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1

Frameless image guidance improves accuracy in three-dimensional interstitial brachytherapy needle placement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work was to adapt a computer-assisted real-time three-dimensional (3D) navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Methods and materials: The 3-D navigation system Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer System (SPOCS; Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) was adapted for use in interstitial brachytherapy. A special needle holder with mounted infrared-emitting diodes (IRED) for 3D navigation-based needle implantation was developed. Measurements were made on a series of different phantoms to study the feasibility and the overall accuracy and precision of the navigation system with regard to single-needle application and volume implants (multiple-needle implantations). In all, 250 single implants and 20 volume implants were performed. Accuracy was measured as the target registration error (TRE) between the preoperatively defined and the achieved target position. Results: Analyses of the 250 different targets showed a mean TRE for single-needle applications of 1.1 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 0.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm), and 0.7 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm) in the x, y, and z direction, respectively. The maximal deviation was 2.3 mm. The corresponding TRE in the x, y, and z direction for volume implants was 1.6 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 1.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.6 mm), and 1.0 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), respectively. The maximum deviation was 2.9 mm. Conclusions: The adaptation of a commercially available surgical planning and navigation system to interstitial brachytherapy is feasible. It enables virtual planning and improved accuracy in 3D interstitial needle implantation.

Krempien, Robert [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hassfeld, Stefan [Clinic for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kozak, Josef [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Tuemmler, Hans-Peter [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Daeuber, Sascha [Institute for Process Control and Robotics, University of Karlsruhe - TH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Treiber, Martina [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2004-12-01

2

Interstitials and vacancies in amorphous metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and thermodynamic properties of vacancies and interstitials are well characterized for most crystalline metals and alloys. We explore using molecular dynamics computer simulations such properties for defects in amorphous Cu and the glass forming alloy Cu-Ti. The simulations show that the formation volume and energy for vacancies and interstitials in the amorphous state are quite different from those in their crystalline forms. Some of these changes can be explained using the Granato's interstitialcy model for the liquid and glass states [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 974].

Ashkenazy, Yinon; Averback, Robert S.; Granato, Andrew V.

2002-03-01

3

Study of metal distribution in pine and spruce needles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to assess the conditions for foliar uptake of air-borne metallic pollutants on pine and spruce needles. Needles of coniferous trees (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus) were sampled at three locations in the Protected Landscape Area Elbe Sandstone in the Czech Republic. Solid (CR) and water-soluble (WS) fractions of aerosol adhered to the needle surface, and epicuticular waxes were separated from the needle by the two-step stripping procedure. The WS and CR fractions and the needle body after the stripping procedure were separately analyzed for 24 metals. The quantity of each fraction and its elemental composition is discussed regarding the tree species, needle age and locality. Highest aerosol quantities as well as concentration of metals were found in pine needles (Pinus strobus) from the locality most exposed to the local pollution sources. Epicuticular waxes were analyzed for As, Cd and Pb. The concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.2 {micro}g/g for As and Pb, and from 0.2 to 0.6 {micro}g/g for Cd. The highest metal concentrations were found in waxes of pines (Pinus sylvestris). Values of As and Pb concentration differences between WS fraction and the wax, between the wax and the needle body decrease with the needle age while Cd concentration differences do not depend on the needle age.

Hovorka, J. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Studies; Marshall, G.B. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom). Birkbeck College; Bauer, P. [Administration of Protected Landscape Area Elbe Sandstone, Decin (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

4

Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study.  

PubMed

The extraction of tissue samples during brain needle biopsy can cause life-threatening hemorrhage because of significant blood vessel injury during the procedure. Vessel rupture can have significant consequences for patient health, ranging from transient neurological deficits to death. Here, we present a sub-diffuse optical tomography technique that can be integrated into neurosurgical workflow to detect the presence of blood vessels. A proof-of-concept study performed on a realistic brain tissue phantom is presented and demonstrates that interstitial optical tomography (iOT) can detect several 1 mm diameter high-contrast absorbing objects located <2??mm from the needle. PMID:25679836

Goyette, Andréanne; Pichette, Julien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Paulsen, Keith D; Roberts, David W; Petrecca, Kevin; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

2015-01-15

5

Daily CT measurement of needle applicator displacement during multifractionated high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for postoperative recurrent uterine cancer.  

PubMed

We investigated daily needle applicator displacement during multifractionated high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for postoperative recurrent uterine cancer. Eight patients with postoperative recurrent uterine cancer received HDR-ISBT with or without external beam radiotherapy using our unique ambulatory technique. To analyze displacement, we obtained daily computed tomography (CT) images for 122 flexible needle applicators at 21, 45, 69, and 93 hours after implantation. Displacement was defined as the length between the center of gravity of titanium markers and the needle applicator tips along the daily CT axis. For cases in which displacement was not corrected, we also calculated the dose that covered 90% of the clinical target volume (D90(CTV)) using a dose-volume histogram (DVH). Median caudal needle applicator displacement at 21, 45, 69, and 93 hours was 3, 2, 4, and 5 mm, respectively. More than 15 mm displacement was observed for 2% (2 of 122) and 17% (10 of 60) of needle applicators at 21 and 93 hours, respectively. Cases in which dwell positions were not changed to correct the treatment plan, 2 of 8 patients showed more than 10% reduction in D90(CTV) values compared with the initial treatment plan. Correction of dwell positions of the treatment source improves treatment DVH for multifractionated HDR-ISBT. PMID:22240942

Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Takenaka, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Aramoto, Kazumasa; Miyake, Shunsuke; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Ban, Chiaki; Tanaka, Eiichi

2012-01-01

6

Needle-free interstitial fluid acquisition using a Lorentz-force actuated jet injector  

E-print Network

Interstitial fluid (ISF) provides information on a patient's health as it contains regulatory molecules that are correlated with disease-related processes. However, current ISF acquisition techniques can be slow, resulting ...

Chang, Jean H

2014-01-01

7

Assessment of daily needle applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer using daily CT examinations.  

PubMed

To improve treatment conformity for prostate cancer, we investigated daily applicator displacement during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT). Thirty patients treated with HDR-ISBT as monotherapy were examined. All patients received a treatment dosage of 49 Gy per 7 fractions over 4 days. For dose administration, we examined 376 flexible applicators (1128 points) using our unique ambulatory implant technique. Using CT images with a 3-mm slice thickness, we calculated the relative coordinates of the titanium markers and the tips of the applicators. We calculated the distance between the center of gravity of the markers and the tips of the catheters, and compared the distances measured on the day of implantation and the second, third, and fourth treatment days. The mean displacement distance for all applicators was 4.3 ± 3.4 mm, 4.6 ± 4.1 mm, and 5.8 ± 4.5 mm at 21, 45, and 69 hours after initial planning CT. We used a 15-mm margin for needle displacement and only 2 points of 2 patients (16 mm and 18 mm at 69 hours, 2/1128 = 0.2%) exceeded this range. Almost patients (87%) showed the largest displacement within the first 21 hours. The relative doses that covered 100% of CTV (D100(CTV)) values compared with the initial treatment plan were reduced to 0.96 ± 0.08, 0.96 ± 0.08 and 0.94 ± 0.1 at 21, 45 and 69 hours. However, the relative D90(CTV) values kept acceptable levels (1.01 ± 0.02, 1.01 ± 0.03 and 1.01 ± 0.03). Cranial margin of 15 mm seems to be effective to keep D90(CTV) level if we do not do corrective action. PMID:22485020

Takenaka, Tadashi; Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Yamazaki, Hideya; Miyake, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Mineo; Yoshimura, Yasushi; Oka, Toshitsugu; Honda, Kazuya

2012-01-01

8

Reduction of decomposition rates of scots pine needle litter due to heavy-metal pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of unpolluted Scots pine needle litter was studied in two heavy-metal-pollution gradients in Sweden; one near a brass mill and the other around a primary smelter. In the latter area locally collected polluted Scots pine needle litter was also incubated. Decomposition rates were strongly influenced by the metal pollution and a decrease in the rate of mass-loss occurred. In

Björn Berg; Gunnar Ekbohm; Bengt Söderström; Håkan Staaf

1991-01-01

9

METAL-COLLOID PARTITIONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS: INFLUENCES OF SALINITY, PH AND COLLOIDAL ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better ...

10

Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

1974-01-01

11

Preparation of superconducting thin films of transition-metal interstitial compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sputtering technique forms transition-metal interstitial compounds into superconducting thin films having transition temperatures similar to those of the bulk materials. Since the magnetic-field and current-carrying properties of the films exceed those of the bulk materials, they may have applications other than in tunneling devices.

Gavaler, J. R.

1969-01-01

12

Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ? < 1?mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70?µm on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

2015-01-01

13

Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

1989-07-01

14

Ultra-low contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping  

SciTech Connect

The ability to form reliable, low-resistance Ohmic contacts is of critical importance to the ongoing development of oxide electronics. Most metals form Schottky barriers when deposited on oxide surfaces. Ohmic contacts rarely occur, and the associated contact resistances are not particularly low. Little is known at an atomistic level about what leads to a good Ohmic contact on a wide-gap oxide. Here we describe the structure of a simple, yet exceptionally low-contact resistance Ohmic metal on an important oxide semiconductor -- epitaxial Cr on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001). Heteroepitaxial growth is accompanied by Cr diffusion into the STO and occupation of interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes. Interstitial Cr is ionized and the resulting electrons occupy the STO conduction band, resulting in effective metallization near the interface.

Chambers, Scott A.; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Petr V.; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-08-07

15

Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant  

SciTech Connect

We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1992-01-01

16

Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app­roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech­niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route— carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

2014-01-01

17

An observational study of giant cell interstitial pneumonia and lung fibrosis in hard metal lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hard metal lung disease has various pathological patterns including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although the UIP pattern is considered the prominent feature in advanced disease, it is unknown whether GIP finally progresses to the UIP pattern. Objectives To clarify clinical, pathological and elemental differences between the GIP and UIP patterns in hard metal lung disease. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients from 17 institutes participating in the 10th annual meeting of the Tokyo Research Group for Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases, 2009. Nineteen patients (seven female) diagnosed with hard metal lung disease by the presence of tungsten in lung specimens were studied. Results Fourteen cases were pathologically diagnosed as GIP or centrilobular inflammation/fibrosing. The other five cases were the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis. Elemental analyses of lung specimens of GIP showed tungsten throughout the centrilobular fibrotic areas. In the UIP pattern, tungsten was detected in the periarteriolar area with subpleural fibrosis, but no association with centrilobular fibrosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. The GIP group was younger (43.1 vs 58.6?years), with shorter exposure duration (73 vs 285?months; p<0.01), lower serum KL-6 (398 vs 710?U/mL) and higher lymphocyte percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (31.5% vs 3.22%; p<0.05) than the fibrosis group. Conclusions The UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis is remarkably different from GIP in distribution of hard metal elements, associated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and clinical features. In hard metal lung disease, the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis may not be an advanced form of GIP. PMID:24674995

Tanaka, Junichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Terada, Masaki; Takada, Toshinori; Suzuki, Eiichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Hebisawa, Akira; Sakai, Fumikazu; Arakawa, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

18

Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the utility of interstitial water concentrations of metals and simultaneously extracted metal/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to explain the biological availability of sediment-associated divalent metals to benthic organisms exposed in the laboratory to sediments from five saltwater and four freshwater locations in the US, Canada, and China. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita or the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were exposed to 70 sediments from the five saltwater locations, and the amphipod Hyalella azteca or the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to 55 sediments from four freshwater locations in 10-d lethality tests. Almost complete absence of toxicity in spiked sediments and field sediments where metals were the only known source of contamination and where interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs) were < 0.5 indicates that toxicity associated with sediments having SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 from two saltwater locations in industrial harbors was not metals-related as these sediments contained <0.5 IWTU. Metals-associated toxicity was absent in 100% of sediments from the remaining three saltwater field locations, where metals were the only known source of contamination and SEM/AVS ratios were {le} 1.0. Two-thirds of 45 sediments from seven saltwater and freshwater field locations having both IWTUs > 0.5 (55%) were used alone. The difference between the molar concentrations of SEM and AVS (SEM-AVS) can provide important insight into the extent of additional available binding capacity, the magnitude by which AVS binding has been exceeded, and, when organism response is considered, the potential magnitude of importance of other metal binding phases. SEM-AVS should be used instead of SEM/AVS ratios as a measure of metals availability. In published experiments with both metal-spiked and field sediments, SEM-AVS and IWTUs accurately identified absence of sediment toxicity and with less accuracy identified the presence of toxicity.

Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering] [and others

1996-12-01

19

Medical thoracoscopic removal of a metal needle from the pleural space.  

PubMed

Medical thoracoscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for management of pleural diseases. There have been case reports of removal of foreign bodies from pleural spaces with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anaesthesia by thoracic surgeons. We present a case of successful removal of an 8?cm long metal needle from the pleural space with single port medical semirigid thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia by a chest physician. Removal of a foreign body from the pleural space is one more indication for medical thoracoscopy, however, an experienced chest physician and proper case selection are very important for safety and a successful outcome of this procedure. PMID:25301430

Gupta, Richa; James, Prince; Thangakunam, Balamugesh; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas

2014-01-01

20

Interstitial Cystitis  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Interstitial Cystitis Overview What is interstitial cystitis? Interstitial cystitis is chronic inflammation of the bladder. People who have interstitial cystitis have a bladder ...

21

Comparison of methods for collecting interstitial water for trace organic compounds and metals analyses  

SciTech Connect

Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water (IW) were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. The concentration of pollutants in dosed seawater before and after exposure to stainless steel and Teflon centrifuge tubes, glass fiber and Nuclepore filters, cellulose dialysis membranes and fritted glass tubes were compared. Exposure to most hardware materials did not significantly affect the concentration of four metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) but there was significant loss (up to 79 percent) of two organic compounds (fluoranthene, p,p'-DDE) to almost all the hardware materials tested. Of five commonly used IW collection methods (centrifuging, centrifugal drainage or basal cup, squeezing, vacuum filtration and dialysis) investigated, the centrifuge method was judged the most accurate and precise for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs. All IW collection methods tested showed high variability for the metals. As a result, with one exception (Cu), there was no significant difference detected in the accuracy of the methods for metals.

Schults, D.W.; Ferraro, S.P.; Smith, L.M.; Roberts, F.A.; Poindexter, C.K.

1992-01-01

22

Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas  

E-print Network

Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition-425 Krakow, Poland b Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Crop and Soil

Battles, John

23

EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

24

Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and juniper ( Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses indicated that accumulation processes may be similar, but mosses appear to be clearly preferable as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition because of their higher elemental concentrations and more quantitative reflection of deposition rates. Precipitation in the open field and under the canopy was investigated at two stations with respect to the same metals. The canopy was shown to retain a considerable part of lead, whereas elements such as Zn and Mn were enriched in precipitation under the canopy. Study of metal concentrations in moss growing, respectively, below and outside the canopy showed that none of so studied elements was significantly retained by the canopy. Most of the metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, V) were leached from the canopy to a smaller or greater extent.

?eburnis, D.; Steinnes, E.

25

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation  

SciTech Connect

A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

1988-03-01

26

Interstitial lung disease and asthma in hard-metal workers: bronchoalveolar lavage, ultrastructural, and analytical findings and results of bronchial provocation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients with respiratory disorders associated with hard metal exposure are described. In four patients electron microprobe analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cells or lung tissue was used to show tungsten and other hard-metal components. Three patients had interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis with unusual multinucleate giant cells. Electron microscopy showed that the giant cells comprised both type II alveolar epithelial cells

A G Davison; P L Haslam; B Corrin; I I Coutts; A Dewar; W D Riding; P R Studdy; A J Newman-Taylor

1983-01-01

27

INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

28

Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

1991-01-01

29

ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

30

Film and interstitial formation of metals in plasma-sprayed ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described to electrodeposit noble metals such as platinum and ordinary metals such as copper on and within plasma-sprayed ceramic materials and ceramic fiber materials. Low-density ceramic fiber bodies were vacuum impregnated with plating solution and attached to an electrode. Light micrographs illustrating the density and location of deposited materials are presented and discussed. Voids in the plasma-sprayed ceramic were filled with deposits that vary from spherical to lens-shaped circular and have particle size corresponding to the full range of void size. Multiple coatings of ceramic and metal can be sequenced.

Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

1985-01-01

31

The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mahony, J.D. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.)

1995-01-01

32

Interstitial Cystitis  

MedlinePLUS

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a condition that causes discomfort or pain in the bladder and a need to urinate frequently and ... have pain with sexual intercourse. The cause of IC isn't known. There is no one test ...

33

CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

34

Interstitial lung disease and asthma in hard-metal workers: bronchoalveolar lavage, ultrastructural, and analytical findings and results of bronchial provocation tests.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with respiratory disorders associated with hard metal exposure are described. In four patients electron microprobe analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cells or lung tissue was used to show tungsten and other hard-metal components. Three patients had interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis with unusual multinucleate giant cells. Electron microscopy showed that the giant cells comprised both type II alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. The multinucleate macrophages formed a distinctive feature of the bronchoalveolar lavage material but the multinucleate alveolar epithelial lining cells were evident only in lung tissue. The other two patients both suffered from work-related asthma, one of whom also had pulmonary opacities. Bronchial provocation tests in these patients supported the diagnosis of hard-metal-induced asthma and implicated cobalt as the agent responsible. Images PMID:6857569

Davison, A G; Haslam, P L; Corrin, B; Coutts, I I; Dewar, A; Riding, W D; Studdy, P R; Newman-Taylor, A J

1983-01-01

35

Mn 5Si 3-type host-interstitial boron rare-earth metal silicide compounds RE 5Si 3: Crystal structures, physical properties and theoretical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of binary rare-earth metal silicides RE5Si3 and ternary boron-interstitial phases RE5Si3Bx (RE=Gd, Dy, Ho, Lu, and Y) adopting the Mn5Si3-type structure, have been prepared from the elemental components by arc melting. Boron “stuffed” phases were subsequently heated at 1750K within a high-frequency furnace. Crystal structures were determined for both binary and ternary series of compounds from single-crystal X-ray

Jérome Roger; Mouna Ben Yahia; Volodymyr Babizhetskyy; Joseph Bauer; Stéphane Cordier; Roland Guérin; Kurt. Hiebl; Xavier Rocquefelte; Jean-Yves Saillard; Jean-Francois. Halet

2006-01-01

36

Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran

Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Gerald T. Ankley

1991-01-01

37

Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC-60) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distortion relaxation of the host fullerene (C-60) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distortion field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. The given paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of static concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method(*). In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the static inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the 'average-lattice' sites' as well as on the lattice parameter a of a elastically-anysotropic 'cubic' C-60 crystal are taken into account.

Tatarenko, Valentine A.; Tsysman, Constantin L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Yelena T.

1995-01-01

38

Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine  

SciTech Connect

The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC{sub 60}) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distoration relaxation of the host fullerene (C{sub 60}) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distoration field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. This paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of statistic concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method. In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the statistic inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the average-lattice sites as well as on the lattice parameter a of the elastically-anysotropic cubic C{sub 60} crystal are taken into account.

Tatarenko, V.A.; Tsysman, C.L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Y.T. [Institute for Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

1994-12-31

39

Interstitial Cystitis Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Managing IC Pain Start Managing Your Pain Today! Interstitial Cystitis Association The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is the ... Facebook Community ICA on Twitter ICHelp YouTube Channel Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300, McLean, ...

40

Past, present, and future for surgical needles and needle holders.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, major advances in surgical needle and needle holder technology have markedly improved surgical wound repair. These advances include quantitative tests for surgical needle and needle holders performance, high nickel maraging stainless steels, compound curved needles, needle sharpening methods, laser-drilled holes for swages, needle:suture ratios of 1:1, and the atraumatic needle holder. PMID:8238747

Edlich, R F; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Rodeheaver, G T

1993-11-01

41

New interstitial HDR brachytherapy technique for prostate cancer: CT based 3D planning after transrectal implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new interstitial HDR brachytherapy technique for the treatment of prostate cancer using CT based 3D planning after transrectal implantation of four non-parallel needles. CT based needle reconstruction, target definition, evaluation and documentation, including DVHs and 3D imaging, is a feasible, safe and well tolerated treatment concept.

Thomas Martin; Christos Kolotas; Thomas Dannenberg; Gerd Strassmann; Hans-Georg Vogt; Reinhard Heyd; Bernd Rogge; Dimos Baltas; Ralf Kurek; Ulf Tunn; Nikolaos Zamboglou

1999-01-01

42

Interstitial cystitis - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on insterstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association - www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - www.kidney.niddk. ...

43

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet  

MedlinePLUS

Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet There is a lot of information on the web promoting various diets for interstitial cystitis (IC). Both ... pelvic pain . However, research into the link between IC and food is very limited. At this time, ...

44

Buffon's Needle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

Kyle Siegrist

45

New needle for paracentesis.  

PubMed

An important complication of paracentesis with disposable needles is injury to the lens being caused by the intraocular part of the needle. The new needle has a locking mechanism which prevents its penetrating too deeply into the eye and thus reduces the danger of lens injury. The tip of the needle has been extended in the shape of a lance to reduce the pressure during the puncture of the cornea and to avoid the Seidel phenomenon. The needle can be combined with a tuberculin syringe or pipette. It is superior to disposable needles, particularly in situations in which unexpected movements must be taken into account, i.e. during paracentesis in children, paracentesis where assistants are involved or during cumbersome manipulations. PMID:1579331

Osusky, R

1992-01-01

46

Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: relationship to interstitial fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Patchefsky, A. S., Israel, H. L., Hoch, W. S., and Gordon, Gloria (1973).Thorax, 28, 680-693. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: relationship to interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course and radiographic and pathological findings in 14 patients having the histological pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) have been studied. Four deaths occurred from cardiorespiratory failure and two from other diseases, and one patient has severe pulmonary insufficiency. Seven patients had altered immunological reactivity or arthritis. Necropsy of three patients, one who died of respiratory insufficiency and two of other diseases, revealed diffuse pulmonary fibrosis with loss of the desquamative features noted on biopsy. One patient had had industrial exposure to tungsten carbide dust and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-mortem lung showed high concentrations of this substance. Ultrastructural observation and direct immunofluorescent staining of one specimen demonstrated fibrin in the alveolar space, a feature usually regarded as distinguishing DIP from chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Our clinical and pathological observations suggest that the histological pattern recognized as DIP may be a non-specific reaction to diverse forms of injury, which is not clearly separable from the usual type of diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Images PMID:4595813

Patchefsky, Arthur S.; Israel, Harold L.; Hoch, Willis S.; Gordon, Gloria

1973-01-01

47

Interstitial Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

48

Fine Needle Aspiration  

MedlinePLUS

... press registration and more below. Please direct any interview requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What Is FNA? Fine needle aspiration (FNA), also called fine needle biopsy, is a technique that allows a biopsy of various bumps and ...

49

Intracranial interstitial radiation  

SciTech Connect

Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future.

Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

1986-06-01

50

Dealing With Needles  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Dealing With Needles (Video) KidsHealth > Teens > Flu Center > ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

51

Fine needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for the past half century. Differing from large bore cutting needle biopsy, FNA utilizes 22- to 27-gauge needles. The cell samples aspirated from a lesion are characteristically smeared on glass slides for immediate microscopic evaluation. An adequacy report and a preliminary diagnostic impression are rendered in approximately 10 to 15 minutes. A final report is generally rendered within 24 hours. The method has been used as one of the most cost-effective, complication-free, and rapid techniques for preoperative investigation of tumors and tumor-like conditions. Its usefulness in the diagnosis and management of oncology patients is emphasized in this article. PMID:15565819

Wu, Maoxin; Burstein, David E

2004-01-01

52

Evaluation of nonholonomic needle steering using a robotic needle driver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate needle placement is a common need in the medical environment. While the use of small diameter needles for clinical applications such as biopsy, anesthesia and cholangiography is preferred over the use of larger diameter needles, precision placement can often be challenging, particularly for needles with a bevel tip. This is due to deflection of the needle shaft caused by asymmetry of the needle tip. Factors such as the needle shaft material, bevel design, and properties of the tissue penetrated determine the nature and extent to which a needle bends. In recent years, several models have been developed to characterize the bending of the needle, which provides a method of determining the trajectory of the needle through tissue. This paper explores the use of a nonholonomic model to characterize needle bending while providing added capabilities of path planning, obstacle avoidance, and path correction for lung biopsy procedures. We used a ballistic gel media phantom and a robotic needle placement device to experimentally assess the accuracy of simulated needle paths based on the nonholonomic model. Two sets of experiments were conducted, one for a single bend profile of the needle and the second set of tests for double bending of the needle. The tests provided an average error between the simulated path and the actual path of 0.8 mm for the single bend profile and 0.9 mm for the double bend profile tests over a 110 mm long insertion distance. The maximum error was 7.4 mm and 6.9 mm for the single and double bend profile tests respectively. The nonholonomic model is therefore shown to provide a reasonable prediction of needle bending.

Wilson, Emmanuel; Ding, Jeinan; Carignan, Craig; Krishnan, Karthik; Avila, Rick; Turner, Wes; Stoianovici, Dan; Yankelevitz, David; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

2010-02-01

53

Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... your breathing problems that are caused by interstitial lung disease. This disease scars your lungs, which makes it ... Raghu G. Interstitial lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: chap 92. Selman M, ...

54

[Temperature distribution and geometry of the electrodes in RF interstitial hyperthermia using circular and interstitial electrodes].  

PubMed

To evaluate the feasibility of clinical application of a newly developed interstitial hyperthermia system, which consists of an 8 MHz radiofrequency generator, interstitial needle electrodes, and a superficial circular electrode, we conducted preclinical experiments using an agar phantom and VX-2 carcinoma in the rabbit. In the experiment with an agar phantom, four 4 cm needle electrodes were placed in a square array at intervals of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 cm. Thermography demonstrated homogeneous temperature distribution at electrode intervals of 1.0 and 1.5 cm, but hot spots around the electrodes at an interval of 2.0 cm. When electrode deviation was less than 8 degrees from the parallel plane, no temperature deviation was observed. Using two 2 cm electrodes and two 4 cm electrodes in square array, thermography demonstrated a homogeneous temperature distribution in the area surrounded by the electrodes. Even if the electrodes were located at the periphery of the agar phantom, a homogeneous temperature distribution was obtained in the area surrounded by the electrodes. Using four 4 cm electrodes at intervals of 1.5 cm in VX-2 carcinoma in the rabbit, ideal heating was obtained: 42 degrees C at the periphery of the tumor and 43 degrees C at the center. These data suggest that the newly developed interstitial hyperthermia apparatus provides homogeneous heat distribution at electrode intervals of 1.5 cm or less and can be used in a Phase I study for deep-seated or superficial tumors. PMID:1508637

Kataoka, M; Nishiyama, Y; Fujii, T; Kawamura, M; Mogami, H; Itoh, H; Iio, A; Hamamoto, K

1992-05-25

55

Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma.  

PubMed

The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with Iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted Iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypodensity, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. PMID:10883334

Barlas, O; Bayindir, C; Can, M

2000-01-01

56

Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

57

Percutaneous needle nephrostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a simple technique for temporary drainage of an obstructed kidney. Under local anaesthesia a ureteric catheter is passed through a Vim–Silverman needle into the renal pelvis and is connected to a drainage bag. Seven cases (six successful) in which this method was used are described and the indications are discussed. It has been free from complications, is

C. S. Ogg; H. M. Saxton; J. S. Cameron

1969-01-01

58

Coaxial needle insertion assistant for epidural puncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of internal puncture during manual needle insertion is challenging due to the large friction force between a needle shaft and surrounding tissue, which masks small changes in force at the needle tip. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant was developed to enhance operator perception during epidural puncture. The coaxial needle separates the cutting force at the needle tip

Yoshihiko Koseki; Danilo De Lorenzo; Kiyoyuki Chinzei; Allison M. Okamura

2011-01-01

59

A theoretical analysis of interstitial hydrogen : pressure-composition-temperature, chemical potential, enthalpy and entropy  

E-print Network

We provide a first principles analysis of the physics and thermodynamics of interstitial hydrogen in metal. By utilizing recent advances in Density Functional Theory (DFT) to get state energies of the metal-hydrogen system, ...

Orondo, Peter Omondi

2012-01-01

60

Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 ?m thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 ?m thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows a urethral dose gradient volume of 0–5 mm around the urethra to receive a dose below the prescription. A multisource approach is necessary in order to deliver the proposed {sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT technique in reasonable treatment times.

Adams, Quentin E., E-mail: quentin-adams@uiowa.edu; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Enger, Shirin A. [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Ave, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)] [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Ave, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2014-05-15

61

Magnetic resonance-guided interstitial therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and to describe the acute toxicity of a real-time intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR)-image guided interstitial approach to treating vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 to April 2005, 10 patients with recurrent endometrial cancer underwent MR-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Parameters evaluated included needle placement, dose-volume histograms (DVH), and complications. Results: Magnetic resonance-image guidance resulted in accurate needle placement. Tumor DVH values included median volume, 47 cc; V100, 89%; V150, 61%; V200, 38%; D90, 71 Gy; and D100, 60 Gy. DVH of organs at risk resulted in a median D2cc of external beam and brachytherapy dose (% of brachytherapy prescription): bladder, 75Gy{sub 3} (88%); rectum, 70Gy{sub 3} (87%); and sigmoid, 56Gy{sub 3} (41%). All patients experienced either a Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity related to the radiation; only 1 patient had Grade 3 toxicity. No toxicities were attributable to the use of MR guidance. Conclusions: Real-time MR guidance during the insertion of interstitial needles reduces the likelihood of an inadvertent insertion of the needles into the bladder and the rectum. Three-dimensional dosimetry allows estimation of the dose to organs at risk. Toxicities are limited.

Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: aviswanathan@partners.org; Cormack, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Holloway, Caroline L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tanaka, Cynthia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); O'Farrell, Desmond C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tempany, Clare [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2006-09-01

62

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.  

PubMed

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon disorder. In its original description, the presence of linear inflammatory indurations on the lateral aspects of the trunk (the rope sign) in association with arthritis were considered the pathognomonic clinical features. Later cases presenting with plaques and papules have been reported. Herein we describe a case of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis without the rope sign. The present case supports the idea that interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis may have variable clinical appearances. PMID:15257555

Altaykan, Asli; Erkin, Gül; Boztepe, Gonca; Gököz, Aytaç

2004-07-01

63

Interstitial duplication 19p  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

64

Hereditary Interstitial Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Autosomal-dominant interstitial kidney disease is characterized by slow progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with bland urinary sediment and no or low-grade proteinuria. There are at least three subtypes. Patients with mutations in the UMOD gene encoding uromodulin suffer from precocious gout in addition to chronic kidney failure. Diagnosis can be achieved through genetic analysis of the UMOD gene. Patients with mutations in the REN gene encoding renin suffer from anemia in childhood, hyperuricemia, mild hyperkalemia, and progressive kidney disease. Genetic analysis of the REN gene can be performed to diagnose affected individuals. There is a third form of inherited interstitial kidney disease for which the cause has not been found. These individuals suffer from chronic kidney disease with no other identified clinical signs. Linkage to chromosome 1 has been identified in a number of these families. Proper diagnosis is valuable not only to the affected individual but also to the entire family and can facilitate treatment, transplantation, and research efforts. PMID:20807609

Bleyer, Anthony J.; Hart, P. Suzanne; Kmoch, Stanislav

2014-01-01

65

Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

2007-04-01

66

Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krag. Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans. J Appl Physiol 91: 2471-2478, 2001.—During acu- puncture treatments, acupuncture needles are manipulated to elicit the characteristic \\

HELENE M. LANGEVIN; DAVID L. CHURCHILL; JAMES R. FOX; GARY J. BADGER; BRIAN S. GARRA; MARTIN H. KRAG

2001-01-01

67

Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle  

SciTech Connect

We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

Beleggia, M. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F. [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungzentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

2014-07-14

68

Interstitial radiotherapy for early stage vaginal cancer. A new method of tumor localization.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the vagina is optimally treated primarily with teletherapy, followed by interstitial needle brachytherapy. Following teletherapy, identification of the original tumor site is frequently difficult. We describe a method of marking the tumor with an india ink "tattoo" at initial presentation, followed by placement of a purse-string suture and titanium hemoclips at the time of brachytherapy. A stable marker is created so that the location of the original vaginal tumor can be easily identified on dosimetric films. PMID:7683723

Finan, M A; Hoffman, M S; Greenberg, H; Roberts, W S; Cavanagh, D; Fiorica, J V

1993-03-01

69

Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles  

SciTech Connect

Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco [M.E. Mueller Research Center, University of Bern, Stauffacherstr. 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland); Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); M.E. Mueller Research Center, University of Bern, Stauffacherstr. 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland); Inselspital, Department of ORL, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

2005-06-15

70

Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1996-12-01

71

Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report.  

PubMed

We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis. PMID:22843376

Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

2012-09-01

72

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment Treatment for ILD is based ... performance, improving emotional well being and reducing hospitalizations. Lung Transplant If other therapies fail to adequately treat ...

73

Physiologic effects of dry needling.  

PubMed

During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids. PMID:23801002

Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

2013-08-01

74

The ACUSITT ultrasonic ablator: the first steerable needle with an integrated interventional tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steerability in percutaneous medical devices is highly desirable, enabling a needle or needle-like instrument to avoid sensitive structures (e.g. nerves or blood vessels), access obstructed anatomical targets, and compensate for the inevitable errors induced by registration accuracy thresholds and tissue deformation during insertion. Thus, mechanisms for needle steering have been of great interest in the engineering community in the past few years, and several have been proposed. While many interventional applications have been hypothesized for steerable needles (essentially anything deliverable via a regular needle), none have yet been demonstrated as far as the authors are aware. Instead, prior studies have focused on model validation, control, and accuracy assessment. In this paper, we present the first integrated steerable needle-interventional device. The ACUSITT integrates a multi-tube steerable Active Cannula (AC) with an Ultrasonic Interstitial Thermal Therapy ablator (USITT) to create a steerable percutaneous device that can deliver a spatially and temporally controllable (both mechanically and electronically) thermal dose profile. We present our initial experiments toward applying the ACUSITT to treat large liver tumors through a single entry point. This involves repositioning the ablator tip to several different locations, without withdrawing it from the liver capsule, under 3D Ultrasound image guidance. In our experiments, the ACUSITT was deployed to three positions, each 2cm apart in a conical pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of ablating large liver tumors 7cm in diameter without multiple parenchyma punctures.

Burdette, E. Clif; Rucker, D. Caleb; Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.; Croom, Jordon M.; Clarke, Clyde; Stolka, Philipp; Juang, Titania; Boctor, Emad M.; Webster, Robert J., III

2010-03-01

75

Electrochemical Process Makes Fine Needles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical process makes fine tungsten needles for use as microscopic probes or field-emission cathodes. Etching vessel filled with dense, inert lower liquid covered by less-dense, caustic etching solution. Newly formed needle breaks off upper part of wire in etchant and falls into can in inert liquid below. Improved process does not require close monitoring and left unattended for an indefinite time.

Watkins, J. L.

1986-01-01

76

On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 ??, - 463 ± 51 ?? and - 431 ± 59 ?? for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

2014-07-01

77

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

78

How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

79

The echogenicity of nerve blockade needles.  

PubMed

We performed a prospective, randomised study to evaluate the echogenicity of 11 regional block needles when inserted into a gel phantom at 45° in the ultrasound plane. Two hundred anaesthetists viewed in random sequence recordings of each needle as it was advanced into the phantom. Participants scored the needle for echogenicity on a scale of 0-10 and categorised the needle as 'hyperechoic' or 'standard'. The mean (95% CI) echogenicity score was 1.7 (1.4-2.0) units higher for three needles marketed as 'hyperechoic' compared with standard needles marketed by the same companies, p < 0.001. The odds ratios (95% CI) that an anaesthetist would categorise a needle as hyperechoic were: 5.3 (3.6-8.0) if the needle was marketed as hyperechoic, p < 0.001; and 1.7 (1.1-2.6) if regional anaesthetic experience was ? 1 year compared with < 1 year, p = 0.025. PMID:25495523

Fuzier, R; Casalprim, J; Bataille, B; Harper, I; Magues, J P

2015-04-01

80

Dormant Microbes in Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an inflammatory disease of the urinary bladder that has no known etiology. A microbial association with this disease has not been supported since routine cultures of urine from IC patients are usually negative. However, we have demonstrated the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in bladder biopsies from 29 percent of patients with IC, but not

Gerald J. Domingue; Gamal M. Ghoniem; Kenneth L. Bost; Cesar Fermin; Liset G. Human

1995-01-01

81

Cartilage interstitial fluidloadsupport in unconfinedcompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under physiological conditions of loading, articular cartilage is subjected to both compressive strains, normal to the articular surface, andtensile strains, tangential to the articular surface. Previous studies have shown that articular cartilage exhibits a much higher modulus in tension than in compression, and theoretical analyses have suggested that this tension-compression nonlinearity enhances the magnitude of interstitial fluid pressurization during loading

Ramaswamy Krishnan; Steven B. Nicoll

82

Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method  

PubMed Central

Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy. PMID:22191937

Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

2011-01-01

83

Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

2011-12-01

84

Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS{sub clinical}) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC{sub study}). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1-6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4-35%) and 7% (range, 2-14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC{sub study} and the IC/IS{sub clinical} were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10}, respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic resonance imaging-guided (pre)treatment planning with the IC/IS Utrecht applicator.

Nomden, Christel N., E-mail: c.nomden@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

85

Red needles signify dying pines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Reddish, dry needles are a sign of dying trees infested with mountain pine beetles.  Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa...

86

MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

2014-03-01

87

Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness.

Lee, Boeun; Balavenkataraman, Arvind; Sanghavi, Devang; Walter, Kristin

2015-01-01

88

Sirolimus induced granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Report a case of sirolimus induced granulomatous pneumonitis. Background Sirolimus is used in clinical transplantation as an immunosuppressive agent. Pulmonary toxicity does occur, but only a few cases of sirolimus associated granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis have been reported. Methods Case report and literature review. Results This 53-year-old woman with ESRD from polycystic kidney disease status post deceased donor kidney transplantation presented with fever, progressive dyspnea, and hypoxia for two weeks. She had been switched to sirolimus two months before admission. A CT scan of the chest revealed bilateral ill-defined patchy ground glass opacities. Extensive investigations were negative for infection. Video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy showed granulomatous interstitial pneumonitis. Her symptoms and infiltrates resolved after sirolimus discontinuation and corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions Drugs induced pneumonitis should always be considered in transplant patients after infectious or other etiologies have been excluded. Sirolimus can cause granulomatous infiltrates in the lung possibly secondary to T-cell mediated hypersensitivity.

Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Elsanjak, Abdelaziz; Laski, Melvin; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

2012-01-01

89

[Interstitial pneumonia related to mesalamine].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis since eight years who developed a diffuse interstitial pneumonia linked to mesalazine (oral and enemas). The adverse drug-related effect to mesalazine was strongly suggested regarding improvement upon discontinuation and relapse after reinstitution of mesalazine. To date, after 8 years, the patient has not any respiratory symptom which is another argument for the adverse drug-related effect to mesalazine. PMID:20299168

Lamsiah, T; Moudden, K; Baaj, M; Hadri, L

2010-03-01

90

Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction  

SciTech Connect

In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada)

2005-04-01

91

Prison needle exchange programs work.  

PubMed

On 27 October 2004 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Ontario Medical Association (OMA) released reports recommending that needle exchange programs (NEPs) be implemented in prisons, based on evidence that such programs promote and protect the health of both prisoners and prison staff. At the same time, the Scottish Prison Service announced that it was looking at providing such programs, and an Iranian physician reported on a pilot project in his country. PMID:15810131

2004-12-01

92

Needle insertion into soft tissue: a survey.  

PubMed

Needle insertion in soft tissue has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its application in minimally invasive percutaneous procedures such as biopsies and brachytherapy. This paper presents a survey of the current state of research on needle insertion in soft tissue. It examines the topic from several aspects, e.g. modeling needle insertion forces, modeling tissue deformation and needle deflection during insertion, robot-assisted needle insertion, and the effect of different trajectories on tissue deformation. All studies show that the axial force of a needle during insertion in soft tissue is the summation of different forces distributed along the needle shaft such as stiffness force, frictional force and cutting force. Some studies have modeled these forces. The force data in some procedures is used for identifying tissue layers as the needle is inserted or for path planning. Needle deflection and tissue deformation are major problems for accurate needle insertion and attempts have been made to model them. Using current models several insertion techniques have been developed which are briefly reviewed in this paper. PMID:16938481

Abolhassani, Niki; Patel, Rajni; Moallem, Mehrdad

2007-05-01

93

Comparison between predicted and actual dose distribution in interstitial therapy of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

During the period 1985-1986, 10 patients with lesions of the floor of the mouth or of the mobile part of the tongue were treated by interstitial curietherapie with iridium-192. In the patients treated with the looping technique essential differences were found between the predicted source configuration and that actually achieved, resulting in a disagreement between precalculated and actual dose distribution. To avoid this undesirable situation, a simple oral cavity applicator was constructed which guarantees parallelism and equidistance between the implanted needles. It was found that the use of this applicator resulted in an almost complete agreement between forecast and actual dose distribution. PMID:3217543

van 't Riet, A; Veen, R E; Mak, A C; Stam, P W; van Slooten, F H; te Loo, H J

1988-12-01

94

Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

Shukla, Pragya [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

2012-03-15

95

[Discussion on needling manipulation of Chifeng Yingyuan].  

PubMed

Regarding the needling manipulation, Chifeng Yingyuan, there are different descriptions in ancient medical literature and the current teaching materials or clinical reports, especially for the understanding recorded in Jinzhenfu Poem of Golden Needle). In the current teaching materials and clinical reports, it is described that the needle is inserted deeply at first, and then shallowly; afterward, the needle tip is pushed to the middle layer and manipulated with lifting, thrusting and rotating technique, combined with twisting and flying method. After analyzing the original description in the book and the feasibility of function and operation, the authors introduced their recognition on its manipulation and techniques in this article. This manipulation should be: the needle is inserted to the middle layer, afterward, the needle body is pulled and tilted toward each of the four directions, on this basis, then twisting and flying method is applied. PMID:25509741

Xu, Xin-yin; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Wu, Chang-zheng

2014-09-01

96

Studies on the kinetics process of tetra-needle-like ZnO whisker growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium gas controlling method was applied to prepare tetra-needle-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnO) using metallic zinc as the main raw material. The kinetic processes of the generation of T-ZnO were divided into two first-order procedures, the formation of a central part and the growth of needle-like crystals of the whisker. The control of the two processes was realized by the adjusting oxidation rate. The reaction ratios of nuclei formation and needle crystal growth were calculated as 0.3 and 1.08 min -1, respectively, from which the weight proportion of needles to nuclei was deduced as 1:20.

Zhou, Zuowan; Liu, Jingjing; Hu, Shuchun

2005-03-01

97

Interstitial leukocyte migration in vivo  

PubMed Central

Rapid leukocyte motility is essential for immunity and host defense. There has been progress in understanding the molecular signals that regulate leukocyte motility both in vitro and in vivo. However, a gap remains in understanding how complex signals are prioritized to result in directed migration, which is critical for both adaptive and innate immune function. Here we focus on interstitial migration and how external cues are translated into intracellular signaling pathways that regulate leukocyte polarity, directional sensing and motility in three-dimensional spaces. PMID:23797028

Lam, Pui-ying; Huttenlocher, Anna

2013-01-01

98

Accuracy of Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology for Diagnosing Salivary Gland Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Core needle biopsy is a relatively new technique used to diagnose salivary gland lesions, and its role in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology needs to be refined. Methods: We compared the results of 228 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and 371 fine needle aspiration procedures performed on major salivary gland tumors with their postoperative histological diagnoses. Results: Core needle biopsy resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and more accurate tumor subtyping, especially for malignant tumors, than fine needle aspiration. No patient developed major complications after core needle biopsy. Conclusions: We recommend ultrasoundguided core needle biopsy as the primary diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of patients with salivary gland lesions, especially when malignancy is suspected.

Song, In Hye; Song, Joon Seon; Sung, Chang Ohk; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

2015-01-01

99

Internal friction peaks due to interstitials in bcc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Richter's and Snoek's original works established the existence of an anelastic relaxation produced by a stress-induced interstitial reorientation in bcc metals. This anelastic relaxation, now referred to as a Snoek peak, has been studied extensively and well characterized in the past for the interstitials carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The existence of a hydrogen Snoek peak in bcc metals has been a matter of some controversy, however. We have studied relaxation peaks in V, Nb, and V-Nb alloys recently. The alloys have complete mutual solubility and are of interest since they have an extremely high room temperature solid solubility for hydrogen. They also have, over a certain composition range, not shown any hydride phase precipitation at temperatures as low as 4K. Thus, if a hydrogen Snoek peak does exist, it should be found in such alloys. Indeed there is evidence now of a spectrum of hydrogen relaxation peaks below room temperature. Furthermore, there is a large misfit of V in Nb and Nb in V and, possibly, some chemical interaction such that trapping (or antitrapping) of the interstitials at the substitutional sites, causing solute-interstitial peaks, can be characterized. The present paper provides an overview of our observations regarding: the effect of hydrogen on the oxygen and nitrogen Snoek peaks in pure V and Nb, The oxygen relaxation peaks in V-Nb alloys, The hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys, and the effect of oxygen on the hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys. 52 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Buck, O.; Carlson, O.N.; Indrawirawan, H.; Brasche, L.J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

1991-01-01

100

Fiberglass needle electrodes for transmural cardiac mapping.  

PubMed

We developed a new method for fabricating plunge needle electrodes for use in cardiac mapping. The needles have 12 electrodes with 1-mm spacing, are 0.5 mm in diameter, and are fabricated from fiberglass reinforced epoxy. They are stiff enough to be easily inserted into beating hearts and durable enough to be reused many times. We found that these new needles elicit smaller, more quickly resolving injury potentials, and when inserted in a row with 2-mm spacing, disrupt ventricular fibrillation activation patterns less than traditional steel needles. PMID:12549747

Rogers, Jack M; Melnick, Sharon B; Huang, Jian

2002-12-01

101

Getting Over Your Fear of Needles  

MedlinePLUS

... Successful Donation Donation FAQs Types of Donations Double Red Cells Platelets Plasma Autologous and Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient ...

102

Discarded Needles Do Not Increase Soon After the Opening of a Needle Exchange Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of a Needle Exchange Program (NEP) on the quantity and geographic distribution of discarded needles on the streets of Baltimore, Maryland, and presents methods to survey discarded needles in the community. A random sample of 32 city blocks located within high-drug-use census tracts, stratified by east and west sides of the city and by proximity

Meg C. Doherty; Richard S. Garfein; David Vlahov; Benjamin Junge; Paul J. Rathouz; Noya Galai; James C. Anthony; Peter Beilenson

103

Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional n...

104

Transition metals in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on the diffusion, solubility and electrical activity of 3d transition metals in silicon. Transition elements (especially, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) diffuse interstitially and stay in the interstitial site in thermal equilibrium at the diffusion temperature. The parameters of the liquidus curves are identical for the Si:Ti — Si:Ni melts, indicating comparable silicon-metal interaction

Eicke R. Weber

1983-01-01

105

Interstitial vascularity in fibrosing alveolitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate interstitial vascularity in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) and in fibrosing alveolitis associated with systemic sclerosis (FASSc). Open lung biopsies from eight patients with CFA, nine patients with FASSc, and normal lung from 12 patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer were studied. Markers for endothelial cells (CD34) and cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) were localized by sequential immunohistochemistry and quantified using computer-assisted analysis. Vascular distribution was evaluated at increasing distances (up to 160 microm) from the airspaces. Vessel density was markedly reduced in both FASSc (3.9%) and in CFA (4.5%) compared with control samples (20.4%, p < 0.0001). The percentage of tissue occupied by vessels decreased with increasing distance from alveoli in control samples but not in CFA or FASSc samples. Endothelial cell proliferation indices were increased in FASSc but not in CFA, compared with control samples (p = 0.006). In conclusion, there is net vascular ablation and redistribution of blood vessels in areas of interstitial thickening in both CFA and FASSc, which may contribute to gas exchange impairment. PMID:12406847

Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Walsh, David A; Salmon, Michael; Wells, Athol U; Sestini, Piersante; Nicholson, Andrew G; Veeraraghavan, Srihari; Bishop, Anne E; Romanska, Hanna M; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Black, Carol M; Du Bois, Roland M

2003-02-01

106

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.  

PubMed

AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

2008-02-01

107

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. Main conclusions: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

2008-01-01

108

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines  

PubMed Central

Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May–June drought. Main conclusions These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer–autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little’s (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey’s (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

2008-01-01

109

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2013-04-01

110

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2011-04-01

111

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2014-04-01

112

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2010-04-01

113

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2012-04-01

114

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

2014-04-01

115

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

2012-04-01

116

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid Play Video Clip (00:04:19) Your Radiologist ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

117

Chlorambucil-induced acute interstitial pneumonitis.  

PubMed

Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil. PMID:24707414

Shafqat, Hammad; Olszewski, Adam J

2014-01-01

118

City of Needles, California Employee Report  

E-print Network

to adopt Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards ("RPS") as mandated by Senate Bill SBX1 2 Submitted By: David Council of the City of Needles declining to adopt Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards ("RPS") as mandated by Senate Bill SBX1 2 Background: The Needles Board of Public Utilities ("BPU") approved the adoption

119

Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

DeSimone, Jeff

2005-01-01

120

[Academic origin of round magnetic needle and standardization operation].  

PubMed

The origin and development of round magnetic needle was explored, and the structure of round magnetic needle was introduced in detail, including the handle, the body and the tip of the needle. The clinical opera tion of round magnetic needle were standardized from the aspects of the methods of holding needle, manipulation skill, tapping position, strength of manipulation, application scope and matters needing attention, which laid foundation for the popularization and application of round magnetic needle. PMID:25233666

Cheng, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Sheng; Meng, Li-Qiang; Shi, Rui-Qi; Ji, Lai-Xi

2014-07-01

121

Ossicular injury caused by a knitting needle.  

PubMed

Ossicular chain injury is a complication of trauma caused to temporal bone, but rarely, it can also occur due to direct trauma caused to ossicular chain by a penetrating injury. Patients usually suffering from conductive hearing loss and vertigo, although a facial nerve injury is also a possibility. We are describing here a case of young male who presented with a penetrating trauma to the left ear, caused by a metallic knitting needle, that resulted in ossicular chain disruption. The patient suffered from severe vertigo and conductive hearing loss. He was advised complete bed rest and vertin for controlling vertigo, after which he recovered. Computed tomography is the investigation of choice for detecting and characterizing such injuries, for proper management of patients. Penetrating middle ear trauma differs from blunt trauma, as the mechanism of injury is distinct. The injury is usually isolated and an urgent repair may be needed. Hearing results after an immediate or a delayed ossiculoplasty are apparently satisfying, although late cases are assumed to be associated with adhesions or fibrosis. PMID:24551716

Singh, Amritpal; Kaur, Maninder

2013-12-01

122

Ossicular Injury Caused by A Knitting Needle  

PubMed Central

Ossicular chain injury is a complication of trauma caused to temporal bone, but rarely, it can also occur due to direct trauma caused to ossicular chain by a penetrating injury. Patients usually suffering from conductive hearing loss and vertigo, although a facial nerve injury is also a possibility. We are describing here a case of young male who presented with a penetrating trauma to the left ear, caused by a metallic knitting needle, that resulted in ossicular chain disruption. The patient suffered from severe vertigo and conductive hearing loss. He was advised complete bed rest and vertin for controlling vertigo, after which he recovered. Computed tomography is the investigation of choice for detecting and characterizing such injuries, for proper management of patients. Penetrating middle ear trauma differs from blunt trauma, as the mechanism of injury is distinct. The injury is usually isolated and an urgent repair may be needed. Hearing results after an immediate or a delayed ossiculoplasty are apparently satisfying, although late cases are assumed to be associated with adhesions or fibrosis. PMID:24551716

Singh, Amritpal; Kaur, Maninder

2013-01-01

123

Acute In Vivo Performance Evaluation of the Fluorescence Affinity Sensor in the Intravascular and Interstitial Space in Swine  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed and compared the performance levels of a fiber-coupled fluorescence affinity sensor (FAS) for glucose detection in the intradermal tissue and intravascular bed during glucose clamping and insulin administration in a large animal model. Research Design and Methods The FAS (BioTex Inc., Houston, TX) was implanted in interstitial tissue and in the intravenous space in nondiabetic, anesthetized pigs over 6–7 h. For intradermal assessment, a needle-type FAS was implanted in the upper back using a hypodermic needle. For intravenous assessment, the FAS was inserted through a catheter into the femoral artery and vein. Blood glucose changes were induced by infusion of dextrose and insulin through a catheterized ear or jugular vein. Results Based on retrospective analysis, the mean absolute relative error (MARE) of the sensor in blood and interstitial tissue was 11.9% [standard deviation (SD) = ±9.6%] and 23.8% (SD = ±19.4%), respectively. When excluding data sets from sensors that were affected by exogenous insulin, the MARE for those sensors tested in interstitial tissue was reduced to 16.3% (SD = ±12.5%). Conclusions The study demonstrated that the performance level of the FAS device implanted in interstitial tissue and blood can be very high. However, under certain circumstances, exogenous insulin caused the glucose concentration in interstitial tissue to be lower than in blood, which resulted in an overall lower level of accuracy of the FAS device. How significant this physiological effect is in insulin-treated persons with diabetes remains to be seen. In contrast, the level of accuracy of the FAS device in blood was very high because of high mass transfer conditions in blood. While the use of the FAS in both body sites will need further validation, its application in critically ill patients looks particularly promising. PMID:23439158

Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P.; Gowda, Ashok; McNichols, Roger; Rios, Jesse; Cohn, William

2013-01-01

124

Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24960482

Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

2014-01-01

125

Plasma needle: a non-destructive atmospheric plasma source for fine surface treatment of (bio)materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-thermal plasma source (`plasma needle') generated under atmospheric pressure by means of radio-frequency excitation has been characterized. Plasma appears as a small (sub-mm) glow at the tip of a metal pin. It operates in helium, argon, nitrogen and mixtures of He with air. Electrical measurements show that plasma needle operates at relatively low voltages (200–500 V peak-to-peak) and the

E Stoffels; A J Flikweert; W W Stoffels; G M W Kroesen

2002-01-01

126

Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method

T. El Khoukhi; R. Cherkaoui El Moursli; A. Chouak; Z. Moutia; M. Lferde; A. Senhou; A. Gaudry; S. Ayrault; M. Chakir

2005-01-01

127

Automatic Steering of Manually Inserted Needles  

PubMed Central

Bevel-tipped flexible needles can be robotically steered to reach clinical targets along curvilinear paths in 3D. Manual needle insertion allows the clinician to control the insertion speed, ensuring patient safety. This paper presents a control law for automatic 3D steering of manually inserted flexible needles, enabling path-following control. A look-ahead proportional controller for position and orientation is presented. The look-ahead distance is a linear function of insertion speed. Simulations in a 3D brain-like environment demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller. Experimental results also show the feasibility of this technique in 2D and 3D environments. PMID:24752485

Wu, Guofan; Li, Xiao; Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2014-01-01

128

Imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation of liver tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging plays a crucial role in the treatment of liver tumors by interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP). Ultrasound allows location of the tumors and enables guided placement of thin hollow needles (through which the optical fibers are passed) into the appropriate part of the tumor. Heating of the tumor during ILP is seen as an enlarging echogenic zone around the fiber tips. However, the margins of the echogenic zone are often ill-defined and irregular and ultrasound cannot clearly differentiate treated from untreated tumor on follow-up scans. CT (pre-contrast, dynamic, and delayed) is used to define the number and sizes of metastases prior to ILP. 24 hrs after ILP dynamic enhanced CT clearly shows the laser-induced necrosis as a well-defined non-enhancing area, although real-time CT monitoring of ILP shows very little change around the fiber tip. MRI (standard spin-echo sequences) has been used to evaluate lesions post-ILP. On T1-weighted images the lesions appear heterogenous with areas of high and low signal intensity. With these current sequences the lesion-to-liver contrast is not as good as with dynamic enhanced CT. Conclusion: Ultrasound plays a useful role in treatment delivery. At present the post-ILP evaluation is best performed using CT. MRI has the potential for real-time monitoring of ILP using temperature sensitive sequences.

Amin, Zahir; Donald, J. J.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.; Paley, Martyn; Lees, William R.; Bown, Stephen G.

1993-07-01

129

REVIEW Open Access Interstitial lung diseases in children  

E-print Network

as therapeutic strategies. The follow- ing diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia pneumonia (formerly Hamman-Rich syndrome), and non specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) [4]. In 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

131

Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis.  

PubMed

Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H; Friedman, Avner

2014-09-30

132

Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

2010-01-01

133

Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

2014-01-01

134

Interstitial computing : utilizing spare cycles on supercomputers.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of utilizing unused cycles on supercomputers through the use of many small jobs. What we call 'interstitial computing,' is important to supercomputer centers for both productivity and political reasons. Interstitial computing makes use of the fact that small jobs are more or less fungible consumers of compute cycles that are more efficient for bin packing than the typical jobs on a supercomputer. An important feature of interstitial computing is that it not have a significant impact on the makespan of native jobs on the machine. Also, a facility can obtain higher utilizations that may only be otherwise possible with more complicated schemes or with very long wait times. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides theoretical and empirical guidelines for users and administrators for how currently unused supercomputer cycles may be exploited. We find that that interstitial computing is a more effective means for increasing machine utilization than increasing native job run times or size.

Clearwater, Scott Harvey (Woodside, CA); Kleban, Stephen David

2003-06-01

135

Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... age groups. Diseases more common in infancy include: Surfactant (sur-FAK-tant) dysfunction mutations Developmental disorders, such ... as the bronchioles, neuroendocrine cells, alveoli, capillary network, surfactant, and interstitial space. Rate This Content: Next >> March ...

136

BAL findings in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which has the histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), is a progressive interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) have a better prognosis than UIP, and may present with a clinical picture identical to IPF. The authors hypothesised that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings may distinguish between UIP and NSIP, and have prognostic value within disease subgroups. BAL findings were studied retrospectively in 54 patients with histologically proven (surgical biopsy) idiopathic UIP (n=35) or fibrotic NSIP (n=19), all presenting clinically as IPF. These findings were also compared with the BAL profile of patients with other categories of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. BAL total and differential cell counts did not differ between the two groups. Survival was better in NSIP. In neither group were BAL findings predictive of survival or changes in lung function at 1 yr, even after adjustment for disease severity, smoking and treatment. BAL differential counts in fibrotic NSIP differed from respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, but not from desquamative interstitial pneumonia or cellular NSIP. The authors conclude that bronchoalveolar lavage findings do not discriminate between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in patients presenting with clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and have no prognostic value, once the distinction between the two has been made histologically. PMID:12952254

Veeraraghavan, S; Latsi, P I; Wells, A U; Pantelidis, P; Nicholson, A G; Colby, T V; Haslam, P L; Renzoni, E A; du Bois, R M

2003-08-01

137

Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

2000-01-01

138

Needle polyamine concentrations and potassium nutrition in Scats pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The response of free polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in needles of Scats pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) to varying needle potassium concentrations was investigated in two potassium fertilization experiments on drained peatlands. A significant negative correlation was observed between putrescine and potassium concentrations in needles. Putrescine responded more sensitively to decreasing needle K concentrations during the growing season than

TYTTI SARJALA; SEPPO KAUNISTO

139

Selection of suitable sewing needle using machine learning techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of suitable sewing needle is one of the most important parameters for ensuring an effective and fault-free sewing process. This task requires good knowledge of basic characteristics of a sewing needle, i.e. needle type, point shape and needle fineness. Also good knowledge of sewing materials is required. The contribution presents an analysis of important parameters that influence the sewing

Zoran Stjepanovic; Helena Strah

1998-01-01

140

[Interstitial lung disease due to domestic moulds].  

PubMed

Identifying the role of fungi present in the domestic environment in the development of interstitial pneumonia can be a difficult clinical problem. We report a case of interstitial lung disease case occurring in a 53-year-old patient. He presented with profound hypoxemia (PaO(2) 54mmHg). Chest CT showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Initial blood tests for allergy and autoimmune disease were negative. Faced with a worsening of his clinical status after returning home he was hospitalized several times. At fibreoptic bronchoscopy, multiple white deposits were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage with differential cell count was performed, revealing a 23% lymphocytosis. Serology for specific household molds showed moderate reaction to various molds found in homes, especially Stachybotrys chartarum. Pulmonary function tests revealed a moderate restrictive pattern with impaired diffusion of carbon monoxide and a bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia was found at lung biopsy. After a permanent move to a new residence, clinical parameters, radiological, biological and functional normalized. The final diagnosis was interstitial lung disease related to mycotoxins of S. Chartarum. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis to domestic mold or interstitial lung disease secondary to mycotoxins should be considered in patients presenting with interstitial pneumonia and requires specific investigations to ensure that an environmental cause with an allergic or toxic role is not missed. PMID:21943538

Blanc, A-L; Delhaes, L; Copin, M-C; Stach, B; Faivre, J-B; Wallaert, B

2011-09-01

141

Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

2012-01-01

142

Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.  

PubMed

Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

2013-10-01

143

Segregation of Mn2+ Dopants as Interstitials in SrTiO3 Grain Boundaries  

SciTech Connect

Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to substitute Ti in bulk SrTiO3, but Mn2+ segregates inside grain boundaries at both Sr and interstitial sites. Mn interstitial doping has never been reported, but is found possible with the formation of Sr vacancies. This finding is significantly different from the amphoteric doping of Mn2+ substituting Sr and Mn4+ substituting Ti sites, therefore leads to different understanding on the defect mediated electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped perovskites.

Yang, Hao; Kotula, Paul G.; Sato, Yukio; Chi, Miaofang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-10-03

144

Needle Insertion Test by Porcine Ligamentum Flavum  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Needles for the epidural anesthesia are designed, as a curved tip allows direction of the catheter in the epidural space.\\u000a Purpose of the current study was to check the effect of the curved tip and slower insertion speed on puncturing dynamics for\\u000a the ligamentum flavum. Porcine spines from a slaughterhouse were employed. Two Tuhoy needles fabricated by different manufacture\\u000a and

K. Naemura; H. Saito

145

Metals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reviews the evolution of metals since the discovery of copper in ancient times, and looks at how science and technology are continually upgrading the design and development of metal alloys. There are explanations of five ways the chemical composition of an alloy can be modified to produce different properties; how heat treating is used to process metals; how mining metals can be sped up by microwaving metals; how metals are deformed to test them for structural properties; and how nano-crystalline alloys are designed using computer models to find the best chemical composition and processing parameters with minimal experimentation. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

146

[The origin and development of fire needle therapy].  

PubMed

By reading ancient acupuncture-moxibustion literature, the authors expound the origin and development of fire needle therapy from its sprout, development and mature stage, reveal the origin of fire needle, development of needling instrument and manipulation methods, indications of fire needle therapy and so on, in order to have a better learning on fire needle therapy and make it applicative in clinic. PMID:23885626

Huang, Chang-Jin; Huang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chu-Yun

2013-05-01

147

Effect of thinning on anatomical adaptations of Norway spruce needles.  

PubMed

Conifers and other trees are constantly adapting to changes in light conditions, water/nutrient supply and temperatures by physiological and morphological modifications of their foliage. However, the relationship between physiological processes and anatomical characteristics of foliage has been little explored in trees. In this study we evaluated needle structure and function in Norway spruce families exposed to different light conditions and transpiration regimes. We compared needle characteristics of sun-exposed and shaded current-year needles in a control plot and a thinned plot with 50% reduction in stand density. Whole-tree transpiration rates remained similar across plots, but increased transpiration of lower branches after thinning implies that sun-exposed needles in the thinned plot were subjected to higher water stress than sun-exposed needles in the control plot. In general, morphological and anatomical needle parameters increased with increasing tree height and light intensity. Needle width, needle cross-section area, needle stele area and needle flatness (the ratio of needle thickness to needle width) differed most between the upper and lower canopy. The parameters that were most sensitive to the altered needle water status of the upper canopy after thinning were needle thickness, needle flatness and percentage of stele area in needle area. These results show that studies comparing needle structure or function between tree species should consider not only tree height and light gradients, but also needle water status. Unaccounted for differences in needle water status may have contributed to the variable relationship between needle structure and irradiance that has been observed among conifers. PMID:21891783

Gebauer, Roman; Volarík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

2011-10-01

148

Effect of the silicon/oxide interface on interstitials: Di-interstitial recombination  

E-print Network

Effect of the silicon/oxide interface on interstitials: Di-interstitial recombination M. E. Law recombine at an oxide/silicon interface. Previous experimental work produces contradictory results. Transient enhanced diffusion experiments suggest a nearly infinite surface recombination rate, while

Florida, University of

149

Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

2009-02-01

150

Incidence and severity of Arcanobacterium pyogenes injection site abscesses with needle or needle-free injection.  

PubMed

Nursery-age pigs (n=198) were used to evaluate the difference in abscess formation at needle-free jet and conventional needle-and-syringe injection sites. Needle-free jet injection was used to administer injections in the neck and ham on one side of the animal whereas needle-and-syringe was used for neck and ham injections on the opposite side. Immediately prior to injection, the injection site surfaces were contaminated with an inoculum of Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Each pig was humanely euthanized 27 or 28 days after injections. Histopathological results showed that needle-free jet injection was associated with more abscesses than needle-and-syringe injection at both neck (P=0.0625) and ham (P=0.0313) injection sites. Out of 792 injection sites, only 13 abscesses were observed, with 12 of those present at needle-free jet injection sites. Needle-free jet injection may increase the occurrence of injection site abscesses that necessitate carcass trimming at pork processing plants. PMID:22854129

Gerlach, Bryce M; Houser, Terry A; Hollis, Larry C; Tokach, Michael D; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Higgins, James J; Anderson, Gary A; Goehring, Brandon L

2012-12-01

151

Needle-in-Needle Technique for Percutaneous Retrieval of a Fractured Biopsy Needle during CT-Guided Biopsy of the Thoracic Spine.  

PubMed

Common complications related to CT-guided percutaneous thoracic bone biopsy procedures include pneumothorax and muscular hematoma. Serious, but rare complications include paralysis, nerve injury, CSF leak, and aortic injury. Device failure has not been well documented in the literature. We discuss our experience with biopsy needle breakage during retrieval of a core specimen and the technique used to help retrieve an embedded needle using a CT fluoroscopic-guided, needle-in-needle approach. A 43 year-old man with Stage IIIa NSCLC was found to have a T11 vertebral body lesion as seen on PET, CT, and MR imaging. The patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy in the prone position. The T11 vertebral body was localized and cannulated using the percutaneous Bonopty(®) (Apriomed, Upsala, Sweden) needle device. After fine needle aspiration samples were obtained, a core needle biopsy was attempted with a 16-gauge device. The needle fractured 4 cm deep to the skin during removal of a sclerotic lesion, leaving a retained portion within the pedicle and vertebral body. Using CT-guided fluoroscopy, a large diameter Murphy M2 needle was advanced over the distal portion of the fractured Bonopty needle. The Murphy M2 needle was advanced distal to the tip of the Bonopty needle and removed, capturing the broken Bonopty penetration needle along with a core specimen. Larger-bore biopsy needle systems and/or a coaxial system should be used to perform core biopsies in sclerotic lesions to prevent device fracture. If there is device fracture, a larger-bore needle may be used to help capture the fractured needle and prevent open surgery. PMID:25363270

Shaikh, Hamza; Thawani, Jayesh; Pukenas, Bryan

2014-10-31

152

Vacancy--interstitial interactions in crystalline Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive experimental and theoretical investigations of fundamental defects in Si have led to the conclusion that both interstitials and vacancies diffuse athermally according to a carrier recombination-enhanced Bourgoin-Corbett mechanism. It is therefore widely accepted that Si vacancy -interstitial pairs, or Frenkel pairs (FPs), either rapidly recombine or dissociate, even at cryogenic temperatures. This has recently been challenged by X-ray scattering experiments that are interpreted to show FPs in Si persisting to > 100 K (Partyka, P., et al., Phys. Rev. B v. 64 art. no. 235207). Here we report first-principles density functional theory calculations of the properties of FPs in Si. A novel electronic interaction involving charge transfer from the interstitial to the vacancy in a FP is described. In a bound FP, this interaction suppresses the athermal diffusion mechanisms of both the interstitial and vacancy. This reconciles the existing experimental results by establishing that there are thermal barriers to the recombination or dissociation of bound FPs, but not affecting the previously described athermal diffusion of isolated interstitials and vacancies. This work supported by the AFOSR-MURI program.

Beck, Matthew J.; Tsetseris, L.; Pantelides, S. T.

2007-03-01

153

The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFR?+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFR?+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

2014-01-01

154

The significance of interstitial cells in neurogastroenterology.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFR?(+)) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFR?(+) cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

2014-07-31

155

Hyper- and Viscoelastic Modeling of Needle and Brain Tissue Interaction  

PubMed Central

Deep needle insertion into brain is important for both diagnostic and therapeutic clinical interventions. We have developed an automated system for robotically steering flexible needles within the brain to improve targeting accuracy. In this work, we have developed a finite element needle-tissue interaction model that allows for the investigation of safe parameters for needle steering. The tissue model implemented contains both hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties to simulate the instantaneous and time-dependent responses of brain tissue. Several needle models were developed with varying parameters to study the effects of the parameters on tissue stress, strain and strain rate during needle insertion and rotation. The parameters varied include needle radius, bevel angle, bevel tip fillet radius, insertion speed, and rotation speed. The results will guide the design of safe needle tips and control systems for intracerebral needle steering. PMID:25571492

Lehocky, Craig A.; Shi, Yixing; Riviere, Cameron N.

2014-01-01

156

Characterization of Pre-Curved Needles for Steering in Tissue  

PubMed Central

Needles with tip asymmetry deflect upon insertion into soft tissue, an effect that can be used to steer needles within the body. This paper presents a phenomenological characterization of the steering behavior of pre-curved needles, which have tip asymmetry due to curvature of the needle near the tip. We describe needle construction methods and a needle shaft triangulation algorithm to compute the shape of the needle based on images. Experimental results show that pre-curved needles possess greater dexterity than bevel-tipped needles and achieve radii of curvature similar to pre-bent needles. For long pre-curve arc lengths, the radius of curvature of the needle was found to approach the radius of curvature of the pre-curve. Pre-curved needles were found to display behaviors not seen with bevel-tipped needles, such as the insertion velocity influencing the path of the tip within the tissue and the ability to plastically deform the needle during steering. PMID:19963994

Wedlick, Thomas R.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

157

Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-print Network

It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation from Population III objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process they are generally modelled as (1) needle-like spheroids in terms of the Rayleigh approximation; (2) infinite cylinders; and (3) the antenna theory. We show here that the Rayleigh approximation is not valid since the Rayleigh criterion is not satisfied for highly conducting needles. We also show that the available intergalactic iron dust, if modelled as infinite cylinders, is not sufficient to supply the required opacity at long wavelengths to obtain the observed isotropy and Planckian nature of the CMB. If appealing to the antenna theory, conducting iron needles with exceedingly large elongations (10^4) appear able to provide sufficient opacity to thermalize the CMB within the iron density limit. But the applicability of the antenna theory to exceedingly thin needles of nanometer/micrometer in thickness needs to be justified.

Aigen Li

2002-09-19

158

Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited  

SciTech Connect

Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece)] [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom) [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

2013-11-21

159

An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

1989-11-01

160

Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

2011-03-01

161

Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

Haseler, Luke J., E-mail: l.haseler@griffith.edu.au [Griffith University, Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute (Australia); Sibbitt, Randy R., E-mail: THESIBB2@aol.com [Montana Interventional and Dgnstc Radiation (United States); Sibbitt, Wilmer L., E-mail: wsibbitt@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Michael, Adrian A., E-mail: adrian_a_michael@yahoo.com [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Gasparovic, Charles M., E-mail: chuck@unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MIND Institute at the University of New Mexico (United States); Bankhurst, Arthur D., E-mail: abankhurst@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)

2011-06-15

162

[Needle aspiration of ovarian cysts. Our experience].  

PubMed

80 patients underwent ultrasound guided cyst puncture of ovarian cysts. Six patients were pregnant and in four of them needle aspiration was executed through the transvaginal tract. The sediment aspirated was examined by a cytologic method and when possible it was also correlated to a histological test. Technique and results have been dealt with. No relevant complication was found. Finally, the echoguided (induced) needle aspiration is a simple and safe method to treat benign ovarian cysts in fertile women. It is particularly advisable in pregnancy and in patients for whom both laparascopy and traditional surgery are not practicable. PMID:7885611

De Rosa, G; Dell'Isola, A; Cerrone, M; Lippiello, A; Catalano, D

1994-12-01

163

Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

2001-06-01

164

Ultrasonic Quantification of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Through Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is characteristic of solid tumors. Elevated TIFP inhibits the assimilation of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue as well as it induces mechanical strain triggering cell proliferation in solid tumors. Common solid epithelial tumors of A431 carcinoma cells exhibit a TIFP of about 10-15 mmHg measured conventionally through wick-in-needle technique. A new scheme to determine topography and acoustic impedance in solid tumor is proposed through scanning acoustic microscopy. The change in amplitude and time of flight at 30 MHz acoustic signal is used to quantify the growth pattern and to calibrate elevation of TIFP. The wide variability of amplitude and frequency in topographic sections indicate discrete envelopes of individual tumors with localized TIFP. Further investigations in applying this non-invasive method as a means of measuring TIFP in subcutaneous mice xenograft tumors in situ could also enhance understanding of tumor microenvironment and vessel architecture in living tissue.

Pflanzer, Ralph; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Hofmann, Matthias

165

Interstitial radiation therapy for hepatic metastases: sonographic guidance for applicator placement.  

PubMed

A new technique is reported for the treatment of hepatic metastases using sonography-directed percutaneous placement of a 14-gauge needle applicator and a high-intensity "remote afterloading" iridium-192 (Ir-192) source for interstitial radiation therapy. The results with six patients show that the procedure is easily performed, patient tolerance is good, and there is minimal disruption of the patient's lifestyle. Hospitalizations have been less than 24 hr. Partial response or stable disease in the liver was observed in all six patients. Tumoricidal doses up to 5000 rad (cGy) in a single treatment with durations from 7 to 41 min were achieved in small volumes (less than 25 cm3) with no clinically significant toxicity on follow-up evaluations from 2-6 months. The technique appears to ablate discrete metastatic tumor deposits in the liver. PMID:3524158

Dritschilo, A; Grant, E G; Harter, K W; Holt, R W; Rustgi, S N; Rodgers, J E

1986-08-01

166

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

2010-04-01

167

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

2011-04-01

168

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

2012-04-01

169

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

2014-04-01

170

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...needle. (a) Identification. An emergency airway needle is a device intended to puncture a patient's cricothyroid membrane to provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

2013-04-01

171

Seed misplacement and stabilizing needles in transperineal permanent prostate implants  

E-print Network

seeds and needles. The needle measurements are: insertion angle, the ratio of post-implant over pre-implant and possibly post-implant seed migration. Recog- nizing that prostate motion might be an important factor

Pouliot, Jean

172

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of device may include a single or double lumen needle and component parts, including needle guides, such as those used with ultrasound. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin testing,...

2012-04-01

173

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of device may include a single or double lumen needle and component parts, including needle guides, such as those used with ultrasound. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin testing,...

2013-04-01

174

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of device may include a single or double lumen needle and component parts, including needle guides, such as those used with ultrasound. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin testing,...

2011-04-01

175

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of device may include a single or double lumen needle and component parts, including needle guides, such as those used with ultrasound. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin testing,...

2014-04-01

176

Protect Yourself, Protect Others: Safe Options for Home Needle Disposal  

MedlinePLUS

... Residential Home Needle Drop-off Syringe Exchange Hazardous Waste” “Special Waste” Mail-back Service Destruction Collection Sites Programs Centers ... used posal site already set up that “special waste” pickup service your used needles for new comes ...

177

The relationship between fibromyalgia and interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a relatively uncommon and enigmatic disorder characterized by pain in the bladder and pelvic region, typically accompanied by urinary urgency and frequency. Fibromyalgia is a more common disorder, with the prominent symptoms being diffuse musculoskeletal pain and fatigue, and it has been well established that there is substantial clinical overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

Daniel J. Clauw; Maria Schmidt; David Radulovic; Andrea Singer; Paul Katz; John Bresette

1997-01-01

178

Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging-Based Needle Visualization  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound-guided needle placement is widely used in the clinical setting, particularly for central venous catheter placement, tissue biopsy and regional anesthesia. Difficulties with ultrasound guidance in these areas often result from steep needle insertion angles and spatial offsets between the imaging plane and the needle. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging leads to improved needle visualization because it uses a standard diagnostic scanner to perform radiation force based elasticity imaging, creating a displacement map that displays tissue stiffness variations. The needle visualization in ARFI images is independent of needle-insertion angle and also extends needle visibility out of plane. Although ARFI images portray needles well, they often do not contain the usual B-mode landmarks. Therefore, a three-step segmentation algorithm has been developed to identify a needle in an ARFI image and overlay the needle prediction on a coregistered B-mode image. The steps are: (1) contrast enhancement by median filtration and Laplacian operator filtration, (2) noise suppression through displacement estimate correlation coefficient thresholding and (3) smoothing by removal of outliers and best-fit line prediction. The algorithm was applied to data sets from horizontal 18, 21 and 25 gauge needles between 0–4 mm offset in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and to 18G needles on the transducer axis (in plane) between 10° and 35° from the horizontal. Needle tips were visualized within 2 mm of their actual position for both horizontal needle orientations up to 1.5 mm off set in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and on-axis angled needles between 10°–35° above the horizontal orientation. We conclude that segmented ARFI images overlaid on matched B-mode images hold promise for improved needle visibility in many clinical applications. PMID:21608445

Rotemberg, Veronica; Palmeri, Mark; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Grant, Stuart; Macleod, David; Nightingale, Kathryn

2011-01-01

179

Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging-based needle visualization.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided needle placement is widely used in the clinical setting, particularly for central venous catheter placement, tissue biopsy and regional anesthesia. Difficulties with ultrasound guidance in these areas often result from steep needle insertion angles and spatial offsets between the imaging plane and the needle. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging leads to improved needle visualization because it uses a standard diagnostic scanner to perform radiation force based elasticity imaging, creating a displacement map that displays tissue stiffness variations. The needle visualization in ARFI images is independent of needle-insertion angle and also extends needle visibility out of plane. Although ARFI images portray needles well, they often do not contain the usual B-mode landmarks. Therefore, a three-step segmentation algorithm has been developed to identify a needle in an ARFI image and overlay the needle prediction on a coregistered B-mode image. The steps are: (1) contrast enhancement by median filtration and Laplacian operator filtration, (2) noise suppression through displacement estimate correlation coefficient thresholding and (3) smoothing by removal of outliers and best-fit line prediction. The algorithm was applied to data sets from horizontal 18, 21 and 25 gauge needles between 0-4 mm offset in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and to 18G needles on the transducer axis (in plane) between 10 degrees and 35 degrees from the horizontal. Needle tips were visualized within 2 mm of their actual position for both horizontal needle orientations up to 1.5 mm offset in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and on-axis angled needles between 10 degrees-35 degrees above the horizontal orientation. We conclude that segmented ARFI images overlaid on matched B-mode images hold promise for improved needle visibility in many clinical applications. PMID:21608445

Rotemberg, Veronica; Palmeri, Mark; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Grant, Stuart; Macleod, David; Nightingale, Kathryn

2011-01-01

180

Tissue Cooperation in a Proteolytic Cascade Activating Human Interstitial Collagenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cascade of proteolytic events catalyzed by the proteases secreted by cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts that results in the activation of interstitial procollagenase. Cultured human skin fibroblasts constitutively secrete interstitial collagenase and stromelysin as proenzymes. In contrast, interstitial collagenase found in serum-free skin organ culture conditioned medium is activated. Cocultivation of the major cellular components of skin organ

Chengshi He; Scott M. Wilhelm; Alice P. Pentland; Barry L. Marmer; Gregory A. Grant; Arthur Z. Eisen; Gregory I. Goldberg

1989-01-01

181

Cardiac Valve Interstitial Cells: Regulator of Valve Structure and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac valve interstitial cell tissue is present throughout the valve. The molecular biology of this cell type is not well known. The purpose of this review is to present our current understanding of the structure and function of valvular interstitial cells and to describe experimental approaches available to study the structure and regulation of interstitial cell function and the interaction

1997-01-01

182

Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

Verkoelen, Carl F.

2007-04-01

183

The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

184

Tip-holed spinal needle: A new design concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dura-arachnoid puncture for spinal anesthesia is associated with several complications. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and needle bending are significant among these. The incidence of PDPH has been reduced significantly with the advent of pencil-point needles. However, these needles also have their limitations, such as obstruction of the delivery port by tissues affecting both cerebrospinal fluid flash back and drug delivery.

Salim M. Jahangir

2000-01-01

185

Needle array DBD for solid urea decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by ammonia (NH3) still is at the present the leading after-treatment technology for the NOx removal process in diesel engines for stationary and mobile applications. A novel nonthermal plasma electrode in a needle array Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor powered by a high frequency neon transformer is used for the thermal

Graciela Prieto; Adrian Mihalcioiu; Kazunori Takashima; Akira Mizuno

186

Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James

187

Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

188

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

189

Bubble Growth and Detachment from a Needle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle or orifice occurs in large number of applications, such as perforated plate columns, blood oxygenators and various methods of water treatment. It is also a widely used method in laboratory research on multiphase flow and acoustics for generating small bubbles in a controlled fashion. We studied experimentally the growth and pinch-off of air bubbles released from a submerged needle into a quiescent liquid or a liquid flowing parallel to the needle. Micron-sized bubbles were generated by an air-liquid dispenser. High-speed imaging was performed to study the formation and detachment of bubbles from the tip of the needle. The impact of the needle diameter was investigated and the size and number of produced bubbles were assessed for different flow rates of air and for different velocities of the imposed upward liquid flow. The results were compared with available theoretical models and numerical computations. The existence of a critical gas flow rate and two regimes of bubble growth were verified.

Shusser, Michael; Rambod, Edmond; Gharib, Morteza

1999-11-01

190

Buffon Needle Problem Application to Space Exploration  

E-print Network

In this article the possibility of application of classical Buffon needle problem to the investigation of orientation engine firing problem has been investigated. Such an approach makes it possible to get a reliable EP of this undesired event without using a more complicated analysis.

A. V. Sedelnikov

2010-06-01

191

Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)

A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal

2010-01-01

192

An optical smart needle : point-of-care technologies for integrated needle guidance using optical frequency domain ranging  

E-print Network

Obtaining accurate needle placement is of critical importance in many medical scenarios. In the setting of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), manual palpation is often the only cue for determining the optimal position ...

Goldberg, Brian, 1979-

2009-01-01

193

Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.  

PubMed

EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

2013-01-01

194

Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses  

PubMed Central

EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

2013-01-01

195

Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

1992-06-01

196

Genetic Analysis of Sporadic and Familial Interstitial Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Although much progress has been made in understanding the biology and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia, the etiology of this disease remains elusive. Epidemiologic studies have consistently identified cigarette smoke as an important exposure; however, most smokers do not develop interstitial pneumonia and many individuals with interstitial pneumonia do not smoke cigarettes. Moreover, interstitial pneumonias have been reported to cluster in families. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the genetic etiology of interstitial pneumonia may prove critically important in defining the biology and clinical course of this complex human disease. PMID:18403331

Schwartz, David A.

2008-01-01

197

Homogeneous phase separation in binary alloys under ion irradiation conditions: Role of interstitial atoms  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to investigate homogeneous precipitation in binary metal alloys under ion irradiation conditions. The kinetic model includes defect production, recombination, defect trapping, the formation of defect-solute complexes, and atomic mixing. While no special assumptions are made about vacancy diffusion, interstitial diffusion is assumed fast compared to the characteristic time scales of all other processes. The diffusion path of an interstitial, moreover, ends with one of the three possible outcomes: recombination, trapping in a solute-rich location, or clustering with other interstitials. Interstitials promote solute segregation in this model by the formation of mobile interstitial-solute complexes. Several unusual features of radiation-induced precipitation are revealed in this model. For ideal alloys, we find at a given temperature that for every trapping number [i.e., the minimum number of nearest-neighbor solute (type B) atoms required to trap a migrating interstitial, N{sub BT}], there exists a corresponding defect pair production rate K{sub 0}, below which the alloy becomes a random solution state and above which macroscopic phase separation occurs. K{sub 0} depends on the length scale of trapping sites L as L{sup 4}. Solute-rich precipitates have the composition c{sub B} approaching c{sub B}=N{sub BT}/z, where z is the lattice coordination number. This feature results in 'swelling' of precipitates, i.e., dilution of initially pure (c{sub B}=1) precipitates located in the matrix prior to ion irradiation. Ballistic mixing is observed to erode precipitates, and above some critical rate the system reverts to a random solution. For ideal solutions, and even those with a small tendency for ordering, phase separation occurs due to the interstitial interaction with solutes. At sufficiently high positive values of the heats of mixing, the usual thermal vacancy-driven precipitation prevails. Between these low and high limits, the alloy unexpectedly enters a field of solid solutions. Finally, it is shown that even in the absence of the interstitial trapping (N{sub BT}>z), alloys with a small positive ordering energy can undergo nonequilibrium phase separation at a composition below its solubility limit due to an effective trapping of vacancies in solute-rich locations. The significance of these findings for real alloy systems is discussed.

Krasnochtchekov, P.; Averback, R. S.; Bellon, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2007-04-01

198

Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member  

DOEpatents

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

2005-01-18

199

Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

2004-08-03

200

Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media  

PubMed Central

Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2012-01-01

201

Needle phobia: etiology, adverse consequences, and patient management.  

PubMed

Needle phobia has profound health, dental, societal, and legal implications, and severe psychological, social, and physiologic consequences. There is genetic evidence for the physiologic response to needle puncture, and a significant familial psychological component, showing evidence of inheritance. Needle phobia is also a learned behavior. The dental practitioner must recognize patients with needle phobia before the administration of local anesthetics to identify patients who are potentially reactive and to prevent untoward sequelae. Needle phobia is highly associated with avoidance behavior, and the dentist must exhibit compassion and respect. To avoid bradycardia, hypotension, unconsciousness, convulsions, and possibly asystole, oral premedication with benzodiazepines or other antianxiety agents must be considered for patients who are needle phobic. Management of needle phobiaeinduced syncope includes perioperative monitoring, oxygen administration, positioning, atropine, and vasopressors. PMID:20831935

Sokolowski, Chester J; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Boynes, Sean G

2010-10-01

202

Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

2013-12-01

203

Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

2009-02-01

204

The location of interstitial carbon in austenite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution neutron time-of-flight powder diffraction patterns were obtained for the alloy Fe-13 wt. pct. Ni-1 wt. pct. C, in the austenitic phase. The interstitial site location of the carbon atoms was refined using Rietveld analysis and it was found that carbon resides primarily on the octahedrally coordinated interstices. Uncertainty in the refinement allows a maximum of 5 pct. of the total number of carbon atoms to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites. The other refined structural and instrument parameters were determined to be relatively uncorrelated with these occupation fractions. The known total concentration of carbon in this alloy was not needed as a constraint on the carbon occupation, indicating that this refinement was extremely stable with regard to these parameters.

Butler, B. D.; Cohen, J. B.

1992-06-01

205

An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

2013-01-01

206

[Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].  

PubMed

Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the running course of meridians. PMID:24673066

Li, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

207

Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line monitoring of temperature. Beyond these engineering considerations, our clinical experience demonstrates that following interstitial routes for applying HIFU is an interesting therapeutic option when targeted sites cannot be reached from outside the patient.

Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2006-05-01

208

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

209

Interstitial microwave hyperthermia for brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility and clinical safety of interstitial microwave hyperthermia was evaluated in six patients with glioblastoma and malignant astrocytoma. Prior to entry into the study, each patient had received surgery, radiation and nitrosourea chemotherapy. All patients were implanted at open craniotomy with a flexible microwave radiator\\/sensor (o.d. 1.5 mm) and transcutaneously connected to a 2450 MHz microwave generator. Intraoperative

Michael Salcman; George M. Samaras

1983-01-01

210

Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a distinct type of chronic respiratory disorder that can result in pulmonary hypertension.\\u000a There are numerous causes of ILD but all are characterized by dyspnea and abnormal lung function, with arterial oxygen desaturation\\u000a occurring as the disease advances. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a relentlessly progressive form of ILD,\\u000a are particularly likely to develop

Mary E. Strek; Julian Solway

211

Bladder Pain Syndrome\\/Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) should be regarded as a true pain syndrome (a collection of symptoms and signs which, together,\\u000a characterize a particular condition or disease) rather than an end-organ disease. The term “interstitial cystitis” (IC) has\\u000a been a misleading name for a condition in which true bladder inflammation is seen only in a small subset of patients with\\u000a chronic

Paul Irwin

212

The hard metal diseases  

SciTech Connect

Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

Cugell, D.W. (Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-06-01

213

Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2003-07-01

214

Susuks: charm needles in facial soft tissues.  

PubMed

Susuks or charm needles are a form of talisman inserted and worn subcutaneously, in the face and other parts of the body, in the belief that they will enhance or preserve the wearer's beauty, youth, charisma, strength or health, or bring success in business. This mystic practice is found among some south-east Asian people, especially Malayan and Muslim females. Most susuk wearers are secretive about their hidden talismans, but these gold or silver needles are being discovered with increasing frequency now that radiographs are used more widely. An understanding of this practice and an awareness of its existence is important to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement of these patients. The practice of susuk wearing and its relevance to dentistry is discussed. Nine cases of facial susuk wearers are presented and previous reports are reviewed. PMID:2036281

Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ghani, S H

1991-04-20

215

Drill needle biopsy for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1977 to 1983 we have used electric drill needle biopsy of suspicious masses in the breast in 437 patients. In 104 patients\\u000a with primary breast carcinoma 94 were diagnosed correctly by the initial biopsy, 9 were found on the second or third biopsy\\u000a and one on the subsequent excisional biopsy. The rate of accuracy of the initial biopsy was

Yasuhiro Yokoyama; Susumu Nakajima; Natsuki Samejima

1985-01-01

216

Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite\\/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process

Aigen Li

2003-01-01

217

Randomized Trial of Conventional Transseptal Needle Versus Radiofrequency Energy Needle Puncture for Left Atrial Access (the TRAVERSE?LA Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Transseptal puncture is a critical step in achieving left atrial (LA) access for a variety of cardiac procedures. Although the mechanical Brockenbrough needle has historically been used for this procedure, a needle employing radiofrequency (RF) energy has more recently been approved for clinical use. We sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of an RF versus conventional needle for transseptal LA access. Methods and Results In this prospective, single?blinded, controlled trial, 72 patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to an RF versus conventional (BRK?1) transseptal needle. In an intention?to?treat analysis, the primary outcome was time required for transseptal LA access. Secondary outcomes included failure of the assigned needle, visible plastic dilator shavings from needle introduction, and any procedural complication. The median transseptal puncture time was 68% shorter using the RF needle compared with the conventional needle (2.3 minutes [interquartile range {IQR}, 1.7 to 3.8 minutes] versus 7.3 minutes [IQR, 2.7 to 14.1 minutes], P=0.005). Failure to achieve transseptal LA access with the assigned needle was less common using the RF versus conventional needle (0/36 [0%] versus 10/36 [27.8%], P<0.001). Plastic shavings were grossly visible after needle advancement through the dilator and sheath in 0 (0%) RF needle cases and 12 (33.3%) conventional needle cases (P<0.001). There were no differences in procedural complications (1/36 [2.8%] versus 1/36 [2.8%]). Conclusions Use of an RF needle resulted in shorter time to transseptal LA access, less failure in achieving transseptal LA access, and fewer visible plastic shavings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01209260. PMID:24045120

Hsu, Jonathan C.; Badhwar, Nitish; Gerstenfeld, Edward P.; Lee, Randall J.; Mandyam, Mala C.; Dewland, Thomas A.; Imburgia, Kourtney E.; Hoffmayer, Kurt S.; Vedantham, Vasanth; Lee, Byron K.; Tseng, Zian H.; Scheinman, Melvin M.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Marcus, Gregory M.

2013-01-01

218

Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

1993-01-01

219

Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material  

PubMed Central

Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5?mA, 60?min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100?mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

2012-01-01

220

Needle aspiration cytology of pancreatic cystic lesions.  

PubMed

Forty-two histologically confirmed cases of pancreatic cystic lesions with cytologic evaluation by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) were reviewed. There were 21 inflammatory pseudocysts (IPC), nine mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN), six microcystic serous adenomas (MSA), one macrocystic serous adenoma, and five papillary solid and cystic neoplasms (PSCN). Correct cytodiagnosis was made in all cases of IPC and MCN. The contents of IPCs were characterized by turbid or blood-tinged fluid containing cellular debris, numerous foamy macrophages, and other inflammatory cells. There were few or no epithelial lining cells. The aspirates from MCNs showed gelatinous mucoid material containing mucus-secreting cells that were present singly, in clusters, or in sheets. Depending on the individual case, benign or malignant columnar cells, or an admixture of these cells, were present in a mucinous background. The preoperative needle aspirates of five MSAs were acellular. In one case of MSA and in one example of macrocystic serous adenoma, small monolayered sheets of benign cubic epithelial cells were seen in the needle aspirates. Similar cytologic findings were noted in the materials obtained by intraoperative NAB performed under direct vision of the aforementioned five MSAs. Difficulties were encountered in typing three PSCNs that yielded in NAB cells resembling those of an islet cell tumor. They were diagnosed as low-grade neoplasms (PSCN vs. islet cell tumor). In two other patients, a cytodiagnosis of PSCN was correctly made as the NAB revealed monomorphic tumor cells wrapping around small capillary blood vessels. PMID:9285188

Nguyen, G K; Suen, K C; Villanueva, R R

1997-09-01

221

Electrotactile display using microfabricated micro-needle array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an electrotactile display with micro-needle electrodes. The electrotactile display can produce tactile sensations by stimulating tactile receptors using an electric current. Micro-needle electrodes can drastically decrease the threshold voltage required to stimulate tactile receptors by penetrating the stratum corneum, which has a higher impedance than the dermis. In addition, the optimized length of the needle allows us to stimulate tactile receptors painlessly. In the present study, we developed a process for fabricating a micro-needle array in which the length and tip radius can be controlled using electrochemical etching. A micro-needle array was successfully fabricated to form an electrotactile display. In addition, we experimentally determined the suitable shape of the micro-needle electrodes for electrotactile display applications. When the tip radius of the needle is too small, the impedance between the finger and micro-needles becomes large due to the small contact area. On the other hand, when the tip radius is too large, the needle cannot penetrate the skin surface and the impedance is not sufficiently small. The experiments verified the superiority of needle electrode devices to flat electrode devices with respect to the threshold voltage at each frequency.

Kitamura, N.; Chim, J.; Miki, N.

2015-02-01

222

High-pressure electrides: the chemical nature of interstitial quasiatoms.  

PubMed

Building on our previous chemical and physical model of high-pressure electrides (HPEs), we explore the effects of interaction of electrons confined in crystals but off the atoms, under conditions of extreme pressure. Electrons in the quantized energy levels of voids or vacancies, interstitial quasiatoms (ISQs), effectively interact with each or with other atoms, in ways that are quite chemical. With the well-characterized Na HPE as an example, we explore the ionic limit, ISQs behaving as anions. A detailed comparison with known ionic compounds points to high ISQ charge density. ISQs may also form what appear to be covalent bonds with neighboring ISQs or real atoms, similarly confined. Our study looks specifically at quasimolecular model systems (two ISQs, a Li atom and a one-electron ISQ, a Mg atom and two ISQs), in a compression chamber made of He atoms. The electronic density due to the formation of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals of the compressed entities is recognizable, and a bonding stabilization, which increases with pressure, is estimated. Finally, we use the computed Mg electride to understand metallic bonding in one class of electrides. In general, the space confined between atoms in a high pressure environment offers up quantized states to electrons. These ISQs, even as they lack centering nuclei, in their interactions with each other and neighboring atoms may show anionic, covalent, or metallic bonding, all the chemical features of an atom. PMID:25706033

Miao, Mao-Sheng; Hoffmann, Roald

2015-03-18

223

Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling for lumbar spinal stenosis using a specially designed needle  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes the methodological approach and clinical application of a minimally invasive intervention to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods Thirty-four patients with LSS underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling using a specially designed flexed Round Needle. The needle was inserted 8-12 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the stenosis and advanced to a position between the anterior side of the facet joint and pedicle up to the outer-third of the pedicle. The needle was advanced medially and backed laterally within a few millimetres along the canal side of the inferior articular process between the facet joint and pedicle. The procedure was completed when a marked reduction in resistance was felt at the tip of the needle. The procedure was performed bilaterally at the level of the stenosis. Results The average follow-up period was 12.9 ± 1.1 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was reduced from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 4.6 ± 2.5 points, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score decreased from 41.4 ± 17.2 to 25.5 ± 12.6% and the average self-rated improvement was 52.6 ± 33.1%. The VAS scores indicated that 14 (41.2%) patients reported a "good" to "excellent" treatment response, while 11 (32.4%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the ODI and 22 (64.7%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the self-rated improvement scale. Conclusions These results suggest that fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling is effective for managing LSS. PMID:20698999

2010-01-01

224

Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes. PMID:21092296

2010-01-01

225

Surgeon's satisfaction on the use of invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room  

PubMed Central

Background: Healthcare workers, especially operating room personnel, are at increased risk for sharps injury and transmission of blood-borne pathogens as a result of their occupation. Infection with these pathogens occurs mainly by percutaneous or mucocutaneous exposure to blood-borne pathogens. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using invented needle magnet in reducing the risk of sharp injuries in the operating room. Materials and Methods: The needle magnet device is consisted of three parts: a cap, a magnet and a metal container. It was invented by the authors for the first time in Iran. The average weight of this device is 200 g and it can be easily placed near the surgery field or on the myostand. It has magnetic properties that attracts the sharp pointed particles during surgery and preserve them in a protected space. The device was used in surgical field by 33 surgeons during 90 surgical operations. Then, the satisfaction of participants and effectiveness of the device in protection against sharps injury was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results: Thirty-one surgeons (94%) believed that needle magnet reduces dispersion of sharp instruments; 79% of the participants suggested that our device reduces sharps injury during operation; 29 surgeons (88%) intended to use this device during operation. Thus, the use of needle magnet within surgical field may reduce the chances of sharps injury during surgery. Conclusion: The use of needle magnet within surgical field reduces the chance of sharp injury during surgery and the surgeons were satisfied with its use. PMID:25013253

Rahmati, Hashem; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

226

Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

1991-01-01

227

Cloned interstitial stem cells grow as contiguous patches in hydra.  

PubMed

The migration of interstitial cells was analyzed during the growth of stem cell clones in vivo. The spatial distribution of cloned cells was analyzed at a time by which extensive migration of interstitial cells could have occurred. All interstitial cell clones were found to form large contiguous patches of cells. The results indicate that there is little migration of large interstitial cells in undisturbed tissue during normal growth. This finding is surprising since numerous grafting experiments have shown extensive migration of these cells. The implications of finding nonrandomly distributed stem cells are discussed. PMID:2318344

Bosch, T C; David, C N

1990-04-01

228

Bistability of Cation Interstitials in II-VI Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The stability of cation interstitials in II-VI semiconductors is studied using ab initio methods. We find that interstitials in the neutral charge state are more stable in the tetrahedral interstitial site near the cation, whereas in the (2+) charge state, they are more stable near the anion. The diffusion energy barrier changes when the defect charge state changes. Therefore, if electrons/holes are taken from the defect level by light, changing its charge state, the interstitial atom will be able to diffuse almost spontaneously due to a reduced diffusion barrier.

Wei, S. H.; Dalpian, G. M.

2005-11-01

229

Migration of multipotent interstitial stem cells in Hydra.  

PubMed

Stem cells in Hydra represent one of the phylogenetically most ancient stem cell systems and, therefore, provide information for reconstructing the early history of stem cell control mechanisms. Hydra's interstitial stem cells are multipotent and differentiate into both somatic cell types and germ line cells. Although it is well accepted that cells of the interstitial cell lineage are migratory, the in vivo migratory potential of multipotent interstitial stem cells has never been explored. Combining in vivo tracing of genetically labeled interstitial stem cells and tissue transplantation, we show that in contrast to precursor cells, multipotent interstitial stem cells are stationary. Only when exposed to tissue depleted of the interstitial cell lineage, interstitial stem cells start to migrate and to repopulate emptied stem cell niches. We conclude that multipotent interstitial stem cells in Hydra are static and that microenvironmental cues including signals derived from the interstitial cell lineage or from niche cells can trigger a shift in collective stem cell behavior to start migration. PMID:22951272

Boehm, Anna-Marei; Bosch, Thomas C G

2012-10-01

230

The Sparking Characteristics of Needle-To-Plane Coronas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sparking voltage (Vs) and maximum presparking corona current (Imax) of needle-to-plane coronas have been measured as independent functions of polarity, tip radius (r), and needle-to-plane spacing (S). For a negative needle, Vs and Imax increase with S but are independent of r. For positive polarity, Vs and Imax increase with both S and r. Thus to increase the corona

W. L. Lama; C. F. Gallo

1976-01-01

231

Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: hshima@k8.dion.ne.jp; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)

2007-07-15

232

Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra.  

PubMed

Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between [3H]thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself. PMID:2180754

Fujisawa, T; David, C N; Bosch, T C

1990-04-01

233

Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra  

SciTech Connect

Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. (National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka (Japan))

1990-04-01

234

Undiagnosed HIV Presenting with Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Undiagnosed or untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection can lead to devastating complications. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman who was found to have HIV-related lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. LIP is uncommon, and its presentation can be quite similar to that of other chronic lung conditions. This case illustrates one of the possible protean manifestations of untreated HIV and is a sobering reminder of the need to screen all adults for HIV infection. Additionally, further invasive diagnostic testing may be required to guide therapy in patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This patient's LIP was likely related to long-standing unrecognized HIV disease. PMID:22567465

Rizqallah, Jason J.; Shah, Christopher T.; Oluwole, Oladoyin; Sheagren, John N.

2011-01-01

235

Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD. PMID:11806849

Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Veeraraghavan, Srihari; du Bois, Roland M

2002-01-01

236

Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD. PMID:11806849

Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Veeraraghavan, Srihari; du Bois, Roland M

2002-01-01

237

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

2010-04-01

238

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

2013-04-01

239

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

2011-04-01

240

Ultrafine hollow needle formation on silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the formation of ultrafine hollow needles, microcylindrical and nano-wall structures on silicon substrates is reported. The fabrication of these ultrafine structures is possible through a combination of high-precision high aspect ratio vertical etching of silicon with a small angle vacuum deposition technique where nanometric walls are feasible. These structures can be used as the media to transfer gas and liquid through their tiny holes. In addition, the structure has been used to realize cavity-based capacitance inclination sensor suitable for small angle detection. A capacitance variation of 0.6 pF/degree of inclination has been obtained.

Sanaee, Z.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

2010-04-01

241

The general mixing of addicts and needles in a variable-infectivity needle-sharing environment.  

PubMed

In this paper we develop and analyse a model for the spread of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of injecting drug users. The model we discuss focuses on the transmission of HIV through the sharing of contaminated drug injection equipment and in particular we examine the mixing of addicts and needles when the AIDS incubation period is divided into three distinct infectious stages. The impact of this assumption is to greatly increase the complexity of the HIV transmission mechanism. We begin the paper with a brief literature review followed by the derivation of a model which incorporates three classes of infectious addicts and three classes of infectious needles and where a general probability structure is used to represent the interaction of addicts and needles of varying levels of infectivity. We find that if the basic reproductive number is less than or equal to unity then there exists a globally stable disease free equilibrium. The model possesses an endemic equilibrium solution if the basic reproductive number exceeds unity. We then conduct a brief simulation study of our model. We find that the spread of disease is heavily influenced by the way addicts and needles of different levels of infectivity interact. PMID:12111103

Greenhalgh, David; Lewis, Fraser

2002-06-01

242

Fire performance of interstitial space construction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

Lawson, J. R.

1985-05-01

243

Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop PDT beyond treatment of thin superficial tumors, to also be an efficient treatment alternative to deeply located and/or thick tumors, a system based on interstitial illumination using multiple fibers has been developed. Conditions that could benefit from such a treatment modality are for instance malignant brain tumors and tumors in the oral cavity. In interstitial PDT one needs to use multiple fibers for light delivery in order to allow treatments of tumors larger than a few millimeters in diameter. Our sytem consists of a laser light source, a beam-splitting system dividing the light into three or six output fibers and a custom-made dosimetry program. The concept is then to use these fibers not only for delivering the treatment light, but also to measure parameters of interest for the treatment outcome. The fluence rate of the light emitted by each fiber is measured at the positions of the other fiber tips. From these results the light dose at all positions could be recalculated. Changes in optical properties as well as bleaching and concentration of the photosensitizer during the treatment could be monitored and compensated for in the dosimetry. Tumors have been treated both in experimental studies and in patients with thick superficial Basal Cell Carcinomas. Almost all treated skin lesions responded with complete response.

Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Bendsoe, Niels; Johansson, Thomas; Palsson, Sara; Thompson, Marcelo S.; Stenram, Unne; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

2003-08-01

244

Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

2005-04-01

245

Interstitial Fe in MgO  

SciTech Connect

Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

Mølholt, T. E., E-mail: tem4@hi.is; Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Mantovan, R. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via Olivetti 2, 20846 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via Olivetti 2, 20846 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Johnston, K. [PH Department, ISOLDE/CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Langouche, G. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralings fysika, University of Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sielemann, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-14

246

Interstitial collagenase gene expression in colonic neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

Tumor invasion and metastasis are complex phenomena believed to be facilitated by the disruption of collagen and elastin fibers in the extracellular matrix. Interstitial collagenase gene expression was studied in colonic adenocarcinoma and adenoma using in situ hybridization. The data indicated that three cell types within the tumor stroma expressed collagenase transcripts; they were eosinophils, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelium. In all 12 adenocarcinomas, a high to moderate level of expression was seen in 1 to 5% of eosinophils and in occasional fibroblasts, whereas these cell types in non-neoplastic mucosa adjacent to tumor showed no detectable expression. Two adenocarcinomas showed expression in hyperplastic endothelium in vascularized granulation tissue. Two out of three adenomas showed expression in eosinophils and fibroblasts at a reduced level. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene expression was, however, negligible in all tissue examined. These results suggest that interstitial collagenase gene activation in the tumor stroma, especially eosinophils, may have an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8362969

Gray, S. T.; Yun, K.; Motoori, T.; Kuys, Y. M.

1993-01-01

247

Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial

Christos Chatzikyrkou; Iyas Hamwi; Christian Clajus; Jan Becker; Carsten Hafer; Jan T Kielstein

2010-01-01

248

Surface Magnetism in ?PbO Induced by Fe Interstitials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We predict surface ferromagnetism and a high Curie temperature in ?PbO doped with Fe interstitials using first-principles calculations. Our results provide a new route on designing dilute magnetic semiconductors using magnetic atoms as interstitials in layered oxides such as PbO.

Arguelles, Elvis F.; Amino, Shuichi; Aspera, Susan; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

2015-04-01

249

Original article Lentivirus-induced interstitial lung disease  

E-print Network

Original article Lentivirus-induced interstitial lung disease: pulmonary pathology in sheep a chronic disease in sheep affecting, among other organs, the lungs. Interstitial pneumonitis is similar the pathological features of lungs of sheep naturally infected with visna-maedi virus with the results obtained

Boyer, Edmond

250

Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

2006-10-30

251

Design of a robust, intuitive piston interface for a needle free injection system  

E-print Network

The MIT BioInstrumentation Lab's linear Lorentz force actuator based needle free injection system has been shown to have numerous benefits over needle-based and other needle-free drug delivery systems in a research ...

Nawrot, Michael Thomas

2014-01-01

252

A patient with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor who developed everolimus-induced interstitial pneumonia: a case report.  

PubMed

A patient in her 60s was referred to our hospital with pancreatic enlargement. Laboratory data and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (WHO classification 2010 G2). Resection was contraindicated because of portal vein invasion and extensive collateral vascularization. Everolimus (10 mg/day) was started after seven months of treatment with S-1 (an oral formulation of tegafur with the modulators gimeracil and oteracil) following its insurance approval in Japan. Four months later, the patient developed cough and fever, and there was radiological and clinical evidence of Grade 2 everolimus-associated interstitial pneumonia (according to the Everolimus Proper-Usage Guide). Everolimus was replaced with steroid therapy (30 mg/day), resulting in immediate symptomatic improvement. After conclusion of steroid therapy, everolimus was restarted. The patient has since remained on a dosage of 10 mg/day of everolimus, with the tumor in a state of partial response. PMID:25195968

Yoshizawa, Naohiko; Hijioka, Susumu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

2014-09-01

253

Pigment-based identification of ozone-damaged pine needles as a basis for spectral segregation of needle conditions.  

PubMed

Air pollution affects large areas of forest, and field assessment of these effects is a costly, site-specific process. This paper establishes a biochemical basis for identifying ozone-damaged pine trees to facilitate efficient remote sensing assessment of air pollution damage. Several thousand live needles were collected from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi) trees at three sites in Plumas National Forest and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. These needles were assembled into 504 samples (based on the abaxial surface) and grouped according to five dominant needle conditions (green, winter fleck, sucking insect damage, scale insect damage, and ozone damage) and a random mixture of needles. Pigment concentrations per unit needle area of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotenoids were measured. The following pigment concentration ratios were calculated for all samples: chlorophyll a/total carotenoids, chlorophyll b/total carotenoids, total chlorophyll/carotenoids, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b. The group of ozone-damaged needles had significantly lower mean pigment concentrations (family-wise p < 0.01) and significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/total carotenoid and total chlorophyll/total carotenoid ratios (family-wise p < 0.01) than all other groups of needles. Ozone-damaged needles had a significantly lower mean chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio than all other groups except one (family-wise p < 0.01). Linear discriminant analysis with three factors (chlorophyll a concentration, the chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio, and the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio) and subsequent maximum likelihood classification of damaged and non-damaged needles gave an overall cross-validated accuracy of 96%. These ozone-damaged needles are biochemically unique in relation to other needle conditions in this study, and further research is needed to generalize these results. PMID:19329674

Di Vittorio, Alan V

2009-01-01

254

Coaxial needle insertion assistant with enhanced force feedback.  

PubMed

Many medical procedures involving needle insertion into soft tissues, such as anesthesia, biopsy, brachytherapy, and placement of electrodes, are performed without image guidance. In such procedures, haptic detection of changing tissue properties at different depths during needle insertion is important for needle localization and detection of subsurface structures. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties deep inside the tissue are difficult for human operators to sense, because the relatively large friction force between the needle shaft and the surrounding tissue masks the smaller tip forces. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant, which enhances operator force perception, is presented. This one-degree-of-freedom cable-driven robot provides to the operator a scaled version of the force applied by the needle tip to the tissue, using a novel design and sensors that separate the needle tip force from the shaft friction force. The ability of human operators to use the robot to detect membranes embedded in artificial soft tissue was tested under the conditions of 1) tip force and shaft force feedback, and 2) tip force only feedback. The ratio of successful to unsuccessful membrane detections was significantly higher (up to 50%) when only the needle tip force was provided to the user. PMID:23193302

De Lorenzo, Danilo; Koseki, Yoshihiko; De Momi, Elena; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Okamura, Allison M

2013-02-01

255

Longitudinal Spinal Organization with Segmental Dominance in Chinese Needle Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Chinese called it ‘needle therapy’ which the West later interpreted as ‘acupuncture’ based on impossible ideas of energy and blood circulation via invisible meridians introduced in the late 1930s. Lack of understanding the original Chinese discoveries, which made needling a useful therapeutic approach, has made it difficult to correct these misconceptions. Willem ten Rhyne provided the first clues

Donald E. Kendall

2011-01-01

256

Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV\\/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. METHODS: In a secondary

Hassan Rafiey; Hooman Narenjiha; Peymaneh Shirinbayan; Roya Noori; Morteza Javadipour; Mohsen Roshanpajouh; Mercedeh Samiei; Shervin Assari

2009-01-01

257

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

2009-01-01

258

Developing An Immersive Ultrasound Guided Needle Puncture Simulator  

E-print Network

Abstract. We present an integrated system for training ultrasound guided needle puncture. Our aim is to provide a cost effective and validated training tool that uses actual patient data to enable interventional radiology trainees to learn how to carry out image-guided needle puncture. The input data required is a computed tomography

2013-01-01

259

Biopsy Needle Detection in Transrectal Ultrasound Alper Ayvacia  

E-print Network

, and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men [1]. Currently, patients are being diagnosed using. bPhilips Research North America, 345 Scarborough Rd, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510, USA. Abstract Using of the image fusion system. In prostate biopsy, the biopsy needle is deployed by using a biopsy gun. The needle

Soatto, Stefano

260

Electrical and optical characterization of the plasma needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma needle is a source to create a non-thermal radiofrequency plasma at atmospheric pressure. To improve the ease of working on biological samples, a flexible plasma probe was designed. In the new configuration, the needle was confined in a plastic tube through which helium flow was supplied. The new set-up was characterized by impedance measurements and emission spectroscopy. Impedance

I E Kieft; Laan van der EP; E Stoffels

2004-01-01

261

MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

2011-01-01

262

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

263

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy: thermal dosimetry and clinical results.  

PubMed

From August 1977 to August 1986, 72 patients with advanced primary or recurrent cancers were treated using interstitial thermoradiotherapy. Sites treated included the pelvis in 49 patients, the head and neck in 15, and other sites in six. Median tumor volume was 52 cm3, and all but nine patients had received prior irradiation. In 69 patients, hollow stainless steel catheters were implanted and used as electrodes with a 0.5 MHz radiofrequency (RF) generator, whereas in three patients, standard plastic Henschke tubes were used with a commercially available interstitial microwave (MW) system operating at 915 MHz. Most patients were heated intraoperatively for 30 minutes, aiming for a minimum measured intratumoral temperature (Tmin) of 42 degrees C. The implant was occasionally preceded by external irradiation, and after hyperthermia, the catheters were afterloaded with 192Ir for brachytherapy. Tmin exceeded 42 degrees, 42.5 degrees, 43 degrees, and 44 degrees in 25, 16, 12, and 3, respectively, of 70 patients with temperature data available, and the probability of successful heating was independent of tumor volume or site. Twenty-five of 69 (36%) evaluable patients achieved a complete response (CR). Probability of CR demonstrated a significant univariate dependence upon Tmin, radiation dose, site treated, and tumor volume, but multivariate analysis showed only three significant predictor variables: tumor volume, radiation dose, and Tmin. The probability of a CR ranged from 95% for patients with small tumors receiving high doses of radiation and adequate heat, to 5% for patients with large tumors receiving low radiation doses and less than adequate heat. Of 25 patients with CR, 10 relapsed; median response duration was less than 18 months, depended marginally upon disease site, and was independent of Tmin, radiation dose, and tumor volume. Seventeen patients sustained a complication, of which nine were severe enough to require hospitalization or surgery. All severe complications occurred in patients with pelvic tumors. The probability of a complication of any severity had a significant univariate association with maximum intratumoral temperature (Tmax) and tumor size. We conclude that interstitial thermoradiotherapy offers the promise of heating large tumors in locations where externally applied hyperthermia has not been successful. PMID:2303367

Shimm, D S; Kittelson, J M; Oleson, J R; Aristizabal, S A; Barlow, L C; Cetas, T C

1990-02-01

264

Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development  

PubMed Central

Background Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be. Materials and methods The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode. Current scientific knowledge EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (? parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e?]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation). Results For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid’s acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response). Conclusion After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements. PMID:23166454

Maarek, Albert

2012-01-01

265

Interstitial brachytherapy using virtual planning and Doppler transrectal ultrasonography guidance for internal iliac lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

To expand the indications for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for deep-seated pelvic tumors, we investigated the usefulness of Doppler transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guidance and virtual planning. The patient was a 36-year-old female. She had right internal iliac lymph node oligometastasis of vaginal cancer 12 months after radical radiotherapy. The tumor could not be found by gray-scale TRUS and physical examination. Virtual planning was performed using computed tomography with template and vaginal cylinder insertion. We uploaded the images to our treatment planning software and reconstructed the contours of the clinical target volume (CTV) and right internal iliac vessel. Virtual needle applicators were plotted using the template holes for virtual planning. At the time of implantation, Doppler TRUS was used to prevent vessel injury by needle applicators. Applicators were implanted in accordance with virtual planning and Doppler TRUS could detect the right iliac vessel. The percentage of CTV covered by the prescribed dose was 99.8%. The minimum dose received by the maximally irradiated 0.1-cc volume for the right internal iliac vessel was 95% prescribed dose. Complete response was achieved, however, radiological findings showed marginal recurrence at 15 months after HDR-ISBT. Post-radiation neuropathy occurred as a late complication four months after treatment; however, the pain was well controlled by medication. We consider that virtual planning and Doppler TRUS are effective methods in cases where it is difficult to detect the tumor by physical examination and gray-scale TRUS, thereby expanding the indications for ISBT. PMID:22240939

Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Yoshida, Mineo; Miyake, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Susumu; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ban, Chiaki; Tanaka, Eiichi

2012-01-01

266

A training system for ultrasound-guided needle insertion procedures.  

PubMed

Needle placement into a patient body under guidance of ultrasound is a frequently performed procedure in clinical practice. Safe and successful performance of such procedure requires a high level of spatial reasoning and hand-eye co-ordination skills, which must be developed through intensive practice. In this paper we present a training system designed to improve the skills of interventional radiology trainees in ultrasound-guided needle placement procedures. Key issues involved in the system include surface and volumetric registration, solid texture modelling, spatial calibration, and real-time synthesis and rendering of ultrasound images. Moreover, soft tissue deformation caused by the needle movement and needle cutting is realised using a mass-spring-model approach. These have led to a realistic ultrasound simulation system, which has been shown to be a useful tool for the training of needle insertion procedures. Preliminary results of a construct evaluation study indicate the effectiveness and usefulness of the developed training system. PMID:18051104

Zhu, Yanong; Magee, Derek; Ratnalingam, Rish; Kessel, David

2007-01-01

267

Solving the Puzzle of ?100? Interstitial Loop Formation in bcc Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interstitial loop is a unique signature of radiation damage in structural materials for nuclear and other advanced energy systems. Unlike other bcc metals, two types of interstitial loops, 1/2?111? and ?100?, are formed in bcc iron and its alloys. However, the mechanism by which ?100? interstitial dislocation loops are formed has remained undetermined since they were first observed more than fifty years ago. We describe our atomistic simulations that have provided the first direct observation of ?100? loop formation. The process was initially observed using our self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method, and subsequently confirmed using molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of ?100? loops involves a distinctly atomistic interaction between two 1/2?111? loops, and does not follow the conventional assumption of dislocation theory, which is Burgers vector conservation between the reactants and the product. The process observed is different from all previously proposed mechanisms. Thus, our observations might provide a direct link between experiments and simulations and new insights into defect formation that may provide a basis to increase the radiation resistance of these strategic materials.

Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E.; Osetsky, Yury N.; Terentyev, Dmitry

2013-06-01

268

Solving the puzzle of <100> interstitial loop formation in bcc Iron.  

PubMed

The interstitial loop is a unique signature of radiation damage in structural materials for nuclear and other advanced energy systems. Unlike other bcc metals, two types of interstitial loops, 1/2<111> and <100>, are formed in bcc iron and its alloys. However, the mechanism by which <100> interstitial dislocation loops are formed has remained undetermined since they were first observed more than fifty years ago. We describe our atomistic simulations that have provided the first direct observation of <100> loop formation. The process was initially observed using our self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method, and subsequently confirmed using molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of <100> loops involves a distinctly atomistic interaction between two 1/2<111> loops, and does not follow the conventional assumption of dislocation theory, which is Burgers vector conservation between the reactants and the product. The process observed is different from all previously proposed mechanisms. Thus, our observations might provide a direct link between experiments and simulations and new insights into defect formation that may provide a basis to increase the radiation resistance of these strategic materials. PMID:23848895

Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E; Osetsky, Yury N; Terentyev, Dmitry

2013-06-28

269

Interstitial cystitis in the UK: results of a questionnaire survey of members of the Interstitial Cystitis Support Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the site, severity, and duration, of symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis. To examine the treatments offered. Materials and methods: Postal questionnaire administered to members of the Interstitial Cystitis Support Group, based in the United Kingdom. Results: 736 of 1148 (64%) questionnaires were returned. 696 (94.6%) patients were women. 471 patients (64%) described daily pain when symptoms

Douglas G. Tincello; Anthony C. H. Walker

2005-01-01

270

Projector-Based Augmented Reality for Intuitive Intraoperative Guidance in Image-Guided 3D Interstitial Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. Methods and Materials: The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. Results: In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). Conclusions: The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation.

Krempien, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg-de; Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lueder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver [Institute for Process Control and Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Eggers, Georg [Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-03-01

271

An interstitial hyperthermia system at 27 MHz.  

PubMed

An interstitial hyperthermia system using thin, flexible wires operating at a frequency of 27 MHz has been evaluated for possible use in combination with (iridium) brachytherapy applications employing flexible nylon afterloading catheters. This method of interstitial heating is argued to be a variation of local-current-field heating, however with the direct galvanic contact between electrode and tissue replaced by a capacitive coupling between wire and tissue. Through a special design of the wire the length of the heated area along the catheter can be chosen freely. Standard non-prepared implantation catheters can be used, so that no change from the established implantation techniques is required. Possible advantages of these 27 MHz wires over coaxial dipole antennas at higher frequencies are simplicity and low cost of the heating system, free choice of effective heating length for each wire and uniformity of heating along this effective heating length up to the tip of the wire. Flexibility of the wires is maintained, enabling application in curved (even U-shaped) catheters, e.g. for head and neck implantations. Impedance matching of the wires to the generator, necessary for an optimal transfer of power, appears possible by means of a variable air coil. Care should be taken to avoid stray capacitances of the connecting cables with respect to ground or among the different cables used. Measurements in muscle-equivalent split phantoms with infrared thermography have been performed with both single and multiple wires. The resulting SAR distributions confirm the working principle of these low-frequency wires (resistive heating) and illustrate the difference with radiative antennas at higher frequencies. The system is being applied both in experimental animal studies and in a clinical pilot study. PMID:2926189

Visser, A G; Deurloo, I K; Levendag, P C; Ruifrok, A C; Cornet, B; van Rhoon, G C

1989-01-01

272

The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

2014-01-01

273

The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration.  

PubMed

Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell-cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N

2014-03-01

274

Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy.  

PubMed

Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R

2015-01-01

275

Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon  

SciTech Connect

Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P. [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2007-12-01

276

Ozone production of hollow-needle-to-mesh negative corona discharge enhanced by dielectric tube on the needle electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the hollow-needle-to-mesh negative corona discharge in air, we studied the effect of placing the dielectric tube on the needle electrode and the effect of various positions of the end of this tube with respect to the tip of the needle electrode on the concentration of ozone produced by the discharge, the ozone production yield and the discharge V-A characteristics. We found that the placement of the dielectric tube on the needle electrode with a suitable position of this tube end with respect to the tip of the needle electrode for a particular discharge power led to a more than fourfold increase in the concentration of ozone produced by the discharge and also, for a constant airflow, the ozone production yield.

Pekárek, Stanislav

2014-12-01

277

Resonant Raman scattering from CdS nanocrystals enhanced by interstitial Mn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different Raman scattering effects are observed from CdS and Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with an average size of 5.1 nm synthesized by the reverse-micelle method. The intensity of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon spectrum acquired from the Mn-doped CdS NCs is more than 20 times larger than that from the undoped CdS NCs. Spectroscopic and theoretical analyses reveal that the enhancement is caused by the interstitial Mn dopants, which decrease the NC surface deformation potential due to the small dielectric constant of the metal resulting in enhanced coupling between the LO phonon and surface plasmon.

Zhao, P. Q.; Liu, L. Z.; Xue, H. T.; Wu, X. L.; Shen, J. C.; Chu, Paul K.

2013-02-01

278

Dynamics of Drag of Self-interstitial Clusters by an Edge Dislocation in Iron.  

SciTech Connect

Self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are created in metals under fast neutron irradiation and are believed to interact with dislocations and increase the flow stress. In this paper, atomic-scale computer simulations are used to investigate the dynamic interaction between an edge dislocation and small SIA loops that do not intersect the dislocation glide plane and whose Burgers vector is parallel to it. Such loops can be dragged by a moving dislocation and this effect is simulated as a function of temperature and loop size, spacing, stand-off distance and Burgers vector orientation. The results can be understood in terms of the one-dimensional mobility of SIA loops.

Rong, Zhouwen [University of Liverpool; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

2005-01-01

279

Clinical nerve conduction and needle electromyography studies.  

PubMed

The electrodiagnostic study, consisting of nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, is a useful adjunct to the clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system. The three types of nerve conduction study are motor, sensory, and mixed, of which motor is the least sensitive. Electromyography records the intrinsic electrical activity of muscle fibers, thus providing the physiologic status of muscle function. To interpret the electrodiagnostic study results, the clinician must understand the anatomic and physiologic basis of the studies. Peripheral nerve entrapment initially results in focal demyelination; thus, nerve conduction velocity slows across the site. However, with radiculopathy and nerve root compression, the nerve conduction study may be normal. Both nerve trauma and polyneuropathy show marked differences in their effect on the results of electrodiagnostic studies. PMID:15473679

Lee, Donald H; Claussen, Gwendolyn C; Oh, Shin

2004-01-01

280

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS TREE ID KEY Needle-shaped: More or less, sharp and pointy.  

E-print Network

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS TREE ID KEY Needle-shaped: More or less, sharp and pointy. Needles in Bundles Needles in Clusters Needles Single Tamarack Larch Pines Cedar Flat Needles Square or Round Needles Balsam Fir Hemlock Douglas-fir Spruces Douglas-fir Leaf Margin Toothed Leaf Margin Smooth Sugar Maple Red

281

Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model to simulate the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-01-01

282

An interstitial hypothesis for breast cancer related lymphoedema  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer related lymphoedema (BCRL), the chronically swollen arm of patients that have been treated for breast cancer, is no longer considered to be a result of lymphatic obstruction as recent studies have identified failing peripheral lymphatic function as a principal contributing factor. The aetiology and pathophysiology that results in this lymphatic failure is not clearly understood, but it can occur with minimal or even in some cases no damage to the axillary lymph nodes, and evidence suggests that some patients are pre-disposed to develop the disease, and have poor lymphatic function in their non-affected arms. It has been shown that interstitial forces such as hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial fluid velocity, can regulate both lymph flow, and lymph formation, and there is good evidence that interstitial forces are dysregulated in lymphoedema patients. Here I outline a hypothesis for how dysregulation of interstitial parameters could contribute to the generation of breast cancer related lymphoedema, by combining disparate strands of current evidence on the molecular and physiological control of interstitial and lymph flows. One mechanism by which lymphoedema could be generated is that a reduction in interstitial velocity results in increased VEGF-C production, which in low flow conditions, instead of acting on the lymphatics to increase pumping and lymphangiogenesis, acts on vasculature to increase fluid filtration. The resulting increase in interstitial pressure restores flow, but at the expense of increased volume and hence oedema. The evidence supporting the hypothesis and possible tests of it are presented and discussed. PMID:19963358

Batse, David O.

2010-01-01

283

Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.  

PubMed

In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. PMID:25601169

Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

2015-04-15

284

Combined interstitial laser therapy for cancer using microwave radiometric sensor and RODEO MRI feedback: I. Radio microwave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of complex laser treatment of localized cancer is recently suggested with the focus on optimization, increasing efficiency and selectivity of Interstitial Laser Therapy (ILT) with interactive imaging and temperature feedback. This treatment is based upon a combination of ILT, photoacoustic (PA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with microwave radiometric remote control of the temperature in the treated zone. The features of this concept for primary breast and head and neck cancer are: 1) the application of microwave thermometry for non-invasive real-time overheating control during ILP; 2) direct intralesional injection of a photosensitizer and dye enhance through a tiny needle, followed by PA and ultrasonic impregnation and partly cancer cells damage; 3) combination ILT and PDT therapies; 4) post- operative PDT of the tumor by positioning LED arrays around breast; 5) using RODEO MRI for control of location of the tumor, needle and fiber and to monitor tissue changes during complex laser treatment. This paper focuses more on development of microwave radiometry temperature control. The previous experiments are presented concerning the study of remote microwave radiometric sensor for diagnostic purpose including the results of the clinical trials that have been conducted among over 1000 patients.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Vesnin, Sergey G.; Harms, Steven E.; Suen, James Y.; Vaisblat, Alexander V.; Tikhomirova, N.

2001-07-01

285

Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

2012-07-01

286

Homogeneous field intensity control during multi-needle electrospinning via finite element analysis and simulation.  

PubMed

In the current study, finite element analysis is employed to simulate the process control of multi-needle electrospinning, by manipulating needle length, needle spacing, plastic casing of needle, and the way the voltage is applied to the needles, to facilitate the efficient production of homogeneous nanofibrous webs at high performance versus cost. The simulation results indicate that it is possible to control the field intensity homogeneity of multi-needle electrospinning process in terms of the vector sum of electric field intensity by adjusting the needle length, needle spacing, changing voltage application method and separating each needle with a plastic casing, etc. Measures such as capping each needle with a plastic casing, applying voltage directly to the needles, shortening the probed length of the needles at the edge sides, and reducing the distance between edge needles, as well as imparting additional voltage to the needles in the middle of the row could significantly decrease the field intensity of edge needles and thus improve the field intensity of the needles across one row and increase the potential of industrializing the needle type electrospinning technology. PMID:23646527

Liu, Yanbo; Guo, Lingling

2013-02-01

287

Comparison of vertebroplasty using directional versus straight needle  

PubMed Central

Background Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed to treat pain and immobility associated with vertebral compression fractures. Previous studies have shown that a single injection can achieve adequate fill across the midline of the vertebral body. Purpose To compare the radiological outcomes of using a novel steerable needle with using a conventional, straight needle in unipedicular vertebroplasty. Material and Methods Data were collected from 19 patients who were operated at our institute between 1 September 2010 and 31 March 2011. Outcomes were measured in terms of radiological evidence of midline crossing of cement. The available pre- and postoperative pain scores and complications were reviewed. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean cement projection across the midline in both groups with P?needle (58%) compared with the straight needle (35%) (P?=?0.046). Cement leakage was higher with the steerable needle (44% versus 30%); however no clinical complications were reported in either group. Conclusion Percutaneous vertebroplasty using a directional needle is an excellent example of advancement and refinement in spinal surgery without increased clinical risk. Our results indicate that the novel technique can potentially provide better radiological outcomes when compared with a straight needle. A larger, randomized multicenter prospective trial would be valuable in confirming these findings. PMID:25815210

Mathew, Ryan K; Timothy, Jake

2015-01-01

288

Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:20431694

Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

2010-01-01

289

Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids.  

PubMed

Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors' knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion. PMID:25428187

Snider, Douglas B; Gardner, Dale R; Janke, Bruce H; Ensley, Steven M

2015-01-01

290

Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation  

PubMed Central

Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP.

Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

2014-01-01

291

Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

2014-01-01

292

Exploitation of interstitial brachytherapy techniques for photodynamic therapy--II. Novel photosensitizeers for the treatment of solid tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of solid human tumors of volume up to 50 cm3 will require significant gains in photosensitizing effect over that obtained with Photofrin and 630 nm light. Some techniques of interstitial radioisotope brachytherapy can be exploited for the uniform delivery of laser light to solid tumor volumes. Our dosimetry planning system (T-PIPET) was used to design 7- and 9- fiber illuminators for the treatment of R3327-AT rat prostate tumors by interstitial PDT. Relatively uniform light fields within encompassed tumor volumes could be achieved with needle spacings of 0.9 and 1.2 cm for light of 670 and 750 nm, respectively. Novel photosensitizers derived from pheophorbide and bacteriopheophorbide and activated by 673 and 753 nm light, respectively, were at least 1000X more potent than Photofrin in photokilling EMT-6 tumor cells in vitro. Tumor response in vivo resulted from perfusion shutdown and secondary ischemic cell death. Complete tumor response and some cures were demonstrated when R3327-AT rat prostate tumors of 3.5-4.5 cm3 volume were treated with 400 J of 673 nm light delivered 1 hour after the i.v. administration of 2mg/kg Ph4-OH. Current studies will optimize the vehicle for drug delivery, the time between drug and light administration and the light dose uniformity required throughout a treatment volume for maximizing tumor cures. A two-fold gain in tissue penetrance by longer wavelength light combined with at least a 100X gain in in vivo effectiveness by these novel photosensitizers makes feasible the treatment of solid human tumors by interstitial PDT with current laser systems.

Chapman, J. Donald; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, Matthew C.; Brown, D. Q.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S.

1994-07-01

293

Tumor implantation from needle biopsy of hepatic metastases.  

PubMed

Two patients with resectable secondaries in the liver developed needle track recurrence following intraoperative "Trucut"-needle biopsy and percutaneous thin needle aspiration cytology, respectively. In both cases the nature of the hepatic lesion was already clear before biopsy, from characteristic ultrasound, CT-scan, and a progressive rise in CEA levels. Although the overall risk is presumably low, biopsy must not become a diagnostic imperative. It may compromise definitive surgery in individual patients, and should therefore be restricted to situations in which results have a therapeutic or scientific impact. PMID:2373466

Scheele, J; Altendorf-Hofmann, A

1990-06-01

294

Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

2009-01-01

295

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

296

View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

297

Interstitial lung disease in children – genetic background and associated phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease in children represents a group of rare chronic respiratory disorders. There is growing evidence that mutations in the surfactant protein C gene play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of pediatric interstitial lung disease. Recently, mutations in the ABCA3 transporter were found as an underlying cause of fatal respiratory failure in neonates without surfactant protein B deficiency. Especially in familiar cases or in children of consanguineous parents, genetic diagnosis provides an useful tool to identify the underlying etiology of interstitial lung disease. The aim of this review is to summarize and to describe in detail the clinical features of hereditary interstitial lung disease in children. The knowledge of gene variants and associated phenotypes is crucial to identify relevant patients in clinical practice. PMID:15819986

Hartl, Dominik; Griese, Matthias

2005-01-01

298

Effects of interstitial flow on tumor cell migration  

E-print Network

Interstitial flow is the convective transport of fluid through tissue extracellular matrix. This creeping fluid flow has been shown to affect the morphology and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, cancer cells, endothelial ...

Polacheck, William J. (William Joseph)

2010-01-01

299

Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge  

SciTech Connect

Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ?80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospekt Nauki 46, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H. [Leibniz Institute for crystal Growth, Max-Born Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-02-21

300

Development of a syringe pump assisted dynamic headspace sampling technique for needle trap device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new approach that combines needle trap devices (NTDs) with a dynamic headspace sampling technique (purge and trap) using a bidirectional syringe pump. The needle trap device is a 22-G stainless steel needle 3.5-in. long packed with divinylbenzene sorbent particles. The same sized needle, without packing, was used for purging purposes. We chose an aqueous mixture of

In-Yong Eom; Vadoud H. Niri; Janusz Pawliszyn

2008-01-01

301

Heating of industrial sewing machine needles: FEA model and verification using IR radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of synthetic fabrics and threads in high speed sewing, needle heating due to friction between the needle and the fabric becomes a serious problem which limits further increase of the sewing speed. The high temperature in the needle can accelerate thread wear, cause wear at the needle eye, and damage the thread. It can also scorch the

Qinwen Li; Evangelos Liasi; Daniel L. Simon; Ruxu Du; Jasmina Bujas-Dimitrijevic; Anshi Chen

1999-01-01

302

Transbronchial Needle Injection: A Systematic Review of a New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Transbronchial needle catheters are commonly used during flexible and rigid bronchoscopy for needle aspiration. The use of these catheters can be expanded by employing the technique of transbronchial needle injection. Methods and Results: By injecting lesions in the airways, peribronchial structures, mediastinum, or lung parenchyma, transbronchial needle injection has been applied to the treatment of lung cancer,

Christopher W. Seymour; William S. Krimsky; Jeffrey Sager; Robert J. Kruklitis; Mark E. Lund; Ali I. Musani; Daniel H. Sterman

2006-01-01

303

Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib  

PubMed Central

The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment. PMID:25590006

Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi

2014-01-01

304

Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.  

PubMed

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

2015-03-01

305

Acute interstitial nephritis induced by Dioscorea quinqueloba  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicine may be a risk factor for the development of kidney injury, as it has been reported to cause various renal syndromes. Dioscorea quinqueloba is a medicinal herb that is used as an alternative therapy for cardiovascular disease and various medical conditions. Case presentation A 52-year-old man was admitted with complaints of skin rash and burning sensation. He had ingested a raw extract of D. quinqueloba as a traditional remedy. Laboratory tests revealed the following values: absolute eosinophil count, 900/mm3; serum creatinine level, 2.7 mg/dL; and blood urea nitrogen, 33.0 mg/dL. The immunoglobulin E level was markedly increased at 1320.0 IU/mL. Urinalysis revealed a fractional excretion of sodium of 3.77%, protein 1+, and blood 3+. Histological examination of the renal biopsy specimen showed a diffusely edematous interstitium with infiltrates composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Conclusion Here, we present the first reported case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis following ingestion of D. quinqueloba associated with skin rash, eosinophilia, and increased plasma immunoglobulin E level. PMID:25186588

2014-01-01

306

Self-Interstitial Transport in Vanadium  

SciTech Connect

We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and SIA clusters in vanadium via molecular dynamics simulations with an improved Finnis-Sinclair potential (fit to first-principles results for SIA structure and energetics). The present results demonstrate that single SIAs exist in a <111>-dumbbell configuration and migrate easily along <111> directions. Changes of direction through rotations into other <111> directions are infrequent at low temperatures, but become prominent at higher temperatures, thereby changing the migration path from predominantly one-dimensional to almost isotropically three-dimensional. SIA clusters (i.e., clusters of <111>-dumbbells) can be described as perfect prismatic dislocation loops with Burgers vector and habit planes of 1/2<111>{l_brace}220{r_brace} that migrate only along their glide cylinder. SIA clusters also migrate along <111>-directions, but do not rotate. Both single SIAs and their clusters exhibit a highly non-Arrhenius diffusivity, which originates from a combination of a temperature dependent correlation factor and the presence of very low migration barriers. At low temperature, the diffusion is approximately Arrhenius, while above room temperature, the diffusivity is a linear function of temperature. A simple model is proposed to describe these diffusion regimes and the transition between them.

Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Rottler, J; Wirth, B D; Car, R; Srolovitz, D J

2005-01-13

307

Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

2004-01-01

308

Quantitative CT Imaging of Interstitial Lung Diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose High-Resolution chest CT (HRCT) is essential in the characterization of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The HRCT features of some diseases can be diagnostic. Longitudinal monitoring with HRCT can assess progression of ILD; however, subtle changes in the volume and character of abnormalities can be difficult to assess. Accuracy of diagnosis can be dependent on expertise and experience of the radiologist, pathologist or clinician. Quantitative analysis of thoracic HRCT has the potential to determine the extent of disease reproducibly, classify the types of abnormalities and automate the diagnostic process. Materials and Methods Novel software that utilizes histogram signatures to characterize pulmonary parenchyma was used to interrogate chest HRCT data, including retrospective processing of clinical CT scans and research data from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC). Additional information including physiologic, pathologic and semi-quantitative radiologist assessment was available to allowcomparison of quantitative results with visual estimates of disease, physiologic parameters and measures of disease outcome. Results Quantitative analysis results were provided in regional volumetric quantities for statistical analysis as well as a graphical representation. Analysis suggests that quantitative HRCT analysis can serve as a biomarker with physiologic, pathologic and prognostic significance. Conclusion It is likely that quantitative analysis of HRCT can be used in clinical practice as a means to aid in identifying probable diagnosis, stratifying prognosis in early disease, and consistently determining progression of disease or response to therapy. Further optimization of quantitative techniques and longitudinal analysis of well-characterized subjects would be helpful to validate these methods. PMID:23966094

Bartholmai, Brian J; Raghunath, Sushravya; Karwoski, Ronald A; Moua, Teng; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Maldonado, Fabien; Decker, Paul A; Robb, Richard A

2013-01-01

309

Interaction of interstitial photodynamic therapy and interstitial hyperthermia in a rat rhabdomyosarcoma--a pilot study.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the activation of photosensitizing drugs by light of appropriate wavelength. The photosensitive agent Hematoporphyrin Derivative (HPD) appears to be preferentially retained in malignant tumors; irradiation of HPD-containing tissue by light of appropriate wavelength (625 nm) and dose leads to (tumor) tissue destruction. The aim of this study is to achieve maximum tumor control probability with minimum normal tissue photosensitivity. In previous work from our laboratory it has been demonstrated that PDT has its fundamental effects on the tumor and normal tissue microcirculation. As it is well established that hyperthermia (HT) has its major effects in less well vascularized areas of the tumor, the combined modality of HT and PDT might prove to be advantageous. Moreover, suppression of sublethal damage repair by HT has been observed. To overcome the problem of poor light penetration into tissues and the high rate of recurrences following PDT with external irradiation, the combined effects of interstitial PDT with interstitial hyperthermia in a new line of animal experiments were studied in our laboratory. An experimental murine tumor (Rhabdomyosarcoma, type R-1) was transplanted in WAG/Rij rats and, after reaching an average diameter of 2 cm, the active component of HPD, that is Photofrin II, was injected intravenously in different dose schedules (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg). After 24 or 48 hrs the tumors were implanted with four flexible catheters, through which either light or heat could be applied. Light was obtained from an Argon-Dye laser system tuned to a wavelength of 625 nm at a dose rate of 75-100 mW per fiber to a dose level of 900 Joule from four linear light applicators. Heat (44 degrees C/30') was delivered by four 27 MHz radiofrequency antennas. Dose response relationships for PDT alone, HT alone and PDT combined with HT were established with cure as endpoint. This study showed that these two modalities, in the proper sequence and spacing, result in an augmented cytotoxicity on the tumor cells in vivo. With the combined modality treatment a cure rate of 41% (90 days) was obtained. As the implantation of flexible catheters is a well-known technique in radiation therapy practice, the potentiating effects of interstitial HT combined with interstitial PDT in solid tumors is very promising and clinical studies are warranted. PMID:2961716

Levendag, P C; Marijnissen, H P; de Ru, V J; Versteeg, J A; van Rhoon, G C; Star, W M

1988-01-01

310

Calcium channel antagonists in the treatment of interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

The calcium channel antagonist nifedipine has shown efficacy in the treatment of interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome. The optimal daily dose of nifedipine can be determined with the use of a nifedipine titration test. To complete the repair of damaged bladder and/or urethral mucosa, nifedipine therapy should be used for a minimum of 3 months. Patients who do not respond well to nifedipine are those with the pelvic floor muscle spasm syndrome variant of interstitial cystitis. PMID:8284833

Fleischmann, J

1994-02-01

311

Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of plasma and interstitial fluid play important roles in transvascular fluid exchange. COP values for monitoring fluid balance in healthy and sick children have not been established. This study set out to determine reference values of COP in healthy children. Materials and Methods COP in plasma and interstitial fluid harvested from nylon wicks was measured in 99 healthy children from 2 to 10 years of age. Nylon wicks were implanted subcutaneously in arm and leg while patients were sedated and intubated during a minor surgical procedure. COP was analyzed in a colloid osmometer designed for small fluid samples. Results The mean plasma COP in all children was 25.6 ± 3.3 mmHg. Arbitrary division of children in four different age groups, showed no significant difference in plasma or interstitial fluid COP values for patients less than 8 years, whereas patients of 8-10 years had significant higher COP both in plasma and interstitial fluid. There were no gender difference or correlation between COP in interstitial fluid sampled from arm and leg and no significant effect on interstitial COP of gravity. Prolonged implantation time did not affect interstitial COP. Conclusion Plasma and interstitial COP in healthy children are comparable to adults and COP seems to increase with age in children. Knowledge of the interaction between colloid osmotic forces can be helpful in diseases associated with fluid imbalance and may be crucial in deciding different fluid treatment options. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044641 PMID:25853713

Guthe, Hans Jørgen Timm; Indrebø, Marianne; Nedrebø, Torbjørn; Norgård, Gunnar; Wiig, Helge; Berg, Ansgar

2015-01-01

312

Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: optimizing evaluation and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are saving the lives of the majority of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients affect- ed by scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), most SSc deaths are now the result of end-stage lung disease (both interstitial and pulmonary vascular). Although ~90% of SSc patients have been found to have pulmonary interstitial fibrotic changes at postmortem exam- ination or on high-resolution

Richard M. Silver; Philip J. Clements

2003-01-01

313

Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

2004-01-01

314

Drug-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a pediatric patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a known cause of acute renal failure in children. In most instances, drug therapy is\\u000a the offending agent. Although granuloma formation has been observed in drug-induced interstitial nephritis, it is not a commonly\\u000a associated manifestation. This is a case of a 15-year-old white female with Tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who\\u000a developed acute renal

James E. Tong; David N. Howell; John W. Foreman

2007-01-01

315

Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis. Recently we developed a model of cyclosporine nephropathy in rats characterized by tubulointerstitial (TI) injury, macrophage infiltration, and progressive interstitial fibrosis1,2. To determine if the TI injury accompanying cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy was associated with accelerated apoptosis and ischemia, we treated rats for five weeks with CsA with or without losartan (to block angiotensin

Susan E. Thomas; Takeshi F. Andoh; Raimund H. Pichler; Stuart J. Shankland; William G. Couser; William M. Bennett; Richard J. Johnson

1998-01-01

316

Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe  

SciTech Connect

The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-08-01

317

Design of an endoscopic biopsy needle with flexural members  

E-print Network

As a minimally invasive means of extracting a tissue sample from a patient, current endoscopic biopsy needles generally do not preserve tissue histology and often require multiple attempts to obtain a tissue sample. This ...

Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

2006-01-01

318

Needle-free drug delivery using shock wave techniques  

E-print Network

A recent advancement in the area of needle-free injection systems has been the development of devices capable of epidermal delivery of powder medications. These devices use high-pressure compressed gas to accelerate drug ...

Pavlov, Atanas (Atanas Ivanov)

2006-01-01

319

Searching for Needles in a World of Haystacks Jamie Callan  

E-print Network

Searching for Needles in a World of Haystacks Jamie Callan Language Technologies Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213­3890, USA callan+@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Current Web search engines

Callan, Jamie

320

48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

321

10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

322

10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

323

9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

324

Developing An Immersive Ultrasound Guided Needle Puncture Simulator  

E-print Network

and nephrostomy [4,5]. Interventional radiology basic skills are learnt in an apprenticeship in patients, though nephrostomy and US guided needle biopsy of the liver will be used to illustrate the validity of our hypothesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Developing An Immersive Ultrasound Guided Needle Puncture Simulator  

E-print Network

and nephrostomy [4,5]. Interventional radiology basic skills are learnt in an apprenticeship in patients, though. Tools and Methods For this project, the US guided nephrostomy and US guided needle biopsy of the liver

Villard, Pierre-Frederic

326

Percutaneous needle decompression in treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous needle decompression in the treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO). METHODS: A prospective analysis of the clinical data of 52 MSBO patients undergoing percutaneous needle decompression was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous needle decompression was successful in all 52 patients. Statistically significant differences were observed in symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distension and abdominal pain before and after treatment (81.6% vs 26.5%, 100% vs 8.2%, and 85.7% vs 46.9%, respectively; all P < 0.05). The overall significantly improved rate was 19.2% (11/52) and the response rate was 94.2% (49/52) using decompression combined with nasal tube placement, local arterial infusion of chemotherapy and nutritional support. During the one-month follow-up period, puncture-related complications were acceptable. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous needle intestinal decompression is a safe and effective palliative treatment for MSBO. PMID:25741156

Jiang, Ting-Hui; Sun, Xian-Jun; Chen, Yue; Cheng, Hui-Qin; Fang, Shi-Ming; Jiang, Hao-Sheng; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Yan; Wu, Shao-Qiu; Mao, Ai-Wu

2015-01-01

327

NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

328

Synthesis of tungsten oxide tapered needles with nanotips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten oxide tapered needles with nanotips were synthesized on a large scale by reacting tungsten nanopowders with hydrous nickel nitrate in hydrogen atmosphere. The resultant tungsten oxide needles have lengths more than 100 ?m, root diameters of several hundred nanometers and tip diameters of several nanometers, showing a perfectly axisymmetric configuration. HRTEM and SAED analyses showed that the synthesized tungsten oxide tapered needles have a single-crystalline structure with growth direction of [0 1 0]. The effects of the experimental conditions (the ratio between tungsten and hydrous nickel nitrate, the size of tungsten powders, and the reaction atmosphere) on the morphology of the products were systematically investigated. It was found that tungsten oxide nanowires, submicro-/micro-whiskers and microtubules could be facilely obtained under different experimental conditions. The unique configuration and the single-crystal structure of the tapered needles may make them a potential candidate for field emitters and probing tips.

Wang, Shiliang; He, Yuehui; Zou, Jin; Cao, Peng; Jiang, Yao; Huang, Baiyun; Liu, C. T.; Liaw, P. K.

2007-05-01

329

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

330

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.  

PubMed Central

The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

King, Talmadge E.

2004-01-01

331

Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

Hsu, C. Y., E-mail: cyhsu00@gmail.com [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-09

332

Design of Laser-Excited Needle-RF-Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new-type of laser-excited RF-gun using a needle photocathode is proposed. Design studies of the gun performances are executed with numerical calculations for electric field of the tip of the needle photocathode, laser heating and Joule heating of the tip, and beam parameters of a photoelectron beam in the RF-gun cavity. This calculation assumes a 2856 MHz RF-gun system that

Takahiro Inoue; Shuji Miyamoto; Sho Amano; Mitsuyasu Yatsuzuka; Takayasu Mochizuki

2003-01-01

333

Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

Johanson, Richard E.

2004-08-01

334

[Dental anxiety and needle phobia in children. A relationship?].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed at explaining the nature of needle phobia and its relationship in dental phobic children with evidence on age-related differences. The patient sample included randomly selected patients and an group of referred anxious children. The children were divided into three age groups and arranged into three anxiety groups. Needle phobia was demonstrated to be age-related, but should be considered as a separate phenomenon, being not specific for dental anxiety. PMID:16821467

Veerkamp, J S J; Majstorovic, M

2006-06-01

335

Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of

R. E. J. Sladek; E. Stoffels

2005-01-01

336

Integration of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function to determine the effect of their interaction on interstitial fluid volume  

E-print Network

Although the physics of interstitial fluid balance is relatively well understood, clinical options for the treatment of edema, the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, are limited. Two related reasons for this failure can be identified. First...

Dongaonkar, Ranjeet Manohar

2009-05-15

337

Transbronchial needle aspiration for cytology specimens.  

PubMed

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma has evolved in the USA since the late 1970's. Initial reports advised that aspirated specimens be flushed into a container by normal saline or Hank's solution and processed in a cytology laboratory usually by Millipore filter and other techniques. A highly sophisticated cytology laboratory is the key to the success of this procedure. This study was designed to assess a simpler alternative method of processing the specimen by a direct smear technique. From June 1990 to September 1990, 40 procedures were performed on 34 consecutive patients. Seventy two paired direct smear and fluid specimens for cytology examination were collected. Fifty specimens were found to be negative in both types of specimen preparation. Fifteen were found to be positive in both types of specimens preparation, and six specimens were found to be positive only in the direct smear preparation. One of the 72 specimens was found to be positive in the Millipore and other preparation techniques. Based on our data, we conclude that the use of the direct smear for TBNA specimen preparation is an effective, simpler, and improved method. Proper use of it may increase the diagnostic yield and result in better acceptance of this new procedure. PMID:8087128

Wang, K P; Selcuk, Z T; Erozan, Y

1994-06-01

338

Retained surgical sponges, needles and instruments  

PubMed Central

Introduction Retained sponges and instruments (RSI) due to surgery are a recognised medical ‘never event’ and have catastrophic implications for patients, healthcare professionals and medical care providers. The aim of this review was to elucidate the extent of the problem of RSI and to identify preventative strategies. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on MEDLINE®, Embase™, the Science Citation Index and Google™ Scholar for articles published in English between January 2000 and June 2012. Studies outlining the incidence, risk, management and attempts to prevent RSI following surgical intervention were retrieved. Results The overall incidence of RSI is low although its incidence is substantially higher in operations performed on open cavities. Sponges are the most commonly retained item when compared with needles and instruments. Clinical presentation is varied, leading to avoidable morbidity, and the error is indefensible medicolegally. Risk factors include emergency operations, operations involving unexpected change in procedure, raised body mass index, and a failure to perform accurate sponge and instrument counts. The existing strategy for prevention is manual counting of sponges and instruments undertaken by surgical personnel. This, however, is fallible. Computer assisted counting of sponges using barcodes and gauze sponges tagged with a radiofrequency identification device aiding manual counting have been trialled recently, with success. Conclusions Vigilance among operating theatre personnel is paramount if RSI is to be prevented. Prospective multicentre trials to assess efficacy of new technologies aiding manual counting should be undertaken if this medical error is to be eliminated completely. PMID:23484986

Hariharan, D

2013-01-01

339

Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.  

PubMed

In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

2014-01-01

340

Determination of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity with Thermal Needle Probe Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for measuring thermal conductivity is being adapted from the standard method of measuring isotropic thermal conductivity with needle probes, ASTM D5334, in order to enable the dertermination of an anisotropic thermal conductivity. This method will have particular relevance to measuring thermal conductivity of natural snowpacks where conductivity can be strongly anisotropic due to vertical thermal gradients, compaction and metamorphosis. Needle probes, such as specified in ASTM D5334, consist of a thin needle embedded with a constant-flux heating element and a thermocouple or thermistor. Thermal conductivity of the surrounding material is calculated analytically using needle temperature data as a function of time. This new method uses finite element numerical solutions for apparent thermal conductivity as a function of actual anisotropic thermal conductivity and needle orientation. Values for anisotropic thermal conductivity are determined by curve-fitting a function relating apparent results of the ASTM method at given needle orientations and the actual solutions. The results of the numerical simulations may then be applied to the measurement of actual anisotropic materials. Unlike ASTM D5334, multiple measurements at different orientations are required, and relies the number of free variables in the heat equation (with an upper bound of six for a symmetric conductivity matrix, which may be reduced with further simplifications). The applicability and feasibility of this technique for improving arctic climate models, which can strongly depend on snow conductivity, will be discussed.

Holbrook, J. F.; Peterson, R.; Johnson, J.

2010-12-01

341

Nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy treating ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe. PMID:25796147

Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying

2015-03-01

342

Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs. PMID:19643014

Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

2009-01-01

343

Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: paga@hol.gr; Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos [Helenic Red Cross Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece)

2004-08-15

344

Effect and safety of deep needling and shallow needling for functional constipation: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Aupuncture is widely used for functional constipation. Effect of acupuncture might be related to the depth of needling; however, the evidence is limited. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of deep needling and shallow needling for functional constipation, and to assess if the deep needling and shallow needling are superior to lactulose. We conducted a prospective, superiority-design, 5-center, 3-arm randomized controlled trial. A total of 475 patients with functional constipation were randomized to the deep needling group (237), shallow needling group (119), and lactulose-controlled group (119) in a ratio of 2:1:1. Sessions lasted 30 minutes each time and took place 5 times a week for 4 weeks in 2 acupuncture groups. Participants in the lactulose group took lactulose orally for 16 continuous weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline of mean weekly spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) during week 1 to 4 (changes from the baselines of the weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in follow-up period were also assessed simultaneously). Secondary outcomes were the weekly SBMs of each assessing week, the mean score change from the baseline of constipation-related symptoms over week 1 to 4, and the time to the first SBM. Emergency drug usage and adverse effects were monitored throughout the study.SBMs and constipation-related symptoms were all improved in the 3 groups compared with baseline at each time frame (P<0.01, all). The changes in the mean weekly SBMs over week 1 to 4 were 2 (1.75) in the deep needling group, 2 (1.75) in the shallow needling group, and 2 (2) in the lactulose group (P>0.05, both compared with the lactulose group). The changes of mean weekly SBMs at week 8 and week 16 in the follow-up period were 2 (2), 2 (2.5) in the deep needling group, 2 (3), 1.5 (2.5) in the shallow needling group, and 1 (2), 1 (2) in the lactulose group (P<0.05, all compared with the lactulose group). No significant difference was observed among the 3 groups regarding the score changes of straining, incomplete evacuation, abdominal distention during spontaneous defecating, or Cleveland Clinic Scores over week 1 to 4. However, the lactulose group got better effect than other 2 acupuncture groups in improving stool consistency (P<0.01, both) and shortening the time to the first SBM (P<0.05, both). The percentage of emergency drugs used in the 2 acupuncture groups were both lower than in the lactulose group at each time frame (P<0.01, all). No obvious adverse event was observed in the deep or shallow needling group. Deep and shallow needling at Tianshu (ST25) can improve intestinal function remarkably and safely. Therapeutic effects of deep and shallow needling are not superior to that of lactulose; however, the sustained effects of deep and shallow needling after stopping the acupuncture treatments are superior to the therapeutic effect of lactulose, which might qualify the superiority of deep and shallow needling. PMID:25526462

Wu, Jiani; Liu, Baoyan; Li, Ning; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Liping; Cai, Yuying; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhishun

2014-12-01

345

Heating of industrial sewing machine needles: FEA model and verification using IR radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of synthetic fabrics and threads in high speed sewing, needle heating due to friction between the needle and the fabric becomes a serious problem which limits further increase of the sewing speed. The high temperature in the needle can accelerate thread wear, cause wear at the needle eye, and damage the thread. It can also scorch the fabric, as well as temper and weaken the needle itself. Experimental methods, such as: infrared radiometry, infrared pyrometry, etc., have been applied to analyze this problem in previous studies. They revealed some important factors that affect the needle peak steady state temperature. In this study the numerical (FEA) model developed to simulate the needle heating is fine tuned and verified via infrared radiometry. The FEA model incorporates detailed needle geometry and the effects of thread on needle heating. It deals with a transient heat transfer process with time and position dependent boundary conditions. It correlates various important factors that affect the needle heating, such as needle characteristics, fabric properties, and sewing conditions to the needle temperature distribution. Given various needle geometries, sewing conditions, and fabric properties, the model can simulate the needle heating process, including the initial heating phase and the steady state. It can also predict the temperature distribution in the needle as well as the time to reach steady state. The trends of the simulation results correlate well with experiments.

Li, Qinwen; Liasi, Evangelos; Simon, Daniel L.; Du, Ruxu; Bujas-Dimitrijevic, Jasmina; Chen, Anshi

1999-03-01

346

Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue  

PubMed Central

Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

2012-01-01

347

High-temperature calcined fullerene nanowhiskers as well as long needle-like multi-wall carbon nanotubes have abilities to induce NLRP3-mediated IL-1? secretion.  

PubMed

Because multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have asbestos-like shape and size, concerns about their pathogenicity have been raised. Contaminated metals of MWCNTs may also be responsible for their toxicity. In this study, we employed high-temperature calcined fullerene nanowhiskers (HTCFNWs), which are needle-like nanofibers composed of amorphous carbon having similar sizes to MWCNTs but neither metal impurities nor tubular structures, and investigated their ability to induce production a major proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? via the Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-containing flammasome-mediated mechanism. When exposed to THP-1 macrophages, long-HTCFNW exhibited robust IL-1? production as long and needle-like MWCNTs did, but short-HTCFNW caused very small effect. IL-1? release induced by long-HTCFNW as well as by long, needle-like MWCNTs was abolished by a caspase-1 inhibitor or siRNA-knockdown of NLRP3, indicating that NLRP3-inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production by these carbon nanofibers. Our findings indicate that the needle-like shape and length, but neither metal impurities nor tubular structures of MWCNTs were critical to robust NLRP3 activation. PMID:25181346

Cui, Hongyan; Wu, Weijia; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Hattori, Takayuki; Sai, Kimie; Naito, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Ogata, Akio; Maeno, Tomokazu; Inomata, Akiko; Nakae, Dai; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

2014-09-26

348

The epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases.  

PubMed

Little epidemiologic data are available on the occurrence of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in the general population. To describe the prevalence and incidence of ILDs a population-based registry of patients with ILDs was established in Bernalillo County, New Mexico in October 1988. All patients 18 yr of age and older who had a clinical diagnosis of an ILD were identified during the period 10/1/88 through 9/30/90 from physician referrals, hospital discharge diagnoses, histopathology reports, and death certificates. In addition, the prevalence of preclinical or undiagnosed cases was identified by screening lung specimens from 510 autopsy cases. A total of 2,936 referrals were screened; 8.8% were prevalent cases and 6.9% were incident cases. Overall, the prevalence of ILDs was 20% higher in males (80.9 per 100,000) than in females (67.2 per 100,000). Similarly the overall incidence of ILDs was slightly more common in males (31.5 per 100,000/year) than females (26.1 per 100,000/year). The estimated prevalence of preclinical or undiagnosed ILDs among all deaths was 1.8%. The most common incident diagnosed among both sexes were pulmonary fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, together accounting for 46.2% of all ILD diagnoses in males and 44.2% in females. We conclude that the occurrence of ILDs in the general population may be more common than previous estimates based on selected populations, and these disorders may frequently be unrecognized. PMID:7921471

Coultas, D B; Zumwalt, R E; Black, W C; Sobonya, R E

1994-10-01

349

Clinical highlights of the national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases\\/interstitial cystitis association scientific conference on interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2000, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Interstitial Cystitis Association held a joint meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical highlights from this meeting are reviewed. The general state of interstitial cystitis from the vantage point of the clinician is discussed, as well as epidemiologic advances, new concepts in markers for interstitial cystitis, and

Philip M Hanno; Grannum R Sant

2001-01-01

350

Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.  

PubMed

We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

1992-12-01

351

Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38  

SciTech Connect

Using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering we show that interstitial Fe in superconducting Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{1-x}$Se$_x$ induces a magnetic Friedel-like oscillation that diffracts at ${\\bf Q}_{\\perp}=(\\frac{1}{2}0)$ and involves $>$50 neighboring Fe sites. The interstitial $>2$~$\\mu_B$ moment is surrounded by compensating ferromagnetic four spin clusters that may seed double stripe ordering in Fe$_{1+y}$Te. A semi-metallic 5-band model with $(\\frac{1}{2}\\frac{1}{2})$ Fermi surface nesting and four fold symmetric super-exchange between interstitial Fe and two in-plane nearest neighbors largely accounts for the observed diffraction.

Thampy, Vivek [ORNL; Kang, Jian [Johns Hopkins University; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A [NCNR and University of Maryland; Bao, Wei [Renmin University of China; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL; Hu, Jin [Tulane University; Liu, Tijiang [Tulane University; Qian, Bin [Tulane University; Fobes, David [Tulane University; Mao, Z Q [Tulane University; Fu, Changbo [ORNL; Chen, W. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Ye, Qiang [ORNL; Erwin, R [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Gentile, T. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Tesanovic, Zlatko [ORNL; Broholm, Collin L [ORNL

2012-01-01

352

Abnormal urothelial HLA-DR expression in interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial cystitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the urinary bladder that predominantly afflicts middle-age women. The end stage of the disease is ulceration of the urothelium, the so-called Hunner's ulcer. The aetiology of interstitial cystitis remains obscure. We have studied bladder biopsies from 22 cases of interstitial cystitis and control groups consisting of six cases of bacterial cystitis and eight healthy women. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on the biopsies using murine MoAbs to human HLA class I molecules, and class II molecules, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. In interstitial cystitis, bacterial cystitis and normal controls most cells expressed HLA class I products. In six cases of interstitial cystitis and one case of bacterial cystitis there was evidence of HLA class I hyperexpression. In normal bladder and bacterial cystitis HLA class II expression was restricted to submucosal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes. All but two cases of interstitial cystitis showed surface expression of HLA-DR (but not HLA-DP or DQ). In all cases of interstitial cystitis there was an increase in the numbers of macrophages, activated lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells expressing HLA class II molecules within the submucosa. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of inappropriate HLA molecule expression in a disease suspected of having an autoimmune pathogenesis and where cellular autoimmune mechanisms play a decisive role in the destruction of the target cells--the bladder urothelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1544229

Christmas, T J; Bottazzo, G F

1992-01-01

353

Intracavitary combined with CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced uterine cervical cancer: introduction of the technique and a case presentation.  

PubMed

We report a new technique of brachytherapy consisting of intracavitary combined with computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. A Fletcher-Suit applicator and trocar point needles were used for performing high-dose rate brachytherapy under in-room CT guidance. First, a tandem and ovoids were implanted into the patient's vagina and uterus by conventional brachytherapy method. Based on clinical examination and MRI/CT imaging, operating radiation oncologists decided the positions of insertion in the tumor and the depth of the needles from the upper surface of the ovoid. Insertion of the needle applicator was performed from the vaginal vault inside the ovoid within the tumor under CT guidance. In treatment planning, dwell positions and time adaptations within the tandem and ovoids were performed first for optimization based on the Manchester system, and then stepwise addition of dwell positions within the needle was continued. Finally, dwell positions and dwell weights were manually modified until dose-volume constraints were optimally matched. In our pilot case, the dose of D90 to high-risk clinical target volume was improved from 3.5 Gy to 6.1 Gy by using our hybrid method on the dose-volume histogram. D1cc of the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon by our hybrid method was 4.8 Gy, 6.4 Gy and 3.5 Gy, respectively. This method consists of advanced image-guided brachytherapy that can be performed safely and accurately. This approach has the potential of increasing target coverage, treated volume, and total dose without increasing the dose to organs at risk. PMID:21293072

Wakatsuki, Masaru; Ohno, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Daisaku; Noda, Shin-ei; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Shibuya, Kei; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

2011-01-01

354

From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2003-11-01

355

Magnetic resonance imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated the detection of reversible and irreversible changes on MR images oflaser energy deposition and tissue heating and cooling1. It is possible to monitor and control energy deposition during interstitial laser therapy. This presentation describes some first steps toward optimizing the power and total energy deposited in various tissues in vivo, by analyzing the irreversible tissue changes and their spatial distribution as revealed by spin echo imaging. We used various power settings of an Nd.YAG laser delivered by a fiber optic inserted into several tissues (brain, muscle, liver) of anesthetized rats and rabbits. MR imaging was performed at 1.9 T. Photothermally-produced lesions were seen on both T1- and Ta-weighted images. The overall size of the lesions correlated with the magnitude of the energy applied. The MR image appearance depended not only on the laser energy but also on the way it was delivered, on the type of tissue, and the MR pulse sequence applied. While Ti-weighted images adequately demonstrated an area of tissue destruction, T2- weighted images showed a more heterogeneous and more extensive lesion which could be better correlated with the complex histological representation of these lesions. Typically, when rabbit brain, liver, and muscle had been exposed to laser power of 2.5 Watts for a range of 55 to 120 seconds, depending on the tissue, a central area of signal void was surrounded by an inner hypointensity and an outer hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The 3D extent of the lesions was well demonstrated on multislice images, providing correlation of the affected volumes seen on MRI with volumes seen in histological or histochemical preparations. We are developing an analytical model of laser heating and its effect on MR images to assess whether heating during imaging will produce unacceptable artifacts during surgery. The effect of heating is modeled as a change in magnetization during image acquisition. The region in which the change occurs is blurred by the Fourier transform of the change in magnetization as a function of time. Thus, blurring is minimized when changes occur slowly, compared to image acquisition times. We conclude that MRI can demonstrate the 3D extent of the lesions induced by lasers and can be used to investigate and optimize the control of induced tissue change within the affected volume.

Bleier, Alan R.; Higuchi, Nobuya; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jakab, Peter D.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

1990-06-01

356

Measuring elastic contrast in tissue using OCT needle probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence elastography (OCE) provides images of tissue elasticity and has potential for several clinical applications, including guidance of tumor resection. However, advancement toward clinical implementation of OCE is currently limited by the technique's small imaging depth in tissue (1-2 mm), as well as a lack of validation of the elastic contrast generated in OCE. We have overcome the depth limitation of current OCE techniques by developing a method for performing OCE via a needle probe. Our technique, needle OCE, uses an OCT needle probe to perform axial measurements of tissue deformation during needle insertion, and has demonstrated potential for subsurface detection of the boundaries of diseased tissue. In this paper, we demonstrate how elastic contrast is generated in needle OCE by performing measurements in tissue phantoms and porcine airway wall. In addition, we have developed a finite element model of tissue deformation in compression OCE as a first step toward better understanding of the generation and interpretation of contrast in OCE images. We show initial results demonstrating excellent agreement between measured and simulated deformation in a tissue phantom.

Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Ford, Chris; Bush, Mark B.; Sampson, David D.

2013-03-01

357

Needle-tip localization using an optical fibre hydrophone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound imaging is frequently used for guiding needles during minimally invasive procedures, but accurate identification of the needle tips can be challenging, even for experienced practitioners. In this study, a novel method for tracking needles inside the human body was developed. This method, called ultrasonic device tracking (UDT), involved the detection of ultrasound pulses from the external imaging probe with an optical fibre hydrophone integrated into the needle cannula. Two methods for estimating the needle tip position that were based on the maximum and the centroid of the optical fibre hydrophone signal were tested. The variability of the position estimates is measured at different distances to the electronic focus. The maximum longitudinal variability was less than 80 ?m for all distances. The lateral variability remains below 500 ?m in a 20 mm region around the focus, but increases up to several mm away from the electronic focus. In the close proximity of the electronic focus, the lateral and longitudinal variability lower down to 22 ?m and less. This study suggests that UDT allows for safer and more efficient procedures in a manner that is compatible with the current clinical workflow.

Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

2014-02-01

358

Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

359

Effect of blinding with a new pragmatic placebo needle: a randomized controlled crossover study.  

PubMed

Placebo control is a useful method for determining the efficacy of a therapy. In acupuncture researches, the preferred method for placebo control is acupuncture using a placebo needle that has a blunt tip and achieves no skin penetration. We performed a crossover study to validate the blinding effect of a new type of placebo needle. Sixty volunteers were randomized to receive acupuncture using 2 types of needles with different sequences: sequence AB, involving first the pragmatic placebo needle and then the real needle, and sequence BA, in a reverse order. Placebo acupuncture was performed by administering the placebo needle through an adhesive pad without skin penetration on the acupoints LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36. Real acupuncture was performed by needling through the pad and penetrating the skin to 15 mm using a real needle on the same acupoints. The acupuncture was administered every other day with 3 sessions for 1 type of needle. The primary outcome was the perception of needle penetration. Besides degree of acupuncture pain, type, and degree of needle sensation, needle acceptability and factors influencing the subject blinding effect were assessed. Needle penetration was felt by 100%, 90% (54/60), 88.3% (53/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving placebo acupuncture and 98.3% (59/60), 96.7% (58/60), 95% (57/60), and 95% (57/60) of volunteers receiving real acupuncture on LI4, RN12, BL25, and BL36, respectively. Differences of the volunteers' perception of needle penetration between the placebo needle and real needle were not significant for the 4 acupoints (all P > 0.05). Volunteers experienced fewer distension sensations (P = 0.01), a lower degree of needle sensation (P = 0.007), and less pain (P = 0.006) during placebo acupuncture than during real acupuncture. The placebo needle was more easily accepted than the real needle (OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.01-2.64). The influences of age, sex, educational level, acupuncture experience, needle sensation, acupuncture pain, and needle acceptability on volunteers' perception of needle penetration were not significant. The pragmatic placebo needle is a valid control for acupuncture research. It produces a good subject blinding effect with a similar appearance to conventional acupuncture needles and no skin penetration when applied. PMID:25501074

Liu, Baoyan; Xu, Huanfang; Ma, Rui; Mo, Qian; Yan, Shiyan; Liu, Zhishun

2014-12-01

360

NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.

Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 760 Davis Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, 4th Floor Sutardja Dai Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1764 (United States); Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations, University of California, Berkeley, 4141 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1777 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, 4141 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1777 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2012-07-15

361

Decision making in interstitial stem cells of Hydra.  

PubMed

Interstitial stem cells in Hydra are a continuously proliferating and differentiating cell population. They represent a useful model system for studying mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation. Here we review our current knowledge of the differentiation potential of these cells. Interstitial stem cells are multipotent and able to differentiate into several different cell types. The differentiation decisions appear to be controlled by positional signals and by the composition of the cellular environment. Since interstitial stem cells can be cultured in an in vivo environment and appear to be accessible to experimental manipulation by a range of new molecular techniques, an in vivo analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell decision making can now be approached. PMID:1768803

Bosch, T C; David, C N

1991-01-01

362

Role of inflammation in bladder function and interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which is usually reserved for refractory cases. PMID:21789096

Grover, Sonal; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lee, Richard; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Te, Alexis E.

2011-01-01

363

Circulating peripheral blood fibrocytes in human fibrotic interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases are illnesses of unknown cause characterized by progressive decline in lung function. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived, circulating progenitor cells capable of differentiating into diverse mesenchymal cell types. Prior work has shown fibrocytes to traffic to the lung via the CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine axis in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. We therefore assessed the relevance of fibrocytes in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease. We found enhanced expression of CXCL12 in both the lungs and plasma of patients with lung fibrosis. CXCL12 levels were associated with an order of magnitude higher number of circulating fibrocytes in the peripheral blood of these patients. Most of the circulating fibrocytes in patients with interstitial lung diseases were negative for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin, suggesting a relatively undifferentiated phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that fibrocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of human lung fibrosis. PMID:17174272

Mehrad, Borna; Burdick, Marie D; Zisman, David A; Keane, Michael P; Belperio, John A; Strieter, Robert M

2007-02-01

364

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). A 58-year-old Japanese woman presented with oculocutaneous albinism and dyspnea on exertion. A high resolution computed tomography scan showed areas of reticular and ground glass opacity in the lungs, and a surgical lung biopsy revealed fibrotic NSIP. Foamy type 2 pneumocytes and the absence of dense granules in platelets were also observed, consistent with a diagnosis of HPS. Ultimately, a genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the HPS1 gene. The interstitial pneumonia progressed despite treatment with prednisolone, cyclosporine A and pirfenidone. In this report, we discuss the pathological lung features and treatment of HPS associated with interstitial pneumonia. PMID:24583434

Furuhashi, Kazuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Dai; Inui, Naoki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

2014-01-01

365

Regional extravascular and interstitial lung water in normal dogs  

SciTech Connect

The regional distribution of pulmonary extravascular and interstitial water was measured to examine the possibility that regional differences in microvascular pressure or tissue stress may cause regional differences in lung water. Chloralose-anesthetized dogs were traced in an upright or supine position and injected with 51Cr-labeled albumin to equilibrate with plasma. The data revealed that regional extravascular and interstitial water were constant throughout the lungs in both groups and that there were no significant differences between upright and supine dogs. There were no significant differences in hematocrit between slices. It appears that gravity and body position have no measurable effect on either the total size of the extravascular and interstitial compartments or their regional distribution.

Snashall, P.D.; Keyes, S.J.; Morgan, B.; Jones, B.; Murphy, K.

1980-10-01

366

Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

1988-07-01

367

Comparative study of the skin pathergy test with blunt and sharp needles in Behçet's disease: confirmed specificity but decreased sensitivity with sharp needles.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the specificity and sensitivity of the skin pathergy test performed with blunt and sharp needles in patients with Behçet's disease. METHODS--The skin pathergy test was performed using the simultaneous four needle prick method with blunt and sharp, thick and thin needles in 92 patients with Behçet's disease, 64 healthy controls, and 128 patients without Behçet's disease. The test was evaluated at 48 hours. RESULTS--No positive skin pathergy test was found in healthy controls and patients without Behçet's disease. The frequency and intensity of the positive skin pathergy test with blunt needles were significantly higher than those with sharp needles. CONCLUSION--This study reconfirmed the specificity of a positive skin pathergy test for Behçet's disease using blunt and sharp needles and showed a decreased sensitivity and intensity of the reaction with sharp needles. PMID:8250614

Dil?en, N; Koniçe, M; Aral, O; Ocal, L; Inanç, M; Gül, A

1993-01-01

368

Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy  

SciTech Connect

The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

NONE

1997-12-30

369

Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

2013-10-01

370

Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q  

SciTech Connect

We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-13

371

[Shape and functions of shear needle in Internal Classic].  

PubMed

The shape of shear needle mentioned in Internal Classic was explored according to the available documents and the unearthed relics. And the functions of shear needle were studied as well. It is held that the initial shape of shear needle is the imitation of plowshare. Its head is wide and flat, which is similar to a triangle. And it's base and a hypotenuse form an acute angle with narrow and sharp blades. The blade of the base and the tip of the acute angle is considered as the site of action, which can be applied for fast and superficial insertion or cutting at the local area. It can protect the body from damage of interior tissues, and at the same time, has the function of clearing heat. PMID:22043697

Pang, Guo-Jun

2011-10-01

372

Chlorophyll Synthesis in Dark-Grown Pine Primary Needles1  

PubMed Central

The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. Needles of plants treated with this inhibitor had low chlorophyll content, contained only traces of xanthophylls, and accumulated carotenoid precursors. The first form of chlorophyll detected in young pine needles grown in darkness had an emission maximum at 678 nm. Chlorophyll-protein complexes with in situ spectroscopic properties similar to those of fully green needles (685, 695, and 735 nm) later accumulated in untreated plants, whereas in norflurazon-treated plants the photosystem I emission at 735 nm was completely lacking. To better characterize the light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in pine needles, the 77 K fluorescence properties of in situ protochlorophyllide a spectral forms were studied. Photoactive and nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide a forms with emission properties similar to those reported for dark-grown angiosperms were found, but excitation spectra were substantially red shifted. Because of their lower chlorophyll content, norflurazon-treated plants were used to study the protochlorophyllide a photoreduction process triggered by one light flash. The first stable chlorophyllide photoproduct was a chlorophyllide a form emitting at 688 nm as in angiosperms. Further chlorophyllide a shifts usually observed in angiosperms were not detected. The rapid regeneration of photoactive protochlorophyllide a from nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide after one flash was demonstrated. PMID:9847090

Schoefs, Benoît; Franck, Fabrice

1998-01-01

373

Estimation of flexible needle deflection in layered soft tissues with different elastic moduli.  

PubMed

The estimation of needle deflection when the needle interacts with biological tissue is challenging in needle steering. Most previous studies have used homogeneous tissue models to estimate the deflection of a needle. However, biological tissue typically has a layered structure with variable mechanical properties and geometric features. In this study, we propose a needle deflection model with a double-layered elastic medium. Each layer possesses distinct mechanical properties, which result in inconsistent degrees of friction force on the needle surface, needle-cutting force, and forces caused by the stiffness of the elastic medium. The model uses the Rayleigh-Ritz method to analytically estimate the needle deflection. To validate the model, needle steering experiments were performed using double-layered tissue phantoms and porcine tissues. The experimental results revealed that changes in reaction force at the needle base occurred when the needle passed through the boundary between the two layers. The mean absolute error between the estimated and measured needle tip trajectory was 0.88 ± 0.30 mm for the double-layered tissue phantom and 1.85 ± 0.73 mm for the porcine tissue. These results are comparable with previous studies of homogeneous tissue. The proposed model could improve needle steering in biological tissues, which consist of multiple layers. PMID:25008003

Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Jung

2014-09-01

374

Highly coherent electron beam from a laser-triggered tungsten needle tip  

E-print Network

We report on a quantitative measurement of the spatial coherence of electrons emitted from a sharp metal needle tip. We investigate the coherence in photoemission using near-ultraviolet laser triggering with a photon energy of 3.1 eV and compare it to DC-field emission. A carbon-nanotube is brought in close proximity to the emitter tip to act as an electrostatic biprism. From the resulting electron matter wave interference fringes we deduce an upper limit of the effective source radius both in laser-triggered and DC-field emission mode, which quantifies the spatial coherence of the emitted electron beam. We obtain $(0.80\\pm 0.05)\\,$nm in laser-triggered and $(0.55\\pm 0.02)\\,$nm in DC-field emission mode, revealing that the outstanding coherence properties of electron beams from needle tip field emitters are largely maintained in laser-induced emission. In addition, the relative coherence width of 0.36 of the photoemitted electron beam is the largest observed so far. The preservation of electronic coherence du...

Ehberger, Dominik; Eisele, Max; Krüger, Michael; Noe, Jonathan; Högele, Alexander; Hommelhoff, Peter

2014-01-01

375

Percutaneous needle biopsy of deep pelvic masses: a posterior approach.  

PubMed

The classical approach for the fine-needle aspiration biopsy of deep pelvic masses has been through the lower anterior abdominal wall. With this approach, and using either CT or sonographic guidance, bowel or bladder may be unavoidably traversed to reach the mass. We have been using a posterior approach through the sciatic notch, which is a safe and simple procedure, with good results. The biopsy is done with the patient in a prone position, using a 22-gauge biopsy needle. With this technique we have successfully biopsied various neoplastic pelvic entities. PMID:3089612

Pardes, J G; Schneider, M; Koizumi, J; Engel, I A; Auh, Y H; Rubenstein, W

1986-01-01

376

Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a view to environmental, economic and safety concerns, car manufacturers need to design lighter and safer vehicles in ever shorter development times. In recent years, High Strength Steels (HSS) like Interstitial Free (IF) steels which have higher ratios of yield strength to elastic modulus, are increasingly used for sheet metal parts in automotive industry to meet the demands. Moreover, the application of sheet metal forming simulations has proven to be beneficial to reduce tool costs in the design stage and to optimize current processes. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is quite successful to simulate metal forming processes but accuracy largely depends on the quality of the material properties provided as input to the material model. Common phenomenological models roughly consist in the fitting of functions on experimental results and do not provide any predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Therefore, the use of accurate plasticity models based on physics would increase predictive capability, reduce parameter identification cost and allow for robust and time-effective finite element simulations. For this purpose, a 3D physically based model at large strain with dislocation density evolution approach was presented in IDDRG2009 by the authors [1]. This model allows the description of work-hardening's behavior for different loading paths (i.e. uni-axial tensile, simple shear and Bauschinger tests) taking into account several data from microstructure (i.e. grain size, texture, etc…). The originality of this model consists in the introduction of microstructure data in a classical phenomenological model in order to achieve work-hardening's predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Indeed, thanks to a microstructure parameter set for an Interstitial Free steel, it is possible to describe work-hardening behavior for different loading paths of other IF steels by only changing the mean grain size and the chemical composition. During sheet metal forming processes local material points may experience multi-axial and multi-path loadings. Before simulating actual industrial parts, automotive manufacturers use validation tools—e.g. the Cross-Die stamping test. Such typical stamping tests enable the evaluation of a complex distribution of strains. The work described is an implementation [2] of a 3D dislocation based model in ABAQUS/Explicit and its validation on a Finite Element (FE) Cross-Die model. In order to assess the performance and relevance of the 3D dislocation based model in the simulation of industrial forming applications, the results of thinning profiles predicted along several directions and the strain distribution were obtained and compared with experimental results for IF steels with grain sizes varying in the 8-22 ?m value range.

Carvalho Resende, T.; Balan, T.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Bouvier, S.; Sablin, S.-S.

2010-06-01

377

Characteristics of pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner  

E-print Network

The motivation behind this report was to develop a stronger understanding of pine needle combustion behavior in a semi-gasifier, in order to ultimately design an effective pine needle cook stove for people in the developing ...

Fang, Liane Jessica

2011-01-01

378

A Lorentz-force actuated controllable needle-free drug delivery system  

E-print Network

The advantages of delivering injections via needle-free methods are numerous. However, conventional methods for needle-free injection lack sufficient control over depth of penetration and shape of injection. Thus, a ...

Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

2004-01-01

379

Planning fireworks trajectories for steerable medical needles to reduce patient trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate needle insertion in 3D environment is always a grand challenge. When multiple targets are located in the tissue, a procedure of inserting multiple needles from a single small region on the patient's skin, so called \\

Jijie Xu; Vincent Duindam; Ron Alterovitz; Jean Pouliot; J. Adam M. Cunha; I-chow Hsu; Kenneth Y. Goldberg

2009-01-01

380

Experimental analysis of stove top designs for pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner  

E-print Network

The motivation behind this project was to develop a better understanding of the role that the stove top plays in a stove where pine needles are the main fuel source. Pine needles have distinct characteristics in their ...

Roqué, Alyssa J

2011-01-01

381

Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms  

E-print Network

Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms Michael-guided needle biopsy to biopsies performed using a 3D Augmented Reality (AR) guidance system. Fifty core for augmented reality, p

State, Andrei

382

Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative acute toxicity of particle-bound and dissolved interstitial cadmium was investigated using a new bioassay procedure. Interstitial concentration of Cd was controlled by means of peristaltic pumps, allowing separate manipulation of interstitial and particle properties. Addition of small quantities of organic-rich fine particles to sandy sediment resulted in greatly differing particle-bound Cd concentrations in sediment with similar interstitial Cd

P. F. Kemp; R. C. Swartz

1988-01-01

383

Simulation of the interstitial system of exposed sandy beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sand column system with tidal rather than continuous seawater inputs was developed for laboratory simulation of interstitial conditions on exposed sandy beaches. Adjustment of flow volume and rate and permanent water table depth allow simulation of various parts of the intertidal zone by 50 cm sand columns. As oxygen consumption by the interstitial fauna is directly proportional to flow rate, it is critical to obtain the correct flow rates to simulate field conditions. A 4-month experiment with five columns was conducted. During the latter 2 months high amino acid levels were added to the columns. Rates of oxygen consumption, oxidation of organic nitrogen and nitrate production by the columns are described. On average about one-third of the organic nitrogen was oxidized and 2 ?mol NO 3-N1 -1 generated by the columns without amino acid addition. This activity could only account for 60% of the oxygen uptake. Meiofauna, protozoans and bacteria segregated vertically in the columns and meiofauna numbers dropped, but protozoan and bacterial numbers increased, especially after amino acid addition. Calculated interstitial respiration, based on individual rates in the literature, was too high and indicates experimental overestimation. It is concluded that much refinement is still needed to improve our under-standing of interstitial metabolism.

McLachlan, Anton; Dye, Arthur; Harty, Beryl

1981-03-01

384

Etiology: where does prostatitis stop and interstitial cystitis begin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (MCPPS) and interstitial cystitis (IC) patients show striking similarities in clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, purported pathogenesis, and even response to therapy. This makes the distinction between them very difficult. This review aims to show just how easy it is for the clinician to miss the features of IC in the MCPPS patient (and conversely). Misdiagnosis

Evan R. Eisenberg; Robert M. Moldwin

2003-01-01

385

Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

1995-05-01

386

Histopathologic Variability in Usual and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) are important in categoriz- ing patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We inves- tigated whether histologic variability would be evident in SLB specimens from multiple lobes in patients with IIP. SLBs from 168 patients, 109 of whom had multiple lobes biopsied, were reviewed by three pathologists. A diagnosis was assigned to each lobe. A

KEVIN R. FLAHERTY; WILLIAM D. TRAVIS; THOMAS V. COLBY; GALEN B. TOEWS; ELLA A. KAZEROONI; BARRY H. GROSS; ARVIND JAIN; ROBERT L. STRAWDERMAN; ANDREW FLINT; JOSEPH P. LYNCH; FERNANDO J. MARTINEZ

387

Determination of Interstitial Water Chemistry and Porosity in  

E-print Network

hydraulic and gas- pressure squeezing (12-15), centrifugation (1, 3), porous suction samplers (2, 7 to centrifugation for the recovery and chemical analysis of interstitial water in contaminated core samples from permits analyte extraction from kilogram quantities of core, which avoids extended centrifugation

Sheffield, University of

388

Interstitial photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer: a developing modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with early stage prostate cancer are generally treated with either a radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. While both approaches have good survival outcomes, they are associated with significant side effects and non-trivial failure rates. Photodynamic therapy has been studied as a possible treatment for both recurrent and primary prostate cancer. Interstitial photodynamic therapy requires strict dosimetry, mandating an understanding of

Neil E. Martin; Stephen M. Hahn

2004-01-01

389

Image based diagnostic aid system for interstitial lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic classification of lung tissue patterns in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is an important stage in the construction of a computer-aided diagnosis system. In this study, we propose a new image based system for classification of lung tissue patterns. The proposed system comprises three stages. In the first stage, the parenchyma

Azar Tolouee; Hamid Abrishami Moghaddam; Mohamad Forouzanfar; Masoumeh Gity; Rahil Garnavi

2011-01-01

390

Phase estimation for a phased array therapeutic interstitial ultrasound probe.  

PubMed

This paper deals about high intensity ultrasound interstitial therapy simulation. The simulated phased array ultrasound probe allows a dynamic electronic focusing of the therapeutic beam. In order to maximize the power deposit at the focal point we propose a method which allows to optimally defining the phase shift of the electrical control signal for each individual element. PMID:23365931

Yang, Zhenya; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

391

Phase estimation for a phased array therapeutic interstitial ultrasound probe  

PubMed Central

This paper deals about high intensity ultrasound interstitial therapy simulation. The simulated phased array ultrasound probe allows a dynamic electronic focusing of the therapeutic beam. In order to maximize the power deposit at the focal point we propose a method which allows to optimally defining the phase shift of the electrical control signal for each individual element. PMID:23365931

Yang, Zhenya; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

392

Identification of Early Interstitial Lung Disease in Smokers from the  

E-print Network

: Early interstitial lung disease; CT scan; smoker. ªAUR, 2010 I diopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF most patients have advanced pulmonary fibrosis that does not respond to therapeutic intervention. Some for the identification of early ILD in a population of smokers (both with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary

393

Paraelastic interstitials in molybdenum (*) (**) B. Beuneu and Y. Qur  

E-print Network

L-465 Paraelastic interstitials in molybdenum (*) (**) B. Beuneu and Y. Quéré Section d'Etudes des and 25 K in low temperature electron-irradiated molybdenum. The frequency (9 1011 ± 0.6 s-1-induced reorientation concerns a point defect created by irradiation in molybdenum. 1. Experiment. - The sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

The use of an interstitial boost in the conservative treatment of breast cancer: how to perform it routinely in a radiotherapy department  

PubMed Central

Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a boost with interstitial brachytherapy (BT) in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) by doing a thorough review of the literature and describing in detail our technique for delivering this boost. Material and methods Our department has been delivering the boost with interstitial BT since 1989, in most cases with rigid needles and a theoretical dosimetry. In the early years, we used low-dose-rate (LDR) with iridium-192 wires. The dose administered was 15 Gy if there were no risk factors for local relapse or 20-25 Gy in the presence of risk factors. The risk factors considered were the presence of a close margin (less than 10 mm) and an extensive intraductal component (more than 25%). After 2002, we switched to high-dose-rate (HDR); using the linear quadratic model we changed the low dose to 3 fractions of 4.5 Gy in the case of no risk factors for local relapse or to 3 fractions of 5 Gy in the presence of risk factors. Results In 79 consecutive boost patients treated in our department between 2010 and 2011, with a median follow-up of 46 months, the local control rate was 97.47%. With respect to cosmesis, fibrosis occurred in 17 cases (21.5%) and hyperpigmentation in 26 cases (32.9%). Our hospital's results are comparable in terms of local control and cosmesis to those of other authors. Conclusions This educational article describes our department's boost technique with rigid needles and comments briefly on our results using this technique in a group of consecutively treated patients in our department. A review of the literature and the published results on local control and cosmesis is also described.

Najjari, Dina; Martínez, Evelyn; Botella, Saray; Eraso, Arantxa; Pino, Francisco; Moreno, Ferran; Pera, Joan; Guedea, Ferran

2014-01-01

395

Predicting effects of climate change on Swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swiss needle cast of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Growth losses of 20%-50% due to Swiss needle cast have been reported for approximately 150 000 ha of Douglas-fir plantations in

Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter

2008-01-01

396

Micro-Biocidal Activity of Yeast Cells by Needle Plasma Irradiation at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we report on the biocidal activity technique by needle helium plasma irradiation at atmospheric pressure using borosilicate capillary nozzle to apply for the oral surgery. The diameter of needle plasma was less than 50?µm, and temperature of plasma irradiated area was less than body temperature. Needle plasma showed emission due to OH and O radical. Raman spectra and methylene blue stain showed yeast cells were inactivated by needle plasma irradiation.

Kurumi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Taima, Tomohito; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

397

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia: an unusual finding in a case of preoperative death.  

PubMed

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is an exceedingly rare, debatable, perplexing, occupational lung disease, which most commonly affects individuals exposed to hard metal dust. We report a case of GIP in a 60-year-old man, scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and died during induction of general anesthesia despite all efforts to resuscitate him. Patient's relatives lodged complaint with the police alleging the negligence by the attending physicians. Despite inaccessible data pertaining to the occupation, clinical history, and radiographic findings, the diagnosis was GIP due to the presence of intra-alveolar, bizarre, "cannibalistic" multinucleated giant cells-the histologic sine qua non of GIP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of GIP in the world literature that was diagnosed on histopathologic examination of lung tissue obtained at medicolegal autopsy. PMID:23629398

Sisodia, Shantilal M; Bendale, Kiran; Khan, Wasif Ali Zafarali; Sanklecha, Vandana

2013-06-01

398

Fibroblast growth factor 2 regulation of mitral valve interstitial cell repair in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Because elongated mitral valve interstitial cells have features of myofibroblasts, it is likely that these cells are essential for the repair of injured valve leaflets. We characterized the cellular morphology and pattern of repair of these interstitial cells in wounds produced in vitro and tested the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor 2 enhances interstitial cell repair. Methods: Mitral valve

Avrum I. Gotlieb; Alan Rosenthal; Pedram Kazemian

2002-01-01

399

Interstitial white matter neuron density in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in the density or distribution of interstitial white matter neurons are taken as evidence in support of an early developmental component to schizophrenia. However, the existence and nature of interstitial white matter neuron changes in schizophrenia remain inconclusive. Recently, we reported that interstitial white matter neuron density is increased in the superficial white matter of the superior temporal gyrus

S. L. Eastwood; P. J. Harrison

2005-01-01

400

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Confirmed by Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: Analysis of CT Findings and Review of Correlations with Underlying Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can produce unusual radiographic findings. Further, negative sputum and bronchoscopic results are common. Early diagnosis is equally as significant as treatment in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary TB. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary TB, confirmed via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and to correlate these findings with coexisting, underlying, lung diseases if present. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: We selected eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB by way of PTNB. Initially, acid-fast bacilli smear test results from these patients were negative. CT findings were reviewed to detect the presence of parenchymal abnormalities as follows: nodule(s) (<3 cm in diameter), mass (any masses ?3 cm), daughter nodules, air-space consolidation, cavitation, calcification, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and associated lung parenchymal disease. Results: The CT findings of pulmonary TB confirmed by PTNB included nodules in 44 of 84 (52.4%) cases; 15 of these 44 cases (34.1%) had daughter nodules. The second most common finding was masses in 24 cases (28.6%), nine of which also had daughter nodules. 16 cases (19.0%) displayed nonsegmental consolidation. Of these 16 cases, four had coexisting usual interstitial pneumonia; four others had emphysema. Two patients with a mass had underlying pneumoconiosis. Conclusion: Nodules or a mass mimicking lung cancer were the most common findings on CT scans in patients with pulmonary TB, confirmed via PTNB. The second most common finding was airspace consolidation. Therefore, PNTB is useful for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary TB in the following cases: airspace consolidation or mass associated with underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, emphysema mimicking lung malignancy or cases of bacterial pneumonia. PMID:25625018

Choo, Ji Young; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Mi-young; Kang, Eun-young; Oh, Yu Whan; Lee, Seung Hwa; Seo, Bo Kyung; Je, Bo Kyung

2014-01-01

401

Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

Knowlton, W.B.

1998-05-01

402

Effects of insertion speed and trocar stiffness on the accuracy of needle position for brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, accurate positioning of the needle tip to place radioactive seeds at its target site is critical for successful radiation treatment. During the procedure, needle deflection leads to seed misplacement and suboptimal radiation dose to cancerous cells. In practice, radiation oncologists commonly use high-speed hand needle insertion to minimize displacement of the prostate as well as the needle deflection. Effects of speed during needle insertion and stiffness of trocar (a solid rod inside the hollow cannula) on needle deflection are studied. Methods: Needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed using a 2{sup 2} factorial design (2 parameters at 2 levels), with each condition having replicates. Analysis of the deflection data included calculating the average, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: The stiffer tungsten carbide trocar is effective in reducing the average and standard deviation of needle deflection. The fast insertion speed together with the stiffer trocar generated the smallest average and standard deviation for needle deflection for almost all cases. Conclusions: The combination of stiff tungsten carbide trocar and fast needle insertion speed are important to decreasing needle deflection. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the accuracy of needle insertion during brachytherapy procedures.

McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2012-04-15

403

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS 1 Needle Steering in 3D via Rapid Replanning  

E-print Network

(e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system

Alterovitz, Ron

404

Multivariate analysis of attenuated total reflection spectra of Norway spruce needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single bounce horizontal ATR FT-IR spectroscopy was used to study a waxy layer on the surface of individual Norway Spruce needles. The role of several variables, namely the position of the twig on the branch, place of the measurement on the needle, age, order of measurement (before or after the NIR Raman spectroscopy), fixation pressure on the needle during the

L. Pleserová; G Bud??nová; K Hav???ová; P Mat?jka; F Skácel; K Volka

2001-01-01

405

NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy  

E-print Network

NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy Timmy Siauwa) Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy

Goldberg, Ken

406

An Investigation of the Penetration Force Profile of the Sewing Machine Needle Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of the tangential and radial stresses acting on the yam of a fabric during sewing as the sewing needle is inserted into the fabric have been discussed by means of the mechanical principles of elasticity. The influence on the needle penetration force caused by the shape of the cross section and the profile curve at the needle point

G. Stylios; Y. M. Xu

1995-01-01

407

Single-Needle Insertion: An Alternative Technique for Early Second-Trimester Genetic Twin Amniocentesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-needle insertion as an alternative technique for genetic amniocentesis in twin gestation has been evaluated in 27 pregnancies. A 22-gauge needle was inserted into the most proximal sac and amniotic fluid was aspirated. The needle was then traversed through the dividing membrane to enter the second sac and amniotic fluid was aspirated. This technique avoids the use of dye and

John M. G. van Vugt; Aggie Nieuwint; Herman P. van Geijn

1995-01-01

408

2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ElectroNeedle  

E-print Network

Developers #12;2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ElectroNeedle TM Biomedical Sensor Array Current devices2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ElectroNeedle TM Biomedical Sensor Array #12;2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ElectroNeedle TM Biomedical Sensor Array Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800,MS 1425

409

Study on structure of needle head and seal mechanism of tree trunk injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure of needle head and seal mechanism are key problems of tree trunk injection. It analyzed the current structure of needle head and seal mechanism, demonstrated the shortages for its sealing principle in this paper. A ring-shaped drill of tree trunk injector was successfully developed. The push in force of needle head is measured by CMT5105. Because the special form

Qingqing Shang; Kai Liao; Huan Liu; Boguang Zhao

2011-01-01

410

Interactions of ozone and pathogens on the surface structure of Norway spruce needles  

E-print Network

Interactions of ozone and pathogens on the surface structure of Norway spruce needles K. Ojanperä S spruce current needles consists of small tubes forming an evenly dispersed wax struc- ture. As a result and then a plate-like wax structure (Sauter and Voss, 1986). The life span of healthy needles of Norway spruce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Factors modulating superoxide dismutase activity in needles of spruce trees (Picea abies L.)  

E-print Network

Factors modulating superoxide dismutase activity in needles of spruce trees (Picea abies L.) A compared SOD activity in needles of healthy and in- jured spruce trees growing in the field. Materials and Methods Experiments were performed with needles from Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L.) growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) in the cow: A new disposable needle guidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to modify the routinely used ovum pick up (OPU) devices to permit use of disposable needles and to simplify the technique and to make it more economical and practical to use. Long nondisposable needles are commonly used in transvaginal OPU despite several disadvantages. A new OPU device was developed using 19-g disposable needles to eliminate these

P. E. J. Bols; J. M. M. Vandenheede; A. Van Soom; A. de Kruif

1995-01-01

413

Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

2014-03-01

414

Needle sharing in The Netherlands: an ethnographic analysis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Needle sharing has been reported to be the main cause of the rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting drug users. Risk behaviors such as needle sharing are, however, the end result of complicated interaction patterns in drug user networks, which have their specific rules and rituals, and larger social structures and official drug policy. METHODS. To study these interaction patterns we examined the drug administration rituals of heroin addicts in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intensive ethnographic descriptions were collected by participant observation. RESULTS. In less than 10% of the observed self-injections unsafe syringes were used. In 68% of the self-injections new, sterile syringes were used. Needle sharing as a planned sequence was not observed. Sharing was determined primarily by the availability of syringes, experience with the injecting ritual, and drug craving. In all observed needle-sharing events, subjects were aware of the risks involved and undertook efforts to clean the injection equipment. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to psychological approaches aimed at reducing individual "risk behavior," these findings suggest that HIV prevention can be made more effective if active drug injectors are organized to help themselves and their peers prevent high-risk exchange situations. PMID:1746657

Grund, J P; Kaplan, C D; Adriaans, N F

1991-01-01

415

Multiple-needle corona electrodes for electrostatic processes application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corona from high-voltage electrodes is employed in various electrostatic installations, such as ozonizers, air filters, powder sprayers and separators. Multiple-needle electrode designs are preferred whenever low corona onset voltage and good resistance to mechanical shocks are required. This paper aims at identifying a simple solution to overcome the main drawback of this type of electrode, the nonuniformity of the generated

Lucian Dascalescu; Adrian Samuila; Dan Rafiroiu; Alexandru Iuga; Roman Morar

1999-01-01

416

26. VIEW SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACK NEARING COMPLETION. ARCHES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. VIEW SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACK NEARING COMPLETION. ARCHES VISIBLE IN THIS PICTURE ARE 8, 9, 10, AND 11, WHICH HAVE BEEN COMPLETED TO SPRINGING LINE ELEVATIONS 1700, 1744, 1766 AND 1766 RESPECTIVELY. January 1, 1939 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

417

Mass analysis of an atmospheric pressure plasma needle discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometric measurements of a plasma needle (an example of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma source) were made for neutrals and ions. The measurements were performed for the same geometry as the standard plasma needles albeit for a somewhat increased gas flow. We discuss some of the problems of performing mass analysis at atmospheric pressures. The yields of N, O and NO radicals from the plasma needle were determined for different powers of the RF source and different flow rates of working gas. Positive ions generated by the plasma needle itself were measured for the first time. Significant conversion of feed gases (nitrogen and oxygen) into radicals and ions of N and O, and NO was observed as well as depletion of atomic radicals N and O which in chemical reactions form more complex molecules. Biomedical and nanotechnology applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas require a detailed understanding of the source, and mass analysis is perhaps the best technique to focus on chemical kinetics and in many ways interaction with surfaces.

Malovi?, G.; Pua?, N.; Lazovi?, S.; Petrovi?, Z.

2010-06-01

418

Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

2013-03-01

419

The effects of diesel injector needle motion on spray structure.  

SciTech Connect

The internal structure of diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the steady-state fuel distribution within the spray. However, little experimental or computational work has been performed on the dynamics of fuel injectors. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the injector nozzle, and to track changes in that geometry as the needle opens and closes in real time. This has enabled the dynamics of the injector to be compared with the dynamics of the spray, and allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to use realistic time-dependent flow passage geometries. In this study, X-ray phase-enhanced imaging has been used to perform time-resolved imaging of the needle seat area in several common-rail diesel injection nozzles. The fuel distributions of the sprays emitted by these injectors were also studied with fast X-ray radiography. Correlations between eccentric motions of the injector needle valve and oscillations in the fuel density as it emerges from the nozzle are examined. CFD modeling is used to interpret the effect of needle motion on fuel flow.

Powell, C. F.; Kastengren, A. L.; Liu, Z.; Fezzaa, K. (Energy Systems); ( XSD)

2011-01-01

420

Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in prostatic abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To review the clinical presentation of prostatic abscess and to assess the usefulness of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration as a treatment option for this condition.Methods. Between October 1984 and November 1997, prostatic abscess was diagnosed in 31 patients. The average age was 60 years (range 29 to 79). Prostate ultrasound was performed using either a hypogastric or transrectal approach. Initial

Argimiro Collado; Juan Palou; Javier García-Penit; José Salvador; Pablo De La Torre; José Vicente

1999-01-01

421

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Sewing Seams.] Module 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on sewing seams, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

422

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting a Collar.] Module 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on sewing collars, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

423

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing Darts.] Module 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on constructing darts, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains two sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

424

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting Zippers.] Module 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on setting zippers, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains five sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

425

Injection Techniques Locations and Needle Choice Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-print Network

depending upon the size of the animal. For lighter animals a 1 inch needle would be adequate with a 1 Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine irsikm@ufl.edu Nearly 20 years ago, USDA and by consumers. Cattle are injected with a variety of animal health products; vaccines, bacterins, antibiotics

Watson, Craig A.

426

Canadian Human Rights Commission recommends prison needle exchange programs.  

PubMed

In a report released on 28 January 2004, the Canadian Human Rights Commission recommended that the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) implement a pilot needle exchange program in three or more correctional facilities, at least one of them a women's facility, by June 2004. PMID:15216829

Jürgens, Ralf

2004-04-01

427

Observations of pentagonally twinned precipitate needles of germanium in aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unusual pentagonally twinned precipitates were observed in a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of needle-shaped germanium particles in aluminum. Although commonly found in small particles formed on substrates, such twinning has not been seen in precipitates grown in the solid state. The morphologies and orientation relationships are consistent with symmetry principles.

Dahmen, U.; Westmacott, K. H.

1986-08-01

428

Percutaneous needle placement using laser guidance: a practical solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In interventional radiology, various navigation technologies have emerged aiming to improve the accuracy of device deployment and potentially the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive procedures. While these technologies' performance has been explored extensively, their impact on daily clinical practice remains undetermined due to the additional cost and complexity, modification of standard devices (e.g. electromagnetic tracking), and different levels of experience among physicians. Taking these factors into consideration, a robotic laser guidance system for percutaneous needle placement is developed. The laser guidance system projects a laser guide line onto the skin entry point of the patient, helping the physician to align the needle with the planned path of the preoperative CT scan. To minimize changes to the standard workflow, the robot is integrated with the CT scanner via optical tracking. As a result, no registration between the robot and CT is needed. The robot can compensate for the motion of the equipment and keep the laser guide line aligned with the biopsy path in real-time. Phantom experiments showed that the guidance system can benefit physicians at different skill levels, while clinical studies showed improved accuracy over conventional freehand needle insertion. The technology is safe, easy to use, and does not involve additional disposable costs. It is our expectation that this technology can be accepted by interventional radiologists for CT guided needle placement procedures.

Xu, Sheng; Kapoor, Ankur; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Imbesi, Kimberly; Hong, Cheng William; Mazilu, Dumitru; Sharma, Karun; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

2013-03-01

429

Robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions.  

PubMed

Abstract Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance -- even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions. PMID:25421786

Kettenbach, Joachim; Kronreif, Gernot

2015-02-01

430

Original article Effects of needle clumping in shoots and crowns  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of needle clumping in shoots and crowns on the radiative regime model. Canopy architecture in an experimental plot is described by the tree spatial distribution, crown of the fluxes within and between tree crowns are examined. In the case of a homogeneous canopy, most

Boyer, Edmond

431

Orientational ordering of hard zigzag needles in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientational ordering and the tilt angle behavior of a one-dimensional fluid of hard zigzag needles are examined by means of transfer matrix method and Onsager theory. The centers of mass of the particles are restricted to a line, while the orientational unit vectors are allowed to rotate freely in two dimensions. It is shown that zigzag needles do not undergo an isotropic-nematic phase transition, but the system is always in an orientationally ordered phase where the order parameter increases with the density. For hard needles and any other kinds of particles with an axis of symmetry the orientational distribution function is symmetric around its maximum value and the nematic director is perpendicular to the layer. For zigzag needles, which have nonconvex shape without an axis of symmetry, the orientational order is anisotropic around its maximum value and the nematic director is density dependent even at very high densities, i.e., the structure of one-dimensional fluid is always tilted. It is found that the density dependence of the tilted structure depends strongly on the shape of the zigzags. Surprisingly, the Onsager theory produces quite accurate results for the order parameters and tilt angles even in very dense systems.

Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs

2010-10-01

432

Mathematics in the Needle Trades. Computing Piecework. Module 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on computing piecework, one in a series on the needle trades, contains the following components: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist. The module presents information on the piecework pay plan, such as…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

433

Radioactive Needlework Reconstruction of needle-positions in radiation treatment  

E-print Network

Radioactive Needlework Reconstruction of needle-positions in radiation treatment Claude Archer1 University, 5: Universiteit Leiden 103 #12;104 Radioactive Needlework Figure 5.1: Position of the device in the desired positions. The radioactive decay of the used iodine or palladium seeds is such that in half a year

Hochstenbach, Michiel

434

Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of paragonimiasis involving a 12-year-old Latin American boy. The diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a pulmonary nodule. Identification of the species by morphometric analysis of the eggs indicated that the infection was caused by Paragonimus mexicanus. PMID:18385444

Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Citron, Deborah R.; Stager, Charles E.; Laucirica, Rodolfo

2008-01-01

435

Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

PubMed Central

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. PMID:14623977

McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2003-01-01

436

First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

2011-05-01

437

Respiratory effects of hard-metal dust exposure  

SciTech Connect

Workers exposed to hard-metal dust are at risk of developing interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Focusing on the lung parenchymal disorders that result, the author thoroughly reviews the background of the problem, animal studies and recent environmental data related to hard-metal disease, the clinical presentation, and finally its etiology.

Balmes, J.R.

1987-04-01

438

Site occupancy of interstitial deuterium atoms in face-centred cubic iron.  

PubMed

Hydrogen composition and occupation state provide basic information for understanding various properties of the metal-hydrogen system, ranging from microscopic properties such as hydrogen diffusion to macroscopic properties such as phase stability. Here the deuterization process of face-centred cubic Fe to form solid-solution face-centred cubic FeDx is investigated using in situ neutron diffraction at high temperature and pressure. In a completely deuterized specimen at 988?K and 6.3?GPa, deuterium atoms occupy octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites with an occupancy of 0.532(9) and 0.056(5), respectively, giving a deuterium composition x of 0.64(1). During deuterization, the metal lattice expands approximately linearly with deuterium composition at a rate of 2.21?Å(3) per deuterium atom. The minor occupation of the tetrahedral site is thermally driven by the intersite movement of deuterium atoms along the ‹111› direction in the face-centred cubic metal lattice. PMID:25256789

Machida, Akihiko; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami; Endo, Naruki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Iizuka, Riko; Sato, Toyoto; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Aoki, Katsutoshi

2014-01-01

439

Site occupancy of interstitial deuterium atoms in face-centred cubic iron  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen composition and occupation state provide basic information for understanding various properties of the metal–hydrogen system, ranging from microscopic properties such as hydrogen diffusion to macroscopic properties such as phase stability. Here the deuterization process of face-centred cubic Fe to form solid-solution face-centred cubic FeDx is investigated using in situ neutron diffraction at high temperature and pressure. In a completely deuterized specimen at 988?K and 6.3?GPa, deuterium atoms occupy octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites with an occupancy of 0.532(9) and 0.056(5), respectively, giving a deuterium composition x of 0.64(1). During deuterization, the metal lattice expands approximately linearly with deuterium composition at a rate of 2.21?Å3 per deuterium atom. The minor occupation of the tetrahedral site is thermally driven by the intersite movement of deuterium atoms along the ‹111› direction in the face-centred cubic metal lattice. PMID:25256789

Machida, Akihiko; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami; Endo, Naruki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Iizuka, Riko; Sato, Toyoto; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Aoki, Katsutoshi

2014-01-01

440

Randomized Trial Comparing the Flexible 19G and 25G Needles for Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration of Solid Pancreatic Mass Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although a large gauge needle can procure more tissue at endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), its advantage over smaller needles is unclear. This study compared flexible 19G and 25G needles for EUS-FNA of solid pancreatic masses. Methods This was a randomized trial of patients undergoing EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses using flexible 19G or 25G needle. Main outcome measure was to compare median number of passes for on-site diagnosis. Secondary measures were to compare specimen bloodiness, complications, technical failures, and histological core tissue procurement. Results One hundred patients were randomized to EUS-FNA using flexible 19G or 25G needle. Median of 1 pass was required to achieve on-site diagnosis of 96% and 92% (P = 0.68) in 19G and 25G cohorts. There was no significant difference in technical failure (0% vs 2%, P = 0.99) or adverse events (2% vs 0%, P = 0.99) between 19G and 25G cohorts. Although histological core tissue procurement was significantly better with flexible 19G needle (88% vs 44%, P < 0.001), specimens were bloodier (severe bloodiness, 36% vs 4%; P < 0.001). Conclusions As there is no significant difference in the performance of flexible 19G and 25G needles, needle choice for sampling pancreatic masses should be based on endoscopist preference and need for histology. PMID:25232713

Ramesh, Jayapal; Bang, Ji Young; Hebert-Magee, Shantel; Trevino, Jessica; Eltoum, Isam; Frost, Andra; Hasan, Muhammad K.; Logue, Amy; Hawes, Robert; Varadarajulu, Shyam

2015-01-01

441

Diffusion limited current in very high aspect ratio Pt needle electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct-write nanofabrication technique was applied to fabricate high aspect ratio Pt needle electrodes for site specific electrochemistry and electrophysiology. Non-passivated and passivated (with a 10 nm thin insulating film) Pt needles having uniform radii as small as 100 nm and lengths over 30 ?m were deposited on the exposed conductive ends of ultramicroelectrodes to form extended needle electrodes. Diffusion limited current and its dependence on the radius of the Pt needle were measured with linear sweep voltammetry. Model fittings validated the function of such needle electrodes for effective microscale electrochemical studies and potentially electrophysiological applications.

Hu, Jie; Yum, Kyungsuk; Tajik, Arash; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Bang, Jeahoon; Yu, Min-Feng

2011-08-01

442

A New Family of Transition Metal Nitrides  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical stability of platinum nitride has been studied using first-principles calculations. By calculating the single-crystal elastic constants, we show that platinum nitride can be stabilized in the fluorite structure, in which the nitrogen atoms occupy all the tetrahedral interstitial sites of the metal lattice. The stability is attributed to the pseudogap effect from analysis of the electronic structure.

Yu, Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

2005-10-01

443

Enhanced needle localization in ultrasound using beam steering and learning-based segmentation.  

PubMed

Segmentation of needles in ultrasound images remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for needle segmentation in 2D beam-steered ultrasound images. We used a statistical boosting approach to train a pixel-wise classifier for needle segmentation. The Radon transform was then used to find the needle position and orientation from the segmented image. We validated our method with data from ex vivo specimens and clinical nerve block procedures, and compared the results to those obtained using previously reported needle segmentation methods. Results show improved localization success and accuracy using the proposed method. For the ex vivo datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was known a priori, the needle was successfully localized in 86.2% of the images, with a mean targeting error of 0.48mm. The robustness of the proposed method to a lack of a priori knowledge of needle orientation was also demonstrated. For the clinical datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was closely aligned with the beam steering angle selected by the physician, the needle was successfully localized in 99.8% of the images, with a mean targeting error 0.19mm. These results indicate that the learning-based segmentation method may allow for increased targeting accuracy and enhanced visualization during ultrasound-guided needle procedures. PMID:25063736

Hatt, Charles R; Ng, Gary; Parthasarathy, Vijay

2015-04-01

444

The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles  

PubMed Central

In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles. PMID:21151708

Park, Wooram; Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

445

In vivo sampling of Verteporfin uptake in pancreas cancer xenograft models: comparison of surface, oral, and interstitial measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Verteporfin is being investigated as a pancreatic cancer treatment in the cases for non-surgical candidates. Tissue response to PDT is based on a number of parameters including photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose and time interval between light application and PS injection. In this study, PS uptake and distribution in animal leg muscle, oral cavity tissues, pancreas and tumor was measured in vivo using light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) via an Aurora Optics Inc. PDT fluorescence dosimeter. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (AsPC-1) was implanted in SCID mice and treated with the PS. Probe measurements were made using a surface probe and an interstitial needle probe before and up to one hour after intravenous tail vein injection of the PS. The study demonstrated that it is possible to correlate in-vivo LIFS measurements of the PS uptake in the pancreas with measurements taken from the oral cavity indicating that light dosimetry of PDT of the pancreas can be ascertained from the LIFS measurements in the oral cavity. These results emphasize the importance of light dosimetry in improving the therapeutic outcome of PDT through light dose adaptation to the relative in situ tissue PS concentration.

Isabelle, Martin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Mosse, Sandy; Pereira, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

2010-02-01

446

[Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis accompanied by a variety of autoimmune abnormalities in an individual with a history of asbestos exposure].  

PubMed

A 75-year-old-man who had been occupationally exposed to asbestos over several decades was admitted complaining of dry cough and mild exertional dyspnea. Chest X-ray films revealed the presence of bilateral infiltrates. An open biopsy showed the lung pathology to be desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP), and detected a calcified plaque of the left parietal pleura at cost-phrenic sulcus, which on microscopic inspection demonstrated thin needle-like structures suggestive of asbestos particles. A hormonal examination showed decreased levels of tri-iodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine and an increased level of thyroid stimulating hormone. Additionally, a positive microsome test indicated autoimmune hypothyroidism. A serological study was positive for anti-nuclear antibody and direct Coombs, and showed heightened levels of IgG. The patient was placed on oral prednisolone therapy; one month later, his symptoms had subsided, and his lung function and chest x-ray findings had improved significantly. In addition, the abnormal values for autoimmune and thyroid function eventually returned to normal ranges. These findings suggest that DIP and humoral immune dysfunction were caused by asbestos exposure, and responded well to steroid treatment. PMID:9844393

Aoki, Y; Fukuoka, M; Naitoh, K; Kohsa, K; Kawashima, M; Hayashi, S

1998-08-01

447

Interstitials, vacancies, and supersolid order in vortex crystals  

SciTech Connect

Interstitials and vacancies in the Abrikosov phase of clean type-II superconductors are line imperfections, which cannot extend across macroscopic equilibrated samples at low temperatures. We argue that the entropy associated with line wandering nevertheless can cause these defects to proliferate at a sharp transition which will exist if this occurs below the temperature at which the crystal actually melts. Vortices are both entangled and crystalline in the resulting supersolid'' phase, which in a dual boson''-analog system is closely related to a two-dimensional quantum crystal of He[sup 4] with interstitials or vacancies in its ground state. The supersolid [ital must] occur for [ital B][much gt][ital B][sub [times

Frey, E. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Physik Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)); Nelson, D.R.; Fisher, D.S. (Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States))

1994-04-01

448

Laparoscopic management of interstitial pregnancy: the "purse-string" technique.  

PubMed

We report five cases of interstitial pregnancy, treated between 2004 and 2010, to evaluate surgical and obstetric outcome of laparoscopic cornual resection with a "purse-string" technique. A hemostatic suture was passed at the base of the mass in a purse-string fashion prior to resection, to minimize intraoperative blood loss. Subsequent pregnancies were analysed, with a mean follow-up time of 48 months. The mean operating time was 39 min and mean blood loss 47 mL. Three of four patients who desired children delivered at term uneventfully. Laparoscopic cornual resection with a "purse-string" technique appears to be useful for treatment of early interstitial pregnancy. The technique ensures effective and safe treatment, with satisfactory obstetric outcome. PMID:22548702

Cucinella, Gaspare; Rotolo, Stefano; Calagna, Gloria; Granese, Roberta; Agrusa, Antonino; Perino, Antonio

2012-08-01

449

DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-06-01

450

Chronic interstitial nephropathy after plasma cutting in stainless steel.  

PubMed

Chromium is nephrotoxic in experimental animals. In subjects with acute chromium intoxication acute nephritis has been reported and renal function has been affected in chromium exposed workers with a high urinary chromium concentration. Chronic kidney disease after long term occupational exposure to chromium has, however, not been reported previously. A case report is presented concerning a 48 year old man who was diagnosed with chronic interstitial nephropathy. He had worked for nine years as a plasma cutter of stainless steel and had thereby been exposed to smoke containing chromium. At the time of diagnosis his blood chromium concentration was seven times higher and his urinary chromium concentration six times higher than reference values. Taking into account the nephrotoxicity of chromium and the high chromium burden of this patient it is considered likely that his exposure to smoke from plasma cutting of stainless steel was the cause of his chronic interstitial nephropathy. PMID:8199668

Petersen, R; Mikkelsen, S; Thomsen, O F

1994-04-01

451

Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. (Northwest Tumor Institute, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-11-01

452

Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.  

PubMed

The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. PMID:25139731

Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

2014-09-26

453

Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) and pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) is a relatively new term used to describe chronic interstitial fibrosis that can develop in smokers. The association of SRIF with pulmonary hypertension has not been described. We present a 55-year-old man with an extensive smoking history who p