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Sample records for interstitial metallic needle

  1. Performance and suitability assessment of a real-time 3D electromagnetic needle tracking system for interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boutaleb, Samir; Fillion, Olivier; Bonillas, Antonio; Hautvast, Gilion; Binnekamp, Dirk; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate insertion and overall needle positioning are key requirements for effective brachytherapy treatments. This work aims at demonstrating the accuracy performance and the suitability of the Aurora® V1 Planar Field Generator (PFG) electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) for real-time treatment assistance in interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Material and methods The system's performance was characterized in two distinct studies. First, in an environment free of EM disturbance, the boundaries of the detection volume of the EMTS were characterized and a tracking error analysis was performed. Secondly, a distortion analysis was conducted as a means of assessing the tracking accuracy performance of the system in the presence of potential EM disturbance generated by the proximity of standard brachytherapy components. Results The tracking accuracy experiments showed that positional errors were typically 2 ± 1 mm in a zone restricted to the first 30 cm of the detection volume. However, at the edges of the detection volume, sensor position errors of up to 16 mm were recorded. On the other hand, orientation errors remained low at ± 2° for most of the measurements. The EM distortion analysis showed that the presence of typical brachytherapy components in vicinity of the EMTS had little influence on tracking accuracy. Position errors of less than 1 mm were recorded with all components except with a metallic arm support, which induced a mean absolute error of approximately 1.4 mm when located 10 cm away from the needle sensor. Conclusions The Aurora® V1 PFG EMTS possesses a great potential for real-time treatment assistance in general interstitial brachytherapy. In view of our experimental results, we however recommend that the needle axis remains as parallel as possible to the generator surface during treatment and that the tracking zone be restricted to the first 30 cm from the generator surface. PMID:26622231

  2. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 ?m located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  3. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 ?m located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  4. Study of metal distribution in pine and spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, J.; Marshall, G.B.; Bauer, P.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to assess the conditions for foliar uptake of air-borne metallic pollutants on pine and spruce needles. Needles of coniferous trees (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus) were sampled at three locations in the Protected Landscape Area Elbe Sandstone in the Czech Republic. Solid (CR) and water-soluble (WS) fractions of aerosol adhered to the needle surface, and epicuticular waxes were separated from the needle by the two-step stripping procedure. The WS and CR fractions and the needle body after the stripping procedure were separately analyzed for 24 metals. The quantity of each fraction and its elemental composition is discussed regarding the tree species, needle age and locality. Highest aerosol quantities as well as concentration of metals were found in pine needles (Pinus strobus) from the locality most exposed to the local pollution sources. Epicuticular waxes were analyzed for As, Cd and Pb. The concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.2 {micro}g/g for As and Pb, and from 0.2 to 0.6 {micro}g/g for Cd. The highest metal concentrations were found in waxes of pines (Pinus sylvestris). Values of As and Pb concentration differences between WS fraction and the wax, between the wax and the needle body decrease with the needle age while Cd concentration differences do not depend on the needle age.

  5. Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Goyette, Andréanne; Pichette, Julien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Mok, Kelvin; Paulsen, Keith D; Roberts, David W; Petrecca, Kevin; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-15

    The extraction of tissue samples during brain needle biopsy can cause life-threatening hemorrhage because of significant blood vessel injury during the procedure. Vessel rupture can have significant consequences for patient health, ranging from transient neurological deficits to death. Here, we present a sub-diffuse optical tomography technique that can be integrated into neurosurgical workflow to detect the presence of blood vessels. A proof-of-concept study performed on a realistic brain tissue phantom is presented and demonstrates that interstitial optical tomography (iOT) can detect several 1 mm diameter high-contrast absorbing objects located <2??mm from the needle. PMID:25679836

  6. Needle-free interstitial fluid acquisition using a Lorentz-force actuated jet injector

    E-print Network

    Chang, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fluid (ISF) provides information on a patient's health as it contains regulatory molecules that are correlated with disease-related processes. However, current ISF acquisition techniques can be slow, resulting ...

  7. SU-F-19A-12: Split-Ring Applicator with Interstitial Needle for Improved Volumetric Coverage in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Colussi, V; Mislmani, M; Traughber, B; Herrmann, K; Podder, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric coverage of a Mick Radionuclear titanium Split-Ring applicator (SRA) with/without interstitial needle compared to an intracavitary Vienna applicator (VA), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary ring and tandem applicator (RTA). Methods: A 57 year-old female with FIGO stage IIB cervical carcinoma was treated following chemoradiotherapy (45Gy pelvic and 5.4Gy parametrial boost) with highdose- rate (HDR) brachytherapy to 30Gy in 5 fractions using a SRA. A single interstitial needle was placed using the Ellis Interstitial Cap for the final three fractions to increase coverage of left-sided gross residual disease identified on 3T-MRI. High-risk (HR) clinical target volume (CTV) and intermediate-risk (IR) CTV were defined using axial T2-weighted 2D and 3D MRI sequences (Philips PET/MRI unit). Organs-at-risks (OARs) were delineated on CT. Oncentra planning system was used for treatment optimization satisfying GEC-ESTRO guidelines for target coverage and OAR constraints. Retrospectively, treatment plans (additional 20 plans) were simulated using intracavitary SRA (without needle), intracavitary VA (without needle), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary RTA with this same patient case. Plans were optimized for each fraction to maintain coverage to HR-CTV. Results: Interstitial-intracavitary SRA achieved the following combined coverage for external radiation and brachytherapy (EQD2): D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy; Bladder-2cc =88.9Gy; Rectum-2cc =65.1Gy; Sigmoid-2cc =48.9Gy; Left vaginal wall (VW) =103Gy, Right VW =99.2Gy. Interstitial-intracavitary VA was able to achieve identical D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy, yet Bladder-2cc =91.9Gy (exceeding GEC-ESTRO recommendations of 2cc<90Gy) and Left VW =120.8Gy and Right VW =115.5Gy. Neither the SRA nor VA without interstitial needle could cover HR-CTV adequately without exceeding dose to Bladder-2cc. Conventional RTA was unable to achieve target coverage for the HR-CTV >80Gy without severely overdosing OARs. Conclusion: The Ellis Interstitial Cap for the SRA offered superior dosimetric coverage as compared to the interstitialintracavitary VA. This represents the first reported use for this devise, and further investigation is warranted.

  8. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125. PMID:25979330

  9. COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR COLLECTING INTERSTITIAL WATER FOR TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. e compared the concentration of pollutants in doses seawater before ...

  10. METAL-COLLOID PARTITIONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS: INFLUENCES OF SALINITY, PH AND COLLOIDAL ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better ...

  11. Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

  12. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

  13. The emission characteristics of an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, R. I.

    1989-09-01

    Operational data for an indium needle-type liquid metal ion source are presented. Detailed comparisons are drawn between these characteristics and those of a similar gallium source. The behaviours of the two sources are found to be strikingly similar, indicating a common mechanism of ion emission.

  14. Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ? < 1?mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70?µm on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

  15. A molecular loop with interstitial channels in a chiral environment and study of formation of metal-metal bonds in dinickel, dipalladium and dititanium complexes 

    E-print Network

    Ibragimov, Sergey

    2006-08-16

    This dissertation consists of two independent topics: (1) a molecular loop with interstitial channels in a chiral environment; (2) study of formation of metal-metal bonds in dinickel, dipalladium and dititanium complexes On the first topic, a study...

  16. Self-interstitial atom defects in bcc transition metals: Group-specific trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen-Manh, D.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation of systematic trends for the self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect behavior in body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals using density-functional calculations. In all the nonmagnetic bcc metals the most stable SIA defect configuration has the <111> symmetry. Metals in group 5B of the periodic table (V, Nb, Ta) have significantly different energies of formation of the <111> and <110> SIA configurations, while for the group 6B metals (Cr, Mo, W) the two configurations are linked by a soft bending mode. The relative energies of SIA defects in the nonmagnetic bcc metals are fundamentally different from those in ferromagnetic bcc {alpha}-Fe. The systematic trend exhibited by the SIA defect structures in groups 5B and 6B transition metals correlates with the observed thermally activated mobility of SIA defects.

  17. Trace metals in interstitial waters from sandstones: acidic inputs to shallow groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, W M; Kinniburgh, D G; Moss, P D

    1992-01-01

    There is some evidence from southern Britain that shallow groundwaters in non-carbonate lithologies may be affected by acidic deposition. To investigate this, interstitial water profiles down to 12 m have been obtained from unsaturated sands or semi-consolidated sandstones from the Folkestone Beds (Lower Greensand) of Surrey and the Sherwood Sandstone of the West Midlands. The pH of the interstitial waters generally increased with depth and reflected an increase in the base saturation of the exchange complex. Beneath the highly acidic surface soil horizons (pH 3.0-3.5), interstitial waters with a pH of 4.0-4.5 were found down to depths of several metres. The pH progressively increased to around pH 5.5 because of base cation desorption and the weathering of silicate minerals. High concentrations of aluminium (10-20 mg litre(-1)) and other metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Be) were found in the interstitial water in the upper unsaturated zone. Most metal concentrations were strongly pH-dependent but also reflected the geochemical characteristics of the parent sands or sandstones. H+ and trace element concentrations were slightly higher beneath areas of afforestation than beneath heathland. The downward fluxes of solutes have been estimated using rainfall-derived chloride as a non-reactive solute. The profiles retain a record of 10-20 years input allowing the past inputs from SO4 and other species to be estimated using solute/chloride ratios. Cation exchange sites are probably depleted over a period of decades and there can be a significant decrease in the unsaturated zone pH as a result of increased or sustained acidic deposition. The shallow groundwater environment (0-15 m) in non-carbonate terrains is therefore a sensitive environment where high metal concentrations may be generated and may ultimately lead to water quality problems in shallow water supplies. PMID:15091951

  18. An observational study of giant cell interstitial pneumonia and lung fibrosis in hard metal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Terada, Masaki; Takada, Toshinori; Suzuki, Eiichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Hebisawa, Akira; Sakai, Fumikazu; Arakawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Hard metal lung disease has various pathological patterns including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although the UIP pattern is considered the prominent feature in advanced disease, it is unknown whether GIP finally progresses to the UIP pattern. Objectives To clarify clinical, pathological and elemental differences between the GIP and UIP patterns in hard metal lung disease. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients from 17 institutes participating in the 10th annual meeting of the Tokyo Research Group for Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases, 2009. Nineteen patients (seven female) diagnosed with hard metal lung disease by the presence of tungsten in lung specimens were studied. Results Fourteen cases were pathologically diagnosed as GIP or centrilobular inflammation/fibrosing. The other five cases were the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis. Elemental analyses of lung specimens of GIP showed tungsten throughout the centrilobular fibrotic areas. In the UIP pattern, tungsten was detected in the periarteriolar area with subpleural fibrosis, but no association with centrilobular fibrosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. The GIP group was younger (43.1 vs 58.6?years), with shorter exposure duration (73 vs 285?months; p<0.01), lower serum KL-6 (398 vs 710?U/mL) and higher lymphocyte percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (31.5% vs 3.22%; p<0.05) than the fibrosis group. Conclusions The UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis is remarkably different from GIP in distribution of hard metal elements, associated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and clinical features. In hard metal lung disease, the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis may not be an advanced form of GIP. PMID:24674995

  19. Metal-metal bonding and interstitials in reduced rare-earth metal halides

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.D.; Dudis, D.S.; Ford, J.E.; Hwu, S.J.; Meyer, G.; Wijeyesekera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory research in recent years has shown the rare-earth elements in their highly reduced halides exhibit a remarkable ability to undergo cluster formation, some as isolated units and others as infinite chains or slabs containing double-metal layers. Only a few of the elements have been studied in any detail, principally scandium, yttrium and gadolinium. Many of these new compounds are uniquely stabilized by a second-period element bound within each cluster, for example, in Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/B, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/C, Y/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/C and Li/sub y/YClH/sub x/, although a few structures evidently represent true binaries, e.g., with Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and Y/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/. The known phases and their structures are briefly reviewed, and some relevant information from extended-Hueckel band calculations and uv photoelectron spectroscopy noted. 28 refs.

  20. Comparison of methods for collecting interstitial water for trace organic compounds and metals analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Schults, D.W.; Ferraro, S.P.; Smith, L.M.; Roberts, F.A.; Poindexter, C.K.

    1992-01-01

    Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water (IW) were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. The concentration of pollutants in dosed seawater before and after exposure to stainless steel and Teflon centrifuge tubes, glass fiber and Nuclepore filters, cellulose dialysis membranes and fritted glass tubes were compared. Exposure to most hardware materials did not significantly affect the concentration of four metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) but there was significant loss (up to 79 percent) of two organic compounds (fluoranthene, p,p'-DDE) to almost all the hardware materials tested. Of five commonly used IW collection methods (centrifuging, centrifugal drainage or basal cup, squeezing, vacuum filtration and dialysis) investigated, the centrifuge method was judged the most accurate and precise for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs. All IW collection methods tested showed high variability for the metals. As a result, with one exception (Cu), there was no significant difference detected in the accuracy of the methods for metals.

  1. Recombination activity of interstitial iron and other transition metal point defects in p -and n -type crystalline silicon

    E-print Network

    Recombination activity of interstitial iron and other transition metal point defects in p - and n-oxygen recombination centers in crystalline silicon Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 232109 (2009); 10.1063/1.3272918 Recombination activity of iron-gallium and iron-indium pairs in silicon J. Appl. Phys. 97, 113712 (2005); 10

  2. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

    1988-03-01

    A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

  3. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rye-tus) is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. Interstitial nephritis reduces the kidneys’ ability to filter properly. Interstitial nephritis is a serious condition, but ...

  4. A metal carbonyl-protein needle composite designed for intracellular CO delivery to modulate NF-?B activity.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hiroshi; Sanghamitra, Nusrat J M; Fujita, Kenta; Sho, Takeya; Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Ueno, Takafumi

    2015-11-13

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a messenger for signal transduction in living cells and tissues. For intracellular CO delivery, several metal carbonyl complexes have been used as CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs). To improve the properties of CO-RMs, such as the stability and the CO release rate, ligands and carriers of the metal complexes have been exploited. Here we report the development of an efficient intracellular CO delivery system using a protein scaffold. We used a protein needle reconstructed from gene product 5 of bacteriophage T4, which has high cellular permeability and stability. When ruthenium carbonyl complexes are conjugated to the needle using a His-tag triad at the C-terminus, the resulting composite has a significantly higher cellular uptake efficiency of Ru carbonyl and a 12-fold prolonged CO release rate relative to Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate), a widely used CO-RM. We demonstrate that CO delivered by the composite activates the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B), which in turn leads to significant induction of expression of its target genes, HO1, NQO1, and IL6, through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The signaling pathway is distinct from that of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced activation of NF-?B. The protein needle-based CO-RM can be exploited to elucidate the biological functions of CO and used in the development of protein-based organometallic tools for modulation of cellular signaling. PMID:26360102

  5. ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

  6. The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. . Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. ); Mahony, J.D. . Chemistry Dept.)

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

  7. Concentrations of sulphur and heavy metals in needles and rooting soils of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees growing along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang Fang; Wen, Da Zhi; Kuang, Yuan Wen; Li, Jiong; Zhang, Ji Guang

    2009-07-01

    Current (C) and previous year (C + 1) needles and soils (organic horizon, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm mineral depth) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees were sampled at four forested sites (Huang Pu industrial district, HP; South China Botanical Garden, BG; Mao Feng Mt., MF; and Nan Kun Mt., NK) in Guangzhou along a urban-rural gradient and analyzed for sulfur (S) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) concentrations. Needle concentrations of all the elements were significantly higher at industrial HP than at other three sites, except for Cu and Pb which were highest at the traffic site (BG). The C + 1 needles generally had higher Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr than the C needles while the opposite was for Ni and S. Total and available Cd, Pb, Zn in soils peaked at the urban sites (HP and BG) and decreased at suburban MF and rural NK. Heavy metals were generally higher in the organic soils than in the mineral soils at all sites. Zinc and Pb at all sites, and Cd, S and Cu at the urban sites (HP and BG) in soils or pine needles were above or near their respective natural background levels, implying that threats resulted from these toxic elements occurred on local particularly urban forests, but did not for Cr and Ni due to their presence below their background values. Our results demonstrated that elements concentrations in needles and soils had reflected the variability of pollutants and the environmental quality change along the urban-rural transect, and were efficient as biomonitors to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities along the urbanization course on forest health. PMID:18568410

  8. A ferrite core/metallic sheath thermoseed for interstitial thermal therapies.

    PubMed

    Cetas, T C; Gross, E J; Contractor, Y

    1998-01-01

    An alternative form of ferromagnetic seed for thermal therapy has been developed following Matsuki, Murakami, and their colleagues [1]-[4]. A nearly lossless ceramic ferrite core (FC) is surrounded by an electrically conductive sheath. The FC has a high relative intrinsic permeability, typically 3000 at low magnetic field strengths, and a sharp transition from the ferrimagnetic state to the nonmagnetic state. The sheath is either a metallic tube or coating on the core. When this composite seed is excited with a radiofrequency magnetic field, large eddy currents are induced in the metallic sheath (MS) due to the concentrated magnetic flux in the core leading to Joule heating. Advantages of this configuration are that this ferrite core/metallic sheath (FC/MS) thermoseed has high power absorption efficiency and a sharp transition compared to ferromagnetic alloy systems; means of optimizing efficiency are apparent from simple expressions; the outer sheath can be of any biocompatible metal; the production method for the ferrites leads to large quantities of seeds with reproducible properties. The FC/MS configuration solves many of the technical problems that have hindered the clinical implementation of thermally regulating ferromagnetic implants for thermal therapies. PMID:9444841

  9. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  10. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine. Your doctor may have you take an oral medicine called pentosan polysulfate. This medicine helps protect the ... wall from the toxic parts of urine. Another oral medicine used to treat interstitial cystitis is an antihistamine ...

  11. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros™ BV with AAPM TG43 dose calculation formalism in breast interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy with the use of metal catheters

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Reddy K, Sathyanarayana; Karunanidhi, Gunaseelan; Singhavajala, Vivekanandam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy for breast cancer includes different techniques and methods. The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using TG-43 dose formalism and Varian Acuros™ BV (GBBS) dose calculation algorithm for interstitial implant of breast using metal catheters in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using 192Ir. Material and methods Twenty patients who were considered for breast conservative surgery (BCS), underwent lumpectomy and axillary dissection. These patients received perioperative interstitial HDR brachytherapy as upfront boost using rigid metal implants. Whole breast irradiation was delivered TG-43 after a gap of two weeks. Standard brachytherapy dose calculation was done by dosimetry. This does not take into account tissue heterogeneity, attenuation and scatter in the metal applicator, and effects of patient boundary. Acuros™ BV is a Grid Based Boltzmann Solver code (GBBS), which takes into consideration all the above, was used to compute dosimetry and the two systems were compared. Results Comparison of GBBS and TG-43 formalism on interstitial metal catheters shows difference in dose prescribed to CTV and other OARs. While the estimated dose to CTV was only marginally different with the two systems, there is a significant difference in estimated doses of starting from 4 to 53% in the mean value of all parameters analyzed. Conclusions TG-43 algorithm seems to significantly overestimate the dose to various volumes of interest; GBBS based dose calculation algorithm has impact on CTV, heart, ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral breast, skin, and ribs of the ipsilateral breast side; the prescription changes occurred due to effect of metal catheters, inhomogeneities, and scatter conditions.

  12. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other...

  17. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  18. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  19. Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatarenko, Valentine A.; Tsysman, Constantin L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Yelena T.

    1995-01-01

    The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC-60) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distortion relaxation of the host fullerene (C-60) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distortion field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. The given paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of static concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method(*). In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the static inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the 'average-lattice' sites' as well as on the lattice parameter a of a elastically-anysotropic 'cubic' C-60 crystal are taken into account.

  20. Effects of interstitials on the transition metal sublattice anisotropy in YFe(10.5)Mo(1.5)Z(x) (Z=H,N; x approximately = 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomey, Estanislao; Fruchart, Daniel; Soubeyroux, Jean Louis; Gignoux, Damien

    1994-03-01

    The effects of interstitial atoms in rare earth (R) intermetallic compounds are: strong increase in Curie temperature, weak increase of saturation magnetization and large influence in the Crystalline Electric Field (CEF) at the R atom. These effects are more remarkable in carbide and nitride compounds than in hydrides. In this paper we will show that additional effects concerning the transition metals (T) occur. In YFe(10.5)Mo(1.5), with ThMn12-type structure, it is shown that the introduction of H or N leads, also to an increase of both the Curie temperature and Fe moment. The most remarkable effect is that whereas with hydrogen we observe an increase of the easy c-axis anisotropy, with nitrogen the anisotropy becomes easy plane.

  1. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  6. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained from the sediments do not exceed concentrations to which laboratory cultures of Euploteshave been found to acquire tolerance.

  7. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  8. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-print Network

    Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections G. Holman1 , Y. Hanein1 , R. C. Wyeth2 , A. O approach allows the integration of micro- machined silicon needles with a larger silicon base designed layers to sandwich a metallic layer. The metal layer forms the electrical connection between the silicon

  9. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  10. Examination of surface conditions and other physical properties of commonly used stainless steel acupuncture needles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi Min; Xu, Shanqing; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries. Methods Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out. Results The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users. PMID:24522003

  11. Generation of Interstitial Atoms in FCC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starenchenko, V. A.; Cherepanov, D. N.; Selivanikova, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    A mathematical model of generation and accumulation of interstitial atoms in plastically deformable pure FCC metals is suggested based on the concept of hardening and recovery that links the phenomena proceeding in the deformable crystal material with the behavior of crystal structure defects. The model comprises kinetics equations for point defects - mono- and bivacancies and interstitial atoms - written with allowance for mechanisms of their generation and precipitation on sinks. Special attention is given to investigation of the influence of the velocity and character of motion of helical segments of expanding dislocation loops on generation of interstitial atoms. Concentrations of interstitial atoms generated in the process of plastic deformation are calculated.

  12. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle?s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  13. Needle Federated Search Engine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore »databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle?s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  14. Effects of interstitials on the transition metal sublattice anisotropy in YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}Z{sub x} (Z = H, N; x {approx} 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomey, E.; Fruchart, D.; Soubeyroux, J.L.; Gignoux, D.

    1994-03-01

    The effects of interstitial atoms in rare earth (R) intermetallic compounds are: strong increase in Curie temperature, weak increase of saturation magnetization and large influence in the Crystalline Electric Field (CEF) at the R atom. These effects are more remarkable in carbide and nitride compounds than in hydrides. In this paper the authors will show that additional effects concerning the transition metals (T) occur. In YFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}, with ThMn{sub 12}-type structure, it is shown that the introduction of H or N leads, also to an increase of both the Curie temperature and Fe moment. The most remarkable effect is that whereas with hydrogen the authors observed an increase of the easy c-axis anisotropy, with nitrogen the anisotropy becomes easy plane.

  15. Electroepilation using insulated needles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kamiyama, G

    1987-01-01

    We have practiced electroepilation using insulated needles on approximately 500 patients over a five-year period using electroepilation equipment that produced a thermolysis (high frequency) current. Our patients were given three to eight treatments at two-week to three-month intervals. The results for 73 patients, observed six months to three years after their last epilation, showed little or no hair regrowth and no scarring. We attribute our success to concomitant factors: We were able to destroy the hair papilla using a long-duration, high-frequency current while protecting the skin surface from scarring by using an insulated needle. PMID:3445813

  16. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  17. [Exploration on eye needling manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ying; Tian, Wei-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The 40-year experiences in the clinical application of eye acupuncture in our hospital are summarized. The manipulation of needle insertion, withdrawal and puncture procedure is analyzed. The keys of the techniques of eye acupuncture are explained. The basic needling manipulations are determined. In the insertion of needle, professor Peng stressed on the stability, accuracy and fast, without lifting, thrusting, rotating, and opening/closing techniques involved. TIAN Wei-zhu emphasizes the gentle insertion, pain avoiding, apparent needling sensation and needling sensation transmission. In terms of acupuncture operation, skin stretching, patient's attention shifting, quick insertion of needle and slow-down moving of needle body are required. The outside orbit transverse needling method is recommended basically. PMID:24298770

  18. A theoretical analysis of interstitial hydrogen : pressure-composition-temperature, chemical potential, enthalpy and entropy

    E-print Network

    Orondo, Peter Omondi

    2012-01-01

    We provide a first principles analysis of the physics and thermodynamics of interstitial hydrogen in metal. By utilizing recent advances in Density Functional Theory (DFT) to get state energies of the metal-hydrogen system, ...

  19. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 ?m thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 ?m thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows a urethral dose gradient volume of 0–5 mm around the urethra to receive a dose below the prescription. A multisource approach is necessary in order to deliver the proposed {sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT technique in reasonable treatment times.

  20. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ?0.5-0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  1. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ?0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  2. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Altaykan, Asli; Erkin, Gül; Boztepe, Gonca; Gököz, Aytaç

    2004-07-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon disorder. In its original description, the presence of linear inflammatory indurations on the lateral aspects of the trunk (the rope sign) in association with arthritis were considered the pathognomonic clinical features. Later cases presenting with plaques and papules have been reported. Herein we describe a case of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis without the rope sign. The present case supports the idea that interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis may have variable clinical appearances. PMID:15257555

  3. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  4. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The dynamics of dislocation interaction with sessile self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster atmospheres

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    The dynamics of dislocation interaction with sessile self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster dislocations and radiation induced sessile self-interstitial atom (SIA) dislocation loops in FCC metals are investigated. As a result of dislocation line flexibility, its equilibrium configuration is found

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  7. [Interstitial laser coagulation in Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion sequence].

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Piotr; Borowski, Dariusz; Nowacka, Elzbieta; Bomba-Opo?, Dorota; Kosi?ska-Kaczy?ska, Katarzyna; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Wielgo?, Miros?aw

    2012-11-01

    Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) sequence complicates about 1% of all monochorionic twin pregnancies and about 1 to 35000 of all pregnancies. It involves an acardiac twin whose structural defects are incompatible with life, and an otherwise normal "pump" co-twin. As the blood flow in the acardiac twin is reversed, it keeps on growing owing to the oxygenated blood from the co-twin. Here we report a case of monochorionic, diamniotic twin pregnancy after ICS/-ET complicated with TRAP sequence, diagnosed at 11 weeks of pregnancy The unusual finding in this case was the residual heart in the so called acardiac twin. Gradually the normal twin developed signs of hemodynamic compromise. Reversed a-wave in ductus venosus was observed. The acardiac twin showed subcutaneous oedema. On 24 November 2011 a successful interstitial ultrasound-guided laser coagulation was performed at 16 weeks of gestation. 17G needle and 0.6 mm laser fibre were used. The needle was introduced into the pelvic region of the acardiac twin through the abdominal wall. A series of laser bursts lasting 5-10 seconds were fired, until cessation of blood flow in the pelvic vessels and umbilical cord of the acardiac twin was confirmed using colour Doppler. The course of the intervention was uneventful. Routine steroid therapy was administered at 27 weeks of gestation. At 32 weeks the patient was hospitalized and oral antibiotics were administered due to premature rupture of the membranes and suspicion of intrauterine growth retardation of the pump twin. The patient delivered spontaneously at completed 33 weeks of pregnancy (weight 1805g, Apgar 10). After the delivery a stage 2 intraventricular hemorrhage and jaundice were observed in the neonate. Phototherapy was administered and the mother and the child were eventually discharged from the hospital, both in good general condition. Since then, two more successful interstitial laser coagulations in TRAP sequence were performed in our institution. The essence of the treatment of TRAP sequence is cessation of the blood flow from the pump to the acardiac twin. Fetoscopic cord ligature or coagulation, and laser or radiofreqency ablations of the acardiac twin vessels, are the possible methods of intervention. The interstitial laser coagulation of the acardiac twin is less invasive than fetoscopic umbilical cord coagulation, as the outer diameter of the 17G needle is much smaller. A meticulous comparison of these methods would require a randomised study but at 16 weeks of MCDA twin pregnancy interstitial laser coagulation seems to be the method of choice. The outcome of the procedure and possible treatment options in case of TRAP together with the review of literature, are presented in the article. PMID:23379198

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Melnick-Needles syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed November 2007 What is Melnick-Needles syndrome? Melnick-Needles syndrome is a disorder ...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The device may have a handle attached to the needle to facilitate the delivery of acupuncture...

  10. A practical MRI-based reconstruction method for a new endocavitary and interstitial gynaecological template

    PubMed Central

    Richart, Jose; Otal, Antonio; Rodriguez, Silvia; Nicolás, Ana Isabel; DePiaggio, Marina; Santos, Manuel; Vijande, Javier; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There are perineal templates for interstitial implants such as MUPIT and Syed applicators. Their limitations are the intracavitary component deficit and the necessity to use computed tomography (CT) for treatment planning since both applicators are non-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibles. To overcome these problems, a new template named Template Benidorm (TB) has been recently developed. Titanium needles are usually reconstructed based on their own artifacts, mainly in T1-weighted sequence, using the void on the tip as the needle tip position. Nevertheless, patient tissues surrounding the needles present heterogeneities that complicate the accurate identification of these artifact patterns. The purpose of this work is to improve the titanium needle reconstruction uncertainty for the TB case using a simple method based on the free needle lengths and typical MRI pellets markers. Material and methods The proposed procedure consists on the inclusion of three small A-vitamin pellets (hyperintense on MRI images) compressed by both applicator plates defining the central plane of the plate's arrangement. The needles used are typically 20 cm in length. For each needle, two points are selected defining the straight line. From such line and the plane equations, the intersection can be obtained, and using the free length (knowing the offset distance), the coordinates of the needle tip can be obtained. The method is applied in both T1W and T2W acquisition sequences. To evaluate the inter-observer variation of the method, three implants of T1W and another three of T2W have been reconstructed by two different medical physicists with experience on these reconstructions. Results and conclusions The differences observed in the positioning were significantly smaller than 1 mm in all cases. The presented algorithm also allows the use of only T2W sequence either for contouring or reconstruction purposes. The proposed method is robust and independent of the visibility of the artifact at the tip of the needle. PMID:26622248

  11. Declining interstitial transsudation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarchin, P.; Lagneaux, D.; Lecomte, J.

    1980-01-01

    Results and methodology of experimentation dealing with declining interstitial transsudation are discussed. Concepts of the formation of interstitial fluids are in agreement with measurements of calf volume in normal young women, in horizontal recumbency or after horizontal immersion. The volume of the calf is reduced when the hydrostatic pressure of the blood column is diminished under the phlebostatic level and when the external pressure is increased by the hydrostatic pressure of a water bath.

  12. Needle Thoracotomy in Trauma.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Fay, Shmuel; Gendler, Sami; Klein, Yoram; Arkovitz, Marc; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2015-12-01

    Tension pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in trauma patients. Needle thoracotomy (NT) is the currently accepted first-line intervention but has not been well validated. In this review, we have critically discussed the evidence for NT procedure, re-examined the recommendations by the Advanced Trauma Life Support organization and investigated the safest and most effective way of NT. The current evidence to support the use of NT is limited. However, when used, it should be applied in the 2nd intercostal space at midclavicular line using a catheter length of at least 4.5 cm. Alternative measures should be studied for better prehospital management of tension pneumothorax. PMID:26633663

  13. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  14. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    SciTech Connect

    Beleggia, M.; Kasama, T.; Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Pozzi, G.

    2014-07-14

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  15. Gurley Dip Needle Lake Superior Model with Case

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Also known as a Forrester's Compass or Miner's Compass, a dip (or dipping) needle is an instrument for measuring the intensity of the earth's magnetic field. It is used to locate buried or hidden metal. Manufactured by W. & L.E. Gurley, Troy, New York. Object ID: USGS-000345...

  16. Outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial cervical brachytherapy: barriers and solutions to implementation of a successful programme – a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Poh Wee; Koh, Vicky Y.

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of parametrial disease in locally advanced cervical patients poses a challenge for women undergoing brachytherapy. Current use of the Fletcher suit applicator may not adequately cover the high risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), especially in the parametrial region due to the physical qualities of brachytherapy from the inverse square law and the need to respect organs at risk (OAR) constraints, and leads to lower local control rates. Combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy with the use of 1 or 2 interstitial needles allows adequate coverage of the HR CTV and the clinical evidence have demonstrated a correlation with better clinical results. This procedure is often resource intensive, requiring inpatient stay and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) planning. In departments where such resources are limited, there is a poor uptake of interstitial brachytherapy. This article discusses the technique of combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy in an outpatient setting, and explores the issues and barriers for implementation and suggestions to overcome such barriers. PMID:26207117

  17. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 ??, - 463 ± 51 ?? and - 431 ± 59 ?? for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  18. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien

    2015-04-01

    Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture. PMID:25952124

  20. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  1. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  2. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  3. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  4. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A.; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  5. [Brief analysis on slow needle insertion].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Bin; Wu, Jia-Li; Sun, Shuo

    2012-09-01

    The sources of clinical efficacy of slow needle insertion is discussed. From the basic factors of slow needle insertion, the requirements of this manipulation, main points of 4 steps (to straight the needle, to press softly, to twirl the needle and to hold without brute force), keys of operation and its significance are analyzed. Slow needle insertion is not only beneficial to the management and regulation of Shen (spirit) and induction of qi in the process of the spirit unity of doctor and patient, but also accumulates the needling sensation among three levels of the superficial, middled and deep layers of an acupoint, which could promote the curative effect. PMID:23227688

  6. Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-12-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

  7. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood. PMID:17664592

  8. [The Development Research of Needle Medical Supplies].

    PubMed

    Lin Jinwen

    2015-03-01

    By the research of the characteristics and market using situation of all needle medical supplies, this paper sums up their development trend to provide reference for medical practitioners or the classification management of needle medical supplies. PMID:26204744

  9. The echogenicity of nerve blockade needles.

    PubMed

    Fuzier, R; Casalprim, J; Bataille, B; Harper, I; Magues, J P

    2015-04-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised study to evaluate the echogenicity of 11 regional block needles when inserted into a gel phantom at 45° in the ultrasound plane. Two hundred anaesthetists viewed in random sequence recordings of each needle as it was advanced into the phantom. Participants scored the needle for echogenicity on a scale of 0-10 and categorised the needle as 'hyperechoic' or 'standard'. The mean (95% CI) echogenicity score was 1.7 (1.4-2.0) units higher for three needles marketed as 'hyperechoic' compared with standard needles marketed by the same companies, p < 0.001. The odds ratios (95% CI) that an anaesthetist would categorise a needle as hyperechoic were: 5.3 (3.6-8.0) if the needle was marketed as hyperechoic, p < 0.001; and 1.7 (1.1-2.6) if regional anaesthetic experience was ? 1 year compared with < 1 year, p = 0.025. PMID:25495523

  10. METHOD FOR ASSESSING AUGMENTED REALITY NEEDLE GUIDANCE

    E-print Network

    Stetten, George

    METHOD FOR ASSESSING AUGMENTED REALITY NEEDLE GUIDANCE USING A VIRTUAL BIOPSY TASK Damion Shelton, Arlington, VA #12;METHOD FOR ASSESSING AUGMENTED REALITY NEEDLE GUIDANCE USING A VIRTUAL BIOPSY TASK A

  11. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  12. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The device may have a handle attached to the needle to facilitate the delivery of acupuncture treatment. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  15. Red needles signify dying pines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Reddish, dry needles are a sign of dying trees infested with mountain pine beetles.  Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa...

  16. Pulmonary gas conducting interstitial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Gunnar; Jorulf, Håkan; Farkas, Árpád; Eden-Strindberg, Jerker; Gennser, Mikael; Jókay, Ágnes; Krebsz, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing efforts oriented towards revealing different aspects of emphysema, the persistence of the emphysematous or emphysema-like changes (ELCs) is not explored yet in the open literature. In this study we demonstrate the persistence of an ELC for 22 years in a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) patient which indicates a hitherto unknown gas supply to the ELC. For this purpose we used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images processed into three-dimensional (3D) geometry. By the same token, not only a long persistence but also the volume increase of this ELC between 2002 and 2010 was demonstrated. The 3D geometry visualized an aerated interstitial structure between the sites of supposed gas leakage at the wall of the third generation airways and the ELC. This potential gas conducting interstitial pathway is not a continuation and has neither the form nor the structure of a bronchus. The finding suggests that in this patient the intrabronchial gas passes through the bronchial wall and via a gas conducting interstitial pathway reaches the ELC. Despite the availability of the presently employed techniques for at least 15 years, such case and phenomenon have not been described previously. The retrieval of the patient suggests that the findings could be relevant for a considerable proportion of the population. PMID:26500785

  17. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  18. [Electroacupuncture therapy and corrosion of acupuncture needle].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Hong; Liu, Tang-Yi; Yang, Hua-Yuan; Gao, Ming; Hu, Yin-E; Xu, Gang; Tang, Wen-Chao

    2014-12-01

    During the process of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy, whether there being a corrosive effect in ac- upuncture needles was observed. Acupuncture needles were inserted into a rabbit's acupoint to perform a 12-hour electrical stimulation with three types of common EA waveform; additionally two needles were put in 0.9% sodium chloride solution with 12-hour direct current. Afterwards, environmental scanning electron microscope was applied to detect the surface physical characteristics of acupuncture needles. As a result, after a 12-hour continued electri- cal stimulation with three types of common EA waveform in the rabbit, there was no corrosive effect in acupunc- ture needles; but the direct current could cause severe corrosion in acupuncture needles. It is believed that there is no corrosion effect on acupuncture needles in current EA treatment, and some accidents reported in literature may be related to quality of EA device or improper manipulation during the treatment. PMID:25876364

  19. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  20. Docetaxel-related interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chung-Jen; Chang, Hou-Tai; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel (Taxotere®) is an agent that is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. In recent years, docetaxel-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported in several case series studies. The onset of ILD occurred ~10–20 days (median time: 18 days) after docetaxel administration. Here, we reported the case of a patient who had pulmonary toxicity of ILD within 3 days after using a relatively low-dose docetaxel administration. Although some articles have described patients who progressed to respiratory failure and needed intubation, this patient responded well to steroid treatment and discontinued docetaxel administration. PMID:26677333

  1. Electrosurgery using insulated needles: epilation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T

    1985-10-01

    This paper deals mainly with histologic findings and clinical aspects of epilation using insulated needles. Patients were checked for hair regrowth after "thermolysis" epilation--a cycle of three to four treatments at roughly 3-month intervals, within an observation period of 2 1/2 years. The results for 39 patients, compiled 6 months to 1 year after the final epilations, showed almost no or extremely reduced hair regrowth with almost no scarring. PMID:4044984

  2. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 19 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 11 MAY 1998 Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals

    E-print Network

    Nordlund, Kai

    ) Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular these concentrations are both 1026 . Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute in even higher interstitial concentrations. [S0031-9007(98)06040-2] PACS numbers: 61.72.Ji, 61.72.Cc, 64

  3. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  4. A compliant parallel mechanism for needle intervention.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngjin; Choi, Jaesoon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a compliant mechanism for fine motion of a medical robot for needle intervention procedure. The concept of this mechanism is created with the purpose of correcting a needle axis by translating a main robot for needle driving when an unexpected slip happens in needle insertion. In order to specify the concept, a planar compliant mechanism is designed so that the mechanism has maximized workspace for some given design condition. A simplified mathematical model for the designed mechanism is derived and then a pose controller is designed to track a desired trajectory in a plane, which is a similar situation that the compliant mechanism translates a needle driving robot to correct the direction of a needle. The simulation result shows good tracking performance. PMID:24110827

  5. [Discussion on needling manipulation of Chifeng Yingyuan].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-yin; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Wu, Chang-zheng

    2014-09-01

    Regarding the needling manipulation, Chifeng Yingyuan, there are different descriptions in ancient medical literature and the current teaching materials or clinical reports, especially for the understanding recorded in Jinzhenfu Poem of Golden Needle). In the current teaching materials and clinical reports, it is described that the needle is inserted deeply at first, and then shallowly; afterward, the needle tip is pushed to the middle layer and manipulated with lifting, thrusting and rotating technique, combined with twisting and flying method. After analyzing the original description in the book and the feasibility of function and operation, the authors introduced their recognition on its manipulation and techniques in this article. This manipulation should be: the needle is inserted to the middle layer, afterward, the needle body is pulled and tilted toward each of the four directions, on this basis, then twisting and flying method is applied. PMID:25509741

  6. Fiberglass needle electrodes for transmural cardiac mapping.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jack M; Melnick, Sharon B; Huang, Jian

    2002-12-01

    We developed a new method for fabricating plunge needle electrodes for use in cardiac mapping. The needles have 12 electrodes with 1-mm spacing, are 0.5 mm in diameter, and are fabricated from fiberglass reinforced epoxy. They are stiff enough to be easily inserted into beating hearts and durable enough to be reused many times. We found that these new needles elicit smaller, more quickly resolving injury potentials, and when inserted in a row with 2-mm spacing, disrupt ventricular fibrillation activation patterns less than traditional steel needles. PMID:12549747

  7. Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional n...

  8. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom. PMID:26545874

  9. How needless are Buffon's needles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovi?, Miloš; Babovi?, Vukota

    2013-05-01

    The study of statistical physics requires introductory preparation regarding probability theory. Understanding its fundamental concepts (randomness, distributions, fluctuations), and some experience in application of the basic concepts of statistics can be obtained in several ways. We found that the basic training in probability and statistics needed for physics and engineering study can be achieved by focusing on Buffon's needle problem. We believe this approach could help university specialists make study more efficient when probability and statistics play an important role. Buffon's experiment, with its convincing simplicity and flexibility, as well as its attractiveness, is in our opinion a useful tool in physics education at university level.

  10. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. Main conclusions: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

  11. [Clinical experiences of RUAN's needling method for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Zhen; Ruan, Bu-Qing

    2013-07-01

    The theoretical basis and needling techniques of RUAN's needling method in treatment of insomnia are introduced in this paper. Ruan's needling method follows the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, stresses the theory of taking brain as the marrow sea in treatment of insomnia acupuncture. The characteristics of his needling method are that emphasis on acupoints, including positioning accuracy and proper compatibility; think highly of needling method that combines with perpendicular needling, oblique needling, parallel needling, deep needling and shallow needling; emphasis on manipulation and identify qi under the needle to decide reinforcing or reducing method by arrival of qi, excess or deficiency. And the clinical observation of RUAN' s needling method on 30 cases of insomnia is attached. PMID:24032204

  12. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  17. [Academic origin of round magnetic needle and standardization operation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Sheng; Meng, Li-Qiang; Shi, Rui-Qi; Ji, Lai-Xi

    2014-07-01

    The origin and development of round magnetic needle was explored, and the structure of round magnetic needle was introduced in detail, including the handle, the body and the tip of the needle. The clinical opera tion of round magnetic needle were standardized from the aspects of the methods of holding needle, manipulation skill, tapping position, strength of manipulation, application scope and matters needing attention, which laid foundation for the popularization and application of round magnetic needle. PMID:25233666

  18. Investigating the effects of three needling parameters (manipulation, retention time, and insertion site) on needling sensation and pain profiles: a study of eight deep needling interventions.

    PubMed

    Loyeung, Bertrand Y K; Cobbin, Deirdre M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site. PMID:24159337

  19. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  20. Toxicity Associated With Bowel or Bladder Puncture During Gynecologic Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anand P.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Gielda, Benjamin T.; Zusag, Thomas W.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies is associated with significant toxicity. Some reports have correlated this toxicity with needle puncture of the visceral organs. This study examined our experience with interstitial brachytherapy and investigated the relationship between the visceral puncture and toxicity. Methods and Materials: The outcomes of 36 patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Computed tomography was used to guide needle placement based solely on tumor coverage. No attempts were made to avoid visceral puncture; however, the source dwell times were minimized in these areas. Results: At a median follow-up of 21 months, the crude locoregional control rate was 78%. Bowel puncture was noted in 26 patients and bladder puncture in 19. The mean operating time was 50 min, and 86% of patients were discharged in <=3 days. The incidence of acute and late toxicity was similar between patients with and without visceral puncture according to the log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves. No patients with bowel puncture experienced Grade 2 or greater acute gastrointestinal toxicity and only 1 had Grade 3 or greater late gastrointestinal toxicity. No patients with bladder puncture experienced greater than Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity and only 2 had late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The operating time, length of hospital stay, and treatment-induced morbidity in this cohort compared favorably to series using techniques to avoid visceral puncture. Additionally, visceral puncture did not correlate with the occurrence of acute or late toxicity. These data suggest that visceral puncture in the absence of source loading carries a low risk of morbidity.

  1. Ossicular Injury Caused by A Knitting Needle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amritpal; Kaur, Maninder

    2013-01-01

    Ossicular chain injury is a complication of trauma caused to temporal bone, but rarely, it can also occur due to direct trauma caused to ossicular chain by a penetrating injury. Patients usually suffering from conductive hearing loss and vertigo, although a facial nerve injury is also a possibility. We are describing here a case of young male who presented with a penetrating trauma to the left ear, caused by a metallic knitting needle, that resulted in ossicular chain disruption. The patient suffered from severe vertigo and conductive hearing loss. He was advised complete bed rest and vertin for controlling vertigo, after which he recovered. Computed tomography is the investigation of choice for detecting and characterizing such injuries, for proper management of patients. Penetrating middle ear trauma differs from blunt trauma, as the mechanism of injury is distinct. The injury is usually isolated and an urgent repair may be needed. Hearing results after an immediate or a delayed ossiculoplasty are apparently satisfying, although late cases are assumed to be associated with adhesions or fibrosis. PMID:24551716

  2. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H; Friedman, Avner

    2014-09-30

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  3. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  4. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  5. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  6. Interstitial lung disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172

  7. Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis: Multimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is an increasingly common disease characterized by urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain. Its etiology is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. A proposed pathophysiology describing a cascade of events, including epithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, and neurogenic inflammation, is presented. Using this model, multimodality therapy regimens have been developed that treat all components of this cascade. Multimodality therapy appears more effective than single agents in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:16986029

  8. Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals

    E-print Network

    William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin

    2013-10-11

    Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.

  9. Segregation of Mn2+ Dopants as Interstitials in SrTiO3 Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Kotula, Paul G.; Sato, Yukio; Chi, Miaofang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-10-03

    Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to substitute Ti in bulk SrTiO3, but Mn2+ segregates inside grain boundaries at both Sr and interstitial sites. Mn interstitial doping has never been reported, but is found possible with the formation of Sr vacancies. This finding is significantly different from the amphoteric doping of Mn2+ substituting Sr and Mn4+ substituting Ti sites, therefore leads to different understanding on the defect mediated electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped perovskites.

  10. Needle exchange programs and drug infection behavior.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS prevalence, fixed effects for cities and years and city-specific time trends, the model indicates that the presence of a NEP is associated with declines of 13 percent in drug injection and 20 percent in needle sharing among drug injectors. PMID:15973795

  11. The Vienna applicator for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy of cervical cancer: Clinical feasibility and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Johannes . E-mail: johannes.dimopoulos@akhwien.at; Kirisits, Christian; Petric, Primoz; Georg, Petra; Lang, Stefan; Berger, Daniel; Poetter, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical feasibility and to report on preliminary treatment outcomes of combined intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy, using a novel applicator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 cervical cancer patients with insufficient response and/or unfavorable topography after external-beam irradiation were included in this study. Parametrial extent of the disease in these patients was judged to exceed the coverage limit of intracavitary brachytherapy alone. A modified tandem/ring (T/R) applicator for guidance of parametrial needles (N) was used to perform high-dose-rate-brachytherapy with MRI-based treatment planning. Clinical feasibility and preliminary treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: A total of 44 interstitial needle implants were performed. The spatial relations between the T/R + N applicator, high-risk clinical target volume, and organs at risk were visible clearly in all cases. Accurate and reproducible needle placement could be achieved in the majority of cases. No severe adverse events were caused by the intervention. The mean follow-up period was 20 months (range, 5-35 months). No G3 to G4 early or persistent late side effects were observed. Complete remission was achieved in 21 patients (95%). One local recurrence was observed within the high-risk clinical target volume area during follow-up. Conclusions: Our preliminary clinical experience indicates that combined intracavitary and interstitial MRI-based brachytherapy in patients with significant residual disease after external-beam therapy extending up to the distal third of parametria is feasible and allows excellent local control and a low rate of morbidity.

  12. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  13. [Reinforcing and reducing manipulation in the needle sticking].

    PubMed

    Chen, Dandan; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Yunzhu

    2015-01-01

    In order to have a better basic research of needle sticking, reports regarding basic research of needle sticking in recent years are arranged and summarized, including the concepts of needle sticking, the history origin, manipulation methods, precautions and selection requirements of needles. In the meanwhile, the reinforcing and reducing manipulation in sticking of the needle is preliminarily analyzed, and based on analysis of ancient records, three hypotheses are proposed: (1) needle sticking partly belongs to reinforcing method; (2) needle sticking partly belongs to reducing method; (3) needle sticking can perform reinforcing and reducing effects according to different manipulations. It is also believed that the needle sticking in modern clinical research is mostly used for reducing effects. However reinforcing and reducing manipulation in sticking of the needle still lacks of the support from ancient literature theory and modern clinical application, which needs to be improved. PMID:25906569

  14. An inexpensive method of improving visualisation of the needle tip in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

    PubMed

    Laine, H R; Rainio, J

    1993-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histological biopsy have often been used to determine the nature of tumours. If the tumour is impalpable and situated deep inside an organ, obtaining the correct specimen requires the needle tip to penetrate into the tumour. To solve this problem we roughened the surface of the needle tip using a sterile ampoule file just before FNAB. We have tested out this method by using 1) a water bath and 2) meat in aspic as an intermediate material. The results indicate that roughening the needle tip improves the visualization. Roughening is the cheapest method and can be performed just before the FNAB. PMID:8323236

  15. Compact Raman needle probe with fine needle aspiration biopsy for solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents a label-free vibrational spectroscopic technique for studying the biochemical and biomolecular compositions of human body. Raman probe is a key component to facilitate the in vivo diagnosis by using Raman spectroscopy. We investigated a compact Raman needle probe design to be integrated into a device that can also take biopsies of solid tissues for cytological assessment, enabling concurrent Raman spectroscopic interrogation and fine needle aspiration biopsy with a single needle penetration. We described the fabrication of the Raman needle probe and its assembly with the biopsy device. Example Raman spectra of various solid tissues are given.

  16. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  17. Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection

    E-print Network

    Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY Hypodermic needles with attached

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    DISPOSABLES Pipete Tips Disposable Pipets Broken and unbroken glass BODY FLUIDS Radioactive Animal carcasses water Biohazardous material with chemical contamination Biohazardous material with radioactive University Never remove needles from syringes! Broken and unbroken glass Contaminated Non-contaminated Sharps

  19. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  20. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  1. [The origin and development of fire needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Jin; Huang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chu-Yun

    2013-05-01

    By reading ancient acupuncture-moxibustion literature, the authors expound the origin and development of fire needle therapy from its sprout, development and mature stage, reveal the origin of fire needle, development of needling instrument and manipulation methods, indications of fire needle therapy and so on, in order to have a better learning on fire needle therapy and make it applicative in clinic. PMID:23885626

  2. [A brief analysis of taking off the needle slowly].

    PubMed

    Zhu, An-Ning; Meng, Xian-Jun; Feng, Dan-Dan

    2013-05-01

    The ancients highlight taking off the needle slowly. From aspects of proper timing of withdrawing the needle, the safe treatment, treating and keeping the spirit, dealing with the acupuncture accidents, reinforcing and reducing manipulation and strengthening the post-needling sensation, etc. advantages of taking off the needle slowly are described in this paper. So the taking off the needle slowly is worthwhile in clinic. PMID:23885615

  3. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFR?+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFR?+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  4. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  5. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  6. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  7. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.; Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  8. Extended defects in diamond: The interstitial platelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, J. P.; Coomer, B. J.; Jones, R.; Fall, C. J.; Briddon, P. R.; Öberg, S.

    2003-04-01

    The structure and properties of the {001} planar platelet in diamond are investigated using ab initio theory. We find that a carbonaceous model, based on a layer of self-interstitials, satisfies the requirements of transmission electron microscopy, infrared absorption data, and energetic considerations. The energetics of self-interstitial production during nitrogen aggregation are considered. It is found that the growth mechanism of the platelet involves a thermally activated release of vacancies from platelets. The role of vacant sites and platelet nitrogen are also investigated and it is shown that these defects embedded within the platelet could account for the observed optical activity.

  9. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  10. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Aigen Li

    2002-09-19

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation from Population III objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process they are generally modelled as (1) needle-like spheroids in terms of the Rayleigh approximation; (2) infinite cylinders; and (3) the antenna theory. We show here that the Rayleigh approximation is not valid since the Rayleigh criterion is not satisfied for highly conducting needles. We also show that the available intergalactic iron dust, if modelled as infinite cylinders, is not sufficient to supply the required opacity at long wavelengths to obtain the observed isotropy and Planckian nature of the CMB. If appealing to the antenna theory, conducting iron needles with exceedingly large elongations (10^4) appear able to provide sufficient opacity to thermalize the CMB within the iron density limit. But the applicability of the antenna theory to exceedingly thin needles of nanometer/micrometer in thickness needs to be justified.

  11. Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

  12. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  13. A new template for MRI-based intracavitary/interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy: design and clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Jose Richart; Palacin, Antonio Otal; Calatayud, Jose Perez; Ortega, Manuel Santos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the potential clinical use of a new brachytherapy applicator for gynecological tumors, with special attention to locally advanced cervical carcinoma. This device allows the combination of intracavitary radiotherapy and MRI-compatible transperineal interstitial needles. The design of this template addresses the disadvantages of currently commercially available templates: the inability of the intracavitary component to reach deep into the cervix (MUPIT), and the MRI-incompatibility of these templates (MUPIT and Syed), which necessitates use of CT imaging for the dosimetry. Material and methods The newly developed Benidorm Template applicator allows titanium needles in a template with straight and angled holes to provide different angles of divergence to be used with currently existing MRI-compatible intrauterine tubes. It can provide total coverage of the craniocaudal and lateral extension of the tumor (intrautherus, parametrial, and paravaginal). This method is mainly indicated in advanced cervical carcinoma with bulky parametrial invasion (medial or distal), with bulky primary disease that responds poorly to external beam radiotherapy extensive paravaginal involvement (tumor thickness greater than 0.5 cm) extending to the middle or lower third of the vagina, or for disease that has invaded the bladder or rectum (stage IVA). Results Between April 2013 until December 2014, we treated 15 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma employing the Benidorm Template. The median dose at D90 for the CTV was 79.8 Gy (71.5-89.9 Gy), at D2cc for the bladder it was 77.6 Gy (69.8-90.8 Gy), and at D2cc for the rectum it was 71.9 Gy (58.3-83.7 Gy). Values expressed in EQD2, assuming ?/? of 10 for CTV and 3 for OAR. Conclusions This new applicator allows the use of MRI-based dosimetry, thus providing the advantages of MRI volume definition. As such, it facilitates determination of complete intracavitary and interstitial CTV coverage and the sparing of normal tissues. PMID:26622229

  14. Interstitial iron impurities at cores of dissociated dislocations in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt; Mrovec, Matous; Elsässer, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Dislocations play an important role in semiconductor devices made of crystalline silicon (Si). They are known to be strongly performance-limiting defects in solar cell applications, since they act as preferred segregation sites for metallic impurities. In this work we investigate the segregation of iron (Fe) to the cores of the 30° and 90° partial dislocations in Si using atomistic calculations based on first-principles density functional theory. Our simulations show that interstitial Fe impurities segregate readily to all investigated cores and the driving force for the segregation increases with impurity concentration. Moreover, our analysis of the electronic structure reveals the existence of deep defect levels within the band gap that can be related to experimental observations by deep-level transient spectroscopy.

  15. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  16. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  17. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  18. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  19. Seed misplacement and stabilizing needles in transperineal permanent prostate implants

    E-print Network

    Pouliot, Jean

    Seed misplacement and stabilizing needles in transperineal permanent prostate implants Richard; received in revised form 22 December 1999; accepted 16 February 2000 Abstract Background and purpose: Seed. This study investigates the effects of parallel stabilizing needles on seed misplacement. Materials

  20. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  1. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  2. Comparative ecotoxicity of interstitial waters in littoral ecosystems using Microtox{reg_sign} and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Valls, T.A. Del; Forja, J.M.; Lubian, L.M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    1997-11-01

    The toxic effects of sediment interstitial waters collected from seven littoral sites in the Gulf of Cadiz were tested with the Microtox assay and a 7-d Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) decline test. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (ammonia, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and silicate), the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd), and the linear alkylbenzensulfonate (LAS) concentrations in the interstitial water were measured. The results of assays were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between toxicity values determined by Brachionus plicatilis and Photobacterium phosphoreum, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity from mixtures of heavy metals. Data derived from interstitial water chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal components analysis). Positive prevalence of these components in cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The interstitial water guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg/L), are: DOC, 12.8; phosphate, 0.28; LAS, 80.4; ammonia, 12.1: chromium, 0.0045.

  3. Needle Path Planning for Autonomous Robotic Surgical Suturing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell C; Cavu?o?lu, M Cenk

    2013-12-31

    This paper develops a path plan for suture needles used with solid tissue volumes in endoscopic surgery. The path trajectory is based on the best practices that are used by surgeons. The path attempts to minimize the interaction forces between the tissue and the needle. Using surgical guides as a basis, two different techniques for driving a suture needle are developed. The two techniques are compared in hardware experiments by robotically driving the suture needle using both of the motion plans. PMID:24683500

  4. Evaluation of Robotic Needle Steering in ex vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Wedlick, Thomas R.; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers asymmetric-tip needles under fluoroscopic imaging. For bevel-tip needles, we found that larger diameter needles resulted in less curvature, i.e. less steerability, confirming previous experiments in artificial tissue. The needles steered with radii of curvature ranging from 3:4 cm (for the most steerable pre-bent needle) to 2:97m (for the least steerable bevel needle). Pre-bend angle significantly affected needle curvature, but bevel angle did not. We hypothesize that biological tissue characteristics such as inhomogeneity and viscoelasticity significantly increase path variability. These results underscore the need for closed-loop image guidance for needle steering in biological tissues with complex internal structure. PMID:21339851

  5. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  6. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880.6920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  12. Influence of dislocation strain fields on the diffusion of interstitial iron impurities in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Benedikt; Mrovec, Matous; Elsässer, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The efficiency of silicon (Si)-based solar cells is strongly affected by crystal defects and impurities. Metallic impurities, in particular interstitial iron (Fe) atoms, cause large electric losses because they act as recombination centers for photogenerated charge carriers. Here, we present a systematic first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study focusing on the influence of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and shear strains on the thermodynamic stability and the diffusivity of Fe impurities in crystalline Si. Our calculations show that the formation energy of neutral Fe interstitials in tetrahedral interstitial sites is almost unaffected by uniform deformations of the Si crystal up to strains of 5%. In contrast, the migration barrier varies significantly with strain, especially for hydrostatic deformation. In order to determine effective diffusion coefficients for different strain states, a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model was set up based on the activation energy barriers and frequency factors obtained from the DFT simulations. By using the strain dependence of the migration barrier, we examined the migration of Fe interstitials in the vicinity of perfect 1 /2 <110 > screw and 60? mixed dislocations, and 1 /6 <112 > 90? and 30? partial dislocations. While the strain field of the perfect screw dislocation always enhances the local Fe diffusion, the existence of tensile and compressive regions around the 60? mixed dislocation results in a strong anisotropic diffusion profile with significantly faster and slower diffusivities on its tensile and compressive sides. The influences of the partial dislocations are qualitatively similar to that of the 60? mixed dislocation.

  13. Single-Camera Closed-Form Real-Time Needle Tracking for Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Many common needle intervention procedures are performed with ultrasound guidance because it is a flexible, cost-effective and widely available intra-operative imaging modality. In a needle insertion procedure with ultrasound guidance, real-time calculation and visualization of the needle trajectory can help to guide the choice of puncture site and needle angle to reach the target depicted in the ultrasound image. We found that it is feasible to calculate the needle trajectory with a single camera mounted directly on the ultrasound transducer by using the needle markings. Higher accuracy is achieved compared with other similar transducer-mounted needle trackers. We used an inexpensive, real-time and easy-to-use tracking method based on an automatic feature extraction algorithm and a closed-form method for pose estimation of the needle. The overall accuracy was 0.94 ± 0.46 mm. PMID:26215491

  14. An optical smart needle : point-of-care technologies for integrated needle guidance using optical frequency domain ranging

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Brian, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining accurate needle placement is of critical importance in many medical scenarios. In the setting of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), manual palpation is often the only cue for determining the optimal position ...

  15. Uranium associations and migration behaviour at the Needle’s Eye natural analogue site in SW Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Xiaolu

    2015-06-30

    This thesis investigated uranium (U) migration behaviour at the Needle?s Eye natural analogue site, located close to Southwick Water, South West Scotland. The results of this study are important for the prediction of U ...

  16. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  17. Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors

    E-print Network

    · Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

  18. Buffon Needle Problem Application to Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    A. V. Sedelnikov

    2010-06-01

    In this article the possibility of application of classical Buffon needle problem to the investigation of orientation engine firing problem has been investigated. Such an approach makes it possible to get a reliable EP of this undesired event without using a more complicated analysis.

  19. Serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Kouliatsis, George; Anevlavis, Stavros; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2005-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in medicine lies in their ability to detect disease and support diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. New research and novel understanding of the molecular basis of the disease reveals an abundance of exciting new biomarkers who present a promise for use in the everyday clinical practice. The past fifteen years have seen the emergence of numerous clinical applications of several new molecules as biologic markers in the research field relevant to interstitial lung diseases (translational research). The scope of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge about serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases and their potential value as prognostic and diagnostic tools and present some of the future perspectives and challenges. PMID:16042760

  20. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  1. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  2. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  3. Usual interstitial pneumonia coexisted with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, What’s the diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia(INSIP) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)/usual interstitial pneumonia(UIP)is tough in both clinicians and pathologists. In this study, we analyzed the lesions of right lung removed from a 58-year-old patient by gross and microscopy. The results showed that the pathological appearance of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and UIP coexisted in his upper lobe. Besides, because of severe fibrosis in middle and lower lobes, it was hard to distinguish the lesions of NSIP fibrotic pattern (NSIP-F) or UIP. Based on clinic-radiologic-pathological data, the diagnosis of INSIP-F was made for this patient finally. Our study suggests that UIP is not always an accurate diagnosis when the NSIP and UIP coexist, and NSIP can have regions of UIP. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2573531681608730 PMID:23206520

  4. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  5. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  6. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  7. The hard metal diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cugell, D.W. )

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

  8. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the running course of meridians. PMID:24673066

  9. First-principles study of diffusion of interstitial and vacancy in ? U-Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gui-Yang; Wirth, Brian D.

    2011-05-01

    Metallic uranium-zirconium alloys are of interest for a variety of fast reactor designs, and there is substantial experience with the behavior of metallic fuels. Yet, there remain a number of questions regarding the mechanisms controlling fission-gas-driven swelling in these alloys. Here we present results of ab initio calculations of the diffusion behavior of interstitial and vacancy point defects in ? U-Zr alloys. The formation energy and migration barrier of vacancy and interstitial defects, and the influence of Zr on these values, is obtained and compared with experimental results. Our results confirm that self-diffusion in pure ? U is via a simple vacancy mechanism, and shows anisotropic character. The calculated values of activation energy are consistent with the experimental results in the literature. For interstitial diffusion, the kick-out mechanism was found to have the smallest energy barrier. The calculations of point defects, and later Xe, in U-Zr alloys will provide a foundation for computational modeling of fission gas bubble nucleation and growth.

  10. [Lymphocytic interstitial pneumopathy and primary pulmonary lymphoma. Differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Valeyre, D; Amouroux, J; Schmitt-Hausman, I; Battesti, J P

    1985-10-12

    Two cases of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed according to Liebow's criteria, are reported. In both cases an extra-thoracic lymphoma developed 3 and 6 years respectively after the interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed. Simultaneously, the radiological images of the lungs became more pronounced. Only a few similar cases have been published. This raises the question of whether lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and lymphomas are distinct entities, especially since the histological and immunopathological discriminating criteria seem to be discussed. PMID:2933658

  11. Needle safety awareness among dental nurses.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun P; Reddy, Venugopal; Sugumaran, Kaliyamoorthy; Mohan, Govindharajan; Ahamed, Syed

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of needlestick injury (NSI) and the awareness and attitudes of dental nurses in Cuddalore district, India, toward needle safety. Responses were gathered from 102 dental nurses via a questionnaire that included demographic data, the prevalence of NSIs in the past 6 months, their causes, responses of dental nurses to such injuries, and dental nurses' awareness of injection safety practices. Altogether, 33.3% (n = 34 of 102) of the respondents had sustained at least one NSI in the past 6 months. The knowledge of nurses who had not sustained a NSI was only marginally better than those nurses who had experienced a NSI in the past 6 months and the overall awareness and attitudes of the study population toward needle safety was poor. PMID:24971819

  12. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  13. Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

  14. Idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a rare form of interstitial lung disease in children. Respiratory symptoms appear progressively, are often subtle, and diagnosis is often delayed by a mean of 6 months after onset. High resolution chest computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for demonstrating and identifying interstitial pneumonia. The typical histologic pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonia, with prominent clustered alveolar macrophages, diffuse reactive alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and globular proteinaceous material, is diagnostic. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in children can be idiopathic, though it is mostly related to an inborn error of surfactant metabolism. Case presentation We present the complex clinical course and pathologic findings of a 30-months-old Mauritian and Senegalese girl with idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia and multiple extrapulmonary manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of desquamative interstitial pneumonia to occur as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement. Conclusion We believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is not always associated with mutations of the surfactant proteins, and can still be idiopathic, especially when occurring as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement, as described in other interstitial lung diseases. PMID:24954625

  15. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5?mA, 60?min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100?mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  16. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  17. Method to Reduce Target Motion Through Needle-Tissue Interactions.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Matthew J; Leibinger, Alexander; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-11-01

    During minimally invasive surgical procedures, it is often important to deliver needles to particular tissue volumes. Needles, when interacting with a substrate, cause deformation and target motion. To reduce reliance on compensatory intra-operative imaging, a needle design and novel delivery mechanism is proposed. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of a multi-segment needle inserted into a pre-existing crack are presented. The motion profiles of the needle segments are varied to identify methods that reduce target motion. Experiments are then performed by inserting a needle into a gelatine tissue phantom and measuring the internal target motion using digital image correlation. Simulations indicate that target motion is reduced when needle segments are stroked cyclically and utilise a small amount of retraction instead of being held stationary. Results are confirmed experimentally by statistically significant target motion reductions of more than 8% during cyclic strokes and 29% when also incorporating retraction, with the same net insertion speed. By using a multi-segment needle and taking advantage of frictional interactions on the needle surface, it is demonstrated that target motion ahead of an advancing needle can be substantially reduced. PMID:25943896

  18. Electrotactile display using microfabricated micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Chim, J.; Miki, N.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes an electrotactile display with micro-needle electrodes. The electrotactile display can produce tactile sensations by stimulating tactile receptors using an electric current. Micro-needle electrodes can drastically decrease the threshold voltage required to stimulate tactile receptors by penetrating the stratum corneum, which has a higher impedance than the dermis. In addition, the optimized length of the needle allows us to stimulate tactile receptors painlessly. In the present study, we developed a process for fabricating a micro-needle array in which the length and tip radius can be controlled using electrochemical etching. A micro-needle array was successfully fabricated to form an electrotactile display. In addition, we experimentally determined the suitable shape of the micro-needle electrodes for electrotactile display applications. When the tip radius of the needle is too small, the impedance between the finger and micro-needles becomes large due to the small contact area. On the other hand, when the tip radius is too large, the needle cannot penetrate the skin surface and the impedance is not sufficiently small. The experiments verified the superiority of needle electrode devices to flat electrode devices with respect to the threshold voltage at each frequency.

  19. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-01

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. PMID:25986434

  20. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Y?ld?z, Mustafa; Akil, E?ref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ? 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  1. On the hazard caused by the heat of acupuncture needles in warm needling (w?n zh?n).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Wen-Jiuan; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2013-04-01

    Due to its simplicity and convenience, acupuncture has become popular as a complementary therapy. In this Chinese medicine, doctors have to find the traditional meridian acupuncture points before puncturing the needles into them. Moxibustion ( Ài Ji?) is also an important part of the acupuncture remedy. Treatment by acupuncture can be classified roughly into two types - direct moxibustion and indirect moxibustion. Warm-needling acupuncture ( W?n Zh?n Ji?) is classified under the method of indirect moxibustion. In the present study, 10 standard stainless steel acupuncture needles with 10 pieces of cylinder-shaped moxa cone ( Ài Zhù) as the heat source of warm needles were used. In order to prevent the practitioners from getting burns, it is necessary to study the temperature changes in some designated parts of the needles. Two sizes, 0.6 g and 1.0 g, of moxa cones were used for comparison of the measured temperatures. The needles are typically divided into two parts - the handle part and the needle body. In our experiment, the temperatures of WNA at different parts of the needles were measured. The larger the size of moxa cone is, the longer is the burning time. Based on the observations we suggest that when 0.6 g moxa is used, the physicians should better pick out the needles around 9 min after ignition; however, while using the 1 g moxa, it might be safer to pick out the needles around 13 min after ignition. PMID:24716166

  2. Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Bendsoe, Niels; Johansson, Thomas; Palsson, Sara; Thompson, Marcelo S.; Stenram, Unne; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-08-01

    To develop PDT beyond treatment of thin superficial tumors, to also be an efficient treatment alternative to deeply located and/or thick tumors, a system based on interstitial illumination using multiple fibers has been developed. Conditions that could benefit from such a treatment modality are for instance malignant brain tumors and tumors in the oral cavity. In interstitial PDT one needs to use multiple fibers for light delivery in order to allow treatments of tumors larger than a few millimeters in diameter. Our sytem consists of a laser light source, a beam-splitting system dividing the light into three or six output fibers and a custom-made dosimetry program. The concept is then to use these fibers not only for delivering the treatment light, but also to measure parameters of interest for the treatment outcome. The fluence rate of the light emitted by each fiber is measured at the positions of the other fiber tips. From these results the light dose at all positions could be recalculated. Changes in optical properties as well as bleaching and concentration of the photosensitizer during the treatment could be monitored and compensated for in the dosimetry. Tumors have been treated both in experimental studies and in patients with thick superficial Basal Cell Carcinomas. Almost all treated skin lesions responded with complete response.

  3. Multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ricken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study formulates a theory for multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues whereby each generation has a distinct reference configuration determined at the time of its deposition. In this model, the solid matrix of a growing tissue consists of a multiplicity of intermingled porous permeable bodies, each of which represents a generation, all of which are constrained to move together in the current configuration. Each generation’s reference configuration has a one-to-one mapping with the master reference configuration, which is typically that of the first generation. This mapping is postulated based on a constitutive assumption with regard to that generations’ state of stress at the time of its deposition. For example, the newly deposited generation may be assumed to be in a stress-free state, even though the underlying tissue is in a loaded configuration. The mass content of each generation may vary over time as a result of growth or degradation, thereby altering the material properties of the tissue. A finite element implementation of this framework is used to provide several illustrative examples, including interstitial growth by cell division followed by matrix turnover. PMID:20238138

  4. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  5. Fire performance of interstitial space construction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

  6. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  7. Wavelength shifts in fluorescence maxima of stressed and non-stressed Norway spruce needles over the growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, Cliff; Chappelle, E.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory fluorescence measurements of first and third year metal stressed and non stressed Norway spruce needles collected in May, Jul. Sep. and Nov. display significant wavelength shifts in the intensity maxima in the blue, green, red, and near infrared spectral regions, with the largest shifts occurring in the blue spectral region for both first and third year needles from Nov. Smaller, but the otherwise significant shifts also take place in the blue spectral region for first year needles from Sep. in the red spectral region for third year neddles from May, Jul. and Sep. and in the near infrared spectral region for first and third year needles from Jul. and Sep. Wavelength shifts in needle fluorescence maxima over the growing season are greatest in the blue and to a lesser extent, greenspectral regions from Sep. to Nov. but are also significant in the red and near infrared spectral regions from Jul. to Sep. and Sep. to Nov., and in the near infrared spectral region also from May to Jul.

  8. Neck needle foreign bodies: an added risk for autopsy pathologists.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, K D; Williams, A W; Natarajan, G A

    2001-06-01

    The risk to pathologists of contracting diseases due to cuts or needles punctures while performing autopsies is well known. An additional risk is an accidental needle puncture due to retained needle fragments within the subcutaneous tissues or internal organs of intravenous drug addicts. We report 4 cases of drug addicted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who came to autopsy and had retained needle fragments within their cervical-clavicular soft tissues. The presence of retained needle fragments increases the risk to the autopsy pathologist of accidental needle puncture and exposure to disease. Because of this phenomenon, the pathologist should take precautions in addition to those currently prescribed when performing autopsies on possible drug abusers. PMID:11371232

  9. Interstitial lung diseases associated with collagen vascular diseases: radiologic and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kim, Tae Sung; Suh, Gee Young; Kwon, O Jung; Han, Joungho

    2002-10-01

    Collagen vascular diseases that demonstrate features of interstitial lung disease include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. At histopathologic analysis, interstitial lung diseases associated with collagen vascular diseases are diverse and include nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), apical fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Although proportions of interstitial pneumonias vary, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia accounts for a large proportion, especially in progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. The more favorable prognosis in interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular diseases than in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias may be explained by the larger proportion of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia than of usual interstitial pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography seems to help characterize and determine the extent of interstitial lung disease in collagen vascular diseases. PMID:12376608

  10. Effectiveness of needle cast at reducing erosion after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannkuk, C. D.; Robichaud, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    Needle cast from partially burnt conifer trees commonly occurs after forest fires. The effectiveness of needles in reducing soil erosion was investigated in this study. Two needle types, ponderosa pine and Douglas fir needles, were used at four different cover amounts (0, 15, 40, and 70 percent) on granitic and volcanic derived soils. Simulated rainfall was used to examine interrill erosion; added inflow was used to determine rill erosion in a laboratory setting. After a series of "runs," data showed that sediment delivery was greater for the granitic soil compared with the volcanic soil. Douglas fir needles were more effective at reducing interrill erosion compared with the ponderosa pine needles. Ponderosa pine needles, because of their shape and being bundled together, often caused minidebris dams to form. The minidebris dams formed by ponderosa pine needles reduce flow within the rill, resulting in less rill erosion than the Douglas fir needles. A 50 percent cover of Douglas fir needles reduced interrill erosion by 80 percent and rill erosion 20 by percent. A 50 percent cover of ponderosa pine needles reduced interrill erosion by 60 percent and rill erosion by 40 percent. We also compared the effectiveness of using stream power, rather than shear stress, to model rill erosion. Stream power was a better predictor of sediment load than shear stress. Rill detachment rates based on stream power decreased with increasing cover for both needle types. These results challenge the use of shear stress detachment rates in current erosion models and provide insight into the use of stream power detachment rates.

  11. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  12. Use of swine in brain interstitial radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, G.M.; Eddy, H.A.; Better, W.E.; Carlyle, J.R.

    1986-08-01

    Swine offer an excellent, but previously unused, model for brain interstitial ionizing and non-ionizing radiation research. Significant advantages include size, cost, maneuverability, availability and conditioning. The methodology and some experimental results from studies of the effects of interstitial microwave hyperthermia and iridium-192 irradiation are presented.

  13. Displacement Correction Scheme for MR-Guided Interstitial Laser Therapy

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Displacement Correction Scheme for MR-Guided Interstitial Laser Therapy S. Suprijanto1 , M.W. Vogel interstitial laser therapy can be used to mon- itor the extent of tumor tissue coagulation during thermal treatment based on a temperature map. In a non-stationary object that was in- fluenced by respiratory motion

  14. Rotational and vibrational dynamics of interstitial molecular hydrogen T. Yildirim

    E-print Network

    Yildirim, Taner

    to quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules in quasi- zero and one-dimensional sites.2,3,5 In this paper, we confined to the octahedral interstitial sites of solid C60 . We treat this problem of coupled transla spectra of H2 and D2 in- serted into the octahedral interstitial sites in solid C60 carried out by neutron

  15. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  17. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A review.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Harari, Sergio; Caminati, Antonella; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2016-01-01

    For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). Other entities in which smoking has a definite or suggested role include pulmonary Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of smoking-related lung damage and on the clinical aspects of these disorders with the exception of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which will be reviewed elsewhere in this review series. PMID:26138798

  18. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  19. Interstitial and substitutional solute effects in intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Noebe, R.D.; George, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    This volume addresses recent developments in the understanding of the effects of interstitial and substitutional solute atoms on the physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds. Topics discussed include the theory, modeling, and experimental verification of such effects as static and dynamic strain aging, the Portevin-le Chatelier effect, solid solution hardening behavior, dislocation-solute interactions, and related topics such as the amelioration of environmental embrittlement by various solutes. Topics covered include: (1) Vacancy-solute interactions in FeAl-based alloys; (2) Static and dynamic strain aging in microalloyed NiAl-based alloys; (3) Design fundamentals for Gamma TiAl alloys; and (4) Strain rate sensitivity of Cr-stabilized cubic titanium trialuminides.

  20. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  1. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Persu, C; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, Irina; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  2. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

    2010-01-01

    There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

  3. Bortezomib-induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Leung, Nelson; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2015-07-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from inflammatory tubulointerstitial injury induced by medications, infections and systemic diseases. Bortezomib has been increasingly used especially in renal related indications such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Severe allergic reactions from bortezomib treatment including AIN have not been described in the literature. We report a 47-year-old white man who developed biopsy-proven allergic AIN after treatment with bortezomib for his C3 glomerulonephritis. The patient's kidney function improved after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib, but worsened with recurrent AKI episode after re-initiation of bortezomib. His renal function improved after glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biopsy-proven AIN from bortezomib. PMID:26109684

  4. Projector-Based Augmented Reality for Intuitive Intraoperative Guidance in Image-Guided 3D Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Krempien, Robert Hoppe, Harald; Kahrs, Lueder; Daeuber, Sascha; Schorr, Oliver; Eggers, Georg; Bischof, Marc; Munter, Marc W.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to implement augmented reality in real-time image-guided interstitial brachytherapy to allow an intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation. Methods and Materials: The developed system consists of a common video projector, two high-resolution charge coupled device cameras, and an off-the-shelf notebook. The projector was used as a scanning device by projecting coded-light patterns to register the patient and superimpose the operating field with planning data and additional information in arbitrary colors. Subsequent movements of the nonfixed patient were detected by means of stereoscopically tracking passive markers attached to the patient. Results: In a first clinical study, we evaluated the whole process chain from image acquisition to data projection and determined overall accuracy with 10 patients undergoing implantation. The described method enabled the surgeon to visualize planning data on top of any preoperatively segmented and triangulated surface (skin) with direct line of sight during the operation. Furthermore, the tracking system allowed dynamic adjustment of the data to the patient's current position and therefore eliminated the need for rigid fixation. Because of soft-part displacement, we obtained an average deviation of 1.1 mm by moving the patient, whereas changing the projector's position resulted in an average deviation of 0.9 mm. Mean deviation of all needles of an implant was 1.4 mm (range, 0.3-2.7 mm). Conclusions: The developed low-cost augmented-reality system proved to be accurate and feasible in interstitial brachytherapy. The system meets clinical demands and enables intuitive real-time intraoperative orientation and monitoring of needle implantation.

  5. Dynamics and Topography of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular topography covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.

  6. Comparative studies on extraction of sediment interstitial waters: Discussion and comment on the current state of interstitial water studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The implication by Murthy and Ferrell (1972)that interstitial water studies are in a confused state is criticized on the basis that the authors have not drawn on a considerable body of data, especially Soviet studies since the 1950's, and results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Pressure filtration systems for extracting interstitial waters are currently the methods of choice for marine studies and have achieved substantial reliability and reproducibility. Although gaps and problems remain, many aspects of interstitial composition of marine sediments have been clarified; these include the substantial constancy of composition of interstitial waters in deep sea pelagic deposits, depletion of interstitial cations owing to authigenic mineral formation in more rapidly accumulated (especially terrigenous) sediments, and special phenomena in sediments overlying salt deposits. ?? 1974.

  7. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  8. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

  9. Design of a robust, intuitive piston interface for a needle free injection system

    E-print Network

    Nawrot, Michael Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The MIT BioInstrumentation Lab's linear Lorentz force actuator based needle free injection system has been shown to have numerous benefits over needle-based and other needle-free drug delivery systems in a research ...

  10. Transport and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil Interstitial Water Across Forested, Montane Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, M. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of compounds formed from the degradation of both terrestrial and microbial material. The abundance and composition of the DOM present in stream water is important to stream processes such as UV light attenuation, nutrient supply and metal sorption. However, an excess of DOM can cause reactions with chlorination compounds at drinking water treatment plants, creating potentially harmful disinfection byproducts. Currently, little is known regarding the influence of soil interstitial water on stream DOM composition. In this study, we explore the role of interstitial water on DOM transport and transformation from the hillslope to the stream in a montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Colorado. We installed a suite of tension lysimeters located within the rooting zone across representative north- and south-facing slopes. Interstitial water and stream samples were collected daily for approximately seven weeks during the 2013 spring snow melt period and analyzed for DOM composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. To date, we have used fluorescence index (FI) to evaluate differences between microbial and terrestrial DOM inputs and humification index (HIX) to assess degree of humification undergone by the DOM. Preliminary results indicate that FI was significantly correlated with hillslope aspect (p<.01), with higher FI on north-facing slopes, suggesting more microbial precursor material. Stream samples reveal greater humification throughout the snowmelt period (p<.01). This increase could suggest a transition from deeper groundwater sources to shallow soil interstitial water inputs into the stream during snowmelt. These preliminary results suggest that changes in DOM composition through the catchment during snowmelt can be linked to hydrologic transport. Further site specific model development will reveal explicit changes in the DOM chemistry and will increase our understanding of fundamental nutrient cycling processes at the hillslope to catchment scale.

  11. Cryosurgery and needle ablation of renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D B; Nakada, S Y

    2001-05-01

    Laparoscopic renal cryoablation is a minimally invasive alternative for treating renal tumors utilizing narrow probes cooled with a compressed gas such as argon or carbon dioxide. At this time, cryotherapy has shown the most promise as an alternative to partial nephrectomy as a nephron-sparing treatment for renal tumors. Radiofrequency ablation employs needle electrodes placed percutaneously directly into renal lesions to deliver energy, creating high temperatures leading to cell death. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a noninvasive technique in which focused ultrasound energy is applied to cause cell death within the focal zone. Microwave thermotherapy uses small applicators to deliver microwave energy to tissues, resulting in the generation of heat. Although RF, HIFU, and microwave thermotherapy show promise as energy sources for tumor ablation, they are in the early stages of development. Little is known about their acute and chronic histologic effects and long-term efficacy as a treatment for malignant disease. Further work is needed to develop cryosurgery and needle ablation in order to delineate what role these techniques will ultimately play in the management of RCC. PMID:11394447

  12. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute interstitial nephritis Symptoms: Difficulty breathing • headache • numbness • oliguria Medication: Methylprednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasma exchange Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Case Report: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. Conclusions: This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  13. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...needle-type epilator is a device intended to destroy the dermal papilla of a hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric...

  14. Design of a Slender Tuned Ultrasonic Needle for Bone Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Rebecca; Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle, particularly focusing on design guidelines applicable for any slender tuned ultrasonic device component. Ultrasonic surgical devices are routinely used to cut a range of biological tissues, such as bone. However the realisation of an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle is particularly challenging. This is due to the requirement to generate sufficient vibrational amplitude capable of penetrating mineralised tissue, while avoiding flexural vibrational responses, which are known to reduce the performance and reliability of slender ultrasonic devices. This investigation uses finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the vibrational behaviour of a resonant needle which has dimensions that match closely to an 8Gx4inch bone marrow biopsy needle. Features of the needle, including changes in material and repeated changes in diameter, have been included and systematically altered to demonstrate that the location of and geometry of these features can significantly affect the resonant frequency of bending and torsional modes of vibration while having a limited effect on the frequency and shape of the tuned longitudinal mode. Experimental modal analysis was used to identify the modal parameters of the selected needle design, validating the FEA model predictions of the longitudinal mode and the close flexural modes. This verifies that modal coupling can be avoided by judicious small geometry modifications. Finally, the tuned needle assembly was driven under typical operational excitation conditions to demonstrate that an ultrasonic biopsy needle can be designed to operate in a purely longitudinal motion.

  15. [Influences of pine needles physiological properties on the PAH accumulation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Wen; Tian, Fu-Lin; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2008-07-01

    The lipid contents, specific surface areas and stomata density of two kinds of pine (Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii) needles were determined simultaneously with the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The influences of the physiological properties of two species on the accumulation of PAHs in pine needles were investigated. The PAH concentrations in Cedrus deodar needles are higher than that in Pinus thunbergii needles, and the average total PAH concentrations (PAHs) in two species are (1 101 +/- 692) ng/g and (518 +/- 339) ng/g, respectively. The capabilities of accumulating PAHs for two species are different. The lipid content is the principal factor influencing the levels of pine needle PAHs. In Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii needles, 3-ring (> 56%) and 4-ring (> 31%) PAHs make up large proportions of sigma PAHs. The accumulation capabilities of pine needles for 3-ring PAHs are greater than 4-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-ring PAHs are about two times of those of 4-ring PAHs. There are no significant correlations between the levels of 5- and 6-ring PAHs and lipid contents for two species. For two species, the correlations between lipid contents and specific surface areas are different, which results in the contrary correlations between the PAH levels and specific surface areas for Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii. Specific surface areas and stomata density affect the levels of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in pine needles significantly. PMID:18828394

  16. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  17. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  18. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle-type epilator. 878.5350 Section 878.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type...

  19. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  20. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  1. Phase ordering of hard needles on a quasicrystalline substrate.

    PubMed

    Kählitz, Philipp; Stark, Holger

    2012-05-01

    Quasicrystals possess long-range positional and orientational order. However, they cannot be periodic in space due to their non-crystallographic symmetries such as a 10-fold rotational axis. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional hard-needle systems subject to a quasiperiodic substrate potential. We determine phase diagrams as a function of density and potential strength for two needle lengths. With increasing potential strength short needles tend to form isolated clusters that display directional order along the decagonal directions. Long needles create interacting clusters that stabilize the nematic phase. At large potential strengths the clusters position themselves on two interwoven Fibonacci sequences perpendicular to the cluster orientation. Alternatively, one obtains extended domains of needle clusters which are aligned along all decagonal symmetry directions. PMID:22583263

  2. Final destination of an ingested needle: the liver.

    PubMed

    Bulakç?, Mesut; Agayev, Ayaz; Yanar, Fatih; Sharifov, Rasul; Tavilo?lu, Korhan; Uçar, Adem

    2011-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in children, but it is also seen among adults. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without causing complications. Perforation of the gut by a foreign body, followed by migration of the foreign body to the liver is quite rare. Herein we report a case of inadvertent ingestion of a sewing needle that perforated the duodenum and migrated to the liver. The patient was monitored weekly with abdominal radiographs, but displacement of the needle could not be observed. At follow-up, right upper quadrant pain was noted. Two weeks later, computed tomography revealed that the needle was completely buried into the right lobe of the liver. Ultrasonographic examination successfully showed the extracapsular displacement of the needle. Eventually, laparoscopic removal of the needle was easily performed. PMID:20039235

  3. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department. PMID:26722162

  4. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  5. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  6. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. PMID:25601169

  7. Treatment of sarcoid granulomatous interstitial nephritis with adalimumab

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Roopali; Beaudet, Lisa; Moore, Jack; Mehta, Tulsi

    2009-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement which can cause renal failure through several different mechanisms. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is an important albeit less frequent cause of clinically significant renal disease. Herein, we present the case of a 46 year old woman with a history of sarcoidosis whom we evaluated for rapidly worsening kidney function and proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis. After therapy with adalimumab, her renal function improved with a significant reduction in proteinuria. Repeat kidney biopsy showed resolution of renal granulomata. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of granulomatous interstitial nephritis with adalimumab. PMID:25949311

  8. Experimental study of needle-tissue interaction forces: effect of needle geometries, insertion methods and tissue characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Li, Pan; Yu, Yan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-10-17

    A thorough understanding of needle-tissue interaction mechanics is necessary to optimize needle design, achieve robotically needle steering, and establish surgical simulation system. It is obvious that the interaction is influenced by numerous variable parameters, which are divided into three categories: needle geometries, insertion methods, and tissue characteristics. A series of experiments are performed to explore the effect of influence factors (material samples n=5 for each factor) on the insertion force. Data were collected from different biological tissues and a special tissue-equivalent phantom with similar mechanical properties, using a 1-DOF mechanical testing system instrumented with a 6-DOF force/torque (F/T) sensor. The experimental results indicate that three basic phases (deformation, insertion, and extraction phase) are existent during needle penetration. Needle diameter (0.7-3.2mm), needle tip (blunt, diamond, conical, and beveled) and bevel angle (10-85°) are turned out to have a great influence on insertion force, so do the insertion velocity (0.5-10mm/s), drive mode (robot-assisted and hand-held), and the insertion process (interrupted and continuous). Different tissues such as skin, muscle, fat, liver capsule and vessel are proved to generate various force cures, which can contribute to the judgement of the needle position and provide efficient insertion strategy. PMID:25169657

  9. Optical Flow-Based Tracking of Needles and Needle-Tip Localization Using Circular Hough Transform in Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2015-08-01

    Image-guided interventions have become the standard of care for needle-based procedures. The success of the image-guided procedures depends on the ability to precisely locate and track the needle. This work is primarily focused on 2D ultrasound-based tracking of a hollow needle (cannula) that is composed of straight segments connected by shape memory alloy actuators. An in-plane tracking algorithm based on optical flow was proposed to track the cannula configuration in real-time. Optical flow is a robust tracking algorithm that can easily run on a CPU. However, the algorithm does not perform well when it is applied to the ultrasound images directly due to the intensity variation in the images. The method presented in this work enables using the optical flow algorithm on ultrasound images to track features of the needle. By taking advantage of the bevel tip, Circular Hough transform was used to accurately locate the needle tip when the imaging is out-of-plane. Through experiments inside tissue phantom and ex-vivo experiments in bovine kidney, the success of the proposed tracking methods were demonstrated. Using the methods presented in this work, quantitative information about the needle configuration is obtained in real-time which is crucial for generating control inputs for the needle and automating the needle insertion. PMID:25503523

  10. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation. PMID:26062195

  11. Long term follow-up of patients with Cushing's disease treated by interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, L.M.; Richards, N.T.; Carr, D.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    The first 86 patients with Cushing's disease treated with interstitial irradiation (by needle implantation) as the sole therapy were reviewed. In the 82 patients who were reassessed 1 yr after treatment 63 (77%) achieved remission. This study comprises the outcome and complications in the 54 patients who had a remission and whom we were able to follow. The follow-up period ranged from 3-26 yr (mean, 10.5) from the time of remission. No instance of clinical or radiological relapse has occurred. Of these 54 patients, yttrium-90 alone was used in 32, of whom 12 (37%) required corticosteroid or T4 replacement therapy in a mean time of 3.5 months; in 7 of these 12 we elected to give an ablative dose. Gold-198 alone was used in 15 patients, of whom 7 (47%) developed hypopituitarism in a mean time of 76 months. Both isotopes were used in 7 patients. A diurnal serum cortisol rhythm was found in 28 of the 31 patients who were not receiving corticosteroid therapy. In 5 of the 7 patients with an initially abnormal pituitary fossa, serial radiological studies revealed remodelling in 3. There have been no complications in the last 17 years. Pituitary implantation with yttrium-90 is an effective alternative to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, with a high remission rate, no recurrence (as yet), no operative complications, and avoidance of hormone replacement in the majority.

  12. The Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon

    E-print Network

    of the relative defect concentration on the interstitial oxygen content [7,8]. While models involving interstitialThe Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon@ise.fhg.de Keywords: crystalline silicon, Czochralski, boron-oxygen defect, silicon interstitial Abstract. Oxygen

  13. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  14. A New Scheme for Curved Needle Segmentation in Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image guided needle insertion is the method of choice for a wide variety of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. When flexible needles are inserted in soft tissue, these needles generally follow a curved path. Segmenting the trajectory of the needles in ultrasound images will facilitate guiding them within the tissue. In this paper, a novel algorithm for curved needle segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound images is presented. The algorithm is based on the projection of a filtered 3D image onto a two-dimensional (2D) image. Detection of the needle in the resulting 2D image determines a surface on which the needle is located. The needle is then segmented on the surface. The proposed technique is able to detect needles without any previous assumption about the needle shape, or any a priori knowledge about the needle insertion axis line. PMID:20563242

  15. Neutral-carrier-based needle-type sensor for the determination of calcium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Hong, Daqing; Li, Yiyong; Lin, Zhihong; Ren, Shu

    2001-09-01

    Calcium ion is a very important messenger not only between cell and cell, but also in meridian main and collateral channels. A new neutral carrier PVC membrane based needle- type potential sensor was prepared, which shows a good selectivity for Ca2+. Response characteristics, pH, response time of sensor, other metal ions such as Mg2+, Na+, and K+ in measuring calcium ion were investigated. The resulting sensor has a liner range from 1.0 X 10-6 to 9.1 X 10-3 mol. L. The sensor will be used in the detection of Ca2+ in vivo in muscular tissues of the mice.

  16. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ?80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  18. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  19. Effects of interstitial flow on tumor cell migration

    E-print Network

    Polacheck, William J. (William Joseph)

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial flow is the convective transport of fluid through tissue extracellular matrix. This creeping fluid flow has been shown to affect the morphology and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, cancer cells, endothelial ...

  20. Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

    2012-07-01

    Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

  1. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  2. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  3. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment. PMID:25590006

  4. Relaxation of interstitials in spherical colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshal, D. S.; Myasnikova, A. E.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical colloidal crystals (CCs) self-assemble on the interface between two liquids. These 2D structures unconventionally combine local hexagonal order and spherical geometry. Nowadays CCs are actively studied by altering their structures. However, the statistical analysis of such experiments results is limited by uniqueness of self-assembled structures and their short lifetime. Here we perform numerical experiments to investigate pathways of CC structure relaxation after the intrusion of interstitial. The process is simulated in the frames of overdamped molecular dynamics method. The relaxation occurs due to interaction with extended topological defects (ETDs) mandatory induced in spherical CCs by their intrinsic Gaussian curvature. Types of relaxation pathways are classified and their probabilities are estimated in the low-temperature region. To analyze the structural changes during the relaxation we use a parent phase approach allowing us to describe the global organization of spherical order. This organization is preserved by only the most typical relaxation pathway resulting in filling one of vacancies integrated inside the ETD areas. In contrast with this pathway the other ones shift the ETDs centers and can strongly reconstruct the internal structure of ETDs. Temperature dependence of the relaxation processes and the mechanism of dislocation unbinding are discussed. Common peculiarities in relaxation of spherical structures and particular fragments of planar hexagonal lattice are found.

  5. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by Dioscorea quinqueloba

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of herbal medicine may be a risk factor for the development of kidney injury, as it has been reported to cause various renal syndromes. Dioscorea quinqueloba is a medicinal herb that is used as an alternative therapy for cardiovascular disease and various medical conditions. Case presentation A 52-year-old man was admitted with complaints of skin rash and burning sensation. He had ingested a raw extract of D. quinqueloba as a traditional remedy. Laboratory tests revealed the following values: absolute eosinophil count, 900/mm3; serum creatinine level, 2.7 mg/dL; and blood urea nitrogen, 33.0 mg/dL. The immunoglobulin E level was markedly increased at 1320.0 IU/mL. Urinalysis revealed a fractional excretion of sodium of 3.77%, protein 1+, and blood 3+. Histological examination of the renal biopsy specimen showed a diffusely edematous interstitium with infiltrates composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Conclusion Here, we present the first reported case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis following ingestion of D. quinqueloba associated with skin rash, eosinophilia, and increased plasma immunoglobulin E level. PMID:25186588

  6. Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Interstitial Hernia: Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Gallesio, J. M.; Schlottmann, F.; Sadava, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial hernias are a rare entity. Most of them are detected incidentally on imaging studies. We present a case of abdominal bowel obstruction secondary to interstitial hernia on the fifth postoperative day of an open incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and led to an accurate treatment avoiding a new laparotomy. In this case, prompt surgical decision based on clinical and CT scan findings allowed a mini-invasive approach with satisfactory outcome. PMID:26576315

  7. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device. PMID:12494285

  8. Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: similarity and difference.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Thomas; Sundaram, Baskaran; Khanna, Dinesh; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2014-02-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are increasingly recognized in patients with systemic diseases. Patients with early ILD changes may be asymptomatic. Features of ILD overlap among systemic diseases and with idiopathic variety. High-resolution computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing ILDs. Imaging features are often nonspecific. Therapy- and complication-related lung changes would pose difficulty in diagnosing and classifying an ILD. Biology and prognosis of secondary ILDs may differ between different disease-related ILDs and idiopathic variety. Combination of clinical features, serological tests, pulmonary and extrapulmonary imaging findings, and pathology findings may help to diagnose ILDs. PMID:24480141

  9. Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Micro-Needles for Rapid Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradley; Aria, Adrianus Indrat; Gat, Amir; Cosse, Julia; Montemayor, Lauren; Beizaie, Masoud; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    By catalyst patterning, bundles of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be assembled to create 2D arrays of hollow micro-needles with feature size as small as a few microns. For transdermal drug delivery, the most challenging mechanical requirement is to make the CNT micro-needle small enough so that delivery is painless yet large enough so that the micro-needle can achieve skin penetration. By taking advantage of capillary action and the nanoporosity of CNT bundles, we can wick high strength polymer into the inter-spacing between nanotubes to augment the stiffness of our micro-needles. For low viscous polymers, the large ratio between the micron sized center hole of the micro-needle and the nanopores of the surrounding CNT allow us to wick polymer through the nanotubes while maintaining an open central hole for drug transport. For a transdermal patch prototype with a delivery area less than 1cm x 1cm square, we can fabricate 50 CNT micro-needles that produces a total flow rate up to 100 uL/s with actuation pressure provided by a mere finger tap. From in vitro experiments, we will demonstrate that CNT micro-needles provide a much faster convective delivery of drugs than conventional topical diffusion based patches. We acknowledge Zcube s.r.l for their support of this work.

  11. Levels of extractable organohalogens in pine needles in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Diandou; Zhong, Weike; Deng, Linlin; Chai, Zhifang; Mao, Xueying

    2003-01-01

    Pine needles can accumulate organohalogens from the ambient air, which are, hence, able to serve as a biomonitor to evaluate the levels of organochlorinated contaminants in the atmospheric environment. Extractable organochlorine (EOCl), the most abundant of the extractable organohalogens (EOX) in environmental samples, has received much attention as a parameter for evaluation of total contamination levels of organochlorinated compounds (OCs). However, few data concerning EOCl in vegetation are available. In this study, we selected pine needles from 17 different areas in China as a sampling matrix to reflectthe regional distribution of OCs. EOX (EOX = EOCl + EOBr + EOI) were measured by instrument neutron activation analysis for their concentrations and distribution in pine needles. The concentrations of EOX were on the order of EOCl > EOBr > EOI. About 5-38% of EOCl remained as sulfuric acid-resistant organochlorine (EPOCl). The relatively high concentrations of EPOCl in pine needles from remote areas suggested that EPOCl mainly originated from long-range atmospheric transport and contaminated soil. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, aldrin, heptachlor, and chlordanes) to total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.3-5.2% and 1.4-19.8%, respectively, which implied that a major portion of the EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. The EPOX accumulation rates were preliminarily estimated under the natural condition, which suggested that the "young" needle accumulated EPOX more quickly than the "old" and more than 94% of EPOX was accumulated at the first year of pine needles. PMID:12542283

  12. Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

    2009-02-01

    Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:20431694

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  14. Characteristics of Children Who Undergo Intraosseous Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Patrick, Dana; Kantor, Elizabeth; Nolin, Cathy; Foley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is a standard of care for pediatric emergencies in the absence of conventional intravenous access. Intraosseous needles provide access for resuscitation fluids and medications and are often placed in the emergency department. However, there are no studies to date that describe the characteristics of pediatric IO needle recipients or their dispositions and outcomes. This study examined the characteristics and disposition of children following IO needle placement by prehospital and emergency room teams before being transported to a children's hospital. We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of pediatric patients who had an IO needle placed as a part of their transport care. Data was extracted from a Level 1 trauma tertiary care children's hospital transport database from 1993 to 2009. We measured diagnosis, insertion reason, insertion time (day vs. night shift), complications, and disposition of patients after IO needle placement. There were 143 eligible patients in the study; 65% were males. Mean patient's age was 1.2 years (range: 0.01-13 years). Intraosseous needles were placed most often for patients with cardiopulmonary compromise. Of the 143 patients transported, 53% (n = 76) were placed for no intravenous access and 34% (n = 49) were placed for nonperfusing rhythm. The majority of the IO needles were placed during the daytime (0700-1900 hr), and most patients experienced no complications (n = 67; 47%). However, of those who experienced a complication, 27% were due to infiltration of the IO needle. Of those admitted to hospital, 58% (n = 83) were ultimately discharged home. Intraosseous access provides a safe and reliable method for rapidly achieving a route for administration of medications, fluids and blood products. It is a lifesaving measure with most IO needles successfully placed by referring facilities prior to transport, with few reported complications. PMID:26509727

  15. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  16. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  17. Do active safety-needle devices cause spatter contamination?

    PubMed

    Roff, M; Basu, S; Adisesh, A

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to blood and body fluids is an occupational hazard in healthcare. Although the potential for blood-borne virus transmission through needlestick injury has been widely studied, the risk of this occurring through spatter contamination from safety-needle syringes is not well understood. This report examines this risk from three commonly used safety needles and suggests that this presents a new and significant hazard. Further work should be commissioned to quantify this hazard and determine which type of safety needle would minimize spatter contamination following syringe discharge and safety activation. PMID:24560976

  18. 3D steering of a flexible needle by visual servoing.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic control method for 3D steering of a beveled-tip flexible needle. The solution is based on a new duty-cycling control strategy that makes possible to control three degrees of freedom of the needle. A visual servoing control scheme using two orthogonal cameras observing a translucent phantom is then proposed to automatically steer a needle toward a 3D target point. Experimental results show a final positioning error of 0.4 mm and demonstrate the feasibility of this promising approach and its robustness to model errors. PMID:25333153

  19. Efficient needle plasma actuators for flow control and surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Portugal, Sherlie; Roy, Subrata

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a milliwatt class needle actuator suitable for plasma channels, vortex generation, and surface cooling. Electrode configurations tested for a channel configuration show 1400% and 300% increase in energy conversion efficiency as compared to conventional surface and channel corona actuators, respectively, generating up to 3.4 m/s air jet across the channel outlet. The positive polarity of the needle is shown to have a beneficial effect on actuator efficiency. Needle-plate configuration is demonstrated for improving cooling of a flat surface with a 57% increase in convective heat transfer coefficient. Vortex generation by selective input signal manipulation is also demonstrated.

  20. Design and fabrication of tri-axial capillary needles in flow focusing for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Ting; Feng, Hanxin; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents is significant for various biomedical applications. In this work we describe a novel method based on flow focusing geometry using tri-axial metallic capillary needles manufactured by a laser beam welding process. The tri-axial needle can be readily cleaned, assembled, and aligned. With this needle assembly, we develop a tri-axial capillary flow focusing device in which different combinations of liquids are focused in the core of a high-speed gas stream coflowing through a small orifice. Under appropriate working conditions, stable cone-jet configurations with three layers of liquids in an external gas stream can be obtained, resulting in multilayered microparticles with outer shell, middle layer, and inner core. The new design of tri-axial needles enables reliable encapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in biodegradable microcapsules with the enhanced size distribution, increased productivity, and improved drug-loading efficiency. Furthermore, in this method the outer and the middle shell fluids can be released to produce monodisperse microparticles at smaller scales which have potential applications in multi-modal imaging, drug delivery, material processing and biomedicine.

  1. [Quintessence of academician SHI Xue-min's acupoint needling method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Xing

    2008-10-01

    Under guidance of the traditional theories of acupuncture and modern knowledge of anatomy and in combination with his long-term clinical practice and clinical researches, academician SHI Xue-min formulates scien tific and strict acupuncture methods and corresponding quantitative requirement for the acupoints for treatment of stroke and relative diseases and symptoms, including patient's posture, doctor's posture, angle of needle insertion, manipulation, amount of arrival of qi, etc. Correct grasping these needling methods of acupoints is a key to learn and understand SHI Xue-min's Acupuncture Science and "Xingnao Kaiqiao" needling method and quantitative acu puncture manipulation theory. In this paper, SHI Xue-min's partial experiences on needling acupoints are introduced. PMID:18972733

  2. Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device...electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  4. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device...electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  5. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device...electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  6. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Needle-free drug delivery using shock wave techniques

    E-print Network

    Pavlov, Atanas (Atanas Ivanov)

    2006-01-01

    A recent advancement in the area of needle-free injection systems has been the development of devices capable of epidermal delivery of powder medications. These devices use high-pressure compressed gas to accelerate drug ...

  8. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  9. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  10. Image-guided Control of Flexible Bevel-Tip Needles.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

    2007-04-10

    Physicians perform percutaneous therapies in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of needle interventions. In this paper, we consider the possibility of automating the guidance of a flexible bevel-tip needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic kinematic model to develop a nonlinear observer-based controller. As a first step for control, we show that flexible needles can be automatically controlled to remain within a planar slice of tissue as they are inserted by a physician; our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. In the proposed controller, the distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used as a feedback signal. Numerical simulations demonstrate the stability and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty. We also present results from pilot physical experiments with phantom tissue under stereo image guidance. PMID:21359170

  11. Design of an endoscopic biopsy needle with flexural members

    E-print Network

    Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

    2006-01-01

    As a minimally invasive means of extracting a tissue sample from a patient, current endoscopic biopsy needles generally do not preserve tissue histology and often require multiple attempts to obtain a tissue sample. This ...

  12. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  13. [Research and thinking on needling sensation of acupoint Huantiao (GB 30)].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiejing; Han, Junying; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiuzhu; Wu, Jiulong; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-03-01

    Taken Huantiao (GB 30) as breakthrough point, acupuncture manipulations of generating various needling sensations by different physicians are sorted. Types of acupoint needling sensations and conducting directions after acupuncture and all kinds of factors that affect needling sensations are analyzed from new perspectives. It is considered that attention should be paid to acupoint location, postures of patients, manipulation methods, types of needling sensations, transmission lines and duration time of needling sensations, etc. PMID:26062197

  14. Needle Track Seeding of Primary and Secondary Liver Carcinoma After Percutaneous Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Garden, O. James

    1993-01-01

    Seeding of tumour in the needle track following percutaneous needle biopsy of liver neoplasms is rarely reported. We describe two such cases following the needle biopsy of an hepatocellular carcinoma and secondary colorectal carcinoma respectively. The risk of needle track recurrence of liver tumours should not be regarded as insignificant. The diagnosis of liver neoplasms may be achieved by non-invasive modalities, and their needle biopsy should be reserved for cases not amenable to surgical resection. PMID:8387809

  15. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  16. Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors

    PubMed Central

    Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs. PMID:19643014

  17. What's Next for Gastrointestinal Disorders: No Needles?

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Au, Andrew S; Dai, Si Yuan; Mozafari, Masoud; Prakash, Satya

    2016-01-10

    A myriad of pathologies affect the gastrointestinal tract, citing this affected area as a significant target for therapeutic intervention. One group of therapeutic agents, antisense and oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, offer a promising platform for treating a wide variety of diseases ranging from cancer to auto-immune diseases. Current delivery methods are carried out either systemically or locally into diseased areas, both of which involve needles. The challenge in orally administering this type of treatment lies in the complications that arise due to the vast environmental extremes found within the gastrointestinal tract, owing to the fact that, as the drug travels down the gastrointestinal tract, it is subjected to pH changes and interactions with bacteria and a variety of digestive and protective enzymes including proteases, DNAses, and RNAses. Overcoming these challenges to allow the practical application of these drugs is a priority that has invoked a multitude of research in the chemical, biological, and material sciences. In this review, we will address common gastrointestinal pathologies, the barriers to oral-based therapies and antisense-interfering technologies, the approaches that have already been applied for their delivery, and the current status of antisense drug therapy clinical trials for gastrointestinal-related disorders. PMID:26646543

  18. Comparison of the flow characteristics of irrigants with standard and Max-i-Probe needles.

    PubMed

    Devi, Arpana Arthi; Abbott, Paul V

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the direction and pattern of flow of irrigating solutions inside simulated root canals with different irrigation needles; and to determine whether different needle designs increase the likelihood of irrigating solution passing through the apical foramen. Two types of needles were compared: a standard needle with a bevel and an open end, and a needle with a side opening and closed rounded tip. Observations of irrigant flow within the canals indicated that the side-venting needle can be dangerous if the needle gauge is small and it reaches the full length of the canal, since this allowed irrigants to flow into the periapical area. With the standard needle, the fluid did not go beyond the tip of the needle when minimal irrigating pressure was employed. As the size of canal increased, the fluid did not extrude beyond the tip of both needles. However, if the needles bound in the canals, then the fluid was forced away from the needle tip, and the pressure applied to the syringe was directly proportional to the distance the fluid flowed away from the needle tip. Both side-venting and standard needles can be used for irrigation safely and effectively if a dynamic irrigation technique (moving the needle up and down inside the canals while irrigating) is employed. PMID:22827815

  19. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

  20. Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome type 4 with interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Kodai; Ichikado, Kazuya; Suga, Moritaka; Yoshioka, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding tendency, and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid-like material, with occasional development of interstitial pneumonia (IP). Nine genetically distinct subtypes of HPS are known in humans; IP develops primarily in types 1 and 4. Most reported cases of HPS with IP are type 1, and there are no published reports of type 4 in Japanese individuals. A 58-year-old man with congenital oculocutaneous albinism and progressive dyspnea for 1 month was admitted to our hospital. We administered high-dose corticosteroids on the basis of a diagnosis of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. Respiratory symptoms and the findings of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) showed improvement. He was diagnosed with HPS type 4 with interstitial pneumonia on the basis of gene analysis. He has been receiving pirfenidone for 1 year and his condition is stable. This is the first report on the use of pirfenidone for HPS with IP caused by a novel mutation in the HPS4 gene. We conclude that HPS should be suspected in patients with albinism and interstitial pneumonia. High-dose corticosteroid treatment may be useful in cases of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia due to HPS-4, and pirfenidone may be useful and well tolerated in patients with HPS-4. PMID:26029628

  1. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  2. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  3. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  4. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  5. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  6. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  7. From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2003-11-01

    Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

  8. A comparison of rust-ring removal methods in a rabbit model: small-gauge hypodermic needle versus electric drill.

    PubMed

    Liston, R L; Olson, R J; Mamalis, N

    1991-01-01

    Corneal rust rings are common findings after removal of a metallic foreign body. These rings should be removed to prevent inflammation and scarring. We compared the corneal damage in rabbit eyes caused by rust-ring removal using two different methods: a small-gauge hypodermic needle and a hand-held electric ophthalmic drill. No significant difference was found in the amount of corneal scarring as graded by a masked observer. However, there was a trend toward deeper stromal damage in the drill-treated subjects (207 +/- 73 microns) than in the needle-treated subjects (172 +/- 61 microns). In light of this finding, we suggest caution in removing central rust rings with an electric drill since an avoidable, permanent scar may result. PMID:2012370

  9. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal. PMID:7382928

  10. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  11. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine. PMID:18755523

  12. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  13. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  14. Numerical description of discharge characteristics of the plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Dijk, J. van; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-07-01

    The plasma needle is a small atmospheric, nonthermal, radio-frequency discharge, generated at the tip of a needle, which can be used for localized disinfection of biological tissues. Although several experiments have characterized various qualities of the plasma needle, discharge characteristics and electrical properties are still not well known. In order to provide initial estimates on electrical properties and quantities such as particle densities, we employed a two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model to describe the plasma needle. In this model the balance equation is solved in the drift-diffusion approach for various species and the electron energy, as well as Poisson's equation. We found that the plasma production occurs in the sheath region and results in a steady flux of reactive species outwards. Even at small (<0.1%) admixtures of N{sub 2} to the He background, N{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. The electron density is typically 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and the dissipated power is in the order of 10 mW. These results are consistent with the experimental data available and can give direction to the practical development of the plasma needle.

  15. Surgical motion characterization in simulated needle insertion procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Matthew S.; Ungi, Tamas; Sargent, Derek; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of surgical performance in image-guided needle insertions is of emerging interest, to both promote patient safety and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Markov model-based algorithm can more accurately segment a needle-based surgical procedure into its five constituent tasks than a simple threshold-based algorithm. METHODS: Simulated needle trajectories were generated with known ground truth segmentation by a synthetic procedural data generator, with random noise added to each degree of freedom of motion. The respective learning algorithms were trained, and then tested on different procedures to determine task segmentation accuracy. In the threshold-based algorithm, a change in tasks was detected when the needle crossed a position/velocity threshold. In the Markov model-based algorithm, task segmentation was performed by identifying the sequence of Markov models most likely to have produced the series of observations. RESULTS: For amplitudes of translational noise greater than 0.01mm, the Markov model-based algorithm was significantly more accurate in task segmentation than the threshold-based algorithm (82.3% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001 for amplitude 10.0mm). For amplitudes less than 0.01mm, the two algorithms produced insignificantly different results. CONCLUSION: Task segmentation of simulated needle insertion procedures was improved by using a Markov model-based algorithm as opposed to a threshold-based algorithm for procedures involving translational noise.

  16. A case of psychosis induced self-insertion of intracranial hypodermic needles causing seizures

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Arjun S.; Honeybul, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Self-insertion of foreign bodies is a rare event. This report details a 56-year-old male who had self-inserted six hypodermic needles into his left frontal lobe 6 years previously. He subsequently presented with seizures and went on to have the needles surgically removed. This represents the first case of its type involving hypodermic needles. Given that intracranial needles are a rare finding, the management of such patients is complex. Two management issues in particular that require consideration are: (i) can the needles be left in situ and (ii) does removal of the needles reduce the risk of seizures in the long term? PMID:25600130

  17. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.

  18. Image-based tracking of the suturing needle during laparoscopic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kroehnert, A.; Bodenstedt, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most complex and difficult tasks for surgeons during minimally invasive interventions is suturing. A prerequisite to assist the suturing process is the tracking of the needle. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for needle tracking. In this paper, we present an image-based method for markerless needle tracking. The method uses a color-based and geometry-based segmentation to detect the needle. Once an initial needle detection is obtained, a region of interest enclosing the extracted needle contour is passed on to a reduced segmentation. It is evaluated with in vivo images from da Vinci interventions.

  19. Robotic Ultrasound and Needle Guidance for Prostate Cancer Management: Review of the Contemporary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Stoianovici, Dan; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent advances in needle guidance and robotic ultrasound technology which are used for prostate cancer diagnosis and management. Recent findings Prostate biopsy technology has remained relatively unchanged. Improved needle localization and precision would allow for better management of this common disease. Robotic ultrasound and needle guidance is one strategy to improve needle localization and diagnostic accuracy of PCa. This review focuses on recent advances in robotic ultrasound and needle guidance technologies and their potential impact on prostate cancer diagnosis and management Summary The use of robotic ultrasound and robotic-assisted needle guidance has the potential to improve prostate cancer diagnosis and management. PMID:24257431

  20. Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Resende, T.; Balan, T.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Bouvier, S.; Sablin, S.-S.

    2010-06-01

    With a view to environmental, economic and safety concerns, car manufacturers need to design lighter and safer vehicles in ever shorter development times. In recent years, High Strength Steels (HSS) like Interstitial Free (IF) steels which have higher ratios of yield strength to elastic modulus, are increasingly used for sheet metal parts in automotive industry to meet the demands. Moreover, the application of sheet metal forming simulations has proven to be beneficial to reduce tool costs in the design stage and to optimize current processes. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is quite successful to simulate metal forming processes but accuracy largely depends on the quality of the material properties provided as input to the material model. Common phenomenological models roughly consist in the fitting of functions on experimental results and do not provide any predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Therefore, the use of accurate plasticity models based on physics would increase predictive capability, reduce parameter identification cost and allow for robust and time-effective finite element simulations. For this purpose, a 3D physically based model at large strain with dislocation density evolution approach was presented in IDDRG2009 by the authors [1]. This model allows the description of work-hardening's behavior for different loading paths (i.e. uni-axial tensile, simple shear and Bauschinger tests) taking into account several data from microstructure (i.e. grain size, texture, etc…). The originality of this model consists in the introduction of microstructure data in a classical phenomenological model in order to achieve work-hardening's predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Indeed, thanks to a microstructure parameter set for an Interstitial Free steel, it is possible to describe work-hardening behavior for different loading paths of other IF steels by only changing the mean grain size and the chemical composition. During sheet metal forming processes local material points may experience multi-axial and multi-path loadings. Before simulating actual industrial parts, automotive manufacturers use validation tools—e.g. the Cross-Die stamping test. Such typical stamping tests enable the evaluation of a complex distribution of strains. The work described is an implementation [2] of a 3D dislocation based model in ABAQUS/Explicit and its validation on a Finite Element (FE) Cross-Die model. In order to assess the performance and relevance of the 3D dislocation based model in the simulation of industrial forming applications, the results of thinning profiles predicted along several directions and the strain distribution were obtained and compared with experimental results for IF steels with grain sizes varying in the 8-22 ?m value range.

  1. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Sampling in Cytological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pinki, Pandey; Alok, Dixit; Ranjan, Aggarwal; Nanak Chand, Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established out- patient procedure used in primary diagnosis of palpable thyroid lesions. A modified technique fine needle capillary sampling (FNCS) obviates the need of suction, is less painful, patient friendly and reported to overcome the problem of inadequate and bloody specimens. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and quality of FNCS with that of conventional FNAC in the lesions of thyroid. Methods: One hundred patients, presenting between January 2011 to December 2012 at Cytopathology Department of M M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, with diffuse and nodular thyroid lesions were enrolled with both the techniques being executed on the patients, beginning with FNA followed by FNCS. The smears were scored using five objective parameters i.e. background blood, cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, in a single blind setting by a cyto-pathologist. The results were analyzed using Student’s test for paired data and chi- square analysis. Results: A highly significant differences (P<0.001) in favor of FNCS was observed for the background blood, cellular material and retention of architecture while total score favored FNA for cellular degeneration and degree of cellular trauma. Total scores and average score per case for FNCS was significantly better (P<0.001) than FNA. FNCS technique yielded more diagnostically superior and lesser number of unsatisfactory smears whereas greater number of diagnostically adequate samples was obtained by FNA technique. Conclusion: FNCS offers more number of diagnostically better quality smears. Both techniques could be supplementary on many occasions and substitutive on a few. Combination of the two techniques could offer better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26516325

  2. Interstitial pulmonary disorders in indium-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Taguchi, O; Omae, K

    2007-02-01

    The production of indium-tin oxide has increased, owing to the increased manufacture of liquid-crystal panels. It has been reported that interstitial pneumonia occurred in two indium-processing workers; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether interstitial pulmonary disorders were prevalent among indium workers. The study was carried out in 108 male workers in the indium plant where the two interstitial pneumonia patients mentioned above were employed, and included high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, pulmonary function tests and analysis of serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 and the serum indium concentration. Significant interstitial changes were observed in 23 indium workers on HRCT and serum KL-6 was abnormally high (>500 U x mL(-1)) in 40 workers. Workers with serum indium concentrations in the highest quartile had significantly longer exposure periods, greater HRCT changes, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and higher KL-6 levels compared with those in the lowest quartile. The serum indium concentration was positively correlated with the KL-6 level and with the degree of HRCT changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that serum KL-6 and high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities were prevalent among indium workers and that these abnormalities increased with the indium burden, suggesting that inhaled indium could be a potential cause of occupational lung disease. PMID:17050566

  3. Interstitial oxygen imaging from thermal donor growth--A fast photoluminescence based method

    E-print Network

    interstitial oxygen concentration maps from resistivity calibrated photoluminescence images prior to and after. The determina- tion of interstitial oxygen concentrations from thermal donor concentrations is based sample with an interstitial oxygen concentration in the range of 7.5 Â 1017 cmÀ3 and yields good

  4. Biocompatible optical needle array for antibacterial blue light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Caio; An, Jeesoo; Humar, Matjaz; Goth, Will; Yun, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Biocompatible Optical Needle Array (BONA) is showing to be a powerful tool complementing the novel antibacterial blue light therapy. BONA is able to deliver light to deeper skin tissue layers successfully as shown in experiments. In this study, we will discuss BONA's design, mechanical and optical properties, production method, plus propose improvements to optimize it all. A special skin phantom with photosensitizer was developed in order to investigate how light is delivered inside the tissue. The phantom shows the light scattering pattern through photobleach, allowing us to determine length, thickness and spacing between needles. Other quantitative optical properties as penetration depth were determined using a different phantom (using PDMS). Mechanical properties as needle resistance were determined using one axis of a custom biaxial tensile strain device. The results led us to conclude that besides the great results, there is still room for improvements regarding tip sharpness and manufacturing time and cost, which would be solved with the enhanced fabrication method proposed.

  5. On the measured current in needle- and needleless electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Yener, Fatma; Yalcinkaya, Baturalp; Jirsak, Oldrich

    2013-07-01

    The electric current was measured during needle-, rod- and roller electrospinning. The influence of the needle diameter, flow rate, protrusion needle length, and relative humidity on the current was studied using various polymer solutions. The results of Bhattacharjee et al. were confirmed in the experiments with polyethylene oxide solutions. Electrospinning from a droplet of a polymer solution placed on a steel rod confirmed the expected direct proportionality between the number of jets and the current. By measuring the current and the polymer throughput during roller electrospinning while simultaneously recording the process on a camera, the following process characteristics were found: the number of jets per spinning surface area, throughput per jet, total current, current per jet, and distance between Taylor cones on the surface of the spinning roller. PMID:23901489

  6. Unnoticed biloma due to liver puncture after Veress needle insertion

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; Reguera-Rosal, Julio; Padillo-Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Ramírez-Plaza, César Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become more widespread in the last years. Creating the pneumoperitoneum is the first surgical procedure but it is still responsible for many of the adverse events described in this field. Until now, liver puncture producing a delayed biloma has not been described. We present a case where a biloma was developed after liver puncture by the Veress needle, during a laparoscopic procedure, and detected on the 3rd day. It was detected by CT scan and treated by laparoscopy. Biloma due to Veress needle is a new entity in the context of adverse events related to Veress needle insertion, which needs a high suspicious index. We recommend to do Palmer's test and to check the insertion and to look for possible lesions below with the camera in order to minimize incidence of such injuries. Should this happen, laparoscopic or percutaneous drainage are both suitable alternatives to solve this complication.

  7. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  8. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-04-24

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  9. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-01-01

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  10. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles. PMID:21593348

  11. Highly Coherent Electron Beam from a Laser-Triggered Tungsten Needle Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehberger, Dominik; Hammer, Jakob; Eisele, Max; Krüger, Michael; Noe, Jonathan; Högele, Alexander; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We report on a quantitative measurement of the spatial coherence of electrons emitted from a sharp metal needle tip. We investigate the coherence in photoemission triggered by a near-ultraviolet laser with a photon energy of 3.1 eV and compare it to dc-field emission. A carbon nanotube is brought into close proximity to the emitter tip to act as an electrostatic biprism. From the resulting electron matter wave interference fringes, we deduce an upper limit of the effective source radius both in laser-triggered and dc-field emission mode, which quantifies the spatial coherence of the emitted electron beam. We obtain (0.80 ±0.05 ) nm in laser-triggered and (0.55 ±0.02 ) nm in dc-field emission mode, revealing that the outstanding coherence properties of electron beams from needle tip field emitters are largely maintained in laser-induced emission. In addition, the relative coherence width of 0.36 of the photoemitted electron beam is the largest observed so far. The preservation of electronic coherence during emission as well as ramifications for time-resolved electron imaging techniques are discussed.

  12. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  13. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  14. Needle tract seeding following percutaneous biopsy of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Hariom; Lozinskiy, Mikhail; Wallace, David M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man underwent computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of a suspicious renal mass. Two months later he underwent partial nephrectomy. Histology revealed a 30-mm clear cell renal cell carcinoma, up to Fuhrman grade 3. An area of the capsule was interrupted, which corresponded to a hemorrhagic area on the cortical surface. Under microscopy, this area showed a tongue of tumor tissue protruding through the renal capsule. A tumor deposit was found in the perinephric fat. These features suggest that tumor seeding may have occurred during the needle biopsy. PMID:26366280

  15. Characteristics of pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner

    E-print Network

    Fang, Liane Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The motivation behind this report was to develop a stronger understanding of pine needle combustion behavior in a semi-gasifier, in order to ultimately design an effective pine needle cook stove for people in the developing ...

  16. A Lorentz-force actuated controllable needle-free drug delivery system

    E-print Network

    Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of delivering injections via needle-free methods are numerous. However, conventional methods for needle-free injection lack sufficient control over depth of penetration and shape of injection. Thus, a ...

  17. A shield ring enhanced equilateral hexagon distributed multi-needle electrospinning spinneret

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Markus

    The multi-needle electrospinning system is a convenient way to produce fibers with special structures such as core-shell morphologies at a high production rate. In this paper, a specially designed multi-needle electrospinning ...

  18. Experimental analysis of stove top designs for pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner

    E-print Network

    Roqué, Alyssa J

    2011-01-01

    The motivation behind this project was to develop a better understanding of the role that the stove top plays in a stove where pine needles are the main fuel source. Pine needles have distinct characteristics in their ...

  19. Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms

    E-print Network

    State, Andrei

    Augmented Reality Guidance for Needle Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Phantoms Michael-guided needle biopsy to biopsies performed using a 3D Augmented Reality (AR) guidance system. Fifty core for augmented reality, p

  20. Micro-Biocidal Activity of Yeast Cells by Needle Plasma Irradiation at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Taima, Tomohito; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    In this study, we report on the biocidal activity technique by needle helium plasma irradiation at atmospheric pressure using borosilicate capillary nozzle to apply for the oral surgery. The diameter of needle plasma was less than 50?µm, and temperature of plasma irradiated area was less than body temperature. Needle plasma showed emission due to OH and O radical. Raman spectra and methylene blue stain showed yeast cells were inactivated by needle plasma irradiation.

  1. A Fatal Case of Cervical Hemorrhage After Fine Needle Aspiration and Core Needle Biopsy of the Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Yasuhiro; Idota, Nozomi; Nakamura, Mami; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) are recognized to be safe, useful, and inexpensive diagnostic tools for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. However, complications can arise during the procedure, albeit rarely and typically minor in nature. We report here an unusual fatal case of massive hematoma of the neck after FNA and CNB that may have caused airway obstruction. A 68-year-old Japanese woman underwent both procedures and was found dead at home later the same day. Although severe complications of FNA or CNB such as major bleeds or deaths are rarely reported, clinicians and forensic pathologists should be cognizant that complications can arise. PMID:26266891

  2. Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy: A Proposal of the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Min, Hye Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jang Hee; Park, So Yeon; Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In recent years throughout Korea, the use of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has become common for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, there is no consensus on the pathology reporting system for thyroid CNB. The Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Study Group held a conference on thyroid CNB pathology and developed guidelines through contributions from the participants. This article discusses the outcome of the discussions that led to a consensus on the pathology reporting of thyroid CNB. PMID:26081825

  3. First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

    2011-05-01

    He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

  4. Site occupancy of interstitial deuterium atoms in face-centred cubic iron

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Akihiko; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami; Endo, Naruki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Iizuka, Riko; Sato, Toyoto; Matsuo, Motoaki; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Aoki, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen composition and occupation state provide basic information for understanding various properties of the metal–hydrogen system, ranging from microscopic properties such as hydrogen diffusion to macroscopic properties such as phase stability. Here the deuterization process of face-centred cubic Fe to form solid-solution face-centred cubic FeDx is investigated using in situ neutron diffraction at high temperature and pressure. In a completely deuterized specimen at 988?K and 6.3?GPa, deuterium atoms occupy octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites with an occupancy of 0.532(9) and 0.056(5), respectively, giving a deuterium composition x of 0.64(1). During deuterization, the metal lattice expands approximately linearly with deuterium composition at a rate of 2.21?Å3 per deuterium atom. The minor occupation of the tetrahedral site is thermally driven by the intersite movement of deuterium atoms along the ‹111› direction in the face-centred cubic metal lattice. PMID:25256789

  5. A systematic approach to fabricate high aspect ratio silicon micro-needles for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. B.; Shearwood, C.

    2007-12-01

    The successful development of micro-needles can help transport drugs and vaccines both effectively and painlessly across the skin. However, not all micro-needles are strong enough to withstand the insertion forces and viscoelasticity of the skin. The work here focuses on the micro-fabrication of high aspect ratio needles with careful control of needle-profile using dry etching technologies. Silicon micro-needles, 150?m in length with base-diameters ranging from 90 to 240?m have been investigated in this study. A novel, multiple-sacrificial approach has been demonstrated as suited to the fabrication of long micro-needle bodies with positive profiles. The parameters that control the isotropic etching are adjusted to control the ratio of the needle-base diameter to needle length. By careful control of geometry, the needle profile can be engineered to give a suitable tip size for penetration, as well as a broad needle base to facilitate the creation of either single or multiple-through holes. This approach allows the mechanical properties of the otherwise brittle needles to be optimized. Finite element analysis indicates that the micro-needles will fracture prematurely due to buckling, with forces ranging from 10 to 30mN.

  6. Calibration of a needle tracking device with fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. Mandal, Koushik; Parent, Francois; Martel, Sylvain; Kashyap, Raman; Kadoury, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Accurate needle placement is essential in percutaneous procedures such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors. Use of real-time navigation of an interventional needle can improve targeting accuracy and yield precise measurements of the needle tip inside the body. An emerging technology based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors has demonstrated the potential of estimating shapes at high frequencies (up to 20 kHz), fast enough for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a calibration procedure for this novel needle tracking technology using strain measurements obtained from fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Three glass fibers equipped with two FBGs each were incorporated into a 19G needle. The 3D needle shape is reconstructed based on a polynomial fitting of strain measurements obtained from the fibers. The real-time information provided by the needle tip position and shape allows tracking of the needle deflections during tissue insertion. An experimental setup was designed to yield a calibration that is insensitive to ambient temperature fluctuations and robust to slight external disturbances. We compare the shape of the 3D reconstructed needle to measurements obtained from camera images, as well as assess needle tip tracking accuracy on a ground-truth phantom. Initial results show that the tracking errors for the needle tip are under 1mm, while 3D shape deflections are minimal near the needle tip. The accuracy is appropriate for applications such as RFA of liver tumors.

  7. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11079 Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11079 Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle Antoine Loquet1 using a type III secretion system (T3SS)1,2 to manipulate host cells cause many different infections of the resulting needle-like filaments (Supplemen- tary Fig. 1b) agrees with that of T3SS needles from natural

  8. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  9. Factors influencing limit values for pine needle litter decomposition: a synthesis for boreal and temperate pine

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Factors influencing limit values for pine needle litter decomposition: a synthesis for boreal of pine (Pinus) needle litter in pine forests to determine the litter chemical characteristics and climate studies on decomposition of pine needle litter, spanning Scots pine, lodgepole pine, Aleppo pine, stone

  10. Self-Inserted Needles in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Marco; Guidi, Benedetta; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Emdin, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Cardiac injuries due to penetration by sharp foreign bodies usually have a clear clinical presentation. A case of a 38-year-old man with self-inserted cardiac lesions and a misleading presentation is reported. The patient was admitted to the emergency room because of chest pain, with increase in biomarkers of myocardial necrosis, and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities inducing initial diagnostic and therapeutic workup of acute coronary syndrome. Once clinical destabilization followed by death had occurred, the suspicion of an alternative diagnosis came from delayed chest radiography, confirmed by autopsy, revealing the presence of multiple metallic objects within the thorax. PMID:26277296

  11. Sharps legislation and assessment of needle protection systems.

    PubMed

    Wright, Paul; Caughey, Gary; Antoniou, Sotiris

    Needlestick injuries (NSIs) carry the potential for transmission of serious blood-borne infections and pose a significant risk to patients and healthcare staff. These infections come with an estimated cost of £300 million per year in the UK (Saia et al, 2010). An EU directive mandated in May of 2013 has sought to minimise the risk of NSI though the introduction of needle-protection systems. The authors of this article set out to assess nursing knowledge of this legislation and ascertain which needle-protection systems for low-molecular weight heparin/anti Xa (for subcutaneous administration) were preferred in a large teaching trust. Approximately half of the nurses questioned had some knowledge of the legislation and almost all agreed that there is a need for needle protection systems. All four devices tested meet requirements for the legislation but the preferred devices were the needle protection system for enoxaparin and fondaparinux with a self-sheathing style device after activation. PMID:24464057

  12. CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    . Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 1997;81:129­35. 1997 American Cancer Society. KEYWORDS: breast, fine into two categories: 1) ``indeterminate'' and 1997 American Cancer Society / 7303$$1018 03-26-97 11129 CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY Indeterminate Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Breast Image Analysis

  13. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg methods based on linear programming that were applicable to breast cancer diagnosis and prognostic), and 2) improve breast cancer prognostic estimations. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA to diagnose breast

  14. Protect Yourself, Protect Others: Safe Options for Home Needle Disposal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Air Travel Before you fly, check the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Web site ( www.tsa.gov) for up-to-date rules on what to do with your needles when you travel. To make your trip through airport security easier, make sure your medicines are labeled with ...

  15. A Computer Based Simulator for Ultrasound Guided Needle Insertion Procedures

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    Keywords: simulation, registration, calibration, ultrasound- guidance, needle-insertion Abstract A system. Kessel2 1 School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK 2 St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK in interventional radiology, currently acquired on an apprenticeship basis. The system is designed to improve

  16. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...to destroy the dermal papilla of a hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted...under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current,...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to destroy the dermal papilla of a hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted...under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current,...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...to destroy the dermal papilla of a hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted...under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current,...

  19. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to destroy the dermal papilla of a hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted...under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current,...

  20. [Renal needle biopsy under echography. Apropos of 413 examinations].

    PubMed

    Desrentes, M; Eynard, J P; Konde, L; Ba, A A; Morcillo, J L; Favre, Y

    1990-01-01

    Blindly executed for a long period with only X-ray detection, renal biopsy benefits nowadays of precision and security of real-time echoguiding. The authors describe their technique without bondage between needle and transducer and comment their results about 413 examinations. PMID:2131183

  1. Needle sharing in The Netherlands: an ethnographic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, J P; Kaplan, C D; Adriaans, N F

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Needle sharing has been reported to be the main cause of the rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting drug users. Risk behaviors such as needle sharing are, however, the end result of complicated interaction patterns in drug user networks, which have their specific rules and rituals, and larger social structures and official drug policy. METHODS. To study these interaction patterns we examined the drug administration rituals of heroin addicts in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intensive ethnographic descriptions were collected by participant observation. RESULTS. In less than 10% of the observed self-injections unsafe syringes were used. In 68% of the self-injections new, sterile syringes were used. Needle sharing as a planned sequence was not observed. Sharing was determined primarily by the availability of syringes, experience with the injecting ritual, and drug craving. In all observed needle-sharing events, subjects were aware of the risks involved and undertook efforts to clean the injection equipment. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to psychological approaches aimed at reducing individual "risk behavior," these findings suggest that HIV prevention can be made more effective if active drug injectors are organized to help themselves and their peers prevent high-risk exchange situations. PMID:1746657

  2. Needle-Exchange Program Curbed HIV Spread, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154470.html Needle-Exchange Program Curbed HIV Spread, Study Finds Washington, D.C.-based effort also saved $44 ...

  3. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  4. Indentation and needle insertion properties of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. Methods An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. Results The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (P<0.001). Needle insertion through the anterior sclera (adjacent to the limbus) and posterior sclera (adjacent to the optic nerve) required the greatest amount of force (0.954 and 1.005?N, respectively). The force required to penetrate the central cornea (0.518?N) was significantly lower than all other areas except the midline sclera (0.700?N) Conclusion These data form the basis for further research into the development of a tissue-mimicking human eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching. PMID:24810571

  5. Radioactive Needlework Reconstruction of needle-positions in radiation treatment

    E-print Network

    Hochstenbach, Michiel

    Radioactive Needlework Reconstruction of needle-positions in radiation treatment Claude Archer1 University, 5: Universiteit Leiden 103 #12;104 Radioactive Needlework Figure 5.1: Position of the device in the desired positions. The radioactive decay of the used iodine or palladium seeds is such that in half a year

  6. Robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, Joachim; Kronreif, Gernot

    2015-02-01

    Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance -- even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions. PMID:25421786

  7. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  12. Piezoelectric control of needle-free transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; von Muhlen, Marcio G; Li, Thomas H; Jalilian, Laleh; Parekh, Sapun H; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2007-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery occurs primarily through hypodermic needle injections, which cause pain, require a trained administrator, and may contribute to the spread of disease. With the growing number of pharmaceutical therapies requiring transdermal delivery, an effective, safe, and simple needle-free alternative is needed. We present and characterize a needle-free jet injector that employs a piezoelectric actuator to accelerate a micron-scale stream of fluid (40-130 microm diameter) to velocities sufficient for skin penetration and drug delivery (50-160 m/s). Existing jet injectors, powered by compressed springs and gases, are not widely used due to painful injections and poor reliability in skin penetration depth and dose. In contrast, our device offers electronic control of the actuator expansion rate, resulting in direct control of jet velocity and thus the potential for more precise injections. We apply a simple fluid-dynamic model to predict the device response to actuator expansion. Further, we demonstrate that injection parameters including expelled volume, jet pressure, and penetration depth in soft materials vary with actuator expansion rate, but are highly coupled. Finally, we discuss how electronically-controlled jet injectors may enable the decoupling of injection parameters such as penetration depth and dose, improving the reliability of needle-free transdermal drug delivery. PMID:17884231

  13. Technical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen

    Technical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for Enhancing Ultrasound) were customized by adhering in place two piezoelectric actuators. These created 1­8 kHz vibrations when coupled to a function generator (FG502, Tektro- nix, Richardson, TX) and a 100 W audio amplifier (R3000

  14. Sensorimotor Learning of Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Using Visual Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lim, Jinwoong; Lee, In-Seon; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Humans can acquire a wide variety of motor skills using sensory feedback pertaining to discrepancies between intended and actual movements. Acupuncture needle manipulation involves sophisticated hand movements and represents a fundamental skill for acupuncturists. We investigated whether untrained students could improve their motor performance during acupuncture needle manipulation using visual feedback (VF). Methods Twenty-one untrained medical students were included, randomly divided into concurrent (n = 10) and post-trial (n = 11) VF groups. Both groups were trained in simple lift/thrusting techniques during session 1, and in complicated lift/thrusting techniques in session 2 (eight training trials per session). We compared the motion patterns and error magnitudes of pre- and post-training tests. Results During motion pattern analysis, both the concurrent and post-trial VF groups exhibited greater improvements in motion patterns during the complicated lifting/thrusting session. In the magnitude error analysis, both groups also exhibited reduced error magnitudes during the simple lifting/thrusting session. For the training period, the concurrent VF group exhibited reduced error magnitudes across all training trials, whereas the post-trial VF group was characterized by greater error magnitudes during initial trials, which gradually reduced during later trials. Conclusions Our findings suggest that novices can improve the sophisticated hand movements required for acupuncture needle manipulation using sensorimotor learning with VF. Use of two types of VF can be beneficial for untrained students in terms of learning how to manipulate acupuncture needles, using either automatic or cognitive processes. PMID:26406248

  15. Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-03-01

    A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

  16. Dielectric Barrier Discharges in Helium at Atmospheric Pressure: Experiments and Model in the Needle-Plane Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Ion; Bartnikas, Raymond; Wertheimer, Michael

    2002-10-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical modeling study of "dielectric barrier discharges" (DBD) at atmospheric pressure in a needle-plane configuration. Synchronous, Ultra High Speed Imaging (UHSI, using a Princeton Instruments PI-MAX 512RB Digital ICCD Camera System) and real-time dual detection (optical-electrical) diagnostics have been carried out in a flow of He. A phase-resolved synchronizing circuit was used to trigger the ICCD camera's shutter for durations varying from 2 ns up to 100 ms. All diagnostics, including the PI-MAX images, could be precisely synchronized and processed on a PC computer. The high voltage electrode was a steel needle with a sharp point of precisely-machined radius, while a thin (1.6 mm) ceramic (Al2O3) plate with a metallized bottom surface was used as the ground electrode. Three different situations have been studied, namely (i) the bare Al2O3, and with an ultra-thin coatings of (ii) graphite (a semiconductor) or (iii) metal, the latter two at floating potential. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate possible effects of surface charging on the discharge behavior [1]. The axial [y(t)] and radial [x(t)] time evolutions of the discharge have been measured by UHSI, plotted, and found to differ very significantly among cases (i) to (iii). In the needle-plane configuration (like in the plane-plane case), the DBD is characterized by a single pulse per half-period of the applied voltage. A two-dimensional model of the needle-plane discharge, based upon the continuity equations for electrons, ions, excited particles, and the Poisson equation, is developed; it assumes a low degree of ionization, so that the transport coefficients of the gas are uniquely determined by the local electric field [2]. In order to determine the electric field and the electrical potential in the (hyperboloidal) needle-plane geometry, the finite element method is used. We have found excellent agreement between measured and calculated [y(t)] and [x(t)] data, indicating that surface charge density and -distribution greatly influence the discharge events while they evolve across the gap space. [1] Nikonov V., Bartnikas R., and Wertheimer M.R., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 29 (2001) 866. [2] Novak J.P., and Bartnikas R., J. Appl. Phys. 62 (1987) 3605.

  17. In vivo sampling of Verteporfin uptake in pancreas cancer xenograft models: comparison of surface, oral, and interstitial measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, Martin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Mosse, Sandy; Pereira, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Verteporfin is being investigated as a pancreatic cancer treatment in the cases for non-surgical candidates. Tissue response to PDT is based on a number of parameters including photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose and time interval between light application and PS injection. In this study, PS uptake and distribution in animal leg muscle, oral cavity tissues, pancreas and tumor was measured in vivo using light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) via an Aurora Optics Inc. PDT fluorescence dosimeter. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (AsPC-1) was implanted in SCID mice and treated with the PS. Probe measurements were made using a surface probe and an interstitial needle probe before and up to one hour after intravenous tail vein injection of the PS. The study demonstrated that it is possible to correlate in-vivo LIFS measurements of the PS uptake in the pancreas with measurements taken from the oral cavity indicating that light dosimetry of PDT of the pancreas can be ascertained from the LIFS measurements in the oral cavity. These results emphasize the importance of light dosimetry in improving the therapeutic outcome of PDT through light dose adaptation to the relative in situ tissue PS concentration.

  18. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D; Golubov, Stanislav I; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  19. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-09-26

    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. PMID:25139731

  20. Interstitial Lung Disease with ANCA-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The association between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), has been described in a number of case reports and case series reports in the last 2 decades. In addition, patients with pulmonary fibrosis and ANCA positivity but without other manifestations of systemic vasculitis have also been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis was clinically manifested at the time of diagnosis in the majority of AAV patients that developed this condition. Moreover, ANCA-positive conversion occurs in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and as a result, other manifestations of systemic vasculitis develop in some of these patients. There is significant predominance of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and MPA in patients with AAV and ILD. Radiological and pathological findings generally demonstrate usual interstitial pneumonia (pattern) in the lungs of these patients. In most studies, AAV patients with ILD have a worse prognosis than those without it. PMID:26448696

  1. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    PubMed Central

    Mitcham, Trevor; Dextraze, Katherine; Taghavi, Houra; Melancon, Marites; Bouchard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US) system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures. PMID:26236640

  2. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  3. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  4. Interstitial trapped hydrogen molecules in PECVD amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Borzi, R.; Mascarenhas, F.; Fedders, P.A.; Leopold, D.J.; Norberg, R.E.; Wickboldt, P.; Paul, W.

    1999-07-01

    New NMR measurements show that interstitial T site-trapped molecular hydrogen can amount to more than one third of the contained hydrogen in high quality PECVD amorphous silicon. Microvoid-contained dense molecular hydrogen is negligible in these good films. Experiments on a sequence of hydrogenated and/or deuterated a-Si films have characterized individually-trapped molecular HD and D{sub 2} in films deposited from SiD{sub 4}, and from SiH{sub 4}+D{sub 2}. The T site-trapped molecular hydrogen fraction observed here is larger than previously reported because of recent efforts to measure very slowly relaxing molecular components and the employment of radiofrequency pulse sequences to detect ortho-D{sub 2} with nuclear spin I = 2. The population of interstitially trapped molecular hydrogen increases with increasing photovoltaic quality over a range of an order of magnitude in photoresponse product {eta}{mu}{tau}. Above 200 K, hopping transport of molecular hydrogen among the amorphous equivalent of interstitial T sites occurs with an activation energy near 50 meV.

  5. Clinical Significance of Serum Autoantibodies in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Roh, Jae Hyung; Song, Jin Woo; Lee, Chang Keun; Kim, Miyoung; Jang, Se Jin; Colby, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    Although autoantibodies are routinely screened in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, there are no reliable data on their clinical usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of autoantibodies for predicting the development of new connective tissue disease in these patients and also mortality. We conducted retrospective analysis of the baseline, and follow-up data for 688 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (526 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 85 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and 77 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia) at one single tertiary referral center. The median follow-up period was 33.6 months. Antinuclear antibody was positive in 34.5% of all subjects, rheumatoid factor in 13.2%, and other specific autoantibodies were positive between 0.7%-6.8% of the cases. No significant difference in patient survival was found between the autoantibody-positive and -negative groups. However, the presence of autoantibodies, especially antinuclear antibody with a titer higher than 1:320, was a significant predictor for the future development of new connective tissue diseases (relative risk, 6.4), although the incidence was low (3.8% of all subjects during follow-up). In conclusion, autoantibodies are significant predictors for new connective tissue disease development, although they have no prognostic value. PMID:23678265

  6. Interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. Assessment of risk factors

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.S.; Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Gluckman, E.; Kay, H.E.; Kolb, H.J.; Hartz, A.J.; Rimm, A.A.

    1986-02-01

    Data from 932 patients with leukemia who received bone marrow transplants were analyzed to determine factors associated with an increased risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis. Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 268 patients for a 2-year actuarial incidence of 35 +/- 4% (SD) and with a mortality rate of 24%. Six factors were associated with an increased risk: use of methotrexate rather than cyclosporine after transplantation (relative risk, 2.3; p less than 0.0002); older age (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); presence of severe graft-versus-host disease (relative risk, 1.9; p less than 0.003); long interval from diagnosis to transplantation (relative risk, 1.6; p less than 0.002); performance ratings before transplantation of less than 100% (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); and high dose-rates of irradiation in patients given methotrexate after transplantation (relative risk, 3.2; p less than 0.03). The risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis ranged from 8% in patients with none of these adverse risk factors to 94% in patients with all six. These findings may help to identify patients at high risk for this complication.

  7. Case Report: Fractured Needle in the Pterygomandibular Space Following Administration of an Inferior Dental Nerve Block.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Edmund; Rao, Jeethendra; Saksena, Alka

    2015-04-01

    Fortunately, needle fracture is a rare complication following the administration of dental local anaesthetic. We present a case of needle fracture following administration of an inferior dental nerve block. The fractured needle was retrieved successfully under general anaesthetic. We also provide some suggestions on how to prevent needle fracture, and advice on how to manage the situation should it arise. Clinical Relevance: Dental practitioners are the largest user group of local anaesthesia in the UK. It is important that practitioners are aware of the risks to the patient of needle fracture, how to minimize the risk of this occurring and be aware of how to manage the situation should it arise. PMID:26076546

  8. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  9. Biopsy Needle Artifact Localization in MRI-guided Robotic Transrectal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Kaushal, Aradhana; Camphausen, Kevin; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a number of robotic intervention systems for magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided needle placement in the prostate have been reported. In MRI-guided needle interventions, after a needle is inserted, the needle position is often confirmed with a volumetric MRI scan. Commonly used titanium needles are not directly visible in an MR image, but they generate a susceptibility artifact in the immediate neighborhood of the needle. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the relationship between the true position of titanium biopsy needle and the corresponding needle artifact position in MR images, thereby providing a better understanding of the influence of needle artifact on targeting errors. The titanium needle tip artifact extended 9 mm beyond the actual needle tip location with tendency to bend towards the scanner’s B0 magnetic field direction, and axially displaced 0.38 mm and 0.32 mm (mean) in scanner’s frequency and phase encoding direction, respectively. PMID:22481805

  10. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle.

  11. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2012-01-01

    Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments. PMID:23365601

  12. Modeling of relationship between glucose concentration in blood and glucose concentration in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Ji, Yongjie; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, using the detection of interstitial fluid glucose concentration to realize the real-time continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration gets more and more attention, because for one person, the relationship between blood glucose concentration and interstitial fluid glucose concentration satisfies specific rules. However, the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid is not entirely equal to the glucose concentration in blood and has a physiological lag because of the physiological difference of cells in blood and interstitial fluid. Because the clinical diagnostic criteria of diabetes are still blood glucose concentration, the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid should be established. The physiological difference in glucose molecules uptake, utilization, and elimination by cells in blood and interstitial fluid and the diffusion velocity of glucose molecule from blood to interstitial fluid will be induced to the mass transfer model to express the physiological lag parameter. Based on the continuous monitoring of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid, the project had studied the mass transfer model to establish the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid. We have preliminary achieved to evaluate the physiological lag parameter exactly and predict the glucose concentration in blood through the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid accurately.

  13. Postoperative interstitial brachytherapy in eyelid cancer: long term results and assessment of Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy scale

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Trinanjan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Chaukar, Devendra; Nadkarni, Mandar; GN, Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyse feasibility and safety of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy (IBRT) in patients of eyelid cancer treated primarily by surgical excision. Material and methods In this series, 8 patients with eyelid cancer were treated using postoperative interstitial brachytherapy. Patients were followed up for local control, cosmetic outcome, and acute and late toxicities. Cosmetic outcome was measured using a 6 point indigenous Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy (CAIB) scale. Results The patients were between 23-82 years (median: 71 years). There were 3 females and 5 males, and 3 patients had lesions in upper eyelid. Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy was used in all with 2 catheters implanted in most of them (6 out of 8). Local control was calculated from end of treatment to last follow-up. At last follow-up, all patients remained locally controlled. Two patients had nodal recurrence 6 months after interstitial brachytherapy and were salvaged effectively by external beam radiotherapy. At last follow-up, 7 patients were loco-regionally controlled and one was lost to follow up. All patients had Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 acute toxicity and 2 had grade 1 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version.3 late toxicities. The cosmesis score for the whole group ranged between 0-1 indicating excellent to very good cosmesis. Conclusions Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in excellent disease control and cosmesis without significant acute or late toxicities. It is an effective modality for treatment of eyelid cancers in selected patients. Future prospective studies with the validation of CAIB scale would give us more insight to this effective yet often ignored modality of IBRT. PMID:25834578

  14. High-Resolution CT Scan Findings in Familial Interstitial Pneumonia Do Not Conform to Those of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Yun; Seo, Joon Beom; Steele, Mark P.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Brown, Kevin K.; Loyd, James E.; Talbert, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to describe the high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan features that characterize familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP). Methods: FIP was defined by the presence of two or more cases of probable or definite idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) in individuals related within three degrees. The cases were collected consecutively from three centers. We identified 371 individuals with potential FIP from 289 families, including 340 individuals who had HRCT scans. Two chest radiologists independently reviewed the HRCT scans, scoring the extent and distribution of HRCT scan findings, and assessed the overall radiologic diagnosis. Results: HRCT scan abnormalities suggestive of IIP were present in 85% (289 of 340 subjects). The most frequent findings were reticular pattern (n = 238, 82%) and ground-glass opacity (GGO) associated with reticular abnormality (n = 231, 80%). Other changes included GGO in 116 (40%), honeycombing in 92 (32%), and micronodules in 65 (22%). In the 289 cases with evidence of IIP, the findings were diffusely distributed in the craniocaudal plane in 186 (64%), and the lower lung zones were predominantly involved in 89 (31%). In the axial plane, 194 (67%) had a subpleural distribution; 88 (30%) were diffuse. The imaging pattern was classified as definite or probable usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in only 62 subjects (22%) and definite or probable nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) in 35 subjects (12%). In 160 subjects (55%), the imaging findings did not conform to previously described UIP or NSIP patterns. Conclusions: Reticulation and a mixed GGO/reticular pattern are the most common HRCT scan findings in FIP. The parenchymal abnormalities are most often diffuse in the craniocaudal dimension and have a predominantly peripheral distribution in the axial dimension. Although a radiologic UIP pattern is not uncommon, most cases do not conform to typical UIP or NSIP patterns. PMID:23364926

  15. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to estimate the tumor volume from the corresponding positive core volumes. Finally, we propose an algorithm for developing a statistically optimized prostate needle biopsy protocol. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.

  16. Imaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    behavior during acupuncture needle manipulation, and may become a valuable tool for future studies. Acupuncture needle manipulation is an important and often overlooked aspect of acupuncture treatments. NeedleImaging the Effect of Acupuncture Needling On Human Connective Tissue in Vivo E.E. Konofagou1 , G

  17. Microstructural evolution of Ti-added interstitial free steel in high strain deformation by hot torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, R.; Shibata, A.; Terada, D.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamically evolved microstructure under high strain deformation condition does still have many debatable aspects, particularly in the case of easy-recovery metals like bcc-iron. In this research, microstructural evolution in high strain deformation by hot torsion of Ti-added interstitial free (IF) steel was systematically investigated. Torsion specimens were deformed up to an equivalent strain of ? 7 at different temperatures (650 °C - 850 °C) and strain rates (0.01 s-1 - 1.0 s-1), i.e., under various values of the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. Immediately after the deformation, samples were water-quenched and microstructures were investigated by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements and electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). Flow stress-strain curves of the IF steel under various deformation conditions showed typical flow curves of high stacking fault energy metals at low Z values, i.e., a peak stress followed by slight softening. On the other hand, under the high-Z deformation conditions, the specimens showed a larger stress drop after a certain amount of deformation. EBSD-based quantitative analysis was used to study the microstructural transition between high and low Z values. At low Z values, the occurrence of strain induced boundary migration (SIBM) as an initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was clearly observed. On the other hand, at high Z values, grain subdivision phenomena led to very fine and elongated structures.

  18. Sulfates-based nanothermites: an expanding horizon for metastable interstitial composites.

    PubMed

    Comet, Marc; Vidick, Geoffrey; Schnell, Fabien; Suma, Yves; Baps, Bernard; Spitzer, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Metal sulfates (Ba, Bi, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn, Zr) were used as oxidizers in reactive compositions with Al nanopowder. These new kinds of nanothermites have outstandingly high reaction heats (4-6?kJ?g(-1) ) compared to conventional Al/metal oxides (1.5-4.8?kJ?g(-1) ) and also have good combustion velocities (200-840?m?s(-1) vs 100-2500?m?s(-1) ). These compositions are extremely insensitive to friction making their preparation and handling easy and safe. The sulfate hydration water increases the reaction heats and has a significant effect on the sensitivity to impact and to electrostatic discharge. The reaction of Al with water is easier to initiate than the one with sulfate which leads to two possible decomposition modes for samples exposed to an open flame. The pyrotechnical properties observed with sulfates have also been found for other sulfur oxygenates (SO3 (2-) , S2 O3 (2-) , S2 O8 (2-) ) which opens up new horizons in the domain of metastable interstitial composites. PMID:25702633

  19. A Wrist for Needle-Sized Surgical Robots

    PubMed Central

    York, Peter A.; Swaney, Philip J.; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The needle-sized surgical tools used in arthroscopy, otolaryngology, and other surgical fields could become even more valuable to surgeons if endowed with the ability to navigate around sharp corners to manipulate or visualize tissue. We present a needle-sized wrist design that grants this ability. It can be easily interfaced with manual tools or concentric tube robots and is straightforward and inexpensive to manufacture. The wrist consists of a nitinol tube with several asymmetric cutouts, actuated by a tendon. Perhaps counter-intuitively, within this seemingly simple design concept, design optimization is challenging due to the number of parameters available and nonlinearities in material properties. In this paper, we examine a subset of possible geometries and derive kinematic and static models. Experimental results with a 1.16 mm diameter prototype validate the models. Lastly, we provide a discussion summarizing the lessons learned in our early experience designing and fabricating wrists of this type. PMID:26405562

  20. From impedance theory to needle electrode guidance in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvøy, Håvard; Høyum, Per; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2010-04-01

    Fast access to blood vessels or other tissues/organs can be crucial in clinical or acute medical treatment. We have developed a method for needle guidance for use in different types of applications. The feasibility of an automatic application for fast access to blood vessels during acute cardiac arrest, based on this method, has been evaluated. Suited electrode setups were found by development of needle electrode models used in simulation and sensitivity analyses. In vitro measurements were done both to determine the fundamental properties of the electrodes for use in the models and to confirm the simulation results. Development of algorithms for tissue characterization and differentiation was based on in vivo impedance measurement in porcine models and confirmed in human tissue in vivo. Feasibility was proven by application prototyping and impedance data presented as invasive Electrical Impedance Tomography (iEIT). Our conclusion is that this method can be utilized in a wide range of clinical applications.

  1. Familial interstitial pneumonia in an adolescent boy with surfactant protein C gene (Y104H) mutation.

    PubMed

    Kuse, N; Abe, S; Hayashi, H; Kamio, K; Saito, Y; Azuma, A; Kudoh, S; Kunugi, S; Fukuda, Y; Setoguchi, Y; Gemma, A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some cases of familial interstitial pneumonia are associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C (SFTPC). We report here a case of familial interstitial pneumonia in an adolescent boy whose paternal grandfather and father suffered from idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). The patient was asymptomatic but showed an abnormal shadow in the chest at his medical check-up. The surgical biopsy of the patient revealed non-specific interstitial pneumonia and showed pathological findings similar to those in his father's autopsy. Genomic DNA from blood leucocytes of the patient was sequenced for the Thy104His (Y104H) SFTPC mutation. Based on these results, he was diagnosed with SFTPC mutation-associated familial interstitial pneumonia. There has been no clinical, physiologic and radiologic progression for 4 years since the diagnosis. The relation between clinical manifestation and the mutation site of the patient may broaden the spectrum of SFTPC mutation-associated interstitial pneumonia. PMID:24003539

  2. Low coherence interferometry approach for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Gardecki, Joseph; Pitman, Martha; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Patel, Ankit; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-11-01

    We present portable preclinical low-coherence interference (LCI) instrumentation for aiding fine needle aspiration biopsies featuring the second-generation LCI-based biopsy probe and an improved scoring algorithm for tissue differentiation. Our instrument and algorithm were tested on 38 mice with cultured tumor mass and we show the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of tumor detection of over 0.89, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively.

  3. Radio frequency needle hyperthermia of normal and cancerous animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalhav, Arieh; Ramon, J.; Goldwasser, Benad; Nativ, Ofer; Cherniack, Ramy; Zajdel, Liliana

    1994-12-01

    Capacitative radio frequency (RF) was met with little success when used to treat human cancer. Conductive rf needle hyperthermia (RFNH) is used successfully for human tissue ablation in neurosurgery, cardiology, and recently in urology. RFNH ablates tissue by causing thermal damage limited to the vicinity of the rf needle. We conducted a series of studies to evaluate the effect of RFNH on cancerous and normal tissue. RFNH was applied to normal porcine livers during open surgery. Liver function tests were elevated two days post treatment, then returned to normal. Pigs were sequentially sacrificed. RFNH induced lesions were found to be maximal in size on days 2 - 4 post treatment and later became smaller as liver regenerated. Phase 2 included mice bearing two subcutaneous murine bladder tumors (MBT2). The rf needle was inserted into both tumors of each mouse, but rf current was applied to one tumor only. Energies of 3 to 7.5 watts were applied for 30 seconds to 5 minutes using a 0.02 inch needle. Mice were sacrificed 0, 1, and 3 days after treatment. Necrotic lesions 0.5 - 1.2 cm in diameter were found within the treated tumors. In phase 3, mice bearing a single 8 - 18 mm subcutaneous tumor were treated by RFNH aiming for complete tumor destruction. All control mice died of huge tumors within 31 days. Treated mice were alive with no signs of tumor when sacrificed 60 days after treatment. In phase 3 RFNH is capable of complete tumor eradication with little damage to surrounding normal tissue. It may have clinical applications for percutaneous endoscopic and laparoscopic treatment of tumors.

  4. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  5. Relative stability of extended interstitial defects in silicon: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungki; Wilkins, John W.

    2009-06-01

    Interstitials stored in {311} or {111} habit planes form rows of interstitial chains elongated in ?011? direction. Exploiting the large aspect ratio to treat chains as infinite, first-principles calculations of large computation supercells reveal a unique formation energy trend for each defect, which is closely correlated with its distinct shape. The most energetically favorable structure changes from {311} rodlike defects to Frank loops as the number of interstitials in the defect increases. These results are consistent with transmission electron microscopy studies.

  6. Treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain with deep dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Luis M.; Granados-Nuñez, Mercedes; Urresti-Lopez, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of deep dry needling in the treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain. Study Design: We selected 36 patients with myofascial pain located in the external pterygoid muscle (30 women/6 men, mean age=27 years with SD±6,5). We studied differences in pain with a visual analog scale and range of mandibular movements before and after intervention. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship (p<0,01) between therapeutic intervention and the improvement of pain and jaw movements, which continued up to 6 months after treatment. Pain reduction was greater the higher was the intensity of pain at baseline. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest that deep dry needling in the trigger point in the external pterygoid muscle can be effective in the management of patients with myofascial pain located in that muscle. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, myofascial pain, external pterygoid muscle, trigger point, deep dry needling. PMID:22549679

  7. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas. PMID:24895426

  8. Dynamic control of needle-free jet injection.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Li, Thomas H; Arora, Anubhav; Mitragotri, Samir; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2009-04-17

    Many modern pharmaceutical therapies such as vaccines and macromolecular drugs benefit from transdermal delivery. Conventional transdermal drug delivery via hypodermic needles causes pain, non-compliance, and potential contamination. Alternative transdermal strategies that deliver drugs in a quick, reliable, painless, and inexpensive way are needed. Jet injectors, which deliver drugs through the skin using a high-speed stream of liquid propelled by compressed springs or gasses, provide a needle-free method of trandermal drug delivery. However, poor reliability as well as painful bruising and bleeding characterize these devices, due in part to the high and constant jet velocity with which drugs are delivered. Toward improved reliability and reduced pain, we have developed a jet injector capable of dynamic control of jet velocity during a single injection pulse. Using this device, we demonstrate that temporal control of jet velocity leads to independent control of penetration depth, by adjusting time at high velocity, and delivered dose, by adjusting time at low velocity, in model materials. This dynamic control of jet velocity creates the potential for better control of needle-free injections, as demonstrated through injection studies on whole ex vivo human skin samples. PMID:19284969

  9. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  10. Controlling a Robotically Steered Needle in the Presence of Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the orientation of the bevel tip as the needle is inserted into tissue. Here, we demonstrate the significant effect of friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue, which can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial frictional forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies have reported torques large enough to could cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop a model for the rotational dynamics of a needle being continuously inserted into tissue and show how a PD controller is sufficient to compensate for the rotational dynamics. PMID:21461175

  11. Motion Planning Under Uncertainty for Image-guided Medical Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Branicky, Michael; Goldberg, Ken

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new motion planning algorithm for a variant of a Dubins car with binary left/right steering and apply it to steerable needles, a new class of flexible bevel-tip medical needles that physicians can steer through soft tissue to reach clinical targets inaccessible to traditional stiff needles. Our method explicitly considers uncertainty in needle motion due to patient differences and the difficulty in predicting needle/tissue interaction. The planner computes optimal steering actions to maximize the probability that the needle will reach the desired target. Given a medical image with segmented obstacles and target, our method formulates the planning problem as a Markov Decision Process based on an efficient discretization of the state space, models motion uncertainty using probability distributions, and computes optimal steering actions using Dynamic Programming. This approach only requires parameters that can be directly extracted from images, allows fast computation of the optimal needle entry point, and enables intra-operative optimal steering of the needle using the pre-computed dynamic programming look-up table. We apply the method to generate motion plans for steerable needles to reach targets inaccessible to stiff needles, and we illustrate the importance of considering uncertainty during motion plan optimization. PMID:19890445

  12. Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, Jean-Denis Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh

    2009-09-15

    Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. The Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.

  13. A GIS-based methodology for improving needle exchange service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Peter J.; Scholar, Shoshanna; Howe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background A variety of legal, social and logistical factors can prevent individuals from accessing formal needle exchange programs. One common solution to this problem is satellite exchange, which involves collaborating with people who already use an exchange to deliver needles and other supplies to those unable to access the exchange. While this approach can be very successful, one potential problem is that those most willing to deliver needles to their peers are often members of social networks that are already well connected with the needle exchange, leading to duplication of effort. In this paper we describe a simple and novel method for identifying groups of people who are demonstrably in need of improved access to needles, and for re-targeting efforts to meet the needs of those people. The method described was piloted at the Homeless Youth Alliance, San Francisco, USA, and further refined at Clean Needles Now, Los Angeles, USA. Methods People accessing needle exchange sites were asked to participate in a survey with two questions: “where were you and what time was it last time someone borrowed a needle from you?” and “where were you and what time was it last time you had to borrow a needle from someone else?” Responses were geocoded, and maps produced showing ‘hotspots’ where people were frequently finding themselves without needles. Results Satellite needle exchange was refined from an ad-hoc activity into one which focused on delivering needles to those with empirically demonstrable need. Maps produced in the process also proved valuable in discussions with local officials and other agencies about funding, as well as needle provision policy and practices. Conclusion We describe a method for rapidly assessing, describing, and responding to unmet and under-met need among injecting drug users. The method is particularly well-suited to organizations with extremely limited resources. PMID:21112757

  14. Effects of prolonged drought on the anatomy of sun and shade needles in young Norway spruce trees.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Roman; Vola?ík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2015-11-01

    Predicted increases in the frequency and duration of drought are expected to negatively affect tree vitality, but we know little about how water shortage will influence needle anatomy and thereby the trees' photosynthetic and hydraulic capacity. In this study, we evaluated anatomical changes in sun and shade needles of 20-year-old Norway spruce trees exposed to artificial drought stress. Canopy position was found to be important for needle structure, as sun needles had significantly higher values than shade needles for all anatomical traits (i.e., cross-sectional needle area, number of tracheids in needle, needle hydraulic conductivity, and tracheid lumen area), except proportion of xylem area per cross-sectional needle area. In sun needles, drought reduced all trait values by 10-40%, whereas in shade needles, only tracheid maximum diameter was reduced by drought. Due to the relatively weaker response of shade needles than sun needles in drought-stressed trees, the difference between the two needle types was reduced by 25% in the drought-stressed trees compared to the control trees. The observed changes in needle anatomy provide new understanding of how Norway spruce adapts to drought stress and may improve predictions of how forests will respond to global climate change. PMID:26640676

  15. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  16. Ruptured Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy at 18 Weeks Gestation Diagnosed by MRI: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ehab SM; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin WH; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore present characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging of a ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy which had reached 18 weeks, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:24421921

  17. Nucleation of metals by strong electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardone, M.; Karpov, V. G.

    2012-04-01

    Recent work on phase transitions in chalcogenides (underlying phase change memory) led to a theory of symmetry-breaking field effects, predicting needle-shaped metallic nuclei and exponentially accelerated nucleation rates. Here, we predict that, in general, any insulator will eventually form metallic inclusions if immersed in a sufficient electric field. These phase transitions are driven, not simply enhanced, by an electric field. Hence, metals can be formed under conditions where they would be otherwise unexpected. This opens the venue of field induced materials synthesis. As a technologically important example, we consider the field driven synthesis of metallic hydrogen at normal pressure.

  18. The pharmacokinetics of the interstitial space in humans

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G

    2003-01-01

    Background The pharmacokinetics of extracellular solutes is determined by the blood-tissue exchange kinetics and the volume of distribution in the interstitial space in the different organs. This information can be used to develop a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model applicable to most extracellular solutes. Methods The human pharmacokinetic literature was surveyed to tabulate the steady state and equilibrium volume of distribution of the solutes mannitol, EDTA, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, inulin and ?-lactam antibiotics with a range of protein binding (amoxicillin, piperacillin, cefatrizine, ceforanide, flucloxacillin, dicloxacillin). A PBPK data set was developed for extracellular solutes based on the literature for interstitial organ volumes. The program PKQuest was used to generate the PBPK model predictions. The pharmacokinetics of the protein (albumin) bound ?-lactam antibiotics were characterized by two parameters: 1) the free fraction of the solute in plasma; 2) the interstitial albumin concentration. A new approach to estimating the capillary permeability is described, based on the pharmacokinetics of the highly protein bound antibiotics. Results About 42% of the total body water is extracellular. There is a large variation in the organ distribution of this water – varying from about 13% of total tissue water for skeletal muscle, up to 70% for skin and connective tissue. The weakly bound antibiotics have flow limited capillary-tissue exchange kinetics. The highly protein bound antibiotics have a significant capillary permeability limitation. The experimental pharmacokinetics of the 11 solutes is well described using the new PBPK data set and PKQuest. Conclusions Only one adjustable parameter (systemic clearance) is required to completely characterize the PBPK for these extracellular solutes. Knowledge of just this systemic clearance allows one to predict the complete time course of the absolute drug concentrations in the major organs. PKQuest is freely available . PMID:12890292

  19. Muonium as a model for interstitial hydrogen in the semiconducting and semimetallic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. F. J.

    2009-11-01

    Although the interstitial hydrogen atom would seem to be one of the simplest defect centres in any lattice, its solid state chemistry is in fact unknown in many materials, not least amongst the elements. In semiconductors, the realization that hydrogen can profoundly influence electronic properties even as a trace impurity has prompted its study by all available means—but still only in the functionally important or potentially important materials—for the elements, Si, Ge and diamond. Even here, it was not studies of hydrogen itself but of its pseudo-isotope, muonium, that first provided the much needed microscopic pictures of crystallographic site and local electronic structure—now comprehensively confirmed by ab initio computation and such data as exists for monatomic, interstitial hydrogen centres in Si. Muonium can be formed in a variety of neutral paramagnetic states when positive muons are implanted into non-metals. The simple trapped atom is commonly only metastable. It coexists with or reacts to give defect centres with the unpaired electron in somewhat more extended orbitals. Indications of complete delocalization into effective mass states are discussed for B, ?-Sn, Bi and even Ge, but otherwise all the muonium centres seen in the elemental semiconductors are deep and relatively compact. These are revealed, distinguished and characterized by ?SR spectroscopy—muon spin rotation and resonance informing on sites and spin-density distributions, muon spin relaxation on motional dynamics and charge-state transitions. This Report documents the progress of ?SR studies for all the semiconductors and semimetals of the p-block elements, Groups III-VI of the Periodic Table. The striking spectra and originally unanticipated results for Group IV are for the most part well known but deserve summarizing and updating; the sheer diversity of muonium states found is still remarkable, especially in carbon allotropes. The interplay of crystallographic site and charge state in Si and Ge at high temperatures, or under illumination, reflects the capture and loss of charge carriers that should model the electrical activity of monatomic hydrogen but still challenges theoretical descriptions. Spin-flip scattering of conduction electrons by the paramagnetic centres is revealed in heavily doped n-type material, as well as some modification of the local electronic structures. The corresponding spectroscopy for the solid elements of Groups III, V and VI is rather less well known and is reviewed here for the first time; a good deal of previously unpublished data is also included. Theoretical expectations and computational modelling are sparse, here. Recent results for B suggest a relatively shallow centre with molecular character; P and As show deeper quasi-atomic states, but still with substantial overlap of spin density onto surrounding host atoms. Particular attention is paid to the chalcogens. Muonium centres in Te show charge-state transitions already around room temperature; the identification of those in S and Se has been complicated by unusual spin dynamics of a different character, here attributed to spin-orbit coupling and interstitial reorientation. In the metals and semimetals, muonium is not formed as a paramagnetic centre. Here the implanted muons mimic interstital protons and interest shifts to a variety of other topics, including aspects of charge screening (?-Sn, Sb, Bi), site preference and quantum mobility (Al, ?-Sn, Pb). The post-transition metals receive only a brief mention, by way of contrast with the nonmetals. Systematic studies of local susceptibility via measurements of muon Knight shifts extends in favourable cases to revealing the elusive high-field Condon domains (Al, Sn, Pb, Bi). Some new information is available on the superconducting phases. Appendices include a derivation of the spin Hamiltonian for paramagnetic muonium centres or molecular radicals having varying admixtures of orbital angular momentum, including the extreme case of orbital degeneracy, and examine the consequences of significant s

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis due to statin and its class effect

    PubMed Central

    Annigeri, R. A.; Mani, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that statins can cause nephrotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of nephrotoxicity remain unclear. We report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a 54-year-old man following the administration of atorvastatin Renal biopsy showed acute interstitial nephritis. Atorvastatin was withdrawn and he was treated with corticosteroid following which renal function recovered. When he was rechallenged with rosuvastatin 6 months later following an episode of acute myocardial infarction, he developed AKI again indicating class effect of statin for nephrotoxicity. PMID:25684874

  1. Exchange of deeply trapped and interstitial hydrogen in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.; Van de Walle, C.G.; Adams, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    Using {ital ab initio} density-functional calculations, we examine possible exchange mechanisms between an interstitial hydrogen atom and a deeply bound H at a silicon-hydrogen bond. We determine a low-energy pathway for exchange, which involves an intermediate, metastable {equivalent_to}SiH{sub 2} complex with both hydrogen atoms strongly bound to the silicon atom. The energy barrier for the exchange process is E{sub ex}{lt}0.2 eV, consistent with observations of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a-Si:H(D) films. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. [Interstitial lung disease related to systemic connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Fiedorczyk, Ma?gorzata; Rojewska, Joanna; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Sierakowski, Stanis?aw

    2005-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most frequent and most serious complications of connective tissue diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermato- and polymyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, or mixed connective tissue disease. Diagnosis of ILD is often delayed in patients with connective tissue diseases because of the systemic character of the primary condition, restricted physical activity of the patient and insufficient awareness of the physycian. The aim of the current review is to present the up-to-date information on ethiopathology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of ILD in patients with connective tissue diseases. PMID:16786776

  3. Surgically proven desquamative interstitial pneumonia induced by waterproofing spray.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Hagiwara, Eri; Harada, Shingo; Yoshida, Masahiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Okudela, Koji; Takemura, Tamiko; Ogura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe the first case of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) induced by waterproofing spray, which was proven by a surgical lung biopsy. A 45-year-old male smoker heavily used a waterproofing spray gas, and presented with chills and fever that was followed by progressive dyspnea. Because steroid pulse therapy did not improve his symptoms, he was referred to our hospital. High-resolution chest CT showed diffuse pan-lobular ground-glass opacities in both lungs. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed a DIP pattern. Acute short-time exposure to waterproofing spray can thus be a potential cause of DIP. PMID:25224197

  4. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  5. Interacting nanopatterned pins: barriers towards creating interstitial vortices

    E-print Network

    Gorky Shaw; Shyam Mohan; Jaivardhan Sinha; S. S. Banerjee

    2008-11-10

    We show that by nano-patterning a superconductor (NbSe2 single crystal) with an array of blind holes produces significant magnetic field sweep rate dependent metastable magnetization response. Our results are explained on the basis of a unique collective action of the blind holes pins which creates a barrier against vortex redistribution inside the sample. We propose that this barrier leads to a phase separation creating distinct population of vortices viz., those pinned on blind holes and those confined in the interstitials between the holes.

  6. Clean needles save lives. HIV and injecting drug use.

    PubMed

    James, B

    1993-01-01

    Intravenous drug use involving the injection of cocaine, amphetamines, tranquilizers, and opiates for recreational purposes has been reported in more than 80 countries around the world. Up to tens of thousands of users may exist in cities on drug shipment routes and in drug-producing areas, and their numbers are increasing worldwide. The sharing of needles and syringes which have traces of HIV-infected blood can transmit HIV. HIV can even survive for more than 1 week in a closed syringe or needle which has not been cleaned. Hepatitis B and septicemia may also be transmitted, while skin infections may result at the site of injection. Possessing, using, and selling injected drugs is against the law in most places; many countries also outlaw the purchase, sale, and possession of needles and syringes without a prescription. These policies simply increase the price of drugs and make it more difficult for drug users to obtain and use safe, clean injecting equipment. Drug users are therefore often very vulnerable to HIV from sharing needles and syringes, as well as from unprotected sex. It is possible to inject drugs safely, stay relatively healthy, and cause minimal harm to self and others, but drug users must be taught how and provided the necessary means. Harm reduction strategies include face-to-face outreach programs of users or ex-users; access to sterile equipment, cleaning materials, and information about safer drug use and safer sex; counseling, support groups, health care, and methadone treatment and maintenance programs; care and support for users, partners, and children living with HIV/AIDS; advocating legalizing the provision and possession of needles and syringes; and supporting users' self-help organizations and involving them in policy development and program design. Research shows that these programs do not increase drug use and may help some individuals to stop using drugs altogether; they are clearly effective in slowing the transmission of HIV. Drug users are demonstrating that, given the means to prevent HIV infection and given access to education and health care, they have the ability to change unsafe injecting practices. Steps to clean used equipment are presented. PMID:12345208

  7. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  8. Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration and Fine Needle Nonaspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongming; Wei, Chuankui; Li, Dengfeng; Hua, Kaiyao; Song, Jialu; Maskey, Niraj; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and fine needle nonaspiration cytology (FNNAC) are useful cost-effective techniques for preoperatively assessing thyroid lesions. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and there is controversy over which method is superior. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between FNAC and FNNAC for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods. Primary publications were independently collected by two reviewers from PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, OALib, and the Cochrane Library databases. The following search terms were used: fine needle, aspiration, capillary, nonaspiration, sampling without aspiration, thyroid, and cytology. The last search was performed on February 1, 2015. Results. Sixteen studies comprising 1,842 patients and 2,221 samples were included in this study. No statistically significant difference was observed between FNAC and FNNAC groups with respect to diagnostically inadequate smears, diagnostically superior smears, diagnostic performance (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve, average score of each parameter (background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture), and total score of five parameters. Conclusion. FNAC and FNNAC are equally useful in assessing thyroid nodules. PMID:26491689

  9. Penetration Force, Geometry, and Cutting Profile of the Novel and Old Ozurdex Needle: The MONO Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zengping; Brinkmann, Christian K.; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Bertelmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of the novel and old needle of the drug delivery system (DDS) for Ozurdex injections in a standardized laboratory setting. Methods: In this experimental study, the normative geometrical data of the DDS needle were systematically analyzed according to nomenclature DIN 13097 (ISO 7864) and ISO 9626. The force to penetrate a standardized 0.4-mm-thick polyurethane foil was measured by a penetrometer, when the needle was piercing, cutting, and sliding through the foil and plotted as a load-displacement diagram. Magnified images of the consecutive cut were taken after the entire penetration through the foil. Results: In this experimental study, the mean point length was equal to 3.34?mm (3.28–3.36?mm) for the old DDS needle versus 3.33?mm (3.30–3.36?mm) for the new DDS needle. The secondary bevel length was 1.64?mm (1.42–1.73?mm) for the new and 1.66?mm (1.62–1.69?mm) for the old needle. The primary angle was 9.2° (9.0°–9.5°) for the old and 8.9° (8.5°–9.0°) for the new needle, respectively. The secondary bevel angle was 117.2° (116°–118°) for the old and 111.4° (110°–113°) for the new needle. The mean penetration force of the old DDS needles was significantly higher at all phases of the penetration experiment: The mean piercing force was 0.7 Newton (N) with the old and 0.47?N with the new DDS needle. The mean cutting force was remarkable higher with 1.1?N for the old DDS needle versus 0.78?N for the new DDS needle. The dilatation phase was not statistically significant between 0.94 and 0.99?N in both DDS needles. The friction phase was maintained at significantly higher levels with the old DDS needle of 0.47?N, whereas it returned to the lowest measurements of 0.11?N with the new DDS needle. Both DDS systems induced a characteristic chevron-shaped incision. Conclusion: A comparison of the old and new DDS needles demonstrated a reduced penetration force with the modified new DDS needle, which may help to achieve a smooth penetration through the human sclera. PMID:24801111

  10. High serum concentrations of surfactant protein A in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with non-specific interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, H; Mukae, H; Kadota, J; Kaida, H; Nagata, T; Abe, K; Matsukura, S; Kohno, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathological diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) by surgical lung biopsy is important for clinical decision making. There is a need, however, to use serum markers for differentiating usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) from other ILD. Surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, KL-6, sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX), and sialyl Lewisa (CA19-9) are useful markers for the diagnosis and evaluation of activity of ILD. We have investigated the usefulness of these proteins as markers of UIP. Methods: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of the above five markers were measured in 57 patients with various forms of ILD (19 with UIP, 12 with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), eight with bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP), and 10 with sarcoidosis), eight patients with the control disease (diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB)), and nine healthy volunteers. Results: Serum levels of SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in patients with UIP and NSIP were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. In particular, the serum levels of SP-A in patients with UIP were significantly higher than in patients with NSIP (p<0.0001, mean difference –58.3 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval –81.6 to –35.0), and BAL fluid levels of SP-D in patients with UIP were significantly lower than in patients with NSIP (p=0.01, mean difference 322.4 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 79.3 to 565.5). Conclusion: Serum SP-A levels may be clinically useful as a biomarker to differentiate between UIP and NSIP. PMID:12511721

  11. Barrier Discharge Characteristics and Ozone Generation on Twin Needles-Plane Electrode Configuration in Dry Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Koji; Matsui, Ryosuke; Ueno, Hideki; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    Barrier discharge characteristics have been investigated for twin needles-plane electrode configuration in dry air. Characteristics of partial discharge depending on the distance between the tips of twin needles have been focused. In the case of d equal to 1.0mm˜2.0mm (d : distance between the tips of twin needle), the discharge inception voltage value increased compared with that of the single needle-plane electrode configuration. Moreover, for the d equal to 4.0mm, the discharge inception voltage value became almost the same value in the case of the single needle. It is considered that the differences of the discharge inception voltage value have been caused by the influence of tip of needle each other. In addition, discharge images by intensified still camera and CCD camera, power consumption, and ozone concentration were examined.

  12. Feasibility Study of an Optically Actuated MR-compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of MRI guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses internal laser heating, conducted via optical fibers, of a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Active bending of the needle as it is inserted allows it to reach small targets while overcoming the effects of interactions with surrounding tissue, which can otherwise deflect the needle away from its ideal path. The active section is designed to bend preferentially in one direction under actuation, and is also made from SMA for its combination of MR and bio-compatibility and its superelastic bending properties. A prototype, with a size equivalent to standard 16G biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending with a tip rotation of more than 10°. A numerical analysis and experiments provide information concerning the required amount of heating and guidance for design of efficient optical heating systems. PMID:26509100

  13. [Review on hospital infection administration of acupuncture manipulation with filiform needles].

    PubMed

    Gang, Shun-Kui; Li, Lei; Yi, Xiao-Ling; Wei, Dan-Xia; Hou, Min

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the relevant documents of hospital infection administration of acupuncture manipulation with filiform needles and acupuncture aseptic technique with filiform needles. The current situation is that acupuncturists have understanding insufficiency in hospital infection management, lack the sterile concepts and consciousness of disinfection and isolation. Aseptic technic principles aren't strictly followed; disinfection and isolation systems are unsound; sanitary condition of hand of medical staff is unsatisfied; and there is shortness in traditional long filiform needle manipulation. In future, we should explore the new model of hospital infection administration of acupuncture manipulation with filiform needles from implementations of relevant rules of hospital infection administration, establishment and supervision of sound corresponding system, further research of manipulation of filiform needles and formulation of septic technic criterion of filiform needles. PMID:22295838

  14. Tungsten-rhenium suture needles with improved properties for coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Frank R; Maurer, Robert E; Bar, S Neil

    2010-08-01

    Suture needles are essential instruments for performing blood vessel anastomosis in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. Exceptional needle performance is needed now as never before because of the increasing prevalence of elderly patients with advanced stages of coronary disease and calcified tissue. The various properties that affect the performance of suture needles used in CABG surgery are reviewed and recent progress towards improving needle performance through the use of tungsten-rhenium alloys and novel lubricous needle coatings is presented. Substantial enhancement of properties beyond those exhibited by commercially available stainless steel suture needles has been made, including an approximate 40% increase in strength, 100% increase in stiffness, and superior multiple pass penetration performance in both synthetic rubber media and human cadaver carotid arteries (p < 0.01). PMID:20574974

  15. Probe for Sampling of Interstitial Fluid From Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus characterized as both a membrane probe and a bone ultrafiltration probe has been developed to enable in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid in bone. The probe makes it possible to measure the concentration of calcium and other constituents of the fluid that may be relevant to bone physiology. The probe could be especially helpful in experimental studies of microgravitational bone loss and of terrestrial bone-loss disease states, including osteoporosis. The probe can be implanted in the bone tissue of a living animal and can be used to extract samples of the interstitial bone fluid from time to time during a long-term study. The probe includes three 12-cm-long polyacrylonitrile fibers configured in a loop form and attached to polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.025 in. (0.64 mm), outside diameter 0.040 in. (1 mm)]; the attachment is made by use of a 1-cm-long connecting piece of polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.035 0.003 in. (0.89 0.08 mm), outside diameter 0.060 0.003 in. (1.52 0.08 mm)]. At the distal end, a 2-cm-long piece of polyurethane tubing of the same inner and outer diameters serves as a connector to a hub. A 1-cm long piece of expanded poly (tetrafluoroethylene) tubing over the joint between the fibers and the connecting tubing serves as a tissue-in-growth site.

  16. Interstitial Keratitis, Vertigo, and Vasculitis: Typical Cogan's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azami, Ahad; Maleki, Nasrollah; Kalantar Hormozi, Mohammadreza; Tavosi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome (CS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that most commonly affects young adults. Clinical hallmarks are bilateral interstitial keratitis and vestibuloauditory dysfunction. Association between CS and systemic vasculitis as well as aortitis also exists. The diagnosis of CS is based upon presence of characteristic inflammatory eye disease and vestibuloauditory dysfunction. We describe classic Cogan's syndrome in a 47-year-old female from Ardabil. The patient was admitted with headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, right leg claudication, musculoskeletal pains, bilateral hearing loss, and blindness for the past two months. Ophthalmologic examination revealed that visual acuity was 0.1 bilaterally. Conjunctival hyperemia, bilateral cataract, and interstitial keratitis were detected with a slit lamp examination. Pure tone audiogram (PTA) and auditory brain stem response (ABR) showed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The other differential diagnosis of CS was studied and ruled out. Pulse i.v. methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide were given and were followed by oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Clinical follow-up showed partial improvement. PMID:24715922

  17. Neutron diffraction observations of interstitial protons in dense ice

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Boehler, Reinhard; Tulk, Christopher A.; Molaison, Jamie J.; dos Santos, António M.; Li, Kuo; Hemley, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The motif of distinct H2O molecules in H-bonded networks is believed to persist up to the densest molecular phase of ice. At even higher pressures, where the molecule dissociates, it is generally assumed that the proton remains localized within these same networks. We report neutron-diffraction measurements on D2O that reveal the location of the D atoms directly up to 52 GPa, a pressure regime not previously accessible to this technique. The data show the onset of a structural change at ?13 GPa and cannot be described by the conventional network structure of ice VII above ?26 GPa. Our measurements are consistent with substantial deuteron density in the octahedral, interstitial voids of the oxygen lattice. The observation of this “interstitial” ice VII form provides a framework for understanding the evolution of hydrogen bonding in ice that contrasts with the conventional picture. It may also be a precursor for the superionic phase reported at even higher pressure with important consequences for our understanding of dense matter and planetary interiors. PMID:23757495

  18. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  19. Neutron diffraction observations of interstitial protons in dense Ice

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Boehler, Reinhard; Tulk, Christopher A; Molaison, Jamie J; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F; Li, Kuo; Hemley, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The motif of distinct H2O molecules in H-bonded networks is believed to persist up to the densest molecular phase of ice. At even higher pressures, where the molecule dissociates, it is generally assumed that the proton remains localized within these same networks. We report neutron-diffraction measurements on D2O that reveal the location of the D atoms directly up to 52 GPa, a pressure regime not previously accessible to this technique. The data show the onset of a structural change at similar to 13 GPa and cannot be described by the conventional network structure of ice VII above similar to 26 GPa. Our measurements are consistent with substantial deuteron density in the octahedral, interstitial voids of the oxygen lattice. The observation of this "interstitial" ice VII form provides a framework for understanding the evolution of hydrogen bonding in ice that contrasts with the conventional picture. It may also be a precursor for the superionic phase reported at even higher pressure with important consequences for our understanding of dense matter and planetary interiors.

  20. Surface and interstitial transition barriers in rutile (110) surface growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanville, E. J.; Vernon, L. J.; Kenny, S. D.; Smith, R.; Moghaddam, Y.; Browne, C.; Mulheran, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present calculated surface and interstitial transition barriers for Ti, O, O2 , TiO, and TiO2 atoms and clusters at the rutile (110) surface. Defect structures involving these small clusters, including adcluster and interstitial binding sites, were calculated by energy minimization using density-functional theory (DFT). Transition energies between these defect sites were calculated using the NEB method. Additionally, a modified SMB-Q charge equilibration empirical potential and a fixed-charge empirical potential were used for a comparison of the transition energy barriers. Barriers of 1.2-3.5 eV were found for all studied small cluster transitions upon the surface except for transitions involving O2 . By contrast, the O2 diffusion barriers along the [001] direction upon the surface are only 0.13 eV. The QEq charge equilibration model gave mixed agreement with the DFT calculations, with the barriers ranging between 0.8 and 5.8 eV.

  1. Systematics of interstitial encrusting bryozoans from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Winston, Judith E; Vieira, Leandro M

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes 22 species of marine bryozoans found in the sand-grain-encrusting interstitial epifauna of the northeast coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil: one new cyclostome, Disporella calcitrapa sp. nov., and 21 cheilostomes. Sixteen of the cheilostomes are new species, and three represent new genera. They are Ammatophora arenacea sp. nov., Discoporella gemmulifera sp. nov., Puellina caraguata sp. nov., Puellina tuba sp. nov., Rosulapelta rosetta gen. et sp. nov., Collarina spicata sp. nov., Hippothoa calcicola sp. nov., Trypostega ilhabelae sp. nov., Reptadeonella granulosa sp. nov., Drepanophora irregularis sp. nov., Allotherenia sabulosa gen. et sp. nov., Bryopesanser tilbrooki sp. nov., Psammocleidochasma tridentatum gen. et sp. nov., Celleporina abstrusa sp. nov., Hippoporella castellana sp. nov., and Hippoporella sabulonis sp. nov. Other species found in this habitat, Alderina smitti, Cymulopora uniserialis, Vibracellina laxibasis, Akatopora leucocypha, and Smittipora sawayai, have previously been described. The family Cymuloporidae fam. nov. is erected for Cymulopora and Crepis. The occurrence in this habitat of living colonies of bryozoans more characteristic of larger subtidal shell substrata indicates the potential importance of an interstitial refuge in maintaining and dispersing encrusting bryozoan populations along continental shelves where larger substrata are absent or rare. PMID:26106679

  2. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile. PMID:25398579

  3. Circulating Biomarkers of Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lota, Harpreet K.; Renzoni, Elisabetta A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although a large proportion of SSc patients have only limited interstitial involvement with an indolent course, in a significant minority ILD is progressive, requiring prompt treatment and careful monitoring. One of the main challenges for the clinician treating this highly variable disease is the early identification of patients at risk of progressive ILD, while avoiding potentially toxic treatments in those whose disease is inherently stable. Easily available and repeatable biomarkers that allow estimation of the risk of ILD progression and early response to treatment are highly desirable. In this paper, we review the evidence for circulating biomarkers with potential roles in diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, or determining prognosis. Peripheral blood biomarkers offer the advantages of being readily obtained, non-invasive, and serially monitored. Several possible candidates have emerged from studies performed so far, including SP-D, KL-6, and CCL18. Presently however, there are few prospective studies evaluating the predictive ability of prospective biomarkers after adjustment for disease severity. Future carefully designed, prospective studies of well characterised patients with ILD, with optimal definition of disease severity and outcome measures are needed. PMID:22988462

  4. Interstitially stabilized phases in the zirconium-nickel system

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Addition of nonmetal interstitial atoms to Zr-Ni compounds has resulted in several new phases. A single-crystal x-ray study was carried out for Zr{sub 3}NiO. Zr{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O is a high- temperature phase, forming in samples annealed at 1250 C. Huekel band calculations led to prediction and confirmation of additional phases in more electron rich systems. Other phases studied by XRD are Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 0.6}, Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}O, and Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Phases identified by powder diffraction are Nb{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O, Zr{sub 4}Cu{sub 2}O, and Zr{sub 6}Co{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O. New Zr kappa phases in space group P6s{sub 3}/mmc were found: Zr{sub 9}Mo{sub 4}SO{sub x} and Zr{sub 9}W{sub 4}(S,Ni)O{sub 3}. A new structure type was discovered with Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}TiSiO{sub 1.8}. In all these interstitially stabilized phases, O is coordinated in Zr octahedral; there are no Ni-O interactions.

  5. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bracamonte, Erika; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Costello, James

    2015-01-01

    Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI. PMID:26664405

  6. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  7. Genetics of Interstitial Lung Disease: Vol de Nuit (Night Flight)

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Shimada, Kota; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease with a dismal prognosis. ILD of unknown etiology is referred to as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which is sporadic in the majority of cases. ILD is frequently accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and other autoimmune diseases, and is referred to as collagen vascular disease-associated ILD (CVD-ILD). Susceptibility to ILD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances in radiographic imaging techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as high-throughput genomic analyses have provided insights into the genetics of ILD. These studies have repeatedly revealed an association between IIP (sporadic and familial) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the mucin 5B (MUC5B). HLA-DRB1*11 alleles have been reported to correlate with ILD in European patients with SSc, whereas in Japanese patients with RA, the HLA-DR2 serological group was identified. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of sporadic IIP, CVD-ILD, drug-induced-ILD (DI-ILD), pneumoconiosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The genetics of ILD is still in progress. However, this information will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of ILD and aid the identification of novel therapeutic targets for personalized medicine in future. PMID:26056507

  8. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kazebayashi, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Noriko; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix) are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  9. A Rare Case of a Lost Suture Needle during Third Molar Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aktop, Sertac; Gocmen, Gokhan; Özturk, M. Elif; Gonul, Onur; Varol, Altan

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case that is started with a simple upper third molar's surgical extraction and a broken 3.0 suture needle tip incident occurred. Broken fragment's localization has been detected with 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Needle tip has been reached with the help of CBCT vision. CBCT's benefits have been discussed on these types of cases and further migration of the needle tip during surgical procedure is reported. PMID:26347829

  10. A Rare Case of a Lost Suture Needle during Third Molar Surgery.

    PubMed

    Aktop, Sertac; Gocmen, Gokhan; Özturk, M Elif; Gonul, Onur; Varol, Altan

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case that is started with a simple upper third molar's surgical extraction and a broken 3.0 suture needle tip incident occurred. Broken fragment's localization has been detected with 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Needle tip has been reached with the help of CBCT vision. CBCT's benefits have been discussed on these types of cases and further migration of the needle tip during surgical procedure is reported. PMID:26347829

  11. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (78 FR 34589), ``Descriptive Designation for Needle- or... race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual...

  12. [Needle-free injection--science fiction or comeback of an almost forgotten drug delivery system?].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2007-08-01

    The first to create a "needle-free injector" was the American anesthetist Robert A. Hingson, 65 year ago. Since that time those devices underwent a changeful history. In 1986 an outbreak of hepatitis B among patients receiving injections from a needle-free multiple-use-nozzle injector was documented and related to the use of the injector device. Due to such risk of transmission of infection with these reusable devices, their application has been restricted. In 1998 the WHO recommended that only conventional needles and syringes should be used for immunization until safe needle-free injectors are identified through independent safety testing. Since needle-free injection has shown numerous advantages in comparison to conventional injection, new systems were developed that combine the advantages of needle-free injection with sufficient safety in mass vaccination programs. As an alternative to this early injector type, the disposable-cartridge injectors were developed. The newest research field in the area of the needle-free injection systems opened with the development of powder injectors, in which the drug preparation is no longer a suspension or solution, but a powdered solid. This injector type using powder formulations shows a number of advantages in comparison with the conventional needle/syringe injection technique as well as towards the liquid jet injectors. Due to this new kind of injectors the comeback of the needle-free injection technique in large-scale vaccination programs of the WHO seems reasonable and within reach. PMID:17879809

  13. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  14. Diffusion-limited interaction of dislocation loops and interstitials during dry oxidation in silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Diffusion-limited interaction of dislocation loops and interstitials during dry oxidation reduction of OED (oxidation enhanced diffusion) of boron in a buried layer due to very efficient interstitial capturing action of dislocation loops, suggesting diffusion-limited dislocation loop growth

  15. The Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes in Interstitial HOSSEIN BELADI and GREGORY S. ROHRER

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    ] twist boundaries. The current observation revealed an inverse relationship between the mea- sured (e.g., austenitic steels). This is pri- marily linked to the presence of interstitial elements (i the interstitial elements are negligible. This encourages investigation of the characteristics of the grain

  16. Catalytic role of boron atoms in self-interstitial clustering in Si Gyeong S. Hwanga)

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Catalytic role of boron atoms in self-interstitial clustering in Si Gyeong S. Hwanga) and William A DFT calculations and kinetic simulations, we have investigated the influence of boron atoms on selfInBsIn 1 I) when n 4. This implies boron can be liberated while leaving an interstitial cluster behind. Our

  17. Interstitial oxygen in silicon under hydrostatic pressure M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Matthew

    Interstitial oxygen in silicon under hydrostatic pressure M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller Lawrence Using infrared spectroscopy, we have measured the vibrational spectrum of interstitial oxygen in silicon of pressure transforms the transverse motion of the oxygen from that of a harmonic oscillator

  18. Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    1 Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion L.Q. Guo 1 Abstract The effects of hydrogen and chloride ions on the corrosion behavior of interstitial-free steel and the corrosion potentials drop sharply. Under a given hydrogen charging current density, the drops of the pitting

  19. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with an unruptured interstitial pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hamada, S; Naka, O; Moride, N; Higuchi, K; Takahashi, H

    1997-06-01

    We report a case of an unruptured interstitial pregnancy, which showed characteristic ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Color and pulsed Doppler sonography may facilitate early diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy. MRI may play some role in the diagnosis of this entity when ultrasound studies are insufficient or equivocal. PMID:9228505

  20. Organohalogenated compounds in pine needles from Beijing city, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Diandou; Deng, Linlin; Chai, Zhifang; Mao, Xueying

    2004-12-01

    Pine needles collected from 22 sites of six areas in Beijing city, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic extraction for extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The concentrations of EOX (EOX = ECl + EOBr + EOI) were in the order of EOCl > EOBr > EOI. About 1.6-34% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid, which suggested that major fractions of EOCl in pine needles were an acid-liable or acid-soluble fraction. The fact that pine needle contained higher EOCl contents in chemical industrial and traffic hub areas indicated that chemical industries and exhaust emission from vehicle were the main sources of organochlorines in the Beijing's air. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, HCB and PCBs) to total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.32-0.76% and 2.5-11.4%, respectively, which implied that a major portion of the EOCl and EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. The organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs concentrations in six areas were as follows: sigma HCH (sigma HCH = alpha- + beta- + gamma- + delta-HCH), 11.7-20.8 ng/g; sigma DDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD), 12.5-113.3 ng/g; hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1.1-5.3 ng/g; sigma chlordane (cis-chlordane + trans-chlordane + heptachlor), 1.7-9.5 ng/g, sigma PCB, 41.8-270.5 ng/g, on dry weight basis. The samples from chemical industrial area and residential area nearby chemical industries contained the highest concentrations of sigma DDT, HCB, sigma chlordane and sigma PCB, while the contamination levels of most OCPs and PCBs in iron-steel industrial area were the lowest. The ratios of alpha/gamma-HCH (ranged from 0.9-1.5) and p,p'-DDT/DDTs (ranged from 72.1% to 91.0%) revealed the presence of the recent use of lindane and DDTs or impure dicofol in Beijing. PMID:15519379

  1. Expanding needle concept for better extraction of body hair grafts.

    PubMed

    Poswal, Arvind

    2013-05-01

    In traditional follicular unit extraction technique, 0.8-1.4 mm punch is used to cut the dermis to the level of attachment of erector pili muscle, so that the intact follicular unit grafts can be extracted. However, the larger extraction sites and higher hair root transection rates are some difficulties encountered while using the punch to extract body hair grafts. To overcome these difficulties, expanding needle concept has been devised. It approaches the extraction process by customizing the extraction wound to the architecture of the follicular unit and by performing most of the dissection of the dermal attachments to the donor follicular unit under direct magnified vision. PMID:23723487

  2. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723

  3. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileti?, Maja; Vukovi?, Dragana; Živanovi?, Irena; Daki?, Ivana; Soldatovi?, Ivan; Maleti?, Dejan; Lazovi?, Saša; Malovi?, Gordana; Petrovi?, Zoran Lj.; Pua?, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  4. A first-principles investigation of interstitial defects in dilute tungsten alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The thermodynamic properties of intrinsic and extrinsic (Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Re) defects in tungsten have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The formation energies of substitutional defects are discussed with respect to their thermodynamic solubility limits. Several different interstitial configurations have been identified as local minima on the potential energy surface. In addition to dumbbell configurations with orientations along <111> and <110>, a lower symmetry configuration is described, which is referred to as a bridge interstitial. This interstitial type is found to be the lowest energy configuration for mixed-interstitials containing Ti, V, and Re, and can be up to 0.2 eV lower in energy than the other configurations. According to the calculations Ti, V and Re also trap self-interstitial atoms, which can be produced in substantial numbers during ion irradiation, affecting the mobility of the latter.

  5. Interstitial brachytherapy technique for chest wall refractory recurrence of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Chen, Qianqian; Zhao, Zhipeng; Zhao, Hongfu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the treatment effect of interstitial brachytherapy for chest wall locoregional recurrence of breast cancer. Material and methods This 44-year-old female presented with chest wall recurrence seven years after modified radical mastectomy for stage II breast cancer. Despite external beam radiation and chemotherapy, the lesion expanded as 5.3 × 5.1 × 3.0 cm3, and 8.0 × 5.1 × 4.0 cm3. The locoregional recurrent tumor was treated with interstitial brachytherapy under ultrasound guidance. The brachytherapy dose was 30 Gy in 6 fractions of 5 Gy each. Results Removal of the recurrent tumor was securely achieved by interstitial brachytherapy guided with ultrasound scanning. The refractory tumor in patient healed uneventfully after interstitial brachytherapy without recurrence during the 7 months of follow-up. Conclusions The ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy may be effective for refractory recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26622232

  6. Analysis of grain boundary sinks and interstitial diffusion in neutron-irradiated SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sosuke; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the interstitial loop denuded zone (DZ) along grain boundaries were examined for 3C-SiC irradiated at 1010-1380 C by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in an effort to obtain the activation energy of interstitial migration. Denuded-zone widths as small as 17 nm were observed below 1130 C, indicating that a substantial population of 'TEM invisible' voids of diameter <0.7 significantly contribute to interstitial annihilation. By using the obtained loop DZ width and the matrix sink strength (including the invisible voids), the activation energy of interstitial diffusion was determined to be 1.5 eV for the slower moving Si interstitial of SiC by application of simple reaction-diffusion equations.

  7. REVERSED-PHASE SEPARATION OF ESTUARINE INTERSTITIAL WATER FRACTIONS AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF C18 RETENTION OF ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are presented on the application of the reversed-phase separation technique for the determination of dissolved organic compounds in estuarine interstitial water. hirty-seven neutral, nonpolar organic compounds were equilibrated with interstitial water, extracted by emulsion-...

  8. Changes in metal mobility associated with bark beetle-induced tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Mikkelson, Kristin M; Bearup, Lindsay A; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2014-05-01

    Recent large-scale beetle infestations have caused extensive mortality to conifer forests resulting in alterations to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling, which in turn can impact metal mobility through complexation. This study analyzed soil-water samples beneath impacted trees in concert with laboratory flow-through soil column experiments to explore possible impacts of the bark beetle infestation on metal release and transport. The columns mimicked field conditions by introducing pine needle leachate and artificial rainwater through duplicate homogenized soil columns and measuring effluent metal (focusing on Al, Cu, and Zn) and DOC concentrations. All three metals were consistently found in higher concentrations in the effluent of columns receiving pine needle leachate. In both the field and laboratory, aluminum mobility was largely correlated with the hydrophobic fraction of the DOC, while copper had the largest correlation with total DOC concentrations. Geochemical speciation modeling supported the presence of DOC-metal complexes in column experiments. Copper soil water concentrations in field samples supported laboratory column results, as they were almost twice as high under grey phase trees than under red phase trees further signifying the importance of needle drop. Pine needle leachate contained high concentrations of Zn (0.1 mg l(-1)), which led to high effluent zinc concentrations and sorption of zinc to the soil matrix representing a future potential source for release. In support, field soil-water samples underneath beetle-impacted trees where the needles had recently fallen contained approximately 50% more zinc as samples from under beetle-impacted trees that still held their needles. The high concentrations of carbon in the pine needle leachate also led to increased sorption in the soil matrix creating the potential for subsequent carbon release. While unclear if manifested in adjacent surface waters, these results demonstrate an increased potential for Zn, Cu, and Al mobility, along with increased deposition of metals and carbon beneath beetle-impacted trees. PMID:24664178

  9. Interstitial fluid pressure correlates with intra-voxel incoherent motion imaging metrics in a mouse mammary carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungheon; Decarlo, Lindsey; Cho, Gene Y.; Jensen, Jens H.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Moy, Linda; Formenti, Silvia; Schneider, Robert J.; Goldberg, Judith D.; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2013-01-01

    Effective delivery of therapeutic drug to the core of a tumor is often impeded by physiological barriers, such as interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). There are a number of therapies to lower IFP and induce tumor vascular normalization. However, lack of a non-invasive means to measure IFP hinders utilization of such a window of opportunity for maximizing the treatment response. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion parameters as noninvasive imaging biomarkers for IFP. Mice bearing the 4T1 mammary carcinoma model were studied with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) immediately followed by wick-in-needle IFP measurement. Voxelwise analysis was conducted with a conventional monoexponential diffusion model as well as a biexponential model taking IVIM into account. There was no significant correlation of IFP with either median apparent diffusion coefficient from the monoexponential model (r = 0.11, p = 0.78) or median tissue diffusivity from the biexponential model (r = 0.30, p = 0.44). On the other hand, IFP was correlated with the median pseudo-diffusivity (Dp) of apparent vascular voxels (r = 0.76, p = 0.02) and with the median product of perfusion-fraction and pseudo-diffusivity (fp·Dp) of apparent vascular voxels (r = 0.77, p = 0.02). Although the effect of IVIM in tumors has been reported previously, to our knowledge, this study represents the first direct comparison of IVIM metrics with IFP, with the results supporting the feasibility of using IVIM-DWI metrics as noninvasive biomarkers for tumor IFP. PMID:22072561

  10. Oblique needle segmentation and tracking for 3D TRUS guided prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-09-15

    An algorithm was developed in order to segment and track brachytherapy needles inserted along oblique trajectories. Three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the rigid rod simulating the needle inserted into the tissue-mimicking agar and chicken breast phantoms were obtained to test the accuracy of the algorithm under ideal conditions. Because the robot possesses high positioning and angulation accuracies, we used the robot as a ''gold standard,'' and compared the results of algorithm segmentation to the values measured by the robot. Our testing results showed that the accuracy of the needle segmentation algorithm depends on the needle insertion distance into the 3D TRUS image and the angulations with respect to the TRUS transducer, e.g., at a 10 deg. insertion anglulation in agar phantoms, the error of the algorithm in determining the needle tip position was less than 1 mm when the insertion distance was greater than 15 mm. Near real-time needle tracking was achieved by scanning a small volume containing the needle. Our tests also showed that, the segmentation time was less than 60 ms, and the scanning time was less than 1.2 s, when the insertion distance into the 3D TRUS image was less than 55 mm. In our needle tracking tests in chicken breast phantoms, the errors in determining the needle orientation were less than 2 deg. in robot yaw and 0.7 deg. in robot pitch orientations, for up to 20 deg. needle insertion angles with the TRUS transducer in the horizontal plane when the needle insertion distance was greater than 15 mm.

  11. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Method Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Results Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. Conclusion This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients. PMID:26624990

  12. Is Interstitial Cells of Cajal–opathy Present in Gastroparesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Mohammad; McCallum, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Gastroparesis (GP), defined as delayed gastric emptying in the absence of any mechanical obstruction, is a challenging clinical condition, mainly because of limited treatment options. Studies in animal models of delayed gastric emptying as well as patients with gastroparesis revealed depletion or ultrastructural changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the gastric tissue, recently termed ICC-opathy. ICC are the pacemakers of the gastrointestinal tract and are involved in the transmission of the neuronal signaling to the smooth muscles. Therefore, lack of ICC could be one explanation of delayed gastric emptying in gastroparetic patients. How frequently ICC changes are observed in gastroparesis is not yet clear. In this review, the data on gastric ICC counts and morphology in animal models and patients with gastroparesis are discussed. PMID:26424037

  13. [The temperature control for cancer thermotherapy using interstitial microwave antenna].

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoli; Wang, Lili; Wang, Wenbing

    2006-12-01

    The basic objective of microwave hyperthermia is to raise the temperature in the tumor tissue without overheating point for a long time. It's difficult to achieve uniform temperature distribution using the continuous heating without changing the antenna shape and inserting position. In this paper, the interstitial antenna worked in the frequency of 2450 MHz inserted into an infinite muscle model is studied. The Finite Difference Time Domoin (FDTD) method was used to calculate the electromagnetic field, while the finite difference method (FDM) was used to analyze the temperature distribution in tumor tissue. The simulation results show that the long-time evenly heating can be achieved by using the alternately heating process and the treatment area can be changed by adjusting input power. PMID:17228739

  14. Distortions induced by radioactive seeds into interstitial brachytherapy dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Chuanyu; Inanc, Feyzi; Modrick, Joseph M.

    2004-12-01

    In a previous article, we presented development and verification of an integral transport equation-based deterministic algorithm for computing three-dimensional brachytherapy dose distributions. Recently, we have included fluorescence radiation physics and parallel computation to the standing algorithms so that we can compute dose distributions for a large set of seeds without resorting to the superposition methods. The introduction of parallel computing capability provided a means to compute the dose distribution for multiple seeds in a simultaneous manner. This provided a way to study strong heterogeneity and shadow effects induced by the presence of multiple seeds in an interstitial brachytherapy implant. This article presents the algorithm for computing fluorescence radiation, algorithm for parallel computing, and display results for an 81-seed implant that has a perfect and imperfect lattice. The dosimetry data for a single model 6711 seeds is presented for verification and heterogeneity factor computations using simultaneous and superposition techniques are presented.

  15. Metabolomics Insights Into Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as painful bladder syndrome or bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic lower urinary tract syndrome characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency, and increased urinary frequency in the absence of bacterial infection or identifiable clinicopathology. IC can lead to long-term adverse effects on the patient's quality of life. Therefore, early diagnosis and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying IC are needed. Metabolomic studies of biofluids have become a powerful method for assessing disease mechanisms and biomarker discovery, which potentially address these important clinical needs. However, limited intensive metabolic profiles have been elucidated in IC. The article is a short review on metabolomic analyses that provide a unique fingerprint of IC with a focus on its use in determining a potential diagnostic biomarker associated with symptoms, a response predictor of therapy, and a prognostic marker. PMID:25279237

  16. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, A.; Arcos, D.; Vallet-Regí, M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia.

  17. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    SciTech Connect

    Fryns, J.P.

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Interstitial Lung Disease in Childhood: Clinical and Genetic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in childhood is a heterogeneous group of rare pulmonary conditions presenting chronic respiratory disorders. Many clinical features of ILD still remain unclear, making the treatment strategies mainly investigative. Guidelines may provide physicians with an overview on the diagnosis and therapeutic directions. However, the criteria used in different clinical studies for the classification and diagnosis of ILDs are not always the same, making the development of guidelines difficult. Advances in genetic testing have thrown light on some etiologies of ILD, which were formerly classified as ILDs of unknown origins. The need of genetic testing for unexplained ILD is growing, and new classification criteria based on the etiology should be adopted to better understand the disease. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the clinical and genetic aspects of ILD in children. PMID:26512209

  19. Collective action of nanopatterned pins: barrier towards creating interstitial vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gorky; Mohan, Shyam; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Banerjee, Satyajit

    2009-03-01

    We show that by nano-patterning a superconductor (NbSe2 singlecrystal) with an array of blind holes produces significant magnetic field sweep rate dependent metastable magnetization response[1]. Our results are explained on the basis of a unique collective action of the blind holes pins which creates a barrier against vortex redistribution inside the sample. We propose that this barrier leads to a phase separation creating distinct population of vortices viz., those pinned on blind holes and those confined in the interstitials between the holes [1]. We find that due to the barrier, there is a significant enhancement in the stability of vortices against thermal fluctuations. [1] Gorky Shaw, Shyam Mohan, Jaivardhan Sinha and S. S. Banerjee* (submitted; xxx.lanl.gov/abs/0811.1256) *satyajit@iitk.ac.in

  20. Optical microsensor for continuous glucose measurements in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Cao, Chuanshun; Yager, Jeffrey R.; Prineas, John P.; Coretsopoulos, Chris; Arnold, Mark A.; Olafsen, Linda J.; Santilli, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Tight control of blood glucose levels has been shown to dramatically reduce the long-term complications of diabetes. Current invasive technology for monitoring glucose levels is effective but underutilized by people with diabetes because of the pain of repeated finger-sticks, the inconvenience of handling samples of blood, and the cost of reagent strips. A continuous glucose sensor coupled with an insulin delivery system could provide closed-loop glucose control without the need for discrete sampling or user intervention. We describe an optical glucose microsensor based on absorption spectroscopy in interstitial fluid that can potentially be implanted to provide continuous glucose readings. Light from a GaInAsSb LED in the 2.2-2.4 ?m wavelength range is passed through a sample of interstitial fluid and a linear variable filter before being detected by an uncooled, 32-element GaInAsSb detector array. Spectral resolution is provided by the linear variable filter, which has a 10 nm band pass and a center wavelength that varies from 2.18-2.38 ?m (4600-4200 cm -1) over the length of the detector array. The sensor assembly is a monolithic design requiring no coupling optics. In the present system, the LED running with 100 mA of drive current delivers 20 nW of power to each of the detector pixels, which have a noise-equivalent-power of 3 pW/Hz 1/2. This is sufficient to provide a signal-to-noise ratio of 4500 Hz 1/2 under detector-noise limited conditions. This signal-to-noise ratio corresponds to a spectral noise level less than 10 ?AU for a five minute integration, which should be sufficient for sub-millimolar glucose detection.

  1. System for integrated interstitial photodynamic therapy and dosimetric monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ann; Soto Thompson, Marcelo; Johansson, Thomas; Bendsoe, Niels; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer relies on the presence of light, sensitizer and oxygen. By monitoring these three parameters during the treatment a better understanding and treatment control could possibly be achieved. Here we present data from in vivo treatments of solid skin tumors using an instrument for interstitial photodynamic therapy with integrated dosimetric monitoring. By using intra-tumoral ALA-administration and interstitial light delivery solid tumors are targeted. The same fibers are used for measuring the fluence rate at the treatment wavelength, the sensitizer fluorescence and the local blood oxygen saturation during the treatment. The data presented is based on 10 treatments in 8 patients with thick basal cell carcinomas. The fluence rate measurements at 635 nm indicate a major treatment induced absorption increase, leading to a limited light penetration at the treatment wavelength. This leads to a far from optimal treatment since the absorption increase prevents peripheral tumor regions from being fully treated. An interactive treatment has been implemented assisting the physician in delivering the correct light dose. The absorption increase can be compensated for by either prolonging the treatment time or increasing the output power of each individual treatment fiber. The other parameters of importance, i.e. the sensitizer fluorescence at 705 nm and the local blood oxygen saturation, are monitored in order to get an estimate of the amount of photobleaching and oxygen consumption. Based on the oxygen saturation signal, a fractionized irradiation can be introduced in order to allow for a re-oxygenation of the tissue.

  2. Biomarkers in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews major biomarkers in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with respect to their diagnostic and prognostic value in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). In some CTD such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), the incidence of ILD is up to two-third of patients, and currently ILD represents the leading cause of death in SSc. Because of the extremely variable incidence and outcome of ILD in CTD, progress in the discovery and validation of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, patients' subtyping, response to treatment, or as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials is extremely important. In contrast to idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, autoantibodies play a crucial role as biomarkers in CTD-ILD because their presence is strictly linked to the pathogenesis and tissue damage. Patterns of autoantibodies, for instance, anticitrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS) in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, have been found to correlate with the presence and occasionally with the course of ILD in CTD. Besides autoantibodies, an increase in serum or BALF of a biomarker of pulmonary origin may be able to predict or reflect the development of fibrosis, the impairment of lung function, and ideally also the prognosis. Promising biomarkers are lung epithelium-derived proteins such as KL-6 (Krebs von den Lungen-6), SP-D (surfactant protein-D), SP-A (surfactant protein-A), YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like protein 1 [CHI3L1] or cytokines such as CCL18 [chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 18]). In the future, genetic/epigenetic markers, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and micro-RNA, may help to identify subtypes of patients with different needs of management and treatment strategies. PMID:24668534

  3. Intravesical chondroitin sulphate for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417

  4. PBNR: Percutaneous Blunt Needle Reduction of Bony Mallet Injuries.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Murugesan, Logendra; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O; Jemec, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Mallet finger injuries are common; treatment goals include achieving joint stability, preventing extensor lag, and subsequent swan-neck deformity. We describe a simple technique for improving intraoperative bony mallet reduction, which may avoid the requirement for closed Ishiguro extension blocking wires or open fixation, and present a prospective case series (n=12). Intraoperative percutaneous blunt needle reduction (PBNR) is achieved under image intensifier guidance. Using artery forceps, a blunt fill needle tip is manipulated onto the proximal avulsed fragment; this is then guided into a reduced position and maintained using a well-formed Zimmer splint across the distal interphalangeal joint in 15- to 30-degree extension. There were 5 injuries involving >1/3 of the articular surface (Doyle's classification IVb) and 7 injuries involving >1/2 of the articular surface (Doyle's classification IVc). Mean hand therapy follow-up was 10.6±1.0 weeks, extensor lag was 4.6±1.7 degrees, and all patients achieved full functional recovery with return to normal daily activity. No complications were reported. Closed techniques, for example, Ishiguro extension blocking wires, may reduce the risks associated with open reduction, but do not avoid further articular surface damage. PBNR offers the surgeon a useful adjunct to the treatment options for bony mallet injuries, without excluding progression to surgical fixation if required. PBNR represents a less-invasive management option for bony mallet injures where surgical fixation may also be indicated. PMID:25989396

  5. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  6. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  7. Dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Williams, Jay A; Yoon, Changhan; Kang, Bong Jin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Shung, K Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-04-01

    A dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. A low-frequency element and a high-frequency element were integrated into one device to obtain images which conveyed both low- and high-frequency information from a single scan. The low-frequency element with a center frequency of 48 MHz was fabricated from the single crystal form of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate solid solution with two matching layers (MLs) and the high frequency element with a center frequency of 152 MHz was fabricated from lithium niobate with one ML. The measured axial and lateral resolutions were 27 and [Formula: see text], respectively, for the low-frequency element, and 14 and [Formula: see text], respectively, for the high-frequency element. The performance of the dual-element needle transducer was validated by imaging a tissue-mimicking phantom with lesion-mimicking area, and ex vivo rabbit aortas in water and rabbit whole blood. The results suggest that a low-frequency element effectively provides depth resolved images of the whole vessel and its adjacent tissue, and a high-frequency element visualizes detailed structure near the surface of the lumen wall in the presence of blood within the lumen. The advantages of a dual-element approach for intravascular imaging are also discussed. PMID:26158118

  8. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  9. Neck schwannoma diagnosed by core needle biopsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nasrollah, N; Trimboli, P; Bianchi, D; Taccogna, S

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a case of a 58 year old man referred to our hospital to undergo neck and thyroid ultrasonography (US) following palpable neck mass. US revealed a solid hypoechoic nodule in right thyroid lobe, and a solid lesion on the right laterocervical neck region with ultrasound suspicious features of neoplastic lymph node. In order to achieve a diagnosis of the neck mass and to get a proper evaluation of the thyroid nodule, we decided to perform a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of both lesions. At cytopathologic examination the thyroid nodule appeared as benign, while cytologic sampling of the neck lesion was inadequate for a proper evaluation. Thus, we performed core needle biopsy (CNB) of the neck lesion like recently proposed for thyroid lesions; also, to definitively exclude malignancy of thyroid nodule, this also underwent CNB. Histologic report of CNB confirmed benign thyroid nodule, while the neck lesion revealed a proliferation of neuronal type consistent with schwannoma. The patient has been addressed to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. CNB appears as a safe and minimally-invasive approach to diagnose indeterminate neck masses and avoid unnecessary diagnostic surgery. PMID:26550065

  10. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-01

    A "plasma needle" is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  11. Evidence for passive mineral carbonation from carbon isotope geochemistry of interstitial air in mine wastes from the Dumont Nickel Project (Abitibi, Quebec).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, A.; Beaudoin, G.; Molson, J. W. H.; Plante, B.; Lemieux, J. M.; Kandji, E. H. B.

    2014-12-01

    Natural weathering of ultramafic rocks in mine tailings allows the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through the formation of magnesium carbonates. The Dumont Nickel Project (DNP) is being studied to estimate the CO2 sequestration potential of future mining residues and to evaluate the impact of mineral carbonation on the quality of mine waste drainage water. For this purpose, experimental cells were built and instrumented in 2011. The first was constructed using milling waste and the second with mining waste. Laboratory characterization of residues and field observations will be combined to propose a quantitative model of mineral carbonation and metal leaching. A decrease of CO2 concentration in the mining waste cell, from atmospheric concentrations (~390 ppmv) near the surface of the cell to ~100 ppmv near the bottom, reflects active CO2 consumption by the residues. This cell contains mining waste with a large grain size distribution ranging from blocks (<40cm) to silt-size grains. Magnesium-rich minerals such as lizardite, chrysotile and brucite are the major minerals in the residues. Mineralogical analyses (XRD, SEM and EPMA) reveal precipitation of brugnatellite and hydromagnesite, with a lamellar texture on the surface of serpentine grains. In order to better identify the different processes involved in carbonation, the carbon isotopic composition of the interstitial gases was analysed in-situ with a WS-CRDS instrument. An increase of d13C(air) from -8‰ to ~2 ‰ is correlated with the decrease in CO2 concentration within the cell, and can be explained by dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in interstitial water (Dco2-DIC 11‰) in the DNP mining residues. As gas advection is slow, CO2 supply driven by diffusion is the limiting step in the experimental cell. CO2 dissolution in interstitial water under this limited CO2 supply condition enriches 13C in residual CO2 in interstitial air. Optimized mineral carbonation reactions in DNP mining waste will require an unconstrained CO2 supply.

  12. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Needle Terpenoid Composition of Pinus halepensis

    E-print Network

    .) Trees Infested by the Scale Insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece Athanassios Gallis,1 Carlos, needle terpenoids Introduction Marchalina hellenica is a scale insect which in Greece infests mainly in the needles of Aleppo pine trees that are infested and not infested by the scale insect M. hellenica, and b

  13. Needle Custom Search Recall-Oriented Search on the Web Using Semantic Annotations

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Needle Custom Search Recall-Oriented Search on the Web Using Semantic Annotations Rianne Kaptein1 to perform recall-oriented tasks using these search engines. In this article, we present our tool Needle the efficiency of recall- oriented search tasks. Semantic annotations, such as temporal annotations, named

  14. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-?m-diameter tip and a 210-?m length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600?k? in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40?Hz–10?kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300??Vpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology. PMID:24785307

  15. Comparison between concentric needle EMG and macro EMG in patients with a history of polio

    E-print Network

    Comparison between concentric needle EMG and macro EMG in patients with a history of polio A previously affected by polio. Methods: Macro and concentric needle EMG investigations were performed in 261 muscles in 121 patients with a remote history of polio. Results: CNEMG was abnormal in 211 muscles, macro

  16. Nozzle and needle during high viscosity adhesive jetting based on piezoelectric jet dispensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Song; Jiang, Hai; Li, Minjiao; Liu, Jianfang; Gu, Shoudong; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xiaolun

    2015-10-01

    A piezoelectric impinging jet valve is used as a study object to investigate the effect of the ball needle in the existing impinging jet and nozzle structure of the valve on the performance of the jet. First, FLUENT software is used under different ball needle and nozzle structural parameters to simulate the pressure distribution that the ball needle and nozzle in the pressure cavity form when the ball needle hits the nozzle, by arranging the structure model of the ball needle and impact valve nozzle. The piezoelectric impact injection valve and the experiment test system are then designed. Test results show that the ball needle and nozzle structural parameters are closely related to the injection performance of the impact valve. Under certain conditions, a greater needle radius corresponds to a smaller nozzle aperture and taper. Moreover, high-viscosity liquid jetting is easily achieved. By using a ball needle with a radius of 1.5 mm, a taper angle of 60°, and a nozzle diameter of 0.1 mm, we can realize the industrial viscosity of 58 000 cps in glue spray, and the injection plastic fluid volume is 0.62 ?l.

  17. A case study of pigmentation and textural changes associated with needling Yin Tang.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Forrest

    2014-04-01

    In this article, a case is presented in which repeated needling of the Yin Tang point over the course of 6 years was perceived to cause pigmentation and textural changes to the skin. Others have reported changes to pigmentation, but those changes were either shorter lived and associated with strong stimulation, or were associated with implanting a silver needle for several years. PMID:24745869

  18. The 'whoosh' test. A clinical test to confirm correct needle placement in caudal epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M P; Thomas, P; Wilson, L F; Mulholland, R C

    1992-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported test to confirm accurate needle placement in caudal epidurals. Of 26 patients undergoing caudal epidural, 19 (73%) had correct needle placement as determined by epidurography. All of these had a positive 'whoosh' test. There were no false positives. PMID:1536408

  19. Accumulation of organic air constituents by plant surfaces. Spruce needles for monitoring airborne chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reischl, A.; Thoma, H.; Reissinger, M.; Hutzinger, O. )

    1988-10-01

    The needles of the spruce (Picea abies) were used to monitor ambient air for organic trace substances. Analyses of spruce needles in an industrialized area demonstrated that the concentrations of these substances were much higher than those in a nonindustrialized area.

  20. SIMBiopsies: An Augmented Reality Training SIMulator for Needle Biopsies M S Narayanan1

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    SIMBiopsies: An Augmented Reality Training SIMulator for Needle Biopsies M S Narayanan1 , X Zhou1 and validate an Augmented Reality Training SIMulator for Needle Biopsies (AR- SIMBiopsies) that reasons, including: (i) inadequate conventional training due to various economic and logistical issues