No cumbersome accessories are attached to the ultrasound transducer, allowing the physician to use his or her previous experience with regular ultrasound transducers. 3D Display of the target in relation to the treatment volume can help verify adequacy of tumor ablation as well.

  18. Asbestosis and environmental causes of usual interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Mridu; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent epidemiologic investigations suggest that occupational and environmental exposures contribute to the overall burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This article explores the epidemiologic and clinical challenges to establishing exposure associations, the current literature regarding exposure disease relationships and the diagnostic work-up of IPF and asbestosis patients. Recent findings IPF patients demonstrate a histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the absence of a known cause or association, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern leads to an IPF diagnosis, which is a progressive and often terminal fibrotic lung disease. It has long been recognized that asbestos exposure can cause pathologic and radiographic changes indistinguishable from IPF. Several epidemiologic studies, primarily case control in design, have found that a number of other exposures that can increase risk of developing IPF include cigarette smoke, wood dust, metal dust, sand/silica and agricultural exposures. Lung mineralogic analyses have provided additional support to causal associations. Genetic variation may explain differences in disease susceptibility among the population. Summary An accumulating body of literature suggests that occupational and environmental exposure can contribute to the development of IPF. The impact of exposure on the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease requires further study. PMID:25621562

  19. Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

    This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

  20. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  1. Effect and Safety of Deep Needling and Shallow Needling for Functional Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiani; Liu, Baoyan; Li, Ning; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Liping; Cai, Yuying; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhishun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aupuncture is widely used for functional constipation. Effect of acupuncture might be related to the depth of needling; however, the evidence is limited. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of deep needling and shallow needling for functional constipation, and to assess if the deep needling and shallow needling are superior to lactulose. We conducted a prospective, superiority-design, 5-center, 3-arm randomized controlled trial. A total of 475 patients with functional constipation were randomized to the deep needling group (237), shallow needling group (119), and lactulose-controlled group (119) in a ratio of 2:1:1. Sessions lasted 30 minutes each time and took place 5 times a week for 4 weeks in 2 acupuncture groups. Participants in the lactulose group took lactulose orally for 16 continuous weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline of mean weekly spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) during week 1 to 4 (changes from the baselines of the weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in follow-up period were also assessed simultaneously). Secondary outcomes were the weekly SBMs of each assessing week, the mean score change from the baseline of constipation-related symptoms over week 1 to 4, and the time to the first SBM. Emergency drug usage and adverse effects were monitored throughout the study. SBMs and constipation-related symptoms were all improved in the 3 groups compared with baseline at each time frame (P < 0.01, all). The changes in the mean weekly SBMs over week 1 to 4 were 2 (1.75) in the deep needling group, 2 (1.75) in the shallow needling group, and 2 (2) in the lactulose group (P > 0.05, both compared with the lactulose group). The changes of mean weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in the follow-up period were 2 (2), 2 (2.5) in the deep needling group, 2 (3), 1.5 (2.5) in the shallow needling group, and 1 (2), 1 (2) in the lactulose group (P < 0.05, all compared with the lactulose group). No significant difference was observed among the 3 groups regarding the score changes of straining, incomplete evacuation, abdominal distention during spontaneous defecating, or Cleveland Clinic Scores over week 1 to 4. However, the lactulose group got better effect than other 2 acupuncture groups in improving stool consistency (P < 0.01, both) and shortening the time to the first SBM (P < 0.05, both). The percentage of emergency drugs used in the 2 acupuncture groups were both lower than in the lactulose group at each time frame (P < 0.01, all). No obvious adverse event was observed in the deep or shallow needling group. Deep and shallow needling at Tianshu (ST25) can improve intestinal function remarkably and safely. Therapeutic effects of deep and shallow needling are not superior to that of lactulose; however, the sustained effects of deep and shallow needling after stopping the acupuncture treatments are superior to the therapeutic effect of lactulose, which might qualify the superiority of deep and shallow needling. PMID:25526462

  2. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle-type epilator. 878.5350 Section 878.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type epilator. (a) Identification. A needle-type epilator is...

  3. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  4. Evaluation of Robotic Needle Steering in ex vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Wedlick, Thomas R.; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers asymmetric-tip needles under fluoroscopic imaging. For bevel-tip needles, we found that larger diameter needles resulted in less curvature, i.e. less steerability, confirming previous experiments in artificial tissue. The needles steered with radii of curvature ranging from 3:4 cm (for the most steerable pre-bent needle) to 2:97m (for the least steerable bevel needle). Pre-bend angle significantly affected needle curvature, but bevel angle did not. We hypothesize that biological tissue characteristics such as inhomogeneity and viscoelasticity significantly increase path variability. These results underscore the need for closed-loop image guidance for needle steering in biological tissues with complex internal structure. PMID:21339851

  5. Ultrasonic Quantification of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Through Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflanzer, Ralph; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jrgen; Hofmann, Matthias

    High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is characteristic of solid tumors. Elevated TIFP inhibits the assimilation of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue as well as it induces mechanical strain triggering cell proliferation in solid tumors. Common solid epithelial tumors of A431 carcinoma cells exhibit a TIFP of about 10-15 mmHg measured conventionally through wick-in-needle technique. A new scheme to determine topography and acoustic impedance in solid tumor is proposed through scanning acoustic microscopy. The change in amplitude and time of flight at 30 MHz acoustic signal is used to quantify the growth pattern and to calibrate elevation of TIFP. The wide variability of amplitude and frequency in topographic sections indicate discrete envelopes of individual tumors with localized TIFP. Further investigations in applying this non-invasive method as a means of measuring TIFP in subcutaneous mice xenograft tumors in situ could also enhance understanding of tumor microenvironment and vessel architecture in living tissue.

  6. A new miniature x-ray source for interstitial radiosurgery: device description.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, M; Harte, K J; Sliski, A P; Smith, D O; Nomikos, P M; Dalterio, M J; Boom, A J; Leonard, W F; Oettinger, P E; Yanch, J C

    1996-01-01

    A device that generates low-energy x rays at the tip of a needle-like probe was developed for stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery. Electrons from a small thermionic gun are accelerated to a final energy of up to 40 keV and directed along a 3 mm outside diameter drift tube to a thin Au target, where the beam size is approximately 0.3 mm. All high-voltage electronics are in the probe housing, connected by low-voltage cable to a battery-operated control box. X-ray output, which is nearly isotropic, consists of a bremsstrahlung spectrum and several lines between 7 and 14 keV, with characteristic radiation contributing 15% of the total energy output. To date, 14 patients with metastatic brain tumors have been treated with this device. PMID:8700032

  7. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  8. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  9. Reversible Fluindione-Induced Chronic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Crepin, Thomas; Bamoulid, Jamal; Courivaud, Cécile; Dahmani, Omar; Felix, Sophie; Ducloux, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Fluindione is well known to induce acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis (IN). Most cases occurred soon after the onset of treatment. We report a unique case of severe subacute fluindione-induced IN diagnosed 2 years after the treatment was begun. Renal function dramatically improved after fluindione withdrawal and steroid therapy. PMID:27127666

  10. Congenital Tuberculosis Complicated by Interstitial Pulmonary Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarsem; Natt, Navreet Kaur; Sharma, Manu; Singh, Harmanjit

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of congenital tuberculosis, a rare entity itself; complicated by pulmonary interstitial emphysema, thus leading to air entrapment in lungs and prolonged oxygen dependence. The diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis is often missed and under-reported due to low index of suspicion and less sensitivity of diagnostic tools. PMID:24741540

  11. Mica-associated pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Landas, S K; Schwartz, D A

    1991-09-01

    We present the clinical and biopsy findings of a 63-yr-old white male with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and a long history of extensive exposure to mica while working in the rubber industry. The patient presented 30 yr after the initial exposure with complaints of progressive shortness of breath and a chronic nonproductive cough. Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive lung function with a mild reduction in the total lung capacity (80% of predicted) and a moderate-to-severe reduction in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (50% of predicted). The chest radiogram and high-resolution chest CT scan showed diffuse fibrosis and focal honeycombing involving the upper and lower lung zones bilaterally. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 20% neutrophils in the lavage fluid with abundant rectangular flaking crystals. Open-lung biopsy exhibited extensive fibrosis and architectural remodeling with abundant sheets and fragments of engulfed polarizable crystalline material. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron diffraction studies confirmed the material to have the features of mica. Asbestos and other silicates were not identified. The documentation of prolonged exposure to mica, the clinical and radiographic features of severe interstitial fibrosis, and the histopathologic delineation of the interstitial lesion, including spectroscopic and crystallographic verification of crystalline mica, support the causal relationship between mica and interstitial fibrosis. PMID:1892315

  12. Ultrasound in the evaluation of interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giudice, V.; Bruni, A.; Corcioni, E.; Corcioni, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently increased. Skilled sonographers with experience in pulmonary medicine have demonstrated the existence of US signs of chest pathology. Purpose To detect US findings associated with infectious interstitial pneumonia that can be used to supplement other diagnostic tools. Materials and methods Over a period of 5 years (2001–2006), 55 patients were referred to our ultrasonography units for evaluation of probable viral or viral-like infections of the respiratory tract. Each patient was subjected to a work-up that included clinical examination, blood tests, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, chest radiographs, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and thoracic US, which was performed under blinded conditions. Results Based on the findings that emerged from the work-up described above, all 55 patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Evaluation of the US scans for the signs of interstitial lung disease described by Lichtenstein revealed “comet-tail” artifacts in the anterolateral lung fields in 31 (56.36%) patients and mixed patterns consisting in increased density associated with ring-down artifacts in 24 (46.64%). Pleural involvement was also observed in 34 cases (61.82%). Conclusions Thoracic US appears to be a useful adjunct to clinical, laboratory and radiological studies in patients suspected of having infectious interstitial pneumonia. PMID:23396220

  13. Role of interstitial and interstitial-impurity interaction on irradiation-induced segregation in austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nastar, M.; Martin, G.; Bellon, P.; Ruste, J.

    1998-12-31

    Segregation under irradiation in austenitic steels is due to a permanent flux of vacancies and interstitials produced by irradiation towards sinks like surfaces and interfaces. A model based on a mean field lattice rate theory is proposed where kinetics and thermodynamics are treated in a mutually consistent way. For a Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy, the 15 parameters defining the jump frequencies of vacancies were fitted on equilibrium properties including ordering energies and tracer diffusion experiments with no use of segregation data. Measurements of RIS by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) were used in the last step of the fitting procedure in order to choose the best set of the 27 interstitial jump frequencies. This fitting procedure strongly supports the idea that the interstitials are contributing to RIS in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The authors also simulate the trapping of interstitials by an impurity model and reproduce the total inhibition of RIS by this impurity as observed experimentally.

  14. Creeping Motion of Self Interstitial Atom Clusters in Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2 eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along 〈111〉. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation. PMID:24865470

  15. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  16. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  17. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  18. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the running course of meridians. PMID:24673066

  19. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  20. Dust-particle migration around flotation tailings ponds: pine needles as passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Teper, Ewa

    2009-07-01

    The potential use of dust particles trapped on Scots pine needles for tracking dust migration around flotation tailings ponds in the Silesian-Krakowian ore district, Southern Poland was tested. 1-, 2- and 3-years old needles were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Particle sizes and morphologies, and the nature of the compounds hosting metals ions, were examined. A large majority of the particles examined are <10 microm in size. Almost 80% of particles represent respirable dust. All the components in the flotation wastes appear among the chemical compounds identified in particles on the pine needles. The quantity of the waste particles decreases with distance from the flotation tailings ponds. The analysis of dust particles on pine needles could be a useful method for estimating vectors and travel distances of suspended dust migrating around open flotation tailings ponds and around other point sources emitting dust particles with chemical compositions differing from the environmental background. PMID:18568408

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Site-specific Raman spectroscopy and chemical dynamics of nanoscale interstitial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. Peter

    2005-02-01

    Site-specific spectroscopy is critical for a molecular-level understanding of the mechanisms and dynamics of the inhomogeneous chemical processes crucial for catalysis, surface and interfacial chemistry, and membrane protein dynamics in living cells. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using metal-coated AFM tips have proven to be powerful in spectroscopic analysis of inhomogeneous processes, providing correlated topographic and spectroscopic information at the nanoscale from sites in highly heterogeneous environments. It has recently been observed that SERS spectral fluctuations are pertinent to site-specific spectroscopy and microscopy. Such fluctuations are important in that they hold promise for the study of molecular structure and dynamics at a single-molecule level. This article reviews our recent work on characterization and analysis of SERS spectral fluctuation dynamics at the nanoscale in metallic interstitial sites. Fluctuations were found to accompany nanoscale confined electromagnetic near-field enhancement. The result of such confinement is that only a few molecules dominate the far-field SERS spectral signal detected in microscopic measurements that probe one nanoscale 'hot' site at a time. The fluctuation amplitude significantly decreased with the number of molecules confined at the nanoscale-local field. A new AFM-coupled two-channel photon time-stamping system, enabling in situ correlation of the topographic and spectroscopic information for single nanoparticle clusters, was used to record the Raman intensity fluctuation trajectories at a sub-microsecond resolution. Experimentally, we found that SERS fluctuation dynamics are highly inhomogeneous amongst nanocluster interstitial sites although molecular translational and rotational motions at the interstitial sites can account for the SERS spectral fluctuations. To further understand these fluctuations at the nanoscale interstitial sites and nanostructures, field enhancement and field distribution at different interstitial site topographies and rough fractal surfaces were studied using finite element method computational simulation in a classic electrodynamics approach.

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Saumen; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  3. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  4. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Saumen; Santra, Avradip; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  6. Needle tip localization using stylet vibration.

    PubMed

    Harmat, Adam; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2006-09-01

    Power Doppler ultrasound is used to localize the tip of a needle by detecting physical vibrations. Two types of vibrations are investigated, lateral and axial. The lateral vibrations are created by rotating a stylet, whose tip is slightly bent, inside a stationary cannula while the stylet is completely within the cannula. The minute deflection at the needle tip when rotated causes tissue motion. The axial vibration is induced by extending and retracting a straight stylet inside a stationary cannula. The stylet's tip makes contact with the tissue and causes it to move. The lateral vibration method was found to perform approximately the same under a variety of configurations (e.g., different insertion angles and depths) and better than the axial vibration method. Tissue stiffness affects the performance of the lateral vibration method, but good images can be obtained through proper tuning of the ultrasound machine. PMID:16965974

  7. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  8. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  9. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  10. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  11. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  12. Comparative ecotoxicity of interstitial waters in littoral ecosystems using Microtox{reg_sign} and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Valls, T.A. Del; Forja, J.M.; Lubian, L.M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    1997-11-01

    The toxic effects of sediment interstitial waters collected from seven littoral sites in the Gulf of Cadiz were tested with the Microtox assay and a 7-d Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) decline test. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate), the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd), and the linear alkylbenzensulfonate (LAS) concentrations in the interstitial water were measured. The results of assays were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between toxicity values determined by Brachionus plicatilis and Photobacterium phosphoreum, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity from mixtures of heavy metals. Data derived from interstitial water chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal components analysis). Positive prevalence of these components in cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The interstitial water guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg/L), are: DOC, 12.8; phosphate, 0.28; LAS, 80.4; ammonia, 12.1: chromium, 0.0045.

  13. Expansion of Interstitial Telomeric Sequences in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Anna Y; Han, Gil; Shishkin, Alexander A; Volkov, Kirill V; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2015-11-24

    Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for replication (G orientation). Here, we show that interstitial Ytel repeats in the opposite C orientation prefer to expand rather than cause GCR. A tract of eight Ytel repeats expands at a rate of 4 10(-4) per replication, ranking them among the most expansion-prone DNA microsatellites. A candidate-based genetic analysis implicates both post-replication repair and homologous recombination pathways in the expansion process. We propose a model for Ytel repeat expansions and discuss its applications for genome instability and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT). PMID:26586439

  14. Chronic interstitial nephritis in Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Schlumpf, A; Marbet, U A; Stöcklin, E; Wegmann, W; Lämmle, B; Mujagic, M; Jösch, W; Thiel, G; Thölen, H; Olivieri, W; Gudat, F; Torhorst, J; Zollinger, H U; Mihatsch, M J

    1983-01-01

    Report is given on a 68-year-old man who suffered primarily from progressive weight loss and repeated episodes of fever and arthralgia. Later, liver dysfunction and renal insufficiency developed. Liver and kidney biopsies disclosed granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis. Because of the morphologic and clinical findings, the diagnosis of Boeck's disease was made. Shortly before death, diarrhea developed. Autopsy revealed a massive systemic involvement in Whipple's disease proven by light and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Tuberculoid and epitheloid cell granulomas and isolated giant cells were found in addition to the biopsy findings in skeleton muscles, the small intestine, lymphnodes and bronchi. At autopsy, the kidney showed chronic interstitial nephritis. The literature of kidney involvement in Whipple's disease is reviewed. This is the first case with granulomatous interstitial nephritis and chronic renal insufficiency in an inadequately treated Whipple's disease. PMID:6187968

  15. Concept of dose nonuniformity in interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, Cheng B.; Wu, A. ); Suntharalingam, N. )

    1993-06-15

    Evaluation of the 3-dimensional dose distributions of interstitial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio was performed. Single source, two sources, three and four sources arranged both linearly and in the form of a triangle or a square, ribbons with different seed spacings, a single-plane and double-plane implants were evaluated. The evaluations involved the use of differential dose volume histograms and the dose nonuniformity ratio defined as the ratio of the high dose volume to the reference volume. For a single source, the dose nonuniformity is the same regardless which dose rate is selected as the treatment dose rate. For any multi-source implant, the dose nonuniformity is altered depending on the selection of the reference dose rate. In addition, the dose nonuniformity curve exhibited three characteristics zones. The dose nonuniformity ratio can be a useful tool in assessing and optimizing interstitial implants. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Hardening of irradiated alloys due to the simultaneous formation of vacancy and interstitial loops

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.; Alhajji, J.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model is presented for the simultaneous nucleation and growth of vacancy and interstitial loops in irradiated metals. The model is based on the homogeneous time-dependent rate theory. Conservation equations are developed for single defects as well as defect clusters. Defect-conservation equations include production by irradiation and thermal sources; and destruction by mutual recombination, migration to sinks as well as clustering into loops. Interstitial clustering is assumed to occur by diffusion of interstitial atoms. Vacancy loops, on the other hand, are assumed to form by an athermal cascade-collapse process. The density of such loops is determined as a result of the production of cascades and the finite loop lifetime. Cascade overlap and coalescence are also included in the model. The calculations are extended to the analysis of the radiation-induced changes in tensile properties due to formation of interstitial and vacancy loops. A simpe hardening model relates the microstructural calculations to predictions of changes in tensile strength. The results of this study show good agreement with hardening data for copper irradiated in RTNS-II at room temperature. The results also provide insight on differences in microstructural results observed in various experimental studies on copper. 7 figures.

  17. [Design and application of silver needle-knife].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guodong; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Benwu; Xu, Haidong

    2015-04-01

    A silver needle-knife which has the dual function of silver needle and needle-knife is designed. The main components of this silver needle-knife are approximately 50% silver and approximately 50% nichrome. The silver needle-knife is composed of five parts, including needle-knife tail, spiral handle; steering handle, needle-knife body and needle-knife edge. It converges the advantages of needle-knife and silver needle, which can cut loose of diseased tissue and peel adhesion of lesions, but also be heated with moxa cone and thermal therapeutic instrument, and connect with electroacupuncture apparatus. It has the function of warming channel and removing coldness, dispelling wind and eliminating dampness, resolving spasm and relieving pain, dredging the channel and so on. Due to the spiral handle and the steering handle, the operation is easier, which reduces the blindness of cutting and increase the safety. It is mainly used for soft tissue injury, rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as degenerative diseases of spine and joint, and it has obvious efficacy on some internal medical diseases. PMID:26054157

  18. The incidence of coring with blunt versus sharp needles.

    PubMed

    Wani, Tariq; Wadhwa, Anupama; Tobias, Joseph D

    2014-03-01

    With the advent of safety needles to prevent inadvertent needle sticks in the operating room (OR), a potentially new issue has arisen. These needles may result in coring, or the shaving off of fragments of the rubber stopper, when the needle is pierced through the rubber stopper of the medication vial. These fragments may be left in the vial and then drawn up with the medication and possibly injected into patients. The current study prospectively evaluated the incidence of coring when blunt and sharp needles were used to pierce rubber topped vials. We also evaluated the incidence of coring in empty medication vials with rubber tops. The rubber caps were then pierced with either an18-gauge sharp hypodermic needle or a blunt plastic (safety) needle. Coring occurred in 102 of 250 (40.8%) vials when a blunt needle was used versus 9 of 215 (4.2%) vials with a sharp needle (P < 0.0001). A significant incidence of coring was demonstrated when a blunt plastic safety needle was used. This situation is potentially a patient safety hazard and methods to eliminate this problem are needed. PMID:24582180

  19. Electrotactile display using microfabricated micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Chim, J.; Miki, N.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes an electrotactile display with micro-needle electrodes. The electrotactile display can produce tactile sensations by stimulating tactile receptors using an electric current. Micro-needle electrodes can drastically decrease the threshold voltage required to stimulate tactile receptors by penetrating the stratum corneum, which has a higher impedance than the dermis. In addition, the optimized length of the needle allows us to stimulate tactile receptors painlessly. In the present study, we developed a process for fabricating a micro-needle array in which the length and tip radius can be controlled using electrochemical etching. A micro-needle array was successfully fabricated to form an electrotactile display. In addition, we experimentally determined the suitable shape of the micro-needle electrodes for electrotactile display applications. When the tip radius of the needle is too small, the impedance between the finger and micro-needles becomes large due to the small contact area. On the other hand, when the tip radius is too large, the needle cannot penetrate the skin surface and the impedance is not sufficiently small. The experiments verified the superiority of needle electrode devices to flat electrode devices with respect to the threshold voltage at each frequency.

  20. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  1. The hard metal diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cugell, D.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

  2. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  3. Interstitial lung edema triggered by marathon running.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Milne, Eric N C; Lavorini, Federico; Rienzi, Joseph P; Lavin, Kaleen M; Straub, Allison M; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether marathon running causes lung edema, and if so, to determine its effects on runners. Posterior/anterior (PA) radiographs were taken one day before the marathon and at 19, 55, and 98min post-marathon in 26 runners. The pre and post exercise radiographs of each runner were collated, and then read simultaneously. Two physicians interpreted the images independently in a blinded fashion. The PA radiographs were viewed together at each time-point and findings suggestive for interstitial lung edema were rated as 'mild,' 'moderate,' or 'severe' based on four different radiological criteria. Forty-six percent of the runners presented radiographic findings suggestive of mild to severe interstitial lung edema. Radiographic findings persisted until 98-min post-marathon, with at least moderate degree increases found more frequently in women (55%) than men (6%) (p<0.01). In conclusion, about half of the runners developed interstitial lung edema of varying degrees post-exercise with the incidence being higher in women compared to men. PMID:24369923

  4. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  5. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined. PMID:23358940

  6. The effect of needle dimensions and infusion rates on injection pressures in regional anaesthesia needles: a bench-top study.

    PubMed

    Patil, J J; Ford, S; Egeler, C; Williams, D J

    2015-02-01

    Animal studies have shown that injection pressures > 75 kPa indicate probable intrafascicular needle tip position. This study describes the flow/pressure characteristics of seven common needle systems. A syringe pump delivered flow rates of 5, 6.67, 10, 13.3, 15 and 20 ml.min(-1) through these needle systems, while keeping the needle tips open to atmosphere. A pressure transducer connected between the syringe and needle provided a real-time graphical display for analysis. Mean plateau pressures increased linearly with flow and with decreasing needle diameter (2.7-92 kPa). Flow rates > 17 ml.min(-1) and needle sizes 22 G and smaller produced mean plateau pressures > 75 kPa. Pressure monitors upstream from the needle may produce false-positive alarms at high flow rates due to needle resistance, and unreliable readings due to non-laminar flow. We recommend injection rates ≤ 15 ml.min(-1) (0.25 ml.s(-1) ) to reduce the effect of factors upstream from the needle tip as a cause of high pressure readings. PMID:25290190

  7. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  8. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  9. Early Identification of Interstitial Cystitis May Avoid Unnecessary Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jarnagin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interstitial cystitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms of pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It can be difficult to accurately identify interstitial cystitis because the symptoms overlap many other common gynecologic and urologic conditions. Patients with undiagnosed interstitial cystitis may undergo unnecessary procedures, including hysterectomy. Methods: A PubMed literature search for articles dating back to 1990 was conducted on the topics of interstitial cystitis and hysterectomy. Further references were identified by cross-referencing the bibliographies in articles of interest. Results: The literature review found that hysterectomy is performed more often in patients with undiagnosed interstitial cystitis than in patients with a confirmed diagnosis. Interstitial cystitis often coexists with conditions like endometriosis, for which hysterectomy is indicated. Many patients subsequently diagnosed with interstitial cystitis continue to experience persistent pelvic pain despite having had a hysterectomy for chronic pelvic pain. Careful history and physical examination can identify the majority of interstitial cystitis cases. Conclusion: Interstitial cystitis should be considered prior to hysterectomy in women who present with pelvic pain or who experience pelvic pain after a hysterectomy. If interstitial cystitis is diagnosed, appropriate therapy may eliminate the need for hysterectomy. PMID:19793476

  10. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-02-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems.

  11. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle’s inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve. PMID:26509189

  12. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  13. The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly in many locales, becoming the purview of professional administration that advocates needle exchange as a necessary public health measure. This article is interested in the ways in which needle exchange has become implicated in and appropriated by networks of power seeking to discipline and regulate injection drug use. Drawing theoretically on Michel Foucault’s writings concerning biopower and governmentality, it will examine the proliferation of discourses, knowledges, and rules surrounding needle exchange in the United States. At the same time, this article will avoid a characterization of needle exchange that envisions the unilateral control of drug users by governmental power, illuminating instead both its negative and productive effects for drug users. Namely, it will explore how needle exchange creates both subjects of interest and subjects of resistance among drug users – that is to say, the governmentalization of needle exchange and its ‘clients’. PMID:22389572

  14. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation. PMID:6781264

  15. [Needle-like nonasbestos particles in Bulgarian mineral raw materials].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova-Docheva, L

    1988-01-01

    The spreading of needle-like minerals in the country is studied, which are of no industrial importance, but are contained in some of course and nonmetallic mineral raw materials. On the basis of their classification are chosen standards: sepiolite, wollastonite, palygorskite, etc., and their dispersion in needle-like fine dispersive particles, is studied. On the basis of a preliminary prognosis are established needle-like particles in ore dust of one iron ore location. The importance of the needle-like nonasbestos components can be expressed with "dose" inhaled needles on the basis of the concentration of the needle-like components, the duration of one work shift and the work load in a definite work operation. The quantity of inhaled needles by an operator on a filling machine for mineral flour, containing minimum quantity of needles (0.5%) with pollution above MAC is near to that during packing of asbestos. The results received are useful for future classification of the biological activity of needle-like nonasbestos components. PMID:3241796

  16. Serrated needle design facilitates precise round window membrane perforation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, James P; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-07-01

    The round window membrane (RWM) has become the preferred route, over cochleostomy, for the introduction of cochlear implant electrodes as it minimizes inner ear trauma. However, in the absence of a tool designed for creating precise perforation, current practices lead to tearing of the RWM and significant intracochlear pressure fluctuations. On the basis of RWM mechanical properties, we have designed a multi-serrated needle to create consistent holes without membrane tearing or damaging inner ear structures. Four and eight-serrated needles were designed and produced with wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The needle's ability to create RWM perforations was tested in deidentified, commercially acquired temporal bones with the assistance of a micromanipulator. Subsequently, specimens were imaged under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The needles created consistent, appropriately sized holes in the membrane with minimal tearing. While a four-serrated crown needle made rectangular/trapezoid perforations, the octagonal crown formed smooth oval holes within the membrane. Though designed for single use, the needle tolerated repeated use without significant damage. The serrated needles formed precise perforations in the RWM while minimizing damage during cochlear implantation. The octagonal needle design created the preferred oval perforation better than the quad needle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1633-1637, 2016. PMID:26914984

  17. Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

  18. Surgeon's satisfaction on the use of invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Hashem; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers, especially operating room personnel, are at increased risk for sharps injury and transmission of blood-borne pathogens as a result of their occupation. Infection with these pathogens occurs mainly by percutaneous or mucocutaneous exposure to blood-borne pathogens. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room. Materials and Methods: The needle magnet device is consisted of three parts: a cap, a magnet and a metal container. It was invented by the authors for the first time in Iran. The average weight of this device is 200 g and it can be easily placed near the surgery field or on the myostand. It has magnetic properties that attracts the sharp pointed particles during surgery and preserve them in a protected space. The device was used in surgical field by 33 surgeons during 90 surgical operations. Then, the satisfaction of participants and effectiveness of the device in protection against sharps injury was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: Thirty-one surgeons (94%) believed that needle magnet reduces dispersion of sharp instruments; 79% of the participants suggested that our device reduces sharps injury during operation; 29 surgeons (88%) intended to use this device during operation. Thus, the use of needle magnet within surgical field may reduce the chances of sharps injury during surgery. Conclusion: The use of needle magnet within surgical field reduces the chance of sharp injury during surgery and the surgeons were satisfied with its use. PMID:25013253

  19. High-pressure electrides: the chemical nature of interstitial quasiatoms.

    PubMed

    Miao, Mao-sheng; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-03-18

    Building on our previous chemical and physical model of high-pressure electrides (HPEs), we explore the effects of interaction of electrons confined in crystals but off the atoms, under conditions of extreme pressure. Electrons in the quantized energy levels of voids or vacancies, interstitial quasiatoms (ISQs), effectively interact with each or with other atoms, in ways that are quite chemical. With the well-characterized Na HPE as an example, we explore the ionic limit, ISQs behaving as anions. A detailed comparison with known ionic compounds points to high ISQ charge density. ISQs may also form what appear to be covalent bonds with neighboring ISQs or real atoms, similarly confined. Our study looks specifically at quasimolecular model systems (two ISQs, a Li atom and a one-electron ISQ, a Mg atom and two ISQs), in a compression chamber made of He atoms. The electronic density due to the formation of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals of the compressed entities is recognizable, and a bonding stabilization, which increases with pressure, is estimated. Finally, we use the computed Mg electride to understand metallic bonding in one class of electrides. In general, the space confined between atoms in a high pressure environment offers up quantized states to electrons. These ISQs, even as they lack centering nuclei, in their interactions with each other and neighboring atoms may show anionic, covalent, or metallic bonding, all the chemical features of an atom. PMID:25706033

  20. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  1. A new needle on the block: EchoTip ProCore endobronchial ultrasound needle.

    PubMed

    Dincer, H Erhan; Andrade, Rafael; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound has become the first choice standard of care procedure to diagnose benign or malignant lesions involving mediastinum and lung parenchyma adjacent to the airways owing to its characteristics of being real-time and minimally invasive. Although the incidence of lung cancer has been decreasing, it is and will be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the next few decades. When compared to other cancers, lung cancer kills more females than breast and colon cancers combined and more males than colon and prostate cancers combined. The type of lung cancer has changed in recent decades and adenocarcinoma has become the most frequent cell type. Prognosis of lung cancer depends upon the cell type and the staging at the time of diagnosis. The cell type and molecular characteristics of adenocarcinoma may allow individualized targeted treatment. Other malignant conditions in the mediastinum and lung (eg, metastatic lung cancers and lymphoma) can be biopsied using endobronchial ultrasound needles. Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsies provides mostly cytology specimens due to its small sizes of needles (22 gauge or larger) which may not give enough tissue to make a definitive diagnosis in malignant (eg, lymphoma) or benign conditions (eg, sarcoidosis). EchoTip ProCore endobronchial needle released in early 2014 provides histologic biopsy material. Larger tissue biopsies may potentially provide a higher diagnostic yield and it eliminates mediastinoscopy or other surgical interventions. Here we aim to review bronchoscopic approach in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions with emphasis of EchoTip ProCore needles. PMID:27099535

  2. A new needle on the block: EchoTip ProCore endobronchial ultrasound needle

    PubMed Central

    Dincer, H Erhan; Andrade, Rafael; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound has become the first choice standard of care procedure to diagnose benign or malignant lesions involving mediastinum and lung parenchyma adjacent to the airways owing to its characteristics of being real-time and minimally invasive. Although the incidence of lung cancer has been decreasing, it is and will be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the next few decades. When compared to other cancers, lung cancer kills more females than breast and colon cancers combined and more males than colon and prostate cancers combined. The type of lung cancer has changed in recent decades and adenocarcinoma has become the most frequent cell type. Prognosis of lung cancer depends upon the cell type and the staging at the time of diagnosis. The cell type and molecular characteristics of adenocarcinoma may allow individualized targeted treatment. Other malignant conditions in the mediastinum and lung (eg, metastatic lung cancers and lymphoma) can be biopsied using endobronchial ultrasound needles. Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsies provides mostly cytology specimens due to its small sizes of needles (22 gauge or larger) which may not give enough tissue to make a definitive diagnosis in malignant (eg, lymphoma) or benign conditions (eg, sarcoidosis). EchoTip ProCore endobronchial needle released in early 2014 provides histologic biopsy material. Larger tissue biopsies may potentially provide a higher diagnostic yield and it eliminates mediastinoscopy or other surgical interventions. Here we aim to review bronchoscopic approach in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions with emphasis of EchoTip ProCore needles. PMID:27099535

  3. Autoimmune-Featured Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Rekha; Strek, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may have features of an autoimmune disorder that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for connective tissue diseases. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of autoimmune-featured ILD (AIF-ILD) and compared these with those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and known connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD). Methods: Patients with ILD who did not meet the criteria for a connective tissue disease were defined as having AIF-ILD if they had a sign or symptom suggestive of a connective tissue disease and a serologic test reflective of an autoimmune process. Clinical characteristics, high-resolution CT images, and lung biopsy specimens were analyzed and compared with those of patients with IPF and CTD-ILD. Survival was evaluated using a Kaplan-Meier curve. Results: Two hundred subjects completed the questionnaire and serologic testing. AIF-ILD was identified in 32%, IPF in 29%, and CTD-ILD in 19%. Gender, age, and race differed among groups (P < .01). Sixty-two percent of patients with AIF-ILD had a typical usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on CT images. In 31 patients with AIF-ILD, lung biopsy specimens showed UIP in 81% and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 6%. Patients with AIF-ILD and IPF had similar survival, worse than those with CTD-ILD (P < .01). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers ≥ 1:1280 were associated with improved survival in patients with AIF-ILD (P = .02). Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of symptoms and serologic tests in ILD can identify AIF-ILD. A UIP pattern on CT images and histopathology is common in AIF-ILD. Although survival for patients with AIF-ILD is poor, ANA titers ≥ 1:1280 are associated with improved survival. PMID:21565966

  4. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy. PMID:26449764

  5. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  6. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic and ultrastructural features of intraluminal organizing and fibrotic changes were studied in open lung biopsies and autopsy specimens from 373 patients with interstitial lung disorders, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 44), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 92), collagen-vascular diseases (n = 20), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 10), pulmonary histiocytosis X (n-90), pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 62), pneumoconioses (n = 25), Legionnaire's disease (n = 5), drug- and toxin-induced pneumonitis (n = 4), radiation-induced pneumonitis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 11), and chronic organizing pneumonia of unknown cause (n = 8). Three patterns of intraluminal organization and fibrosis were recognized: 1) intraluminal buds, which partially filled the alveoli, alveolar ducts and/or distal bronchioles; 2) obliterative changes, in which loose connective tissue masses obliterated the lumens of alveoli, alveolar ducts or distal bronchioles, and 3) mural incorporation of previously intraluminal connective tissue masses, which fused with alveolar, alveolar ductal, or bronchiolar structures and frequently became reepithelialized. All three patterns had common morphologic features, suggesting that, regardless of their severity, they resulted from a common pathogenetic mechanism, ie, the migration of activated connective tissue cells, through defects in the epithelial lining and its basement membrane, from the interstitial into the intraluminal compartment. Intraluminal buds were observed most frequently in hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and organizing pneumonia of unknown cause. Mural incorporation and, to a lesser extent, obliterative changes were observed in most interstitial disorders and were very prominent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mural incorporation and obliterative changes play an important role in pulmonary remodeling, especially when several adjacent alveoli and/or other air spaces are involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  7. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  8. Photothermal damage prediction of laser interstitial thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan

    2006-11-01

    An improved scattering optical model was developed under cylindrical coordinate to simulate the thermal effect of diffusing applicator in laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The thermal damage was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using Pennes bio-heat transfer equation and Arrhenius injury integral formula. The numerical results showed that the scattering can considerably influence the evaluation of the lesion area, and the relationship between application powers or time and resulting tissue thermal damage was nonlinear. Although usually applying relatively low power can avoid tissue charring, rather higher power is recommended because it is indispensable to achieve necessary damage threshold and the therapy time can be shortened.

  9. Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients.

  10. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  11. Development and application of needle trap devices.

    PubMed

    Eom, In-Yong; Tugulea, Anca-Maria; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-07-01

    Needle trap devices (NTDs), like solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, represent a new approach to one-step, solvent-free sample preparation and injection. New NTDs, packed with divinylbenzene (DVB) or Carboxen 1000 particles, are prepared, characterized, and used for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzne, and xylene (BTEX) sampling in our laboratory. This paper describes optimization parameters, performance evaluation, and application of NTDs for the analysis of a BTEX mixture from air. For active sampling, a sampling flow rate is an essential optimization parameter. Using a very small amount of sorbent particles (less than 1mg DVB or Carboxen), 1.9 mL/min was the highest sampling flow rate that could be used with no breakthrough of any BTEX components. A single NTD was used to study breakthrough volumes (BTVs) and the breakthrough volume was proportional to the quantity of sorbent packed inside the needle. The Carboxen-packed NTD showed higher BTVs for all BTEX compared to the DVB-packed NTD. The performance of home-made NTDs was evaluated at different sampling flow rates, storage times, and for reusability. Finally, DVB packed NTDs were used to sample and analyze a BTEX mixture from permanent marker fumes, mosquito coil smoke, and at various points in the interior of a house. A very low concentration (10 pg/mL) of toluene was detected in the garage. PMID:18355830

  12. Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

  13. Fabrication of Metallic Microneedle by Electroplating and Sharpening of it by Electrochemical Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Hao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Takaoki, Yutaka; Izumi, Hayato; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato; Aoyagi, Seiji

    Aiming at the use in low-invasive medical treatments, this paper reports a fabrication of metallic microneedle, which has a three-dimensionally sharp tip. Compared to a silicon or polymer needle which we previously proposed, a metallic needle has toughness to evade breakage. Even if it is broken, it does not become small pieces thanks to its ductility, which increases the safety for a human body. A nickel needle was fabricated using electroplating, followed by sharpening it by electrochemical etching. A smooth tip surface is obtained due to electrochemical etching reactions. Sharpness and smoothness of the tip are effective for easy insertion in the viewpoint of large stress concentration and small friction, respectively. An experiment of inserting the fabricated needle into an artificial skin of silicone rubber was carried out. The resistance force during insertion was much reduced compared to that of commercial stainless needle (23 G: shank diameter 650 µm). Although a fabricated metallic needle was inserted and pulled-out for several times, it was not broken in any trial. By changing the angle between object surface and needle axis, the insertion experiments were carried out. Fabricated nickel needle was not broken for any angle, while silicon needle was broken in case the angle is small, i.e., the needle is much inclined from normal direction of the surface, which ensures the safety of metallic microneedle to human body in the viewpoint of breakage.

  14. Dynamics and Topography of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular topography covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.

  15. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  16. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  17. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 μm in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  18. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  20. Design of a Slender Tuned Ultrasonic Needle for Bone Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Rebecca; Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle, particularly focusing on design guidelines applicable for any slender tuned ultrasonic device component. Ultrasonic surgical devices are routinely used to cut a range of biological tissues, such as bone. However the realisation of an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle is particularly challenging. This is due to the requirement to generate sufficient vibrational amplitude capable of penetrating mineralised tissue, while avoiding flexural vibrational responses, which are known to reduce the performance and reliability of slender ultrasonic devices. This investigation uses finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the vibrational behaviour of a resonant needle which has dimensions that match closely to an 8Gx4inch bone marrow biopsy needle. Features of the needle, including changes in material and repeated changes in diameter, have been included and systematically altered to demonstrate that the location of and geometry of these features can significantly affect the resonant frequency of bending and torsional modes of vibration while having a limited effect on the frequency and shape of the tuned longitudinal mode. Experimental modal analysis was used to identify the modal parameters of the selected needle design, validating the FEA model predictions of the longitudinal mode and the close flexural modes. This verifies that modal coupling can be avoided by judicious small geometry modifications. Finally, the tuned needle assembly was driven under typical operational excitation conditions to demonstrate that an ultrasonic biopsy needle can be designed to operate in a purely longitudinal motion.

  1. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  2. Spain: government orders distribution of clean needles in prisons.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    In a previous issue of the Review we published an article about the positive results of the evaluation of the first needle exchange programs in Spanish prisons. Recently it was reported that Spain's Ministry of the Interior has ordered that sterile needles be distributed in prisons. PMID:14979230

  3. Force modeling for needle insertion into soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Allison M; Simone, Christina; O'Leary, Mark D

    2004-10-01

    The modeling of forces during needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate surgical simulation, preoperative planning, and intelligent robotic assistance for percutaneous therapies. We present a force model for needle insertion and experimental procedures for acquiring data from ex vivo tissue to populate that model. Data were collected from bovine livers using a one-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with a load cell and needle attachment. computed tomography imaging was used to segment the needle insertion process into phases identifying different relative velocities between the needle and tissue. The data were measured and modeled in three parts: 1) capsule stiffness, a nonlinear spring model; 2) friction, a modified Karnopp model; and 3) cutting, a constant for a given tissue. In addition, we characterized the effects of needle diameter and tip type on insertion force using a silicone rubber phantom. In comparison to triangular and diamond tips, a bevel tip causes more needle bending and is more easily affected by tissue density variations. Forces for larger diameter needles are higher due to increased cutting and friction forces. PMID:15490818

  4. MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

  5. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification....

  8. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  9. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36

  10. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle-type epilator. 878.5350 Section 878.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  12. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  18. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  20. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  1. Pigment-based identification of ozone-damaged pine needles as a basis for spectral segregation of needle conditions.

    PubMed

    Di Vittorio, Alan V

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution affects large areas of forest, and field assessment of these effects is a costly, site-specific process. This paper establishes a biochemical basis for identifying ozone-damaged pine trees to facilitate efficient remote sensing assessment of air pollution damage. Several thousand live needles were collected from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi) trees at three sites in Plumas National Forest and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. These needles were assembled into 504 samples (based on the abaxial surface) and grouped according to five dominant needle conditions (green, winter fleck, sucking insect damage, scale insect damage, and ozone damage) and a random mixture of needles. Pigment concentrations per unit needle area of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotenoids were measured. The following pigment concentration ratios were calculated for all samples: chlorophyll a/total carotenoids, chlorophyll b/total carotenoids, total chlorophyll/carotenoids, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b. The group of ozone-damaged needles had significantly lower mean pigment concentrations (family-wise p < 0.01) and significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/total carotenoid and total chlorophyll/total carotenoid ratios (family-wise p < 0.01) than all other groups of needles. Ozone-damaged needles had a significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio than all other groups except one (family-wise p < 0.01). Linear discriminant analysis with three factors (chlorophyll a concentration, the chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio, and the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio) and subsequent maximum likelihood classification of damaged and non-damaged needles gave an overall cross-validated accuracy of 96%. These ozone-damaged needles are biochemically unique in relation to other needle conditions in this study, and further research is needed to generalize these results. PMID:19329674

  2. Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Fernando J.; Flaherty, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major categories. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical/radiologic/pathologic subsets. These disorders generally share a common pattern of physiologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is often used and recommended in their assessment and management. The potential clinical application of physiologic testing includes to aid in diagnosis, although its value in differential diagnosis is limited. Pulmonary function testing also aids in establishing disease severity and in defining prognosis. In nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, severely decreased DLCO has proven valuable in this regard. Similarly, exertional desaturation to less than 88% at baseline testing and a decrease in FVC (greater than 10%) over the course of short-term follow-up identify patients at particular risk of mortality. Finally, physiologic testing, especially spirometry and DLCO, have demonstrated value in monitoring response to therapy and identifying disease progression. PMID:16738195

  3. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  4. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  5. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  6. Interstitial collagenase gene expression in colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, S. T.; Yun, K.; Motoori, T.; Kuys, Y. M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are complex phenomena believed to be facilitated by the disruption of collagen and elastin fibers in the extracellular matrix. Interstitial collagenase gene expression was studied in colonic adenocarcinoma and adenoma using in situ hybridization. The data indicated that three cell types within the tumor stroma expressed collagenase transcripts; they were eosinophils, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelium. In all 12 adenocarcinomas, a high to moderate level of expression was seen in 1 to 5% of eosinophils and in occasional fibroblasts, whereas these cell types in non-neoplastic mucosa adjacent to tumor showed no detectable expression. Two adenocarcinomas showed expression in hyperplastic endothelium in vascularized granulation tissue. Two out of three adenomas showed expression in eosinophils and fibroblasts at a reduced level. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene expression was, however, negligible in all tissue examined. These results suggest that interstitial collagenase gene activation in the tumor stroma, especially eosinophils, may have an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8362969

  7. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  8. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department. PMID:26722162

  9. CUDA accelerated simulation of needle insertions in deformable tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriciu, Alexandru

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a stiff needle-deformable tissue interaction model. The model uses a mesh-less discretization of continuum; avoiding thus the expensive remeshing required by the finite element models. The proposed model can accommodate both linear and nonlinear material characteristics. The needle-deformable tissue interaction is modeled through fundamental boundaries. The forces applied by the needle on the tissue are divided in tangent forces and constraint forces. The constraint forces are adaptively computed such that the material is properly constrained by the needle. The implementation is accelerated using NVidia CUDA. We present detailed analysis of the execution timing in both serial and parallel case. The proposed needle insertion model was integrated in a custom software that loads DICOM images, generate the deformable model, and can simulate different insertion strategies.

  10. Indications for needle catheter jejunostomy in elective abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Heberer, M; Bodoky, A; Iwatschenko, P; Harder, F

    1987-06-01

    Needle catheter jejunostomy for postoperative nutritional support is now employed worldwide. However, there is a large discrepancy regarding indications for this technique which this study attempts to rectify. The need for nutritional support after elective abdominal procedures in 464 patients was analyzed and compared with the experience with needle catheter jejunostomy in 42 patients. The results show that needle catheter jejunostomy is indicated after extensive operations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, for example, esophagectomy, total gastrectomy, and the Whipple procedure. With minor upper gastrointestinal operations, or procedures of the lower gastrointestinal tract, needle catheter jejunostomy should be performed only in patients with poor nutritional status or in the presence of postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In an unclear situation, liberal insertion of the needle catheter jejunostomy and a postponed decision on enteral feeding is recommended, as there is no significant catheter-related morbidity. PMID:3109269

  11. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.; Blendis, L.; Evans, W.K.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In this group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.

  12. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  13. Limited retention of micro-organisms using commercialized needle filters.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, W; McCarthy, G; Mawhinney, T; Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E

    2015-03-01

    A study was undertaken to compare a commercialized needle filter with a 0.2-μm filtered epidural set and a non-filtered standard needle. No culturable bacteria were detected following filtration through the 0.2-μm filter. Bacterial breakthrough was observed with the filtered needle (pore size 5 μm) and the non-filtered needle. Filtered systems (0.2 μm) should be employed to achieve total bacterial retention. This highlights that filtration systems with different pore sizes will have varying ability to retain bacteria. Healthcare professionals need to know what type/capability of filter is implied on labels used by manufacturers, and to assess whether the specification has the desired functionality to prevent bacterial translocation through needles. PMID:25618235

  14. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  15. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  16. Progress towards a needle-free hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lebre, Filipa; Borchard, Gerrit; de Lima, Maria Conceição Pedroso; Borges, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. Vaccination is the most efficient way to prevent hepatitis B. Despite the success of the currently available vaccine, there is a clear need for the development of new generation of HBV vaccines. Needle-free immunization is an attractive approach for mass immunization campaigns, since avoiding the use of needles reduces the risk of needle-borne diseases and prevents needle-stick injuries and pain, thus augmenting patient compliance and eliminating the need for trained medical personnel. Moreover, this kind of immunization was shown to induce good systemic as well as mucosal immunological responses, which is important for the creation of both a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine. In order to produce a better, safer, more efficient and more suitable vaccine, adjuvants have been used. In this article, several adjuvants tested over the years for their potential to help create a needle-free vaccine against HBV are reviewed. PMID:21088986

  17. Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigants Using Different Irrigation Needles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Barcellos; Krolow, Angélica Mohnsam; Pilownic, Katerine Jahnecke; Casarin, Renata Picanço; Lima, Regina Karla Pontes; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldo

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of irrigation tip, root canal curvature and final apical diameter on periapical debris and irrigant extrusion during root canal instrumentation. After being classified as mildly or moderately curved, the mesiobuccal root canals of 90 human molars were instrumented. The teeth were allocated into three groups according to the used needle type: a flat open-end needle (Group 1), a side-vented needle (Group 2) or a double side-vented needle (Group 3). The amount of extruded material after instrumentation was calculated for each group. The differences in irrigant and debris extrusion between the experimental groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Irrigation tips and final instrument diameter differences were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction at α=0.05. The amount of extruded material from the double side-vented needle was significantly less than the open-ended flat needle (p=0.008), but there was no difference compared to the side-vented needle (p=0.929). The results showed no effect of root curvature and final apical diameter on the amount of irrigant and debris extrusion (p>0.05). The double side-vented needles generated the least material extrusion to the periapical tissues. Irrigation needle type had the greatest influence on periapical irrigant and debris extrusion and the double side-vented needles may be safely used during endodontic therapy. PMID:27058383

  18. Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-10-17

    A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

  19. Optical Flow-Based Tracking of Needles and Needle-Tip Localization Using Circular Hough Transform in Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2015-08-01

    Image-guided interventions have become the standard of care for needle-based procedures. The success of the image-guided procedures depends on the ability to precisely locate and track the needle. This work is primarily focused on 2D ultrasound-based tracking of a hollow needle (cannula) that is composed of straight segments connected by shape memory alloy actuators. An in-plane tracking algorithm based on optical flow was proposed to track the cannula configuration in real-time. Optical flow is a robust tracking algorithm that can easily run on a CPU. However, the algorithm does not perform well when it is applied to the ultrasound images directly due to the intensity variation in the images. The method presented in this work enables using the optical flow algorithm on ultrasound images to track features of the needle. By taking advantage of the bevel tip, Circular Hough transform was used to accurately locate the needle tip when the imaging is out-of-plane. Through experiments inside tissue phantom and ex-vivo experiments in bovine kidney, the success of the proposed tracking methods were demonstrated. Using the methods presented in this work, quantitative information about the needle configuration is obtained in real-time which is crucial for generating control inputs for the needle and automating the needle insertion. PMID:25503523

  20. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation. PMID:26062195

  1. Fine-needle breast aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R; Shank, J C; Gratton, C

    1989-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of breast lesions is a safe, accurate, well-tolerated procedure that can easily be done in the family physician's office. It has a specificity and positive predictive value of virtually 100 percent, a sensitivity of 53 to 99 percent (median of 89 percent), and a negative predictive value of 80 to 99 percent (median of 93 percent). It is limited by the nature of the lesion, which must be easily palpable, the physician's technical ability, and the availability of a reference cytopathologist. Complications are rare and usually very benign, such as local hematoma. With proper training and understanding of the procedure, many family physicians could easily introduce the procedure into their office practice. PMID:2926346

  2. Method for the production of needle coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kokot, H.; Kolling, G.; Romey, I.

    1982-06-08

    Coal tar pitch is liquified at temperature of from about 135 to 280/sup 0/ C. The liquid coal tar pitch is filtered through a sieve with apertures from about 100 to 220 mu M and with a closed surface area of at least 75 percent of the total sieve surface under pressures of from about 2 to 10 bar until a filter cake of a height of from about 40 to 80 mm forms above the sieve for separating ash, soot and quinoline insoluble particles from the liquid. Then the filtrate obtained is subjected to a coking process. The needle cokes resulting in accordance with the invention provide excellent materials for the production of graphite electrodes.

  3. Carbamazepine-induced interstitial pneumonitis in a lung transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Neil; Yates, Bryan; Murphy, Desmond; Black, Fiona; Lordan, James; Dark, John; Corris, Paul A

    2006-09-01

    A 19-year-old female lung transplant recipient developed peripheral eosinophilia and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph shortly after commencing carbamazepine. A lung biopsy was consistent with interstitial pneumonitis and following withdrawal of the drug and treatment with steroids her symptoms resolved. This is the first described case of carbamezipine-induced pneumonitis in the lung transplant population. PMID:16513335

  4. Free-floating collagen fibers in interstitial mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Crisman, Giuliana; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2010-06-01

    We present a case of interstitial mycosis fungoides showing pseudodovascular clefts with "free-floating" collagen fibers surrounded by neoplastic T lymphocytes. Such a finding further expands the histopathologic spectrum of mycosis fungoides and could be taken into account in its differential diagnosis from granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous drug reaction. PMID:20145533

  5. Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial-Free Steels

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial-free (IF) steels are defined by their low amounts of solute interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen. During secondary forming, strain can be localized at the grain boundaries of these steels, resulting in secondary cold work embrittlement (CWE).

  6. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  7. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

    2006-10-30

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

  8. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    New applications of confocal laser endomicroscopy were developed as pCLE in the bile duct and nCLE for pancreatic cystic tumors, pancreatic masses and lymph nodes. The aim of this paper would be to give you an update in this new technology and to try to define its place in the diagnosis of cystic and solid pancreatic masses. The material used was a 19G EUS-needle in which the stylet was replaced by the Confocal mini-probe. The mini-probe (0.632 mm of diameter) is pre-loaded and screwed by a locking device in the EUS-Needle and guided endosonographically in the target. Regarding pancreatic cystic lesion, the presence of epithelial villous structures based on nCLE was associated with pancreatic cystic neoplasm (IPMN) (P = 0.004) and provided a sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%. A superficial vascular network pattern visualized on nCLE was identified in serous cystadenomas. It corresponded on pathological specimen to a dense and subepithelial capillary vascularization. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this sign for the diagnosis of SCA were 87%, 69%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. In pancreatic adenocarcinomas, nCLE found vascular leakage with irregular vessels with leakage of fluorescein into the tumor, large dark clumps which correspond to humps of malignant cells. These criteria correlate with the histological structure of those tumors which are characterized by tumoral glands, surrounded by fibrosis in case of fibrous stroma tumor. Neuroendocrine tumors showed a dense network of small vessels on a dark background, which fits with the histological structure based on cord of cells surrounded by vessels and by fibrosis. nCLE is feasible during a EUS examination; these preliminary results are very encouraging and may be used in the future in case of inconclusive EUS-FNA. PMID:26643694

  9. In-situ measurement and analysis of the temperature fields in laser interstitial thermotherapy of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter J.; Manns, Fabrice; Denham, David B.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Robinson, David S.

    1999-06-01

    Temperature increases and the resultant thermal field produced by the irradiation of ex vivo (porcine and human) and in vivo (porcine) tissue models appropriate to the treatment of human breast tissue using Nd:YAG (cw:60W) radiation delivered with an interstitial fiber optic probe were recorded with an array of fifteen 23 gauge needle thermocouple probes connected to a laboratory computer based data acquisition system. Using a stepwise decreasing power cycle to avoid tissue charring, acceptably symmetric thermal fields of repeatable volumetric dimensions were obtained. Reproducible thermal gradients and predictable tissue necrosis without carbonization could be induce din a three centimeter diameter region around the fiber probe during a single treatment lasting only 3 minutes. The time-dependence of the temperature rise of the thermocouples surrounding the LITT probe were quantitatively modeled with simple linear functions during the applied laser heating cycles.

  10. A patient with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor who developed everolimus-induced interstitial pneumonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Naohiko; Hijioka, Susumu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    A patient in her 60s was referred to our hospital with pancreatic enlargement. Laboratory data and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (WHO classification 2010 G2). Resection was contraindicated because of portal vein invasion and extensive collateral vascularization. Everolimus (10 mg/day) was started after seven months of treatment with S-1 (an oral formulation of tegafur with the modulators gimeracil and oteracil) following its insurance approval in Japan. Four months later, the patient developed cough and fever, and there was radiological and clinical evidence of Grade 2 everolimus-associated interstitial pneumonia (according to the Everolimus Proper-Usage Guide). Everolimus was replaced with steroid therapy (30 mg/day), resulting in immediate symptomatic improvement. After conclusion of steroid therapy, everolimus was restarted. The patient has since remained on a dosage of 10 mg/day of everolimus, with the tumor in a state of partial response. PMID:25195968

  11. A new template for MRI-based intracavitary/interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy: design and clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Jose Richart; Palacin, Antonio Otal; Calatayud, Jose Perez; Ortega, Manuel Santos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the potential clinical use of a new brachytherapy applicator for gynecological tumors, with special attention to locally advanced cervical carcinoma. This device allows the combination of intracavitary radiotherapy and MRI-compatible transperineal interstitial needles. The design of this template addresses the disadvantages of currently commercially available templates: the inability of the intracavitary component to reach deep into the cervix (MUPIT), and the MRI-incompatibility of these templates (MUPIT and Syed), which necessitates use of CT imaging for the dosimetry. Material and methods The newly developed Benidorm Template applicator allows titanium needles in a template with straight and angled holes to provide different angles of divergence to be used with currently existing MRI-compatible intrauterine tubes. It can provide total coverage of the craniocaudal and lateral extension of the tumor (intrautherus, parametrial, and paravaginal). This method is mainly indicated in advanced cervical carcinoma with bulky parametrial invasion (medial or distal), with bulky primary disease that responds poorly to external beam radiotherapy extensive paravaginal involvement (tumor thickness greater than 0.5 cm) extending to the middle or lower third of the vagina, or for disease that has invaded the bladder or rectum (stage IVA). Results Between April 2013 until December 2014, we treated 15 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma employing the Benidorm Template. The median dose at D90 for the CTV was 79.8 Gy (71.5-89.9 Gy), at D2cc for the bladder it was 77.6 Gy (69.8-90.8 Gy), and at D2cc for the rectum it was 71.9 Gy (58.3-83.7 Gy). Values expressed in EQD2, assuming α/β of 10 for CTV and 3 for OAR. Conclusions This new applicator allows the use of MRI-based dosimetry, thus providing the advantages of MRI volume definition. As such, it facilitates determination of complete intracavitary and interstitial CTV coverage and the sparing of normal tissues. PMID:26622229

  12. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  13. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Linga, Karthika R; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  14. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  15. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  16. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    PubMed Central

    Maarek, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be. Materials and methods The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode. Current scientific knowledge EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e−]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation). Results For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid’s acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response). Conclusion After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements. PMID:23166454

  17. Hybrid reflection type metasurface of nano-antennas designed for optical needle field generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-01

    We propose a reflection type metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurface composed of hybrid optical antennas for comprehensive spatial engineering the properties of optical fields. Its capability is illustrated with an example to create a radially polarized vectorial beam for optical needle field generation. Functioning as local quarter-wave-plates (QWP), the MIM metasurface is designed to convert circularly polarized incident into local linear polarization to create an overall radial polarization with corresponding binary phases and desired normalized amplitude modulation ranged from 0.07 to 1. To obtain enough degrees of freedom, the optical-antenna layer comprises periodic arrangements of double metallic nano-bars with perpendicular placement and single nano-bars respectively for different amplitude modulation requirements. Both of the antennas enable to introduce π/2 retardation while reaching the desired modulation range both for phase and amplitude. Through adjusting the antennas' geometry and array carefully, we shift the gap-surface plasmon resonances facilitated by optical antennas to realize the manipulation of vectorial properties. Designed at 1064 nm wavelength, the particularly generated vectorial light output can be further tightly focused by a high numerical aperture objective to obtain longitudinally polarized flat-top focal field. The so-called optical needle field is a promising candidate for novel applications that transcend disciplinary boundaries. The proposed metasurface establishes a new class of compact optical components based on nano-scale structures, leading to compound functions for vectorial light generation.

  18. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  19. An interstitial hyperthermia system at 27 MHz.

    PubMed

    Visser, A G; Deurloo, I K; Levendag, P C; Ruifrok, A C; Cornet, B; van Rhoon, G C

    1989-01-01

    An interstitial hyperthermia system using thin, flexible wires operating at a frequency of 27 MHz has been evaluated for possible use in combination with (iridium) brachytherapy applications employing flexible nylon afterloading catheters. This method of interstitial heating is argued to be a variation of local-current-field heating, however with the direct galvanic contact between electrode and tissue replaced by a capacitive coupling between wire and tissue. Through a special design of the wire the length of the heated area along the catheter can be chosen freely. Standard non-prepared implantation catheters can be used, so that no change from the established implantation techniques is required. Possible advantages of these 27 MHz wires over coaxial dipole antennas at higher frequencies are simplicity and low cost of the heating system, free choice of effective heating length for each wire and uniformity of heating along this effective heating length up to the tip of the wire. Flexibility of the wires is maintained, enabling application in curved (even U-shaped) catheters, e.g. for head and neck implantations. Impedance matching of the wires to the generator, necessary for an optimal transfer of power, appears possible by means of a variable air coil. Care should be taken to avoid stray capacitances of the connecting cables with respect to ground or among the different cables used. Measurements in muscle-equivalent split phantoms with infrared thermography have been performed with both single and multiple wires. The resulting SAR distributions confirm the working principle of these low-frequency wires (resistive heating) and illustrate the difference with radiative antennas at higher frequencies. The system is being applied both in experimental animal studies and in a clinical pilot study. PMID:2926189

  20. Projector-Based Augmented Reality for Intuitive Intraoperative Guidance in Image-Guided 3D Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Krempien, Robert Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lueder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver; Eggers, Georg; Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. Methods and Materials: The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. Results: In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). Conclusions: The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation.

  1. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Snider, Douglas B; Gardner, Dale R; Janke, Bruce H; Ensley, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors' knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion. PMID:25428187

  2. Comparison of procedures for preparation of Pinus strobus needle macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.; Dashek, W.V. ); Vose, J.M.; Swank, W.T. )

    1991-05-01

    Eastern white pine foliage is sensitive to adverse atmospheric O{sub 3} and acid rain. The mechanisms by which they promote needle necrosis have not been fully elucidated. Because the literature yielded little regarding needle protein and nucleic acid contents, streptomycin sulfate (SS) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) efficiencies for macromolecule precipitation from 1 and 2 yr-old needles of 30 yr-old trees were compared. Weighed needles were homogenized into buffer and homogenates filtered. The filtrate was mixed with chloroform-methanol-H{sub 2}O (13:4:3, v/v) and centrifuged 30 min 12,000 xg. After the pellet was subjected to SS or TCA, Lowry-positive substances were recovered in SS and TCA-soluble and insoluble fractions of 1st and 2nd yr needles. Similarly, orcinol and diphenylamine-positive substances occurred in SS-soluble and insoluble fractions for yrs 1 and 2. However, the latter were only detected in TCA-soluble fractions. These data suggest that needle proteins were not effectively precipitated and needles contained free pentoses or non-precipitable RNA (orcinol-reactive).

  3. Endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration: a hybrid method

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (cTBNA) was first performed approximately 30 years ago; however TBNA was not widely adopted until the development of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Current EBUS-TBNA needle sizes are limited to 21- and 22-gauge. In order to determine whether a 19-gauge (19G) needle in EBUS-TBNA can further improve the diagnostic yield and simplify the methodology of EBUS-TBNA we developed a hybrid method. Here we report our initial experience in assessing the feasibility of performing EBUS-TBNA using a conventional 19G TBNA needle. Methods Ten patients with diagnosed or suspected lung cancer with or without lymphadenopathy (LAD) were sampled for diagnostic and/or staging purposes. Patients with suspected benign processes were sampled only for diagnosis. A 19G cTBNA needle was deployed through the working channel of the EBUS bronchoscope. Samples obtained were evaluated for cyto- and histopathologic adequacy. Results All 10 patients successfully underwent hybrid 19G EBUS-TBNA. All samples were considered adequate for cyto- and histopathologic evaluation. Conclusions Hybrid EBUS-TBNA utilizing a 19G cTBNA needle through an EBUS scope is feasible and may be able to reliably acquire histologic specimens. PMID:26807276

  4. Carbon Nanotube Micro-Needles for Rapid Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradley; Aria, Adrianus Indrat; Gat, Amir; Cosse, Julia; Montemayor, Lauren; Beizaie, Masoud; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    By catalyst patterning, bundles of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be assembled to create 2D arrays of hollow micro-needles with feature size as small as a few microns. For transdermal drug delivery, the most challenging mechanical requirement is to make the CNT micro-needle small enough so that delivery is painless yet large enough so that the micro-needle can achieve skin penetration. By taking advantage of capillary action and the nanoporosity of CNT bundles, we can wick high strength polymer into the inter-spacing between nanotubes to augment the stiffness of our micro-needles. For low viscous polymers, the large ratio between the micron sized center hole of the micro-needle and the nanopores of the surrounding CNT allow us to wick polymer through the nanotubes while maintaining an open central hole for drug transport. For a transdermal patch prototype with a delivery area less than 1cm x 1cm square, we can fabricate 50 CNT micro-needles that produces a total flow rate up to 100 uL/s with actuation pressure provided by a mere finger tap. From in vitro experiments, we will demonstrate that CNT micro-needles provide a much faster convective delivery of drugs than conventional topical diffusion based patches. We acknowledge Zcube s.r.l for their support of this work.

  5. Primary rat Sertoli and interstitial cells exhibit a differential response to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, S.R.; Welsh, M.J.; Payne, A.H.; Brown, C.D.; Brabec, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Two cell types central to the support of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell and the interstitial (Leydig) cell, were isolated from the same cohort of young male rats and challenged with cadmium chloride to compare their susceptibility to the metal. Both cell types were cultured under similar conditions, and similar biochemical endpoints were chosen to minimize experimental variability. These endpoints include the uptake of 109Cd, reduction of the vital tetrazolium dye MTT, incorporation of 3H-leucine, change in heat-stable cadmium binding capacity, and production of lactate. Using these parameters, it was observed that the Sertoli cell cultures were adversely affected in a dose-and time-dependent manner, while the interstitial cell cultures, treated with identical concentrations of CdCl2, were less affected. The 72-hr LC50's for Sertoli cells and interstitial cells were 4.1 and 19.6 microM CdCl2, respectively. Thus, different cell populations within the same tissue may differ markedly in susceptibility to a toxicant. These in vitro data suggest that the Sertoli cell, in relation to the interstitium, is particularly sensitive to cadmium. Because the Sertoli cell provides functional support for the seminiferous epithelium, the differential sensitivity of this cell type may, in part, explain cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction, particularly at doses that leave the vascular epithelium intact.

  6. Interactions between Vacancy and Glissile Interstitial Clusters in Iron and Copper.

    SciTech Connect

    Puigvi, Mary Angels; Osetskiy, Yury N; Serra, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Reactions between defect clusters and point defects are the main mechanism of clusters growth and shrinkage under different conditions and therefore they are necessary input of any model for prediction of microstructure evolution. Traditionally such reactions are treated as the evolution of size distribution of defect clusters where the change in size is considered to be a simple reaction independent of the atomic structure. For example, the interaction between a vacancy and a self-interstitial cluster is treated as an annihilation reaction. However, recent atomistic studies have demonstrated that such reactions could be more complicated. In this paper, we present the results of atomic level modelling of the interaction between clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and a vacancy in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. It is shown that vacancies annihilate only with interstitials at the cluster edge. Vacancies inside the cluster glide prism do not recombine but prevent cluster mobility. There are significant differences in the interaction related to the differences in the atomic structure of clusters in particular metals.

  7. Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

    2012-07-01

    Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

  8. Comparative studies on extraction of sediment interstitial waters: Discussion and comment on the current state of interstitial water studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The implication by Murthy and Ferrell (1972)that interstitial water studies are in a confused state is criticized on the basis that the authors have not drawn on a considerable body of data, especially Soviet studies since the 1950's, and results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Pressure filtration systems for extracting interstitial waters are currently the methods of choice for marine studies and have achieved substantial reliability and reproducibility. Although gaps and problems remain, many aspects of interstitial composition of marine sediments have been clarified; these include the substantial constancy of composition of interstitial waters in deep sea pelagic deposits, depletion of interstitial cations owing to authigenic mineral formation in more rapidly accumulated (especially terrigenous) sediments, and special phenomena in sediments overlying salt deposits. ?? 1974.

  9. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  10. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

  11. Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Chung, H J

    2000-04-01

    Flavor compounds of pine sprout tea and pine needle tea were analyzed and identified in this study. Eighty-one and 39 kinds of flavor compounds were detected in pine sprout tea and pine needle tea by GC, respectively. Among them, 55 and 29 flavor compounds were identified by GC-MS, respectively. Major flavor compounds of pine sprout tea were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-thujene, terpinene-4-ol, and delta-cadinene, and major flavor compounds of pine needle tea were alpha-pinene, isoamyl alcohol, trans-caryophyllene, terpinene-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, and delta-cadinene. PMID:10775384

  12. Modification of commercial force feedback hardware for needle insertion simulation.

    PubMed

    Coles, Timothy R; John, Nigel W; Sofia, Giuseppe; Gould, Derek A; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    A SensAble Omni force feedback device has been modified to increase the face validity of a needle insertion simulation. The new end effector uses a real needle hub and shortened needle shaft in place of the Omni's pre-fitted pen shaped end effector. This modification facilitates correct procedural training through the simulation of co-located visual and haptic cues in an augmented reality approach to simulation. The development of the new end effector is described and a pictorial guide to its manufacture and the fitting process is provided. Initial results from face validation studies bode well for the fidelity of this low cost device. PMID:21335776

  13. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (Λ). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

  14. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  15. Transport and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil Interstitial Water Across Forested, Montane Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, M. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of compounds formed from the degradation of both terrestrial and microbial material. The abundance and composition of the DOM present in stream water is important to stream processes such as UV light attenuation, nutrient supply and metal sorption. However, an excess of DOM can cause reactions with chlorination compounds at drinking water treatment plants, creating potentially harmful disinfection byproducts. Currently, little is known regarding the influence of soil interstitial water on stream DOM composition. In this study, we explore the role of interstitial water on DOM transport and transformation from the hillslope to the stream in a montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Colorado. We installed a suite of tension lysimeters located within the rooting zone across representative north- and south-facing slopes. Interstitial water and stream samples were collected daily for approximately seven weeks during the 2013 spring snow melt period and analyzed for DOM composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. To date, we have used fluorescence index (FI) to evaluate differences between microbial and terrestrial DOM inputs and humification index (HIX) to assess degree of humification undergone by the DOM. Preliminary results indicate that FI was significantly correlated with hillslope aspect (p<.01), with higher FI on north-facing slopes, suggesting more microbial precursor material. Stream samples reveal greater humification throughout the snowmelt period (p<.01). This increase could suggest a transition from deeper groundwater sources to shallow soil interstitial water inputs into the stream during snowmelt. These preliminary results suggest that changes in DOM composition through the catchment during snowmelt can be linked to hydrologic transport. Further site specific model development will reveal explicit changes in the DOM chemistry and will increase our understanding of fundamental nutrient cycling processes at the hillslope to catchment scale.

  16. Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model to simulate the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

  17. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Adrian C.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2011-02-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals.

  18. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute interstitial nephritis Symptoms: Difficulty breathing • headache • numbness • oliguria Medication: Methylprednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasma exchange Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Case Report: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. Conclusions: This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  19. 3,5,11 needles: looking for the perfect number of needles--a randomized and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ceccherelli, Francesco; Marino, Elena; Caliendo, Antonio; Dezzoni, Rossana; Roveri, Antonella; Gagliardi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture has been successfully used in myofascial pain syndromes. However, the number of needles used, i.e. the "dose" of acupuncture stimulation, to obtain the best antinociceptive efficacy, is still a matter of debate. The question was addressed comparing the clinical efficacy of 3 different therapeutic schemes, mainly characterized by different numbers of needles used on 90 patients affected by a painful cervical myofascial syndrome. Patients were divided into 3 groups; the first group of 30 patients was treated with 11 needles, the second group of 30 patients was treated with 5 needles and the third group of 30 patients was treated with 3 needles. Each group underwent eight cycles of somatic acupuncture. In each session and in each group, all needles were stimulated until the pain tolerance threshold was reached; "pain tolerance is the amount of pain a person can handle without breaking down, either physically or emotionally". Pain intensity was evaluated before therapy, immediately after, and at 1 and 3 months follow-up by means of both the Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Pain and the repercussion of pain on the patient's quality of life (DOPE- Descriptors Of Pain Effects) were also measured using a test we developed, administered at each session. In all groups, needles were inserted superficially, except for the two most painful trigger points that were deeply inserted. All groups, independently from the number of needles used, obtained a good and significant therapeutic effect without clinically relevant differences among groups. For this pathology and patients of this kind, the number of needles, 3 or 5 or 11, seems not to be an important variable in determining the therapeutic effect. PMID:25693307

  20. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved. PMID:25511944

  1. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  2. Video endoscopy: removal of retained sewing needles from the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Gajbhiye, Ashok S; Gajbhiye, Raj N; Tirupude, Bhupesh H; Bajaj, Prasang P; Gupta, Tarush H

    2013-06-01

    We report an interesting case of a 21-year-old unmarried girl who swallowed six sewing needles. Her complaints were pain in the epigastrium, associated with nausea and vomiting. On examination, there was mild tenderness in the epigastrium. X-ray of the abdomen and endoscopy confirmed the presence of six needles in the duodenum, with tips lodged in the duodenal wall. Psychiatric opinion was sought which was normal. Under video endoscope (Pentax 2.8, EG 27708) guidance with Captura biopsy forceps without spikes (Cook DBF-2.4-160-S), six sewing needles were removed successfully from the duodenum through the endoscope channel without any complications. However, a video endoscopic removal of the retained six needles from duodenum is probably being reported for the first time. PMID:24426531

  3. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. Dry needling as a method of tendinopathy treatment.

    PubMed

    Nagraba, Łukasz; Tuchalska, Julia; Mitek, Tomasz; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a broad concept that describes any painful condition that occurs in or around a tendon.The ideal treatment for tendinopathy is still nebulous. Dry needling is a treatment method in which a special needle is placed into the focus of tendinosis. The aim of this procedure is to form fenestrations which may initiateadvantageous bleeding and thus bring about the influx of growth factors (activating healing and regeneration). Relevant clinical studies have often combineddry needling with autologous blood injection therapy. Results from these studies are encouraging. This review of English-language literature aims to present this noteworthy method of tendino- and enthesopathytreatmentm by describing the results of several trials, hypotheses explaining the underlying mechanism and the application of dry needling in other fields of medicine. PMID:23652530

  5. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  6. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  10. Miniature oxygen-hydrogen cutting torch constructed from hypodermic needle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P.

    1964-01-01

    A miniature cutting torch consisting of a main body member, upon which the hydrogen and oxygen containers are mounted, valves for controlling gas flow, and a hypodermic needle that acts as a mixing tube and flame tip is constructed.

  11. Myofascial trigger point therapy: laser therapy and dry needling.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Luciana; Nascimento de Azevedo, Rosany; Almeida Alfaya, Thays; Nunes Jardim Reis, Renata; Depes de Gouvêa, Cresus Vinicius; Cavalcanti Garcia, Marco Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss two forms of treatment for myofascial pain: laser therapy and dry needling. Although studies have reported the deactivation of myofascial trigger points with these two methods, clinical trials demonstrating their efficacy are scarce. The literature reports greater efficacy with the use of laser over dry needling. It has been suggested that improvements in microcirculation through the administration of laser therapy may favor the supply of oxygen to the cells under conditions of hypoxia and help remove the waste products of cell metabolism, thereby breaking the vicious cycle of pain, muscle spasm and further pain. While laser therapy is the method of choice for patients with a fear of needles and healthcare professionals inexperienced with the dry needling technique, further controlled studies are still needed to prove the greater efficacy of this method. PMID:23904202

  12. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  13. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Percutaneous needle decompression in treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting-Hui; Sun, Xian-Jun; Chen, Yue; Cheng, Hui-Qin; Fang, Shi-Ming; Jiang, Hao-Sheng; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Yan; Wu, Shao-Qiu; Mao, Ai-Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous needle decompression in the treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO). METHODS: A prospective analysis of the clinical data of 52 MSBO patients undergoing percutaneous needle decompression was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous needle decompression was successful in all 52 patients. Statistically significant differences were observed in symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distension and abdominal pain before and after treatment (81.6% vs 26.5%, 100% vs 8.2%, and 85.7% vs 46.9%, respectively; all P < 0.05). The overall significantly improved rate was 19.2% (11/52) and the response rate was 94.2% (49/52) using decompression combined with nasal tube placement, local arterial infusion of chemotherapy and nutritional support. During the one-month follow-up period, puncture-related complications were acceptable. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous needle intestinal decompression is a safe and effective palliative treatment for MSBO. PMID:25741156

  15. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  16. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  20. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots. PMID:26737606

  1. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community. PMID:26385516

  2. What's Next for Gastrointestinal Disorders: No Needles?

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Au, Andrew S; Dai, Si Yuan; Mozafari, Masoud; Prakash, Satya

    2016-01-10

    A myriad of pathologies affect the gastrointestinal tract, citing this affected area as a significant target for therapeutic intervention. One group of therapeutic agents, antisense and oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, offer a promising platform for treating a wide variety of diseases ranging from cancer to auto-immune diseases. Current delivery methods are carried out either systemically or locally into diseased areas, both of which involve needles. The challenge in orally administering this type of treatment lies in the complications that arise due to the vast environmental extremes found within the gastrointestinal tract, owing to the fact that, as the drug travels down the gastrointestinal tract, it is subjected to pH changes and interactions with bacteria and a variety of digestive and protective enzymes including proteases, DNAses, and RNAses. Overcoming these challenges to allow the practical application of these drugs is a priority that has invoked a multitude of research in the chemical, biological, and material sciences. In this review, we will address common gastrointestinal pathologies, the barriers to oral-based therapies and antisense-interfering technologies, the approaches that have already been applied for their delivery, and the current status of antisense drug therapy clinical trials for gastrointestinal-related disorders. PMID:26646543

  3. Sample size in fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kreula, J; Bondestam, S; Virkkunen, P

    1989-12-01

    The weights of biopsy specimens from bovine liver taken for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) by three groups of physicians, were compared. The groups differed from each other in their extent or degree of experience in FNAC. When the physicians used their normal technique, the mean sample weight increased significantly with experience, from 4.6 mg in the least experienced group to 17.2 mg in the group with the longest experience. Thirty-six per cent of the samples taken by the group with the least experience were in the weight class 0-2 mg, whereas no such samples were encountered for the other groups. When all the physicians were advised to use the same, standard technique there were no statistically significant differences in mean sample weight between the groups or in the proportion of samples in class 0-2 mg. Sample weights correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with cell counts. This study shows that differences in the technique of FNAC are responsible for differences in sample weights and cell counts, including the number of the acellular samples obtained. This could explain in some part the wide variation in the reported accuracy rates of FNAC. PMID:2605470

  4. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  5. [Fine-needle aspiration cytology. An exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Gamero de Ramos, M N

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows result from fine-needle aspiration biopsies done at the University Hospital and Falcon Clinic in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between December 1985 and October 1986. The study was conducted in order to determine factibility of fine-needle aspiration biopsies in our environment. Results are satisfactory and show that the method is a good one to diagnosis and prevent cancer, it is cheap and easy to use in large populations with quick diagnosis. PMID:2489279

  6. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the design optimization and construction of the first prototype directional source. Potential clinical applications and potential benefits of directional sources have been shown for prostate and breast tumors.

  7. Transbronchial needle aspirates: how many passes per target site?

    PubMed

    Diacon, A H; Schuurmans, M M; Theron, J; Brundyn, K; Louw, M; Wright, C A; Bolliger, C T

    2007-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration is a bronchoscopic sampling method for a variety of bronchial and pulmonary lesions. The present study investigated whether and how serial needle passes contribute to the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration at specific target sites. A total of 1,562 needle passes, performed at 374 target sites in 245 patients with neoplastic disease (82%), non-neoplastic disease (15%) or undiagnosed lesions (3%), were prospectively recorded and rated for anatomical location, size, bronchoscopic appearance and underlying disease. Positive aspirates were obtained in 75% of patients and at 68% of target sites. A diagnosis was established with the first, second, third and fourth needle pass at 64, 87, 95 and 98% of targets, respectively. The absolute yield varied strongly with target site features, but the stepwise increment to the maximum yield provided by serial passes was similar across target sites. In conclusion, three transbronchial needle passes per site are appropriate when only a tissue diagnosis is sought and when alternative sites or sampling modalities are available. At least four or five passes should be carried out at lymph node stations critical for the staging of lung cancer. PMID:17005579

  8. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  9. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  10. Image-guided therapy system for interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy in a multimodality operating suite.

    PubMed

    Egger, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an image-guided therapy system supporting gynecologic radiation therapy is introduced. The overall workflow of the presented system starts with the arrival of the patient and ends with follow-up examinations by imaging and a superimposed visualization of the modeled device from a PACS system. Thereby, the system covers all treatments stages (pre-, intra- and postoperative) and has been designed and constructed by a computer scientist with feedback from an interdisciplinary team of physicians and engineers. This integrated medical system enables dispatch of diagnostic images directly after acquisition to a processing workstation that has an on-board 3D Computer Aided Design model of a medical device. Thus, allowing precise identification of catheter location in the 3D imaging model which later provides rapid feedback to the clinician regarding device location. Moreover, the system enables the ability to perform patient-specific pre-implant evaluation by assessing the placement of interstitial needles prior to an intervention via virtual template matching with a diagnostic scan. PMID:24040583

  11. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

  12. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  13. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Interstitial pulmonary disease induced by occupational exposure to paraffin.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J L; Barnon, G; Bousquet, J; Michel, F B; Godard, P

    1990-01-01

    An occupational interstitial pulmonary disease was observed in a 59-year-old workman after five years of massive exposure to aerosolized paraffin. Histologic studies of open-lung biopsy showed a lipoid pneumonia characterized by (1) alveolitis involving large lipid-laden macrophages and (2) interstitial fibrosis. Electron microscopy of AMs disclosed features of paraffin-laden cytoplasmic vacuoles. Successive treatments included prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Despite these treatments and withdrawal from exposure, the pulmonary function became impaired progressively, resulting in restrictive syndrome and severe exertional dyspnea. Concomitantly, PMNs harvested by BAL increased, whereas initial lymphocytosis decreased. This is the first case observed of occupational interstitial fibrosis in which electron-microscopic findings clearly established a relationship with an exposure to paraffin. This observation also emphasizes the switch from alveolitis to fibrosis in the pathogenesis of interstitial pulmonary disease. PMID:2295245

  15. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  16. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  17. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  18. Intraoperative interstitial implantation of Iridium 192 in the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Intraoperative interstitial implantation of iridium 192 during a lumpectomy for carcinoma of the breast has been well tolerated by the patient. This procedure has decreased the need for anesthesia and repeat hospitalization.

  19. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis - a reappraisal and update.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-09-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 - 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  1. Relaxation of interstitials in spherical colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshal, D. S.; Myasnikova, A. E.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical colloidal crystals (CCs) self-assemble on the interface between two liquids. These 2D structures unconventionally combine local hexagonal order and spherical geometry. Nowadays CCs are actively studied by altering their structures. However, the statistical analysis of such experiments results is limited by uniqueness of self-assembled structures and their short lifetime. Here we perform numerical experiments to investigate pathways of CC structure relaxation after the intrusion of interstitial. The process is simulated in the frames of overdamped molecular dynamics method. The relaxation occurs due to interaction with extended topological defects (ETDs) mandatory induced in spherical CCs by their intrinsic Gaussian curvature. Types of relaxation pathways are classified and their probabilities are estimated in the low-temperature region. To analyze the structural changes during the relaxation we use a parent phase approach allowing us to describe the global organization of spherical order. This organization is preserved by only the most typical relaxation pathway resulting in filling one of vacancies integrated inside the ETD areas. In contrast with this pathway the other ones shift the ETDs centers and can strongly reconstruct the internal structure of ETDs. Temperature dependence of the relaxation processes and the mechanism of dislocation unbinding are discussed. Common peculiarities in relaxation of spherical structures and particular fragments of planar hexagonal lattice are found.

  2. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  3. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

  4. Mathematical analysis of the temperature field during ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) in breast tissue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Salas, Nelson, Jr.; Pandya, Nish; Denham, David B.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Robinson, David S.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: Laser interstitial thermotherapy is a promising minimally- invasive technique for the treatment of small cancers of the breast that are currently removed surgically lumpectomy. The purpose of this work was to analyze in situ temperature fields recorded with stainless-steel thermocoupled probes during experimental laser interstitial thermo-therapy (LITT). Methods: Both a CW Nd:YAG laser system emitting 20W for 25 to 30s and a 980 nm diode laser emitting 10 to 20 W for up to 1200s delivered through a fiber-optic probe were used to create localized heating in fatty cadaver pig tissue and milk as phantoms. To quantify an artifact due to direct heating of the thermocouple probes by laser radiation, experiments were also performed in air, water and intralipid solution. The temperature field around the fiber-optic probe during laser irradiation was measured every 0.3 s or 1 s with an array of up to fifteen needle thermocoupled probes. The effect of light absorption by the thermocouples probes was quantified and the time-dependence of the temperature distribution was analyzed. Results: After removal of the thermocouple artifact, the temperature was found to vary exponentially with time with a time constant of 600 to 700 s. Conclusions:The time-dependence of the interstitial temperature can be modeled by exponential functions both during ex vivo and in vivo experiments.

  5. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  6. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis – A rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Isaac, Barney T.J.; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Burad, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. It was first described in 2004 and subsequently included in the ATS/ERS classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in 2013. There have been few cases reported so far. The diagnostic criteria is still emerging and its etiology is being questioned. We report a case of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis probably idiopathic, the first of its kind to be reported from India, and a brief review of the literature. PMID:27141432

  7. Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Interstitial Hernia: Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Gallesio, J. M.; Schlottmann, F.; Sadava, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial hernias are a rare entity. Most of them are detected incidentally on imaging studies. We present a case of abdominal bowel obstruction secondary to interstitial hernia on the fifth postoperative day of an open incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and led to an accurate treatment avoiding a new laparotomy. In this case, prompt surgical decision based on clinical and CT scan findings allowed a mini-invasive approach with satisfactory outcome. PMID:26576315

  8. Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

  9. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  10. Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

  11. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones. PMID:27049045

  12. Interstitial and substitutional Zr in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renee; Jiang, Weilin

    2011-03-01

    We investigate Zr in SrTi O3 (STO) as an electronic dopant and as a model for nuclear waste forms in which radioactive Sr decays to Y and then to stable Zr through beta emission. Density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model is used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native point defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a Zr Ti impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) Zr Sr is predicted to be a double electron donor, Zr Ti is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. Zr Sr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Form Campaign.

  13. Interstitial and substitutional zirconium in SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, John E.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jiang, Weilin

    2012-02-22

    We investigate Zr in SrTiO3 (STO) as a model for nuclear waste forms in which the fission product Sr90 eventually decays to stable Zr through beta emission. The transformation of a divalent into a tetravalent constituent is expected to affect the long-term structural and chemical stability of this solid. Computational methods of electronic structure theory, specifically the density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model, are used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a ZrTi impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) ZrSr is predicted to be a double electron donor, ZrTi is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. ZrSr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes.

  14. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  15. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  16. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal. PMID:7382928

  17. Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2012-06-14

    Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunit-subunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be α-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen. PMID:22699623

  18. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  19. Effect of Interstitial Mg in Mg2+ x Si on Electrical Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubouchi, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Takamatsu, T.; Miyazaki, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure, thermoelectric properties, and microstructure of polycrystalline samples with nominal compositions Mg2+ x Si ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) have been investigated. It is revealed that the Mg2+ x Si samples were composites consisting of Mg2Si matrix with dispersed Mg metal. The Mg2Si crystals contained a small amount of Mg atoms at interstitial (1/2 1/2 1/2) site (Mgi). In addition, Mg metal was present at grain boundaries between Mg2Si crystal grains (MgGB). Regarding thermoelectric properties, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of Mg2+ x Si were measured and their x dependences were discussed in terms of the amounts of Mgi and MgGB. The amount of MgGB and the electrical conductivity indicate quite similar x dependences.

  20. From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2003-11-01

    Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 μm. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

  1. A comparison of rust-ring removal methods in a rabbit model: small-gauge hypodermic needle versus electric drill.

    PubMed

    Liston, R L; Olson, R J; Mamalis, N

    1991-01-01

    Corneal rust rings are common findings after removal of a metallic foreign body. These rings should be removed to prevent inflammation and scarring. We compared the corneal damage in rabbit eyes caused by rust-ring removal using two different methods: a small-gauge hypodermic needle and a hand-held electric ophthalmic drill. No significant difference was found in the amount of corneal scarring as graded by a masked observer. However, there was a trend toward deeper stromal damage in the drill-treated subjects (207 +/- 73 microns) than in the needle-treated subjects (172 +/- 61 microns). In light of this finding, we suggest caution in removing central rust rings with an electric drill since an avoidable, permanent scar may result. PMID:2012370

  2. Polio. Spare the needle, save the child.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, V

    1994-03-01

    Paralytic poliomyelitis attacks 1-10/1000 young children (median age 12 months) in Africa despite the fact that the disease is preventable by immunization. Oral poliovaccine is cheap, safe, and effective, but it depends on a cold chain for storage. The new vaccination schedule calls for a dose at birth and at 3, 4, and 5 months of age. This is difficult to manage, and most immunization programs key success to full immunization by 12 months, which is too late for polio. Past efforts have centered on immunizing an increasing proportion of children in an area, but it might be better to try to cover all the children in a specific region. Despite immunization, a few children may contract the disease through circulation of wild viruses which can only be banned by large-scale immunization programs. Wild poliovirus may travel unnoticed through immune populations, placing nonimmunes at risk. In the presence of natural or manmade disasters, the cold chain and immunization against polio will be one of the first health casualties. Poliovirus will persist in reservoirs of the African population until conditions improve. The vaccine should be administered to HIV-positive children. One practice which can lead to paralysis is the administration of injections to babies with a fever. An injection under these circumstances, especially if the needle and syringe are not sterile, causes an inflammatory response. If the cause of the fever is a poliovirus infection which has reached the spinal cord, the resulting paralysis is more severe after an injection. In children who are incubating nonparalytic polio, the injected limb(s) will become paralyzed. Intramuscular injections, exercise, and lumbar puncture should, therefore, be avoided during fever. After paralysis, regular physiotherapy should result in some improvement, but injected limbs are less likely to recover function. The only injections given to babies and young children in community health centers should be immunizations. A great deal of work is necessary to change the attitudes of parents and health workers, but the evils of unnecessary injections must no longer be ignored. PMID:12318773

  3. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  4. Numerical description of discharge characteristics of the plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Dijk, J. van; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-07-01

    The plasma needle is a small atmospheric, nonthermal, radio-frequency discharge, generated at the tip of a needle, which can be used for localized disinfection of biological tissues. Although several experiments have characterized various qualities of the plasma needle, discharge characteristics and electrical properties are still not well known. In order to provide initial estimates on electrical properties and quantities such as particle densities, we employed a two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model to describe the plasma needle. In this model the balance equation is solved in the drift-diffusion approach for various species and the electron energy, as well as Poisson's equation. We found that the plasma production occurs in the sheath region and results in a steady flux of reactive species outwards. Even at small (<0.1%) admixtures of N{sub 2} to the He background, N{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. The electron density is typically 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and the dissipated power is in the order of 10 mW. These results are consistent with the experimental data available and can give direction to the practical development of the plasma needle.

  5. Surgical motion characterization in simulated needle insertion procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Matthew S.; Ungi, Tamas; Sargent, Derek; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of surgical performance in image-guided needle insertions is of emerging interest, to both promote patient safety and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Markov model-based algorithm can more accurately segment a needle-based surgical procedure into its five constituent tasks than a simple threshold-based algorithm. METHODS: Simulated needle trajectories were generated with known ground truth segmentation by a synthetic procedural data generator, with random noise added to each degree of freedom of motion. The respective learning algorithms were trained, and then tested on different procedures to determine task segmentation accuracy. In the threshold-based algorithm, a change in tasks was detected when the needle crossed a position/velocity threshold. In the Markov model-based algorithm, task segmentation was performed by identifying the sequence of Markov models most likely to have produced the series of observations. RESULTS: For amplitudes of translational noise greater than 0.01mm, the Markov model-based algorithm was significantly more accurate in task segmentation than the threshold-based algorithm (82.3% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001 for amplitude 10.0mm). For amplitudes less than 0.01mm, the two algorithms produced insignificantly different results. CONCLUSION: Task segmentation of simulated needle insertion procedures was improved by using a Markov model-based algorithm as opposed to a threshold-based algorithm for procedures involving translational noise.

  6. Augmented reality needle guidance improves facet joint injection training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungi, Tamas; Yeo, Caitlin T.; U-Thainual, Paweena; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if medical trainees would benefit from augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance in learning how to set the correct orientation of a needle for percutaneous facet joint injection. METHODS: A total of 28 medical students were randomized into two groups: (1) The Overlay group received a training session of four insertions with image and laser guidance followed by two insertions with laser overlay only; (2) The Control group was trained by carrying out six freehand insertions. After the training session, needle trajectories of two facet joint injections without any guidance were recorded by an electromagnetic tracker and were analyzed. Number of successful needle placements, distance covered by needle tip inside the phantom and procedural time were measured to evaluate performance. RESULTS: Number of successful placements was significantly higher in the Overlay group compared to the Control group (85.7% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.038). Procedure time and distance covered inside phantom have both been found to be less in the Overlay group, although not significantly. CONCLUSION: Training with augmented reality image overlay and laser guidance improves the accuracy of facet joint injections in medical students learning image-guided facet joint needle placement.

  7. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine. PMID:18755523

  8. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  9. Abnormal urothelial HLA-DR expression in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, T J; Bottazzo, G F

    1992-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the urinary bladder that predominantly afflicts middle-age women. The end stage of the disease is ulceration of the urothelium, the so-called Hunner's ulcer. The aetiology of interstitial cystitis remains obscure. We have studied bladder biopsies from 22 cases of interstitial cystitis and control groups consisting of six cases of bacterial cystitis and eight healthy women. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on the biopsies using murine MoAbs to human HLA class I molecules, and class II molecules, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. In interstitial cystitis, bacterial cystitis and normal controls most cells expressed HLA class I products. In six cases of interstitial cystitis and one case of bacterial cystitis there was evidence of HLA class I hyperexpression. In normal bladder and bacterial cystitis HLA class II expression was restricted to submucosal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes. All but two cases of interstitial cystitis showed surface expression of HLA-DR (but not HLA-DP or DQ). In all cases of interstitial cystitis there was an increase in the numbers of macrophages, activated lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells expressing HLA class II molecules within the submucosa. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of inappropriate HLA molecule expression in a disease suspected of having an autoimmune pathogenesis and where cellular autoimmune mechanisms play a decisive role in the destruction of the target cells--the bladder urothelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1544229

  10. Role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in diagnosing musculoskeletal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ivreet; Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Mohan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of musculoskeletal neoplasms requires an accurate diagnosis, histologic type, and degree of tumor differentiation. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors and further to compare the results with histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Grading of malignant tumors was also compared on these techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 50 patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms. Detailed history, clinical examination, and radiological investigations were undertaken. FNAC followed by CNB were performed in each case. The tumors were categorized as benign and malignant with a definitive histotype diagnosis. For malignant neoplasms, cytologic and histologic gradings were done into three grades. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC and CNB were compared. Results: Of the 50 cases with musculoskeletal neoplasms, 32 (64%) were bone tumors and 18 (36%) were soft tissue tumors. The sensitivity of FNAC and CNB for categorizing bone tumors into benign and malignant was 94.7%. For soft tissue tumors, FNAC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and CNB had a sensitivity of 100%. The specificity of both the techniques, FNA and CNB for bone and soft tissue tumors was 100%. For malignant bone tumors, cytologic grade was concordant with CNB grade in 72.2% of the cases. Cytologic grade was concordant with the grade on CNB in 81.8% cases for malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Conclusion: FNAC and CNB alleviate the need for an open biopsy in diagnosing and grading musculoskeletal neoplasms, thus facilitating appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:27011434

  11. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part I: magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbat, M.; Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    High resolution temporal and spatial control of atmospheric pollutants is of crucial importance for environmental health monitoring. Passive sampling using natural vegetation biomonitoring allows acquisition of well-defined samples at affordable costs. We here present results from a study conducted in the conurbation of Cologne, Germany, based on airborne pollutants accumulated on pine needles. This integrated study includes (i) the microscopic analysis of pine needles and analysis of their magnetic properties, (ii) PAH, and (iii) selected trace elements (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu). A major proportion of atmospheric pollutants is bound to particles, for which in part I of the study we present data on magnetic susceptibility, remanence measurements (IRM, ARM) and total Fe content. SEM-analysis indicates that particles accumulated on needles are mostly <2.5 μm in diameter and comprise pollen or spores, mineral dust and silica-glassy or metallic spheroids. The latter were identified as magnetite with minor pyrrhotite. These particles derive from combustion of coal in power plants or fuels in vehicular engines. A close correlation of magnetic properties (susceptibility, SIRM, ARM) and Fe content shows that non-destructive, time-efficient enviromagnetics of needles serves as an excellent proxy for biomonitoring of combustion pollutants. Their spatial distribution within the conurbation of Cologne was determined for 43 locations integrated in a GIS-database. The dominant sources of fine metallic particulates (PM 2.5) are emissions from road traffic, including fuel combustion, corrosion and brake-wear and from railroad and tram traffic preferentially due to material wear. Parks, forests and agricultural areas show the lowest levels of pollution by magnetic particles, followed by residential areas. This implies that traffic emissions with short transportation distances (<1.0 km) are dominant in the Cologne conurbation, whereas the contribution from power plants is negligible.

  12. NOTE: A technique for simultaneous needle insertion in prostate seed implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Suorsa, Niina

    2008-02-01

    The purpose was to develop a fast needle insertion system to shorten the implantation time and to restrain prostate swelling during the implantation, thus reducing the seed setup error. The basic idea is to insert all the needles simultaneously using ultrasound guidance. The developed system consists of two similar templates that are connected. All the needles are set and locked to a moveable rear template according to the dose plan. The needle pack is then pushed into position, the lock released and seeds implanted needle by needle. A test and training phantom was also built.

  13. Image-based tracking of the suturing needle during laparoscopic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kroehnert, A.; Bodenstedt, S.; Kenngott, H.; Mller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most complex and difficult tasks for surgeons during minimally invasive interventions is suturing. A prerequisite to assist the suturing process is the tracking of the needle. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for needle tracking. In this paper, we present an image-based method for markerless needle tracking. The method uses a color-based and geometry-based segmentation to detect the needle. Once an initial needle detection is obtained, a region of interest enclosing the extracted needle contour is passed on to a reduced segmentation. It is evaluated with in vivo images from da Vinci interventions.

  14. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.

  15. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  16. Biocompatible optical needle array for antibacterial blue light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Caio; An, Jeesoo; Humar, Matjaz; Goth, Will; Yun, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Biocompatible Optical Needle Array (BONA) is showing to be a powerful tool complementing the novel antibacterial blue light therapy. BONA is able to deliver light to deeper skin tissue layers successfully as shown in experiments. In this study, we will discuss BONA's design, mechanical and optical properties, production method, plus propose improvements to optimize it all. A special skin phantom with photosensitizer was developed in order to investigate how light is delivered inside the tissue. The phantom shows the light scattering pattern through photobleach, allowing us to determine length, thickness and spacing between needles. Other quantitative optical properties as penetration depth were determined using a different phantom (using PDMS). Mechanical properties as needle resistance were determined using one axis of a custom biaxial tensile strain device. The results led us to conclude that besides the great results, there is still room for improvements regarding tip sharpness and manufacturing time and cost, which would be solved with the enhanced fabrication method proposed.

  17. Transbronchial needle aspiration: development history, current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huizhen; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ko-Pen

    2015-01-01

    Background Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) technology was underutilized by clinicians because it is “blind”. Recent development of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) renewed the interest and confident of TBNA. TBNA without EBUS is referred as conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA). Methods This paper focuses on C-TBNA technology development history, present situation and future development to do a detailed introduction. Results TBNA is a simple, cost effective and minimally invasive technique for diagnosing disease of the mediastinum and lung in adult as well as children patients. Conclusions More improvements of TBNA technology should be made, including employing technological advances to perfect the instruments and techniques, focusing on patient comfort, optimizing yield, simplifying instruments, maximizing ease of use and minimizing training requirements for the pulmonologist. The ideal TBNA scope deserves further evaluation and study. PMID:26807275

  18. Treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy with ultrasound guided dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Settergren, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment of a patient with tendinopathy using sonographically guided dry needling. Tendinopathies are a highly prevalent problem in musculoskeletal medicine, and no one form of treatment has gained universal acceptance as being superior to another. Clinical Features A 30-year-old woman with a 4-month history of anterolateral right shoulder pain was diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy upon physical examination, which was confirmed with diagnostic sonography. Intervention and Outcome Sonography was used to guide an acupuncture needle into the pathologic tissue to induce a humoral healing response. Therapeutic exercise was also prescribed. At 10-day follow-up, increased echogenicity was found in the previously heterogenous hypoechoic areas. The patient also experienced a subjective resolution of her shoulder pain, which did not return with increased physical activity. Conclusions Sonographically guided dry needling was shown to be beneficial for this patient as evident by sonographic changes pre- and postprocedure. PMID:23997721

  19. [Dupuytren's contracture: percutaneous needle aponeurotomy is an alternative to surgery].

    PubMed

    Manet, M-P; Roulot, E; Teyssedou, J-P; Lahalle, S; Ziza, J-M

    2011-04-01

    Dupuytren's contracture is a retractile fibrosis of the superficial palmar aponeurosis of the hand, resulting in a progressive and fixed flexion of the fingers that may result in severe limitation of hand function. It affects several millions of people in Europe and North America. Risk factors are genetic and sometimes related to mellitus diabetes. There is no spontaneous remission. Until recently, surgery was the only treatment, but now needle aponeurotomy emerges as a therapeutic alternative. It should be performed as first line treatment by a trained practitioner. Short and long-term results of needle aponeurotomy appear identical to those of surgery, with milder complications. It is indicated in palmar, palmo-digital, as well as in strictly digital forms of the disorder. The "table-test" is used to assess the loss of extension of the digit and to select the indication to needle aponeurotomy. A medico-surgical consensus should define the optimum treatment strategy in this affection. PMID:20828892

  20. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-01-01

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  1. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-04-24

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  2. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  3. Model-based needle control in prostate percutaneous procedures.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Arash; Jahed, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    In percutaneous applications, needle insertion into soft tissue is considered as a challenging procedure, and hence, it has been the subject of many recent studies. This study considers a model-based dynamics equation to evaluate the needle movement through prostate soft tissue. The proposed model estimates the applied force to the needle using the tissue deformation data and finite element model of the tissue. To address the role of mechanical properties of the soft tissue, an inverse dynamics control method based on sliding mode approach is used to demonstrate system performance in the presence of uncertainties. Furthermore, to deal with inaccurate estimation of mechanical parameters of the soft tissue, an adaptive controller is developed. Moreover, through a sensitivity analysis, it is shown that the uncertainty in the tissue mechanical parameters affects the system performance. Our results indicate that the adaptive controller approach performs slightly better than inverse dynamics method at the expense of fine-tuning the additional gain parameter. PMID:23516956

  4. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  5. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy. PMID:24658888

  6. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  7. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  8. Micromachined needles and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Hubbard, Timothy

    2004-08-01

    A new method of micromachining hollow needles and two-dimensional needle arrays from single crystal silicon is described. The process involves a combination of fusion bonding, photolithography and anisotropic plasma etching. The cannula produced with this process can have design adjustable bevel angles, wall thickness and channel dimensions. A subset of processing steps can be employed to produce silicon blades and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles and shaft dimensions. Applications for this technology include painless drug infusion, blood diagnosis, glucose monitoring, cellular injection and the manufacture of microkeratomes for ocular, vascular and neural microsurgery.

  9. Determinants of needle sharing among intravenous drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Magura, S; Grossman, J I; Lipton, D S; Siddiqi, Q; Shapiro, J; Marion, I; Amann, K R

    1989-01-01

    Data from 110 IV-drug abusing persons in methadone maintenance were analyzed to determine the correlates of needle sharing. Sharing was directly related to peer group behavior, attitudes conducive to sharing, economic motivation to share, not owning injection equipment, and fatalism about developing AIDS. Sharers were aware of their AIDS risk. Indicated measures to reduce needle sharing would be positive peer support groups to help resist pressures to share, legal and free access to fresh injection equipment, education on the utility of risk reduction, and increased treatment options for IV cocaine users. PMID:2784636

  10. The needling technique and clinical application of point Zhibian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuandong

    2004-09-01

    Point Zhibian (BL 54) is often used for treatment of lumbago and scelalgia, flaccidity and arthralgia of the lower limb, constipation and dysuria, and hemorrhoid. As for the needling, the direction of the needle tip may vary, generally in three directions: 1) along the channel itself, 2) pointing to the genitals, and 3) pointing to the anus, the purpose of which is "leading qi to the diseased area" so as to obtain "effectiveness upon the arrival of qi". This point can also be used in combination with moxa stick, cupping, and point injection according to the individual conditions. However, only by differential application, can this point produce better therapeutic effects. PMID:15510794

  11. Surface-blended texturing of medical needles for friction reduction using a picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingsheng; Han, Peidong; Kang, Min; Ehmann, Kornel

    2016-04-01

    The success of percutaneous procedures depends on the accuracy of the medical needle insertion. Reducing the insertion force and using better needle visualization during needle insertion can reduce needle placement errors. Surface texturing is frequently used to create micro-features on medical needle's tip portion to improve the visibility in ultrasound-guided percutaneous procedures. However, these micro-features usually increase the friction between the needle and tissue because of stress concentrations. This paper explores a method for creating micro-features with blended edges on echogenic needles and studies the friction behavior between textured echogenic needles and phantom tissue to identify blended texture patterns that would minimize the friction during needle insertion. Laser surface texturing was used to create regular micro-circumferential channels and micro-corner-cube-like dimples along the needle's axial direction. Variations of the overlap in the feed direction were used to blend the edges of micro-channels and micro-dimples with different fillet radii. Both needles with regular and blended surface textures were experimentally investigated through needle extraction experiments from phantom tissue. It was found that the blended textured needles with large fillet radii exhibit a much better friction behavior.

  12. A model to predict deflection of bevel-tipped active needle advancing in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Datla, Naresh V; Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Podder, Tarun K; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2014-03-01

    Active needles are recently being developed to improve steerability and placement accuracy for various medical applications. These active needles can bend during insertion by actuators attached to their bodies. The bending of active needles enables them to be steered away from the critical organs on the way to target and accurately reach target locations previously unachievable with conventional rigid needles. These active needles combined with an asymmetric bevel-tip can further improve their steerability. To optimize the design and to develop accurate path planning and control algorithms, there is a need to develop a tissue-needle interaction model. This work presents an energy-based model that predicts needle deflection of active bevel-tipped needles when inserted into the tissue. This current model was based on an existing energy-based model for bevel-tipped needles, to which work of actuation was included in calculating the system energy. The developed model was validated with needle insertion experiments with a phantom material. The model predicts needle deflection reasonably for higher diameter needles (11.6% error), whereas largest error was observed for the smallest needle diameter (24.7% error). PMID:24296105

  13. [Renal arterial disease-induced tubulo-interstitial lesions].

    PubMed

    Kida, H; Yoshimura, M

    1995-08-01

    Renal arterial disease-induced tubulo-interstitial lesions described in this chapter include benign arterio- and/or arteriolo-sclerotic and malignant nephrosclerosis, renal infarction and renal cortical necrosis. In these conditions renal glomeruli as well as tubules are always involved, and consequent loss of nephrons, or renal parenchyma results in interstitial fibrotic changes. The parenchymal lesions have a spectrum from slowly progressive atrophy and loss to necrosis of abrupt onset and disappearance of glomeruli and tubules. As for glomerular reactions to the ischemia, the intermediate type consisted of mesangial degeneration and epithelial cell proliferation described as "alterative glomerulitis" is noteworthy. Briefly, in renal arterial diseases, glomeruli are rather variably involved than tubules and loss of the parenchyma results in interstitial fibrosis. PMID:7563646

  14. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  15. Role of inflammation in bladder function and interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lee, Richard; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Te, Alexis E.

    2011-01-01

    Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which is usually reserved for refractory cases. PMID:21789096

  16. Effect of amlodipine on mouse renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Honma, Shigeyoshi; Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinohara, Masahiro; Mitazaki, Satoru; Abe, Sumiko; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-established method to study interstitial fibrosis of the kidney. In this study, we investigated the effects of a calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, on UUO-induced renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. UUO significantly increased the fibrotic area in the obstructed kidney, but this change was inhibited by amlodipine (6.7mg/kg/day in drinking water). mRNA expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 47 and type IV collagen was increased in the kidneys of UUO mice. Amlodipine reduced the expression of both HSP47 and type IV collagen mRNAs. Phosphorylation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was significantly increased by UUO, but the change was inhibited by amlodipine. Collectively, these results suggest that amlodipine may inhibit the expression of HSP47 and type IV collagen by reducing phosphorylation of JNK and ameliorating the renal interstitial fibrosis induced by UUO. PMID:27029240

  17. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  18. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  19. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  20. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  1. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with chrysotile asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Freed, J A; Miller, A; Gordon, R E; Fischbein, A; Kleinerman, J; Langer, A M

    1991-05-01

    The drywall construction trade has in the past been associated with exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. This paper reports a drywall construction worker with 32 years of dust exposure who developed dyspnoea and diminished diffusing capacity, and showed diffuse irregular opacities on chest radiography. He did not respond to treatment with corticosteroids. Open lung biopsy examination showed desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Only a single ferruginous body was seen on frozen section, but tissue examination by electron microscopy showed an extraordinary pulmonary burden of mineral dust with especially high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos fibres. This report emphasises the need to consider asbestos fibre as an agent in the aetiology of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The coexistent slight interstitial fibrosis present in this case is also considered to have resulted from exposure to mineral dust, particularly ultramicroscopic asbestos fibres. PMID:1645584

  2. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic printing of silver nanoparticle ink via commercial hypodermic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongjun; Jang, Shin; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the needle shape on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was investigated by comparing flat outlet needles and hypodermic needles. Line fabrication was performed to confirm the tendency of jetting stability and the printed line width with various driving voltage and stage speed by using Ag nanoparticle ink as a jetting solution on a hydrophobic surface. We verified that the hypodermic needle greatly improves the resolution in EHD printing. The ink slips down the inner wall of the hypodermic needle, and a very small meniscus is generated at the tip of the needle. Due to this phenomenon, high-resolution printing can be accomplished. The narrowest line that was fabricated using a hypodermic needle has a line width of 0.7 μm, and it is smaller than 1% of the needle inner diameter.

  3. Granular Materials Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. L.; Brennen, C. E.; Campbell, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    In 1954, R.A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of liquid-solid flows. We recently completed an extensive reevaluation of Bagnold's work, and our analysis and simulations indicate that the rheological measurements of Bagnold were affected significantly by secondary flows within the experimental apparatus. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed by Bagnold to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range for solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime. As the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward at the midheight of the annulus. These cells contribute significantly to the measured torque, and obscured any accurate measurements of the shear or normal stresses. Before doing the reevaluation of Bagnold's work, our research objective was to examine the effects of the interstitial fluid for flows in which the densities of the two phases were different. After reevaluating Bagnold's work, we redesigned our experimental facility to minimize secondary flow effects. Like Bagnold's facility, we use a concentric cylinder rheometer with a rotating outer wall. The inner cylinder also is able to rotate slightly but will also be restrained by flexible supports; the torque is measured from the deformation of the flexures. The normal force is measured using piezoelectric transducers that record both impacts with the surface and fluid pressure variations resulting from particle collisions. Unlike Bagnold's apparatus, the top and bottom plates of the annulus will not rotate, and the torque measurement will be measured only in the center region of the inner annulus; these changes will minimize the secondary flow effects. The experiments will cover a range of particle sizes (from d = 1.5 to 4 mm), particle concentrations (up to 55% solids concentration by volume), shear rates (gamma = 10-160/sec) and solid-to-fluid densities (rhop = 1.2 to 8). During one flight of the KC-135 we will change two parameters: the rotational speed and the fluid viscosity (mu). At one time during a flight, we plan to withdraw some of the fluid (water for example) within the annulus while injecting some fluid of a different viscosity (water-glycerin mixture). Hence, the experiments will cover flows where the particle inertia dominates the fluid effects (granular flows) to flows in which the fluid inertia dominates that of the particles (dilute suspension). The range of Stokes numbers (St=d2 gamma rhop)/mu will be from about 5 to 3000. Currently, the experimental facility has just been completed. We have calibrated the normal impact measurements using carefully controlled single particle impacts with the transducers. The torque measurements have also been calibrated by mounting the inner cylinder in such a way that we could impose a known load on the drum. We use reluctance transducers to measure the motion and deformation of the flexures and calibrate the device with the imposed load. Measurements will also be made of the fluid temperature, acceleration and rotational speed of the outer drum.. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8, P=0.014), and ECLIPSE (HR=1.4, 95% CI, 1.1–2, P=0.022) cohorts. In the AGES-Reykjavik cohort the higher rate of mortality could be explained by a higher rate of death due to respiratory disease, specifically pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In four separate research cohorts, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. The clinical implications of this association require further investigation. PMID:26881370

  5. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  6. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

  8. Histopathology of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP): A review.

    PubMed

    Tabaj, Gabriela C; Fernandez, Cristina F; Sabbagh, Eduardo; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-08-01

    The 2013 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society consensus classification update of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) included several important modifications to the organization and spectrum of the diseases that were proposed in an earlier multidisciplinary consensus document in 2002. The histopathology of the now 'major' and 'rare' IIP is presented here with exposition of the newly included entity of a distinctive upper lobe fibrotic lung disease referred to as idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. The 'rare histological patterns' of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia and bronchiolocentric patterns of interstitial pneumonia are illustrated and discussed. PMID:25998242

  9. Oxygen Interstitial Defects in Sc2O3 Thin Films Deposited with Reactive Ion Beam Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiltz, Drew; Langston, Peter; Krous, Erik; Patel, Dinesh; Markosyan, Ashot; Route, Rodger; Menoni, Carmen; Colorado State University Team; Stanford University Team

    2014-03-01

    Numerous defects may develop when depositing amorphous thin films with reactive ion beam sputtering, including interstitials and vacancies. In many cases, these defects limit the functionality of the film, degrading both the mechanical and optical properties. This study aims to investigate the nature of oxygen interstitial point defects in scandium oxide thin films and characterize the effect on composition, optical absorption and mechanical stress. The films are deposited with argon ion beam sputtering of a scandium metal target. The density of defects is correlated with the oxygen partial pressure, revealing an optimal condition where defects are minimized. Furthermore, the defect density also demonstrates a direct correlation with the main ion beam accelerating voltage. The native oxygen defects behave as shallow levels, with binding energies in the 1-2 eV range. Work supported by the DoD Office of Naval Research and the High Energy Laser Program of the DoD Joint Technology Office. National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

  10. Micro-Biocidal Activity of Yeast Cells by Needle Plasma Irradiation at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Taima, Tomohito; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    In this study, we report on the biocidal activity technique by needle helium plasma irradiation at atmospheric pressure using borosilicate capillary nozzle to apply for the oral surgery. The diameter of needle plasma was less than 50 µm, and temperature of plasma irradiated area was less than body temperature. Needle plasma showed emission due to OH and O radical. Raman spectra and methylene blue stain showed yeast cells were inactivated by needle plasma irradiation.

  11. Energetic evaluation of possible interstitial compound formation of BaSi2 with 2p-, 3s-, and 3d-elements using first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yoji; Sohma, Mitsugu; Suemasu, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The energy changes in the formation of interstitially doped BaSi2, caused by doping with Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne, are calculated using the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximations of the density functional theory. It is predicted that the majority of the elements, apart from Na, Mg, Zn, and Ne, are capable of forming interstitially doped compounds with BaSi2, if these elements are provided as an isolated atom. However, the energetic stabilities of the standard states of these elements (metals, diatomic gases, etc.) exceed the energy gain accompanying the formation of the interstitial compounds and, therefore, the conventional diffusion method using metals or gaseous source materials cannot produce the interstitial compounds. From the energetic perspective, B, C, N, O, and F appear to be favorably inserted into the BaSi2 lattice, but the observed behavior of B-implanted BaSi2 suggests that substitution of B for Si may occur.

  12. 26. VIEW SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACK NEARING COMPLETION. ARCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACK NEARING COMPLETION. ARCHES VISIBLE IN THIS PICTURE ARE 8, 9, 10, AND 11, WHICH HAVE BEEN COMPLETED TO SPRINGING LINE ELEVATIONS 1700, 1744, 1766 AND 1766 RESPECTIVELY. January 1, 1939 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Percutaneous needle placement using laser guidance: a practical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Kapoor, Ankur; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Imbesi, Kimberly; Hong, Cheng William; Mazilu, Dumitru; Sharma, Karun; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-03-01

    In interventional radiology, various navigation technologies have emerged aiming to improve the accuracy of device deployment and potentially the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive procedures. While these technologies' performance has been explored extensively, their impact on daily clinical practice remains undetermined due to the additional cost and complexity, modification of standard devices (e.g. electromagnetic tracking), and different levels of experience among physicians. Taking these factors into consideration, a robotic laser guidance system for percutaneous needle placement is developed. The laser guidance system projects a laser guide line onto the skin entry point of the patient, helping the physician to align the needle with the planned path of the preoperative CT scan. To minimize changes to the standard workflow, the robot is integrated with the CT scanner via optical tracking. As a result, no registration between the robot and CT is needed. The robot can compensate for the motion of the equipment and keep the laser guide line aligned with the biopsy path in real-time. Phantom experiments showed that the guidance system can benefit physicians at different skill levels, while clinical studies showed improved accuracy over conventional freehand needle insertion. The technology is safe, easy to use, and does not involve additional disposable costs. It is our expectation that this technology can be accepted by interventional radiologists for CT guided needle placement procedures.

  14. Micron size GMR magnetic sensor with needle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Haraszczuk, R.; Kakikawa, M.; Hoang, H.

    2012-05-01

    The work presents inimitable shaped needle type probe with spin valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) elements. Sensitive elements with 75 μm width are connected in the Wheatstone bridge structure. The length of the needle is 20-30 mm and its cross section is square. The magnetic sensor probe has the advantage of micron order spatial resolution. The needle type probe works as a gradient meter which concurrently suppresses the influence of externally applied field and detects magnetic fields emanating from nano or micro order size sources. Sensing elements present high sensitivity 260 μV/μT and are capable of detecting the magnetic fields in order of few nT. SV-GMR elements present flat amplitude and phase characteristics in wide frequency range. The novel characteristicsof the probe allow it to be utilized in detection of the in-phase and out of phase signal components. An additional merit of this design is extremely small liftoff height between sensing element and the source of magnetic field. The SV-GMR elements are isolated only by very thin protection layer (a few μm), that gives opportunity to apply the probe in biological (in vivo) experiments, and in non destructive evaluation of current detection. The needle shape allows the sensing element toapproach the examined materials in a distance of few ten μm.

  15. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  16. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. Ilioinguinal nerve entrapment following needle bladder suspension procedures.

    PubMed

    Monga, M; Ghoniem, G M

    1994-09-01

    Ilioinguinal nerve entrapment is a documented complication of inguinal herniorrhaphy, inguinal lymph node dissection, and appendectomy. This article reports two clinical histories to illustrate the diagnosis and management, and outlines prevention of ilioinguinal nerve entrapment as a complication of needle suspension procedures for stress urinary incontinence. PMID:8073565

  20. Protect Yourself, Protect Others: Safe Options for Home Needle Disposal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Travel Before you fly, check the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Web site ( www.tsa.gov) for up-to-date rules on what to do with your needles when you travel. To make your trip through airport security easier, make sure your medicines are labeled with ...