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1

Frameless image guidance improves accuracy in three-dimensional interstitial brachytherapy needle placement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work was to adapt a computer-assisted real-time three-dimensional (3D) navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Methods and materials: The 3-D navigation system Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer System (SPOCS; Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) was adapted for use in interstitial brachytherapy. A special needle holder with mounted infrared-emitting diodes (IRED) for 3D navigation-based needle implantation was developed. Measurements were made on a series of different phantoms to study the feasibility and the overall accuracy and precision of the navigation system with regard to single-needle application and volume implants (multiple-needle implantations). In all, 250 single implants and 20 volume implants were performed. Accuracy was measured as the target registration error (TRE) between the preoperatively defined and the achieved target position. Results: Analyses of the 250 different targets showed a mean TRE for single-needle applications of 1.1 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 0.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm), and 0.7 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm) in the x, y, and z direction, respectively. The maximal deviation was 2.3 mm. The corresponding TRE in the x, y, and z direction for volume implants was 1.6 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 1.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.6 mm), and 1.0 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), respectively. The maximum deviation was 2.9 mm. Conclusions: The adaptation of a commercially available surgical planning and navigation system to interstitial brachytherapy is feasible. It enables virtual planning and improved accuracy in 3D interstitial needle implantation.

Krempien, Robert [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hassfeld, Stefan [Clinic for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kozak, Josef [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Tuemmler, Hans-Peter [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Daeuber, Sascha [Institute for Process Control and Robotics, University of Karlsruhe - TH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Treiber, Martina [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2004-12-01

2

[Hard metal interstitial lung disease].  

PubMed

Hard metal lung disease is an unusual disease which can occur in individuals exposed to hard metals. Clinically, the condition resembles hypersensitivity pneumonitis depending mainly on individual susceptibility, which eventually progresses to pulmonary fibrosis. We present two patients with pulmonary fibrosis, who were actually diagnosed after an exhaustive anamnesis and examination of the tissue by scanning microscope to discard hard metals. The evaluation of wedge biopsies by scanning electronic microscope can be very helpful in those cases without a specific diagnosis. PMID:19962814

Montero, M Angeles; de Gracia, Javier; Morell, Ferràn

2009-12-04

3

Theory of interstitial transition-metal impurities in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of interstitial iron-group transition-metal impurities in silicon is calculated by the spin-restricted scattered-wave Xalpha method. A representation of pure crystalline silicon is provided by the cluster Si10H16, which is centered on the high-symmetry (Td) interstitial position. The sixteen hydrogen atoms serve to terminate the cluster by tying up the dangling bonds. The neutral transition-metal impurities, Cr, Mn,

Gary G. Deleo; George D. Watkins; W. Beall Fowler

1981-01-01

4

Metallic sewing needle ingestion presenting as acute abdomen.  

PubMed

We reported an unusual case of a 26-year-old man presenting to surgical emergency as generalized peritonitis following an ingestion of multiple metallic sewing needles. The X-ray of his abdomen showed pneumoperitoneum and multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity. An ultrasonogram of his abdomen showed multiple metallic foreign bodies in the abdominal cavity and urinary bladder. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. On laparotomy, gastric and duodenal perforation was found through which metallic sewing needles were protruding out. A peritoneal lavage was done, and all the sewing needles were extracted from the perforation site, paracolic gutter, liver parenchyma, and urinary bladder. The primary repair of the perforation with omental patching was done with the drainage of subhepatic space and pelvic cavity. These multiple ingested sewing needles led to the perforation of the stomach and the duodenum, which resulted in perforation peritonitis. PMID:23974755

Misra, S; Jain, V; Ahmad, F; Kumar, R; Kishore, N

5

Metal contamination in interstitial waters of Doñana Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of interstitial waters in Spain's Doñana National Park was assessed 4 years after a major pyrite slurry spill occurred from the Aznalcollar Mine. Metal and nutrient concentrations in pore waters from two of the most important watercourses traversing Doñana Park were measured: Guadiamar River (affected by the accident) and Partido Stream (unimpacted by the accident). Concentrations of dissolved

Antonio Tovar-Sanchez; Miguel A. Huerta-Diaz; Juan J. Negro; Miguel A. Bravo; Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

2006-01-01

6

Metal contamination in interstitial waters of Doñana Park.  

PubMed

The composition of interstitial waters in Spain's Doñana National Park was assessed 4 years after a major pyrite slurry spill occurred from the Aznalcollar Mine. Metal and nutrient concentrations in pore waters from two of the most important watercourses traversing Doñana Park were measured: Guadiamar River (affected by the accident) and Partido Stream (unimpacted by the accident). Concentrations of dissolved constituents in interstitial waters varied according to land use in the two watersheds and to the effects of the mine spill. Levels of dissolved Co, Cu, Mo, Ti, and Zn were higher in pore waters from the Guadiamar River than in the Partido Stream, suggesting that concentrations of trace elements are still influenced by the spill. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved nutrients (NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, PO4(-3)) and some trace metals used in fertilizers (e.g. Al and Cr) were higher in the Partido Stream. Levels of dissolved As, Cs, DOC, Ge, Hg, Rb and V in the interstitial waters were equal in both watercourses. Metal concentrations in interstitial waters of the Guadiamar River floodplain were between 0.3 (As) and 16,000 (Zn) times lower than those previously reported in the river and groundwater a few weeks after the mine spill. Although metals in pore water appear to have reached levels characteristic of the area before the accident, concentrations are 60-150 times higher than those in pore waters from other regions. Metal:Al ratios in Doñana's pore waters suggest a transport of contaminants from the Iberian Pyrite Belt into Doñana Park. PMID:16112799

Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel A; Negro, Juan J; Bravo, Miguel A; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

2005-08-19

7

Giant Cell Interstitial Pneumonia in a 60YearOld Female without Hard Metal Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a form of pulmonary fibrosis usually caused by exposure to hard metals. We report a case of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 60-year-old female office worker who was a non-smoker and did not have any exposure to hard metals.

Balakrishnan Menon; Amit Sharma; Jai Kripalani; Sudhir Jain

2006-01-01

8

The Problem of Metal Needles in Acupuncture-fMRI Studies  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapy based on sensory stimulation of the human body by means of metal needles. The exact underlying mechanisms of acupuncture have not been clarified so far. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an important tool in acupuncture research. Standard acupuncture needles, which are made of ferromagnetic steel, however, are problematic in acupuncture-fMRI studies for several reasons, such as attraction by the scanner's magnetic field, significant image distortions and signal-dropouts, when positioned close to the head or even heating due to absorption of radio frequency (RF). The aim of this study was to compare two novel types of acupuncture needles with a standard needle for their effect on MRI image quality. The standard needle severely reduced image quality, when located inside the RF coil. The nonferromagnetic metal needle may pose a risk due to RF heating, while the plastic needle has a significantly larger diameter. In conclusion, our recommendations are: (1) standard needles should not be used in MRI; (2) Nonferromagnetic metal needles seem to be the best choice for acupoints outside of the transmitter coil; and (3) only plastic needles are suited for points inside the coil. Laser acupuncture may be a safe alternative, too.

Beissner, Florian; Noth, Ulrike; Schockert, Thomas

2011-01-01

9

COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR COLLECTING INTERSTITIAL WATER FOR TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METAL ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. e compared the concentration of pollutants in doses seawater before ...

10

Reduction of decomposition rates of scots pine needle litter due to heavy-metal pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of unpolluted Scots pine needle litter was studied in two heavy-metal-pollution gradients in Sweden; one near a brass mill and the other around a primary smelter. In the latter area locally collected polluted Scots pine needle litter was also incubated. Decomposition rates were strongly influenced by the metal pollution and a decrease in the rate of mass-loss occurred. In

Björn Berg; Gunnar Ekbohm; Bengt Söderström; Håkan Staaf

1991-01-01

11

Determination of Metallic Elements in Interstitial Waters of Aquatic Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are given for the determination of Mn, Sr, Ni, Fe, Cu, and Sb concentrations in interstitial waters extracted from marine sediments from the Gulf of Spezia and from lake sediments of the Massaciuccoli Lake and the Torre del Lago. Tabulated data ar...

R. Boniforti M. Cambiaghi P. Frigieri

1980-01-01

12

Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and juniper (Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses

D ?eburnis; E Steinnes

2000-01-01

13

Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and juniper (Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses

E. Steinnes; A. Gos

14

Comparison of methods for collecting interstitial water for trace organic compounds and metals analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water (IW) were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. The concentration of pollutants in dosed seawater before and after exposure to stainless steel and Teflon centrifuge tubes, glass fiber and Nuclepore filters, cellulose dialysis membranes and fritted glass

D. W. Schults; S. P. Ferraro; L. M. Smith; F. A. Roberts; C. K. Poindexter

1992-01-01

15

Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the

Xosé L. Otero; Felipe Mac??as

2002-01-01

16

Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

1989-07-01

17

Side bands of the vibrational spectrum of interstitial elements in a metal lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of oxygen atoms in Ta-O solid solution has been studied by the slow-neutron inelastic scattering method. Indications\\u000a have been obtained for the existence of vibration-rotation excitations of an interstitial atom in a metal lattice. In addition\\u000a to the peaks corresponding to the fundamental oscillations of a harmonic oscillator (??1,2 ? 42 meV and ??3 ? 82 meV), side

S. I. Morozov; V. V. Kazarnikov; A. S. Ivanov

2006-01-01

18

The volume increase of fcc metals and alloys due to interstitial hydrogen over a wide range of hydrogen contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial hydrogen contents and their associated volume increments have been determined for a variety of fcc metals and alloys. Using high pressure techniques, hydrogen contents approaching n = 1, where n = H-to-metal (atomic ratio), have been obtained. Despite electronic and initial volume differences amongst the fcc metallic matrices, all data fall onto a common relationship.

B. Baranowski; S. Majchrzak; T. B. Flanagan

1971-01-01

19

Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the utility of interstitial water concentrations of metals and simultaneously extracted metal/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to explain the biological availability of sediment-associated divalent metals to benthic organisms exposed in the laboratory to sediments from five saltwater and four freshwater locations in the US, Canada, and China. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita or the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were exposed to 70 sediments from the five saltwater locations, and the amphipod Hyalella azteca or the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to 55 sediments from four freshwater locations in 10-d lethality tests. Almost complete absence of toxicity in spiked sediments and field sediments where metals were the only known source of contamination and where interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs) were < 0.5 indicates that toxicity associated with sediments having SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 from two saltwater locations in industrial harbors was not metals-related as these sediments contained <0.5 IWTU. Metals-associated toxicity was absent in 100% of sediments from the remaining three saltwater field locations, where metals were the only known source of contamination and SEM/AVS ratios were {le} 1.0. Two-thirds of 45 sediments from seven saltwater and freshwater field locations having both IWTUs > 0.5 (55%) were used alone. The difference between the molar concentrations of SEM and AVS (SEM-AVS) can provide important insight into the extent of additional available binding capacity, the magnitude by which AVS binding has been exceeded, and, when organism response is considered, the potential magnitude of importance of other metal binding phases. SEM-AVS should be used instead of SEM/AVS ratios as a measure of metals availability. In published experiments with both metal-spiked and field sediments, SEM-AVS and IWTUs accurately identified absence of sediment toxicity and with less accuracy identified the presence of toxicity.

Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering] [and others

1996-12-01

20

Comparison of methods for collecting interstitial water for trace organic compounds and metals analyses  

SciTech Connect

Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water (IW) were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. The concentration of pollutants in dosed seawater before and after exposure to stainless steel and Teflon centrifuge tubes, glass fiber and Nuclepore filters, cellulose dialysis membranes and fritted glass tubes were compared. Exposure to most hardware materials did not significantly affect the concentration of four metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) but there was significant loss (up to 79 percent) of two organic compounds (fluoranthene, p,p'-DDE) to almost all the hardware materials tested. Of five commonly used IW collection methods (centrifuging, centrifugal drainage or basal cup, squeezing, vacuum filtration and dialysis) investigated, the centrifuge method was judged the most accurate and precise for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs. All IW collection methods tested showed high variability for the metals. As a result, with one exception (Cu), there was no significant difference detected in the accuracy of the methods for metals.

Schults, D.W.; Ferraro, S.P.; Smith, L.M.; Roberts, F.A.; Poindexter, C.K.

1992-01-01

21

Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that dry weight concentrations of metals in sediments cannot be used to predict toxicity across sediments. However, several studies using sediments from both freshwater and saltwater have shown that interstitial water concentration or normalization involving acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) can be used to predict toxicity in sediments contaminated with cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc across a

W. J. Berry; D. J. Hansen; W. S. Boothman; J. D. Mahony; D. L. Robson; D. M. di Toro; B. P. Shipley; B. Rogers; J. M. Corbin

1996-01-01

22

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The results of a phase I clinical trial in which heat was combined with interstitial (low dose rate) radiation are described with emphasis on response and technical and physical aspects of heating. We treated 25 patients (27 lesions) using interstitial implants to locally recurrent, accessible tumors heated by radiofrequency currents to 43 degrees -45 degrees C for 30 minutes, with needle guides as electrodes. They were subsequently irradiated with either 192Ir or 226Ra. All patients had failed previous conventional treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, and, in most, near tolerance doses of irradiation. In all but one, a single hyperthermic treatment was given and the average dose of low dose irradiation was under 3,000 rad over 60 hours. No patient failed to respond, 63% achieved a complete disappearance of tumor in the treated volume, and 37% had partial response (50% less than volume reduction less than 100%). Duration of response was from 2 to 30 months, and no patient showed regrowth at the site treated. Normal tissue complications were minimal. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy is both a safe and an effective means of treatment in advanced or recurrent accessible disease.

Manning, M.R.; Cetas, T.C.; Gerner, E.W.

1982-06-01

23

Interstitial nephritis  

MedlinePLUS

Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis - interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis ... Interstitial nephritis may be temporary ( acute ), or it may be long-lasting ( chronic ) and get worse over time. The ...

24

Clinical experience with water-heated interstitial hyperthermia system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An orignal circulating hot water hyperthermia system for interstitial treatment has been constructed at the University Cliic\\u000a for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology in Vienna, Austria. At the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana, Slovenia, animal experiments\\u000a as well as a few human treatments were done. Results obtained with 44 metal needle implants on rabbits and\\/or pigs thigh\\u000a showed that a good temperature

H. Lesnicar; M. Budihna; L. Handl-Zeller; K. Schreider

1992-01-01

25

Observation of Magnetism of Fe at an Interstitial Site in a Metal Host  

SciTech Connect

Using perturbed angular ({gamma}-ray) distribution techniques and in-beam Moessbauer spectroscopy, we have investigated the interstitial and substitutional site occupation and the site-specific magnetic behavior of implanted Fe impurities in fcc Yb. As a new feature, strong magnetism is observed for interstitial Fe atoms, which exhibit a rather stable local moment and Korringa-like spin dynamics. The essential experimental results are found to be consistent with the predictions of local spin density calculations, carried out for relaxed octahedral interstitial and for substitutional Fe sites in Yb. These combined results yield insight into basic features of magnetic moment formation and local structure at an interstitial site. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Kapoor, J.; Riegel, D.; Li, Y.; Polaczyk, C.; Andres, J.; Mezei, F.; Sielemann, R.; Yoshida, Y. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Brewer, W. [Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); de Mello, L.; Frota-Pessoa, S. [Instituto de Fisica da USP, CP 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1997-02-01

26

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation  

SciTech Connect

A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

1988-03-01

27

Measurement of subcutaneous biological substances using thin metal needle with micro flow channel.  

PubMed

Concentrations of biological substances are useful as indicators of physiological and pathological states. In order to monitor biological substances in daily life, we developed a minimally invasive needle type device with which biological substances are extracted through a microperfusion system inserted under the skin. The perfusion needle has a flow channel with perforated membrane through which biological substances from subepidermal tissue are extracted. The efficacy of the device was examined by measuring lactate concentration of exercising mice. Lactate was successfully collected from the back skin of the mice running on a treadmill using a fabricated microperfusion needle. Lactate concentration of perfused solution correlated with blood lactate concentration. PMID:24110728

Tsuruoka, N; Ishii, K; Matsunaga, T; Nagatomi, R; Haga, Y

2013-07-01

28

Norway Spruce: A Novel Method using Surface Characteristics and Heavy Metal Concentrations of Needles for a Large-Scale Monitoring Survey in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epistomatal wax structure, occurrence of dust, gypsum-crystallites and microorganisms on the needle surfaces and trace metal contents of current-year Norway spruce needles from various Austrian sites with different pollution levels and sources were analyzed. The epistomatal wax structure was assessed with a recently developed quantification method. Generally, sites in the vicinity of various emissions sources (e.g steel works, chemical industry,

C. Trimbacher; P. Weiss

2004-01-01

29

INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

30

First-principles study of self-interstitial point defects in BCC metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study of the energetics of self-interstitial defects in V and Mo based on plane-wave supercell density functional calculations. We use a 128 atom cubic supercell and 2x2x2 k-point grid for BZ sampling, which we found to be sufficient to obtain accurate results on the basis of a careful convergence study. In our calculations, all the atoms of

Han Seungwu; Zepeda-Ruiza Luis; Car Roberto; Srolovitz David; Ackland Graeme

2002-01-01

31

NEXAFS investigations of transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, sulfides and other interstitial compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, transition metal compounds, especially transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides, have been the subject of many surface science investigations. In this article we will review applications of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique in the investigations of electronic and structural properties of transition metal compounds. This review covers NEXAFS

J. G. Chen

1997-01-01

32

Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

1991-01-01

33

Human suction blister interstitial fluid prevents metal ion-dependent oxidation of low density lipoprotein by macrophages and in cell-free systems.  

PubMed Central

LDL in the circulation is well protected against oxidation by the highly efficient antioxidant defense mechanisms of human plasma. LDL oxidation contributing to atherosclerosis, therefore, has been hypothesized to take place in the interstitial fluid of the arterial wall. We investigated the antioxidant composition and the capacity to inhibit LDL oxidation of human suction blister interstitial fluid (SBIF), a suitable representative of interstitial fluid. We found that the concentrations in SBIF of the aqueous small-molecule antioxidants ascorbate and urate were, respectively, significantly higher (P < 0.05) and identical to plasma concentrations. In contrast, lipoprotein-associated lipids and lipid-soluble antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene) were present at only 8-23% of the concentrations in plasma. No lipid hydroperoxides could be detected ( < 5 nM) in either fluid. The capacity of serum and SBIF to protect LDL from oxidation was investigated in three metal ion-dependent systems: copper, iron, and murine macrophages in Ham's F-10 medium. In all three systems, addition of > or = 6% (vol/vol) of either serum or SBIF inhibited LDL oxidation by > 90%. The concentration that inhibited macrophage-mediated LDL oxidation by 50% was as low as 0.3% serum and 0.7% SBIF. The enzymatic or physical removal of ascorbate or urate and other low molecular weight components did not affect the ability of either fluid to prevent LDL oxidation, and the high molecular weight fraction was as protective as whole serum or SBIF. These data demonstrate that both serum and SBIF very effectively protect LDL from metal ion-dependent oxidation, most probably because of a cumulative metal-binding effect of several proteins. Our data suggest that LDL in the interstitial fluid of the arterial wall is very unlikely to get modified by metal ion-mediated oxidation. Images

Dabbagh, A J; Frei, B

1995-01-01

34

CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

35

Interstitial lung disease and asthma in hard-metal workers: bronchoalveolar lavage, ultrastructural, and analytical findings and results of bronchial provocation tests.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with respiratory disorders associated with hard metal exposure are described. In four patients electron microprobe analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cells or lung tissue was used to show tungsten and other hard-metal components. Three patients had interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis with unusual multinucleate giant cells. Electron microscopy showed that the giant cells comprised both type II alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. The multinucleate macrophages formed a distinctive feature of the bronchoalveolar lavage material but the multinucleate alveolar epithelial lining cells were evident only in lung tissue. The other two patients both suffered from work-related asthma, one of whom also had pulmonary opacities. Bronchial provocation tests in these patients supported the diagnosis of hard-metal-induced asthma and implicated cobalt as the agent responsible. Images

Davison, A G; Haslam, P L; Corrin, B; Coutts, I I; Dewar, A; Riding, W D; Studdy, P R; Newman-Taylor, A J

1983-01-01

36

Medical needle  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A needle comprising a hollow shaft having opposed distal and proximal ends, the hollow shaft having a lumen extending from the proximal end of the shaft and terminating at an opening on a top of and proximal to the distal end of the needle shaft. A cutting surface is at the distal end of the hollow shaft adapted to be inserted into a patient, wherein the cutting surface is on the bottom of the distal end of the hollow shaft.

2005-06-07

37

Mn 5Si 3-type host-interstitial boron rare-earth metal silicide compounds RE 5Si 3: Crystal structures, physical properties and theoretical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of binary rare-earth metal silicides RE5Si3 and ternary boron-interstitial phases RE5Si3Bx (RE=Gd, Dy, Ho, Lu, and Y) adopting the Mn5Si3-type structure, have been prepared from the elemental components by arc melting. Boron “stuffed” phases were subsequently heated at 1750K within a high-frequency furnace. Crystal structures were determined for both binary and ternary series of compounds from single-crystal X-ray

Jérome Roger; Mouna Ben Yahia; Volodymyr Babizhetskyy; Joseph Bauer; Stéphane Cordier; Roland Guérin; Kurt. Hiebl; Xavier Rocquefelte; Jean-Yves Saillard; Jean-Francois. Halet

2006-01-01

38

Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran

Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Gerald T. Ankley

1991-01-01

39

Chesapeake Bay earth science study: interstitial water chemistry-chemical zonation, tributaries study, and trace metals. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sediments of the Chesapeake Bay constitute a large reservoir of chemical species derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. The behavior of these materials in the estuary is determined by the physiochemical sedimentary environments in which they are found. Three major environments are identified, from the interstitial water chemistry as Northern Bay, Middle Bay, and Southern Bay. The chemical sedimentary

J. M. Hill; P. J. Blakeslee; R. D. Conkwright; G. McKeon

1982-01-01

40

Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We describe a miniature optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging needle that can be inserted into solid tissues and organs to permit interstitial imaging of their internal microstructures with micrometer scale resolution and minimal trauma. A novel rotational coupler with a glass capillary tube is also presented that couples light from a rotating single-mode fiber to a stationary one. A prototype needle with a 27-gauge (approximately 410-microm) outer diameter has been developed and is demonstrated for in vivo imaging. The OCT needle can be integrated with standard excisional biopsy devices and used for OCT-guided biopsy. PMID:18066265

Li, X; Chudoba, C; Ko, T; Pitris, C; Fujimoto, J G

2000-10-15

41

Interstitial laser photocoagulation of breast tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) is a method of destroying lesions in the center of solid organs without the need for open surgery. Under image guidance, up to four needles are inserted percutaneously into the tumor through which thin optic fibers are passed into the target lesion. Low power laser light from a semiconductor laser is delivered to gently coagulate the

David C. Pickard; Stephen G. Bown; Gavin M. Briggs; Margret A. Hall-Craggs

2001-01-01

42

Interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies are unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis,

D. R. Erickson; M. F. Davies

1998-01-01

43

Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with

Kai Desinger; T. Stein; Gerhard J. Mueller

1996-01-01

44

Interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis is an enigmatic and frustrating condition to manage as a physician and to cope with as a patient. Traditionally,\\u000a it has been defined as a chronic sterile inflammatory disease of the bladder of unknown aetiology. However, the International\\u000a Continence Society prefers the term painful bladder syndrome and it has been decided to follow this terminology and refer\\u000a to

Ehab Kelada; Amanda Jones

2007-01-01

45

Needle cricothyrotomy.  

PubMed

Needle cricothyrotomy with percutaneous translaryngeal ventilation (PTLV) can be a life-saving procedure when an emergency airway is needed. Needle cricothyrotomy is preferred over surgical cricothyrotomy in infants and young children. Appropriate ventilatory parameters using a high-flow oxygen source and an adequate expiratory time (inhalation-exhalation ratio) may limit the complications of barotrauma and allow for a more extended time of ventilation. Preliminary reports suggest that PTLV may be also useful in the endotracheal intubation of patients who have a difficult or failed airway and may help prevent aspiration, although further studies are needed. The emergency physician should be familiar with the indications, contraindications, complications, and procedure of this type of rescue airway, which is also used to ventilate patients during elective laryngeal surgery. PMID:19059102

Mace, Sharon Elizabeth; Khan, Nazeema

2008-11-01

46

Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or ... doctors better understand these diseases. Rate This Content: Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...

47

Nature of Interstitially Induced Lattice Strains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larg...

D. Emin

1978-01-01

48

Directional metal hydrogen bonding in interstitial hydrides. III. Structural study of ErCo3Dx (0?x?4.3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ErCo3 D2 system has been studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction (NPD) at 60 °C and 0 16 bar deuterium pressure. Two deuteride phases were identified, ?-ErCo3D1.07-1.38 and ?-ErCo3D3.7-4.3. They were structurally characterized at the compositions ?-ErCo3D1.37 and ?-ErCo3D3.7 by high-resolution neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction. In contrast to the analogous nickel systems RNi3 D2 (R=Er, Ho; see part I, J. Alloys and Compds. 404 406 (2005) 89 94, and part II, J. Alloys and Compds. 2005, in press), their structures preserve the symmetry of the parent alloy (PuNi3-type, space group R-3m). Deuterium occupies mainly AB2 building blocks in the ?-phase, and AB2 and AB5 building blocks in the ?-phase. In the AB2 building blocks cobalt is surrounded by an average of 3.8 (?-ErCo3D1.37) and 4.4 D-atoms (?-ErCo3D3.7) in disordered distorted octahedral configurations (point symmetry -3), in contrast to nickel that is surrounded by ˜3 (?1- and ?2-RNi3Dx, R=Er, Ho) and ˜4 (?-ErNi3D3.7) D-atoms in disordered trigonal (pyramidal) and tetrahedral configurations, respectively (point symmetry 3). These results indicate that the D-atom distributions in this homologous series depend on the nature of the transition element rather than on geometric factors, and that directional bonding effects similar to those in non-metallic complex transition metal hydrides also prevail in metallic interstitial metal hydrides.

Filinchuk, Y. E.; Yvon, K.

2006-04-01

49

Uptake of IgG in osteosarcoma correlates inversely with interstitial fluid pressure, but not with interstitial constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of therapeutic macromolecules in solid tumours is assumed to be hindered by the heterogeneous vascular network, the high interstitial fluid pressure, and the extracellular matrix. To study the impact of these factors, we measured the uptake of fluorochrome-labelled IgG using confocal laser scanning microscopy, interstitial fluid pressure by the ‘wick-in-needle’ technique, vascular structure by stereological analysis, and the

C de Lange Davies; B Ø Engesæter; I Haug; I W Ormberg; J Halgunset; C Brekken

2001-01-01

50

Interaction of Interstitial Impurities with Iron Subgroup Metals in as-Cast Molybdenum-Based Dilute Solid Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and properties of low-alloy Mo-Fe, Mo-Co, and Mo-Ni castings were examined in order to determine the nature of the positive influence exerted by small additions of iron-subgroup metals (Fe, Ni, Co) on the properties of cast molybdenum contai...

N. V. Ageyev N. N. Bokareva Z. A. Guts D. V. Ignatov M. M. Kantov

1974-01-01

51

Vibrational modes and diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in body-centered-cubic transition metals: A tight-binding molecular-dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method, we have calculated the formation energies, diffusivity, and localized vibrational frequencies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA’s) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tantalum. As a test of our methods, we compare to experiment for the perfect bcc phonon spectra and we compare to previous ab initio SIA formation energies. In addition, we present vibrational spectra calculated from molecular dynamics via the velocity autocorrelation method. For all of the systems studied, we find that the localized vibration frequency of a SIA dumbbell pair is roughly twice the frequency of the bcc phonon-density-of-states peak. We also find an Arrhenius temperature dependence for SIA hopping, with frequency prefactors ranging between the cutoff of the ideal bcc lattice and the highest frequencies of the SIA dumbbell. In all cases, we find that the energy barrier to SIA diffusion is approximately 0.1eV .

Finkenstadt, Daniel; Bernstein, N.; Feldman, J. L.; Mehl, M. J.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.

2006-11-01

52

Investigations on bipolar radio-frequency current application for interstitial thermotherapy (RF-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the feasibility of radio-frequency current in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT). A short survey of established methods for interstitial tissue coagulation, e.g. the interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) and microwave exposure are given. In addition, a new concept for interstitial application of bipolar or quasi-bipolar radio- frequency alternating current is presented. Theoretical investigations of the electrical field distribution generated by a dipole model come together in the different mechanisms of heat generation by using radio-frequency alternating current. New concepts of bipolar or quasi- bipolar coaxial layered applicators are presented. This bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon to use a partial and homogeneous exposure of radio-frequency current for interstitial thermotherapy, e.g. for the treatment of BPH or for concha coagulation in ENT. Less power is needed due to the limited current exposition at the immediate operation site and a highly safe procedure is possible. Therefore, to determine the thermal damage of tissue, depending on the rf parameters, a computer model for a real-time simulation of the spatial electrical field distribution especially for a multiple probe application is currently being developed. This is an appropriate tool for dosimetry. A similar program for LITT, called LITCIT, developed at the Laser-Medizin-Zentrum Berlin has already shown its efficiency in clinical use. Furthermore the feasibility of a 'cross-over' applicator is discussed which combines ILP and rf-application by using metallized optical fibers for a simultaneous application of electrical energy and laser radiation.

Desinger, K.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Stein, T.; Tschepe, Johannes

1996-01-01

53

"C" arm guidance in interstitial brachytherapy of pelvic malignancies.  

PubMed

Since 1979 more than 50 transperineal interstitial implants, both removable and permanent, have been performed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The "C" arm of the mobile image-intensifier television unit Siemens Mobile 2 was used to guide the placement of the needles and was found to be useful in achieving accurate implantation. PMID:6655709

Kumar, P P; Bartone, F F; Jacobs, A J; Taylor, J E; Jones, E O

1983-11-01

54

Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies

Dahmen

1979-01-01

55

The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling  

PubMed Central

Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations.

Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-min; Kim, Young-Kon

2010-01-01

56

Fenwal Needle/Tube Sampling Protector and Needle Safety ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Fenwal Needle/Tube Sampling Protector and Needle Safety Cover. ... Product: Fenwal Needle/Tube Sampling Protector and Needle Safety Cover. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

57

Metal-metal-bonded scandium cluster (Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/Z) and infinite chain (Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/Z) phases stabilized by interstitial boron or nitrogen (Z)  

SciTech Connect

The title phases have been obtained in high yields from reactions of metal, trichloride, and elemental boron or nitrogen in sealed niobium tubing at 850-950/sup 0/C. Single crystal structural studies on samples of all four phases obtained by autogenous vapor phase transport reactions are reported. The Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/Z compounds contained discrete Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/Z clusters together with isolated scandium(III) atoms while Sc/sub 4/ Cl/sub 12/Z consists of infinite chains of the condensed clusters sharing trans Sc-Sc edges, comparable to those found in Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/Z and, especially, the closely related NaMo/sub 4/O/sub 6/. The scandium-scandium bond lengths in these reflect both the electron count and the effective interstitial size. Extended-Hueckel molecular orbital calculations for both borides demonstrate the prime importance of strong Sc-Z bonding. The chain phases are predicted to be metallic.

Hwu, S.J.; Corbett, J.D.

1986-10-01

58

Immunization without needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current immunization procedures make use of needles and syringes for vaccine administration. With the increase in the number of immunizations that children around the world routinely receive, health organizations are beginning to look for safer alternatives that reduce the risk of cross-contamination that arises from needle reuse. This article focuses on contemporary developments in needle-free methods of immunization, such

Samir Mitragotri

2005-01-01

59

Vacancy and interstitial loops in irradiated copper  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances have been made in diffuse scattering studies of irradiation induced dislocation loops in metals. Numerical calculational procedures have been developed that provide accurate diffuse scattering cross sections for vacancy and interstitial loops, and these cross sections have been used in conjunction with x-ray diffuse scattering studies of neutron and ion irradiated copper. Size distributions and concentrations have been obtained for both vacancy and interstitial loops and these results are compared with electron microscopy measurements. The size distributions obtained from diffuse scattering measurements show the vacancy loops to be smaller and more numerous than the interstitial loops, and indicate that equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are in loops. The diffuse scattering and microscopy size distributions agree at the larger sizes, but the diffuse scattering method identifies more loops of the smaller sizes.

Larson, B.C.; Young, F.W. Jr.

1981-11-01

60

Trigger Point Dry Needling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Trigger point dry needling,is a treatment,technique,used,by physical therapists around the world. In the United States, trigger point dry needling has been approved as within the scope of physical,therapy,practice in a,growing,number,of states. There are several dry needling techniques, based on different models, including the radiculopathy model and the trigger point model, which are discussed here in detail. Special attention is

Jan Dommerholt

61

Angular and interstitial pregnancy.  

PubMed

Two cases of interstitial and one of angular pregnancy have been presented. Angular pregnancy occurs in the angle of the uterine cavity, while interstitial pregnancy is a true ectopic pregnancy. The outcome may therefore be different: the first may develop or abort into the cavity, while the second will almost always rupture. Because of the rich vascularization of this area, hemorrhage is usually profuse and may be catastrophic. Preoperative diagnosis is rare, but the triad of bleeding in pregnancy, no fetal remnants on dialation and curettage and an asymmetric uterus suggest angular or interstitial pregnancy. More liberal use of laparoscopy may increase the number of cases diagnosed before severe bleeding occurs. PMID:844965

Lancet, M; Bin-Nun, I; Kessler, I

1977-02-01

62

Biopsy needle assemblies  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This document provides needle biopsy systems and methods for obtaining tissue biopsies. In various embodiments, the systems and methods provided can inhibit needle contamination by unwanted tissue or cells and/or regulate a negative pressure to assist sampling of target tissue or cells.

2012-07-24

63

"C" Arm Guidance in Interstitial Brachytherapy of Pelvic Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Since 1979 more than 50 transperineal interstitial implants, both removable and permanent, have been performed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The “C” arm of the mobile image-intensifier television unit Siemens Mobile 2 was used to guide the placement of the needles and was found to be useful in achieving accurate implantation. ImagesFigure 7Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

Kumar, P.P.; Bartone, F.F.; Jacobs, A.J.; Taylor, J.E.; Jones, E.O.

1983-01-01

64

[Cajal interstitial cells identification].  

PubMed

Cajal interstitial cells are cells that are found in the abdominal digestive system wall, between neurons and smooth muscular tissue. They are considered to be pacemakers for slow intestinal waves. The paper discuss about the electron-microscopic identification of Cajal interstitial cells in the rat small intestine wall, cell morphology, placement of these cells in the muscular layer and the relation between Cajal interstitial cells and the components of the nervous plexus. Fragments of rat small intestine have been prepared for electron microscopy examination. Cajal interstitial cells have been found in different locations: in the circular muscular layer, around the nervous nodes and between the muscular layers (longitudinal and circular). The main morphologic characteristic of these cells is the aspect of cytoplasm, with numerous vacuoles and long extensions, some of them very thin, with a tendency to divide. Some Cajal interstitial cells form a network that surrounds the nervous nodes. Other form junctions with the muscular cells and with the interstitial neurons. PMID:12635376

Filipoiu, F; Lupu, G; Tarta, E; Indrei, Anca; Paduraru, D; Sorodoc, L

65

Interstitials in 2D colloidal crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point defects in crystalline solids are important in many areas of condensed matter physics, ranging from the mechanical properties of metals, to supersolidity in quantum solids, and most recently the magnetic properties of graphene. A key question to point defects is how they diffuse in the crystalline lattice. Colloidal crystals provide a perfect model system for studying the dynamics of point defects, since the kinetic pathways of diffusion can be identified in direct real-time video imaging experiments. Here we report an experimental study of another type of point defects: interstitials. We found that interstitial diffusion in a 2D colloidal crystal is also dominated by a dislocation pair unbinding-binding process. Similar to vacancies, interstitial diffusion exhibits strong memory effects. However, the contrast lies in the observation that the interstitials, as quasi-particles, diffuse faster than vacancies. We propose that higher diffusion constant of the interstitials is a result of the suppression of the Peierls barrier for the edge dislocations by the excess strain created by the extra particle(s). This work was supported by NSF-DMR.

Yu, Lichao; Kim, Sungcheol; Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Ling, Xinsheng

2013-03-01

66

Pleural needle biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... sing, hum, or say "eee." This helps prevent air from getting into the chest cavity, which can cause a lung collapse ( pneumothorax ). The doctor removes the needle to collect tissue samples. Usually, three biopsy samples are taken. When the ...

67

Interstitial Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to get enough oxygen. The scarring is called pulmonary fibrosis. Breathing in dust or other particles in ...

68

Interstitial Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... radiation treatments to your chest or using some chemotherapy drugs makes it more likely that you'll develop lung disease. Oxygen. Continually inhaling very high levels of therapeutic oxygen for more than 48 hours can harm the lungs. Complications Interstitial lung disease can lead to a series ...

69

ACUTE INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS  

PubMed Central

Acute interstitial nephritis is found in the infectious diseases of children, particularly in diphtheria and scarlet fever, but may be met with in other infectious diseases. The disease is characterized by general and focal infiltration of the interstitial tissue of the kidney with cells which correspond to those which Unna has described under the name of plasma cells. The focal character of the infiltration is marked; even in the cases in which all parts of the kidney show some interstitial cellular infiltration the cells are most abundant in certain foci. These foci are found in three places: in the boundary zone of the pyramids, in the sub-capsular region of the cortex, and around the glomeruli. A considerable number of cases is found in which the blood-vessels of the boundary zone of the pyramids contain nnmbers of lymphoid and plasma cells without any infiltration of the interstitial tissue. The new cells in the interstitial tissue are due to emigration from the blood-vessels and multiplication by mitotic division of the cells which have emigrated. The cells can emigrate as plasma. cells or as lymphoid cells, and the latter may change into plasma cells in the tissues. In the normal individual, plasma cells may be formed in the mucous membrane of the intestine, where they practically form the entire tissue between the epithelium and the muscularis mucosa, and to a limited extent in the spleen. In diphtheria, in scarlet fever, and probably in a number of infectious diseases, plasma cells are formed in great numbers in the spleen and bone-marrow, and to some extent in the lymphatic glands. In the spleen they are formed from the cells of the Malpighian bodies, which are often principally composed of them, and to some extent from the cells in the pulp. They are formed from the lymphoid cells. No adequate explanation is found for the focal character of the lesions in the kidneys. There is some ground for believing that the physical conditions of the circulation may have something to do with their accumulation in the vessels in certain places. It is also possible that in the interstitial foci there may be soluble substances which exert a positive chemotaxis for them. Such substances may be foundin the urine, which may exert its influence on the interstitial tissue in different places. The explanation of the foci cannot be found in primary focal degeneration of the epithelium. Epithclial degeneration in these cases is always present, but it is diffuse. In foci where it is more intense and due to the interstitial changes, polynuclear leucocytes are found in the tissue, in the degenerated epithellum and in the tubules. Folynuclear lencocytes and not plasma cells are attracted by degenerated tissue. The foci are not due in these cases to the local action of bacteria. In a number of the cases in which interstitial nephritis was found the kidneys were shown to be sterile both by cultures and by microscopical examination. In cases where bacteria were present they were found only in small numbers in cultures and not on microscopical examination, and their connection with the foci could not be demonstrated. In three cases plasma cells were found in the interstitial tissue in definite bacterial diseases of the kidney. In these cases they were not found in connection with the lesions produced directly by the bacteria, but in the periphery of the purulent foci.

Councilman, W. T.

1898-01-01

70

Theoretical Study of Defect Properties in Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several characteristic properties (formation and migration enthalpies and volumes, dipole tensors, effects on shear elastic constants) of several point defects (vacancy, divacancy, interstitial, di-interstitial) in different metals: f.c.c. metals (Al, Cu,...

P. Sindzingre

1987-01-01

71

Dislocation-enhanced induced Snoek peak associated with heavy interstitials in the presence of kinks moving harmonically in anisotropic body-centered-cubic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy dissipation per cycle due to the motion of heavy interstitials in the presence of a harmonically oscillating rigid kink is investigated analytically as well as numerically in terms of discrete Fourier k-->-space transformation technique. In the linear-response case, a discrete Debye relaxation spectrum with three distinct branches is found to represent the inelastic behavior of the system uniquely and exactly. It has been observed by extensive computer modeling experiments that the induced Snoek peak is composed of three subpeaks-one acoustic (1) and two optical (modes 2 and 3) in character-which have the following peak-maximum intensity ratios, approximately: 11:9:2 for pure screw dislocation and 13:8:3 for 71° nonscrew dislocation, respectively. The second most intense peak which is associated with the optical mode 2, occurs exactly at the ordinary Snoek peak position, and as far as the linewidth and the skewness parameter are concerned it resembles an ideal Debye peak.

Ogurtani, Tarik Ö.; Seeger, Alfred K.

1985-04-01

72

Self-interstitial defects in hexagonal close packed metals revisited: Evidence for low-symmetry configurations in Ti, Zr, and Hf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the eight conventional high-symmetry configurations for self-interstitials in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, we show that four other configurations, obtained by breaking the symmetry of some of the original ones, may be low-energy local minima or saddle points. The first two, BC' and C', consist of the basal crowdion and the crowdion buckled perpendicular to their axes in the pyramidal plane, respectively. The two others, PS and P2S, are obtained by rotating the c-axis split dumbbell in the prismatic plane of first and second type, respectively. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations we show that BC', C', and PS are within 0.4 eV of the lowest-energy conventional structure, BO, in Ti, Zr, and Hf. BC' could even be the lowest-energy configuration in hcp-Zr and its symmetry and possible reorientation mechanisms are compatible with internal friction measurements at variance with the conventional structures. The PS and C' configurations exhibit a helicoidal easy glide motion of the dumbbell-crowdion type in the c-axis direction. These configurations therefore constitute an important element to take into account when predicting the microstructural evolution of zirconium-based materials under irradiation.

Vérité, G.; Domain, C.; Fu, Chu-Chun; Gasca, P.; Legris, A.; Willaime, F.

2013-04-01

73

The needle necropsy.  

PubMed Central

The technique of limited necropsy by histological examination of needle tissue cores obtained percutaneously is indicated when a full necropsy is not justified owing to the risk of infection or when tissue for special investigations is needed soon after death without recourse to full necropsy facilities. The method is ideal for detecting conditions producing diffuse changes in an organ. Because the cadaver is preserved essentially intact relatives who refuse permission for a standard necropsy might consent to a needle necropsy if this option is offered to them. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Underwood, J C; Slater, D N; Parsons, M A

1983-01-01

74

Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

75

Biopsy needle tip artifact in MR-guided neurosurgery.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of both the appearance and origin of metallic biopsy needle tip artifact in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as its interaction with various magnetic resonance (MR) sequence parameters is beneficial for its application in today's MR-guided therapeutic procedures. In a more practical setting, this investigation has focused on the characteristics of MR image artifacts associated with a finite-length metallic needle, specifically at the tip of a biopsy needle when it is approximately parallel to the main magnetic field. The image artifact at needle tip, which exhibits as a blooming ball-shaped signal void, was demonstrated and studied using MR imaging and numerical simulation employing the finite difference method (FDM). In order to understand the origin of this image artifact, a numerical model or simulation software based on the FDM has been developed specifically to solve for the field disturbance to a uniform magnetic field due to a finite-length metallic needle. The solution for magnetic field shows that the field disturbance is spatially localized at the needle tip. From the numerical results, simulated images were generated which were in a very satisfactory agreement MR imaging experiment. Results showed that the MR image artifacts associated with MR-compatible metallic biopsy needles are not only present due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between the needle and its surrounding tissue, but also predictable in routine MR-guided procedures, and the size of the image artifacts could be reduced if optimal imaging parameters were used. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:16-22. PMID:11169798

Liu, H; Hall, W A; Martin, A J; Truwit, C L

2001-01-01

76

Interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. PMID:23457161

Cottin, Vincent

2013-03-01

77

Interstitial duplication 19p  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

78

Voltammetric method for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni in interstitial water.  

PubMed

To determine heavy metals in interstitial water from Baltic sea sediments a sampling method with subsequent voltammetric determination is described. Copper, lead, zinc and cadmium are determined in the UV-digested samples of interstitial water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry while nickel is determined by adsorption voltammetry. The determination of five metals in one sample in a wide concentrations range is possible using a low cost apparatus. The profiles of the metal concentrations in interstitial water of subsequent layers of sediments, sampled from Puck Bay, Gda?sk Bay, the Bornholm area and the S?upsk area are presented. PMID:15067482

Golimowski, J; Szczepa?ska, T

1996-03-01

79

[Focus on interstitial keratitis].  

PubMed

Interstitial keratitis is a non-ulcerative, non-suppurative, more or less vascularized inflammation of the corneal stroma. The corneal lesions result from the host response to bacterial, viral or parasitic antigens, or from an autoimmune response in the absence of active corneal infection. The natural history of the disease is divided into two phases: acute and cicatricial. This type of keratitis, while less common than ulcerative bacterial keratitis, is not an insignificant cause of visual loss. It is associated with systemic or infectious disease. It thus requires prompt diagnosis and etiological work-up, as well as appropriate treatment to maximize visual prognosis and avoid other complications. The main causes are bacterial infections (syphilis), viruses (40% of cases), and idiopathic (33%). PMID:22925846

Gauthier, A-S; Delbosc, B

2012-08-24

80

Fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed Central

Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images

Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

1985-01-01

81

A mechanism for the needle crystal formation from magnesium detergents in engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine oils are always formulated with overbased metallic detergents to neutralize acid and to prevent the deposition of degraded products. Among the detergents, overbased magnesium detergents sometimes form needle crystals. From research on the mechanism of needle crystal formation, we found a significant effect of water content and carbonic acid gas content in oil, and the type of magnesium detergents.

Noriyuki Naganuma; Gen Ogino; Takashi Kikuchi; Kenyu Akiyama

1996-01-01

82

21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed...

2013-04-01

83

[Interstitial laser coagulation in Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion sequence].  

PubMed

Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) sequence complicates about 1% of all monochorionic twin pregnancies and about 1 to 35000 of all pregnancies. It involves an acardiac twin whose structural defects are incompatible with life, and an otherwise normal "pump" co-twin. As the blood flow in the acardiac twin is reversed, it keeps on growing owing to the oxygenated blood from the co-twin. Here we report a case of monochorionic, diamniotic twin pregnancy after ICS/-ET complicated with TRAP sequence, diagnosed at 11 weeks of pregnancy The unusual finding in this case was the residual heart in the so called acardiac twin. Gradually the normal twin developed signs of hemodynamic compromise. Reversed a-wave in ductus venosus was observed. The acardiac twin showed subcutaneous oedema. On 24 November 2011 a successful interstitial ultrasound-guided laser coagulation was performed at 16 weeks of gestation. 17G needle and 0.6 mm laser fibre were used. The needle was introduced into the pelvic region of the acardiac twin through the abdominal wall. A series of laser bursts lasting 5-10 seconds were fired, until cessation of blood flow in the pelvic vessels and umbilical cord of the acardiac twin was confirmed using colour Doppler. The course of the intervention was uneventful. Routine steroid therapy was administered at 27 weeks of gestation. At 32 weeks the patient was hospitalized and oral antibiotics were administered due to premature rupture of the membranes and suspicion of intrauterine growth retardation of the pump twin. The patient delivered spontaneously at completed 33 weeks of pregnancy (weight 1805g, Apgar 10). After the delivery a stage 2 intraventricular hemorrhage and jaundice were observed in the neonate. Phototherapy was administered and the mother and the child were eventually discharged from the hospital, both in good general condition. Since then, two more successful interstitial laser coagulations in TRAP sequence were performed in our institution. The essence of the treatment of TRAP sequence is cessation of the blood flow from the pump to the acardiac twin. Fetoscopic cord ligature or coagulation, and laser or radiofreqency ablations of the acardiac twin vessels, are the possible methods of intervention. The interstitial laser coagulation of the acardiac twin is less invasive than fetoscopic umbilical cord coagulation, as the outer diameter of the 17G needle is much smaller. A meticulous comparison of these methods would require a randomised study but at 16 weeks of MCDA twin pregnancy interstitial laser coagulation seems to be the method of choice. The outcome of the procedure and possible treatment options in case of TRAP together with the review of literature, are presented in the article. PMID:23379198

Wegrzyn, Piotr; Borowski, Dariusz; Nowacka, Elzbieta; Bomba-Opo?, Dorota; Kosi?ska-Kaczy?ska, Katarzyna; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Wielgo?, Miros?aw

2012-11-01

84

Needle-free vaccine delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for methods of vaccine delivery not requiring a needle and syringe has been accelerated by recent concerns regarding pandemic disease, bioterrorism, and disease eradication campaigns. Needle-free vaccine delivery could aid in these mass vaccinations by increasing ease and speed of delivery, and by offering improved safety and compliance, decreasing costs, and reducing pain associated with vaccinations. In this

Erin L. Giudice; James D. Campbell

2006-01-01

85

Interstitial laser photocoagulation of breast tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) is a method of destroying lesions in the center of solid organs without the need for open surgery. Under image guidance, up to four needles are inserted percutaneously into the tumor through which thin optic fibers are passed into the target lesion. Low power laser light from a semiconductor laser is delivered to gently coagulate the tissue. This dead tissue is subsequently resorbed by the body's normal healing processes. Follow up is achieved with ultrasound imaging. One study is described for assessing ILP for benign fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas were treated to assess how laser treated breast tissue healed in the long term and we have shown that the necrosed tissue is resorbed without complications over a period of months. Nevertheless, by following treated fibroadenomas (up to 35mm diameter) with ultrasound measurement at 3, 6 and 12 months, in 14 patients, only one lesion was still detectable 12 months after ILP. In appropriate cases, ILP could be an attractive option, as it leaves no scars and should not change the shape or size of the breast. If the present studies are successful, the plan is for a multi-center trial of minimally invasive, thermal ablation of breast cancers.

Pickard, David C.; Bown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.

2001-10-01

86

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... MS Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Treatment Treatment for ILD is based ... what oxygen system will best fit your lifestyle. Pulmonary Rehabilitation A pulmonary rehabilitation program is recommended to ...

87

Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report  

PubMed Central

We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis.

Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

2012-01-01

88

Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

1992-02-24

89

Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at {minus}55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

1992-02-24

90

Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, T.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1996-12-01

91

The Vienna applicator for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy of cervical cancer: Design, application, treatment planning, and dosimetric results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a combined intracavitary and interstitial dedicated applicator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) treatment planning for cervical cancer brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A modified ring applicator allows interstitial needles to be implanted in parallel to the intrauterine tandem. MRI treatment planning based on a standard loading pattern with stepwise dwell weight adaptation and needle loading is performed to achieve optimal dose coverage and sparing of organs at risk. Dose constraints are applied for dose-volume histogram parameters. Results: The use of additional interstitial needles provides prescription dose up to 15 mm lateral to point A. Twenty-two patients with high-risk clinical target volumes of mean 44 cm{sup 3} were treated with a mean prescribed total dose of 85 Gy (biologically equivalent to 2 Gy fractionation, {alpha}/{beta} = 10 Gy) and 93% coverage (V100). The dose to organs at risk was within standard limits for intracavitary brachytherapy alone. Conclusions: A combined interstitial-intracavitary applicator results in reproducible implants for cervical cancer brachytherapy. MRI-based treatment planning based on a target concept, dose-volume constraints, and limitations for the relative dwell weight allows for an increase in target coverage, treated volume, and total dose without increasing the dose to critical structures.

Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Christian.Kirisits@meduniwien.ac.at; Lang, Stefan [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dimopoulos, Johannes [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Berger, Daniel [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2006-06-01

92

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

93

Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease.

Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Markl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

94

Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities.

Heptinstall, R. H.

1976-01-01

95

Self-Interstitial in Germanium  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature radiation damage in n- and p-type Ge is strikingly different, reflecting the charge-dependent properties of vacancies and self-interstitials. We find, using density functional theory, that in Ge the interstitial is bistable, preferring a split configuration when neutral and an open cage configuration when positively charged. The split configuration is inert while the cage configuration acts as a double donor. We evaluate the migration energies of the defects and show that the theory is able to explain the principal results of low-temperature electron-irradiation experiments.

Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Janke, C.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Coutinho, J.; Oeberg, S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); School of Natural Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and 13N, University of Aveiro, 3810 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Mathematics, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa S-97187 (Sweden)

2007-10-26

96

Current status of interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Until recently, interstitial cystitis (IC) was considered a urologic curiosity, a rare problem that most urologists would see only a few times during a career. It was easy to diagnose, with strict and rigid criteria having been set early in this century [28]. This situation has changed drastically in the last 15 years, largely as a result of patients

P. Hanno; M. Ruggieri; A. J. Wein

1990-01-01

97

Mesalazine-associated interstitial nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. When used for oral treatment of inflam- matory bowel disease, Asacol (a coated form of mesala- zine = 5-aminosalicylic acid) can cause interstitial nephritis. The spectrum of severity, frequency of occur- rence and the best renal function test to detect this complication are not known. The value of immunosup- pression in addition to drug withdrawal is similarly undetermined. Methods.

P. E. Stevens; M. A. Ashton; D. J. Rainford

98

The cardiac valve interstitial cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac valve interstitial cells (ICs) are a heterogeneous and dynamic population of specific cell types that have many unique characteristics. They are responsible for maintaining the extracellular scaffold that provides the mechanical characteristics vital for sustaining the unique dynamic behaviour of the valve. A number of cellular phenotypes can be distinguished: some are sparsely arranged throughout the valve leaflets, whilst

Patricia M Taylor; Puspa Batten; Nigel J Brand; Penny S Thomas; Magdi H Yacoub

2003-01-01

99

How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is rare, and little ... Health Topics Lung Transplant article. Rate This Content: Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...

100

Interstitial nephritis associated with cytomegalovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial nephritis associated with cytomegalovirus infection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may cause impairment of renal graft function and glomerular and interstitial injury. Whether renal lesions are the consequence of infection or of decreased graft tolerance is uncertain. We studied autogenous renal tissues obtained from two infants with CMV infection. Light and electron microscopy revealed interstitial nephritis, but not glomerulopathy. Analysis of

Jeffrey L Platt; Richard K Sibley; Alfred F Michael

1985-01-01

101

Forming limit diagram for Indian interstitial free steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the suitability of interstitial free steel sheets of thickness 0.6 and 1.6mm for press forming operations were examined by obtaining the forming limit diagram. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were studied. Forming limit diagrams (FLD) were evaluated for the above sheet metals of two different thicknesses and they were compared. Strain distribution profiles were

R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

2006-01-01

102

Forming limit diagram for interstitial free steels Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of interstitial free (IF) steels of thickness 0.9 and 1.2mm for press forming operations were examined. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were studied. Forming limit diagrams were evaluated for the above sheet metals and they were compared. Strain distribution profiles were obtained from the forming experiment. The fracture surfaces of the formed samples were viewed

R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

2005-01-01

103

Interstitial hyperthermia of experimental brain tumor using implant heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental system of induction hyperthermia for brain tumor using ferromagnetic implant with low Curie point has been developed. The metal implant is cylindrical needle and made of Fe-Pt alloy with low Curie point suitable for hyperthermia (50–60°C). Induction coil and generator which produce maximum power of 200 W and variable frequency of 100–500 kHz, yielding magnetic power of 16.7

Tatsuya Kobayashi; Takayuki Tanaka; Yoshihisa Kida; Masaaki Matsui; Tetsuo Ikeda

1989-01-01

104

A case of needle fixation.  

PubMed

Needle fixation is frequently missed and dismissed by clinicians and patients. However, ignoring this condition can have severe consequences, such as septicaemia, thrombosis, blood borne viruses, and is associated with an overall poor prognosis of drug dependence.Here we describe a 37-year-old man who presented with 20-year history of polydrug dependence, drug-induced psychosis and antisocial personality disorder. He was found to also have a 5-year history of intermittent needle fixation. His injecting behaviour and drug use improved significantly with fluoxetine while being on methadone maintenance.At present there is little evidence for any effective treatment strategies for needle fixation. The current recommended treatment consists of cognitive behavioural therapy and cue exposure. Whether fluoxetine constitutes an effective management strategy remains to be seen. PMID:22479297

Treffurth, Yvonne; Pal, Hem Raj

2010-04-05

105

Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?  

PubMed Central

Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors.

Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

2011-01-01

106

Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

2011-12-01

107

Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood.

Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

2007-01-01

108

Histological observation for needle-tissue interactions.  

PubMed

We histologically investigated tissue fractures and deformations caused by ex vivo needle insertions. The tissue was formalin-fixed while the needle remained in the tissue. Following removal of the needle, the tissue was microtomed, stained, and observed microscopically. This method enabled observations of cellular and tissular conditions where deformations caused by needle insertions were approximately preserved. For this study, our novel method presents preliminary findings related with tissue fractures and the orientation of needle blade relative to muscle fibers. When the needle blade was perpendicular to the muscle fiber, transfiber fractures and relatively large longitudinal deformations occurred. When the needle blade was parallel to the muscle fiber, interfiber fractures and relatively small longitudinal deformations occurred. This made a significant difference in the resistance force of the needle insertions. PMID:24111278

Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Koseki, Yoshihiko

2013-07-01

109

Nonradiative Recombination Through the Silicon Interstitial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the electronic structure of tetrahedral interstitials and the shared-site interstitial discussed by Bar-Yam and Joannopoulos(Y. Bar-Yam and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 20, 2216 (1984)), in terms of a full-potential all-electron LMTO supercell calculation. Electronic levels and total energy are obtained in different charge states. A local electronic level crosses the gap as the interstitial moves from the tetrahedral to the shared site. Because of this the equilibrium occupation of the two sites depends strongly upon Fermi energy. In addition, with excess carrier concentrations, the moving interstitial provides radiationless recombination. This recombination, finally, feeds energy into the interstitial, enhancing diffusion in the silicon. Matrix elements derived from interstitial bands in the supercell calculation are used to calculate emission and capture rates for the interstitial level when it lies in either band.

Harrison, Walter A.; Wills, John M.

1996-03-01

110

Cot-Side ElectroEncephalography and Interstitial Glucose Monitoring during Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia in Newborn Lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The optimal approach to detection and management of neonatal hypoglycaemia remains unclear. Objectives: We sought to demonstrate whether electro-encephalography (EEG) changes could be detected on the amplitude-integrated EEG monitor during induced hypoglycaemia in newborn lambs, and also to determine the accuracy of continuously measured interstitial glucose in this situation. Methods: Needle electrodes were placed in the P3-P4, O1-O2 montages.

Deborah L. Harris; Malcolm R. Battin; Chris E. Williams; Philip J. Weston; Jane E. Harding

2009-01-01

111

Needle valve tap. (Robinet a pointeau).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention involves a needle valve tap in which the axial movement of the needle valve is controlled by rotation of a rod having two threads, one screwing axially into the needle valve and the other screwing into the tap body, the first of these two th...

1990-01-01

112

Effectiveness of sterile needle and syringe programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first comprehensive international review of the evidence for needle syringe programmes. The major, and now overwhelmingly strong, finding is that needle syringe programmes reduce HIV transmission effectively, safely and cost effectively. The size of the benefit is substantial. There is compelling evidence that needle syringe programmes reduce HIV incidence and HIV prevalence by reducing HIV risk behaviour.

Alex Wodak; Annie Cooney

2005-01-01

113

Allocating Infected Needles Randomly among Susceptibles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the random allocation of i infected needles among a fixed number n of susceptibles. The expected numbers of susceptibles hit by k= 1; 2;:::; i needles are derived, and the numbers of 1-hit and 2 or more-hits infected suscep- tibles are compared. Finally, we discuss the case where infection is transmitted by each needle independently with a

J. Gani; R. J. Swift

114

Stability of the Needle Crystal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mullins and Sekerka type perturbation analysis has been applied to the steady-state, non-isothermal paraboloid of revolution (i.e., the Temkin 'needle crystal'). The resulting stability criterion indicates that such a body is highly unstable under the n...

G. R. Kotler W. A. Tiller

1968-01-01

115

Coaxial needle insertion assistant for epidural puncture effect of lateral force on needle.  

PubMed

We validated the effectiveness of a coaxial needle insertion assistant under the condition that the needles were laterally deformed. The coaxial needle insertion assistant separates the cutting force at the needle tip from shear friction on the needle shaft, and haptically display it to a user in order to assists her/his perception during epidural puncture. An outer needle covers the side of an inner needle, preventing the shear friction from acting on the inner needle. However when the needles are laterally deformed and make contact to each other, it is concerned that the effect of the separation is degraded. In this paper, the users punctured an artificial tissue with variable insertion angles, so that the needle is intentionally laterally deformed. The overshoot and user confidence in detecting puncture was examined. PMID:24111276

Koseki, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Masato; De Lorenzo, Danilo; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki

2013-07-01

116

Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction  

SciTech Connect

In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada)

2005-04-01

117

Role of the (H,C,N) interstitial elements on the magnetic properties of iron-rare earth permanent magnet alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made between the intermetallic compounds R2Fe14B, R2Fe17 and RFe12?xMx (R = rare earth metal and M = Ti, Mo) and their interstitial derivatives (hydrides, carbides and nitrides). The role of the different interstitial elements on the magnetic properties will be reviewed through their crystal structure (in particular the localization of the interstitial) and through experimental work done

J. L. Soubeyroux; D. Fruchart; O. Isnard; S. Miraglia; E. Tomey

1995-01-01

118

Internal friction peaks due to interstitials in bcc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Richter's and Snoek's original works established the existence of an anelastic relaxation produced by a stress-induced interstitial reorientation in bcc metals. This anelastic relaxation, now referred to as a Snoek peak, has been studied extensively and well characterized in the past for the interstitials carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The existence of a hydrogen Snoek peak in bcc metals has been a matter of some controversy, however. We have studied relaxation peaks in V, Nb, and V-Nb alloys recently. The alloys have complete mutual solubility and are of interest since they have an extremely high room temperature solid solubility for hydrogen. They also have, over a certain composition range, not shown any hydride phase precipitation at temperatures as low as 4K. Thus, if a hydrogen Snoek peak does exist, it should be found in such alloys. Indeed there is evidence now of a spectrum of hydrogen relaxation peaks below room temperature. Furthermore, there is a large misfit of V in Nb and Nb in V and, possibly, some chemical interaction such that trapping (or antitrapping) of the interstitials at the substitutional sites, causing solute-interstitial peaks, can be characterized. The present paper provides an overview of our observations regarding: the effect of hydrogen on the oxygen and nitrogen Snoek peaks in pure V and Nb, The oxygen relaxation peaks in V-Nb alloys, The hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys, and the effect of oxygen on the hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys. 52 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Buck, O.; Carlson, O.N.; Indrawirawan, H.; Brasche, L.J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

1991-01-01

119

Simulation of interstitial diffusion in graphite  

SciTech Connect

First-principles method based on the density-functional theory is used to study the diffusion of the single carbon interstitial in graphite. Possible diffusion processes in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the basal plane are analyzed. A different path for the interstitial to penetrate the graphitic layer is proposed. Along this path, the migration is carried out through atom exchange between the interstitial and the lattice atom, with a barrier lower than 0.5 eV. Introducing shear into the graphite may reduce the interstitial migration energy.

Ma Yuchen [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, Helsinki 02015 (Finland) and Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

2007-08-15

120

Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

Shukla, Pragya [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

2012-03-15

121

Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%.

Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

122

Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force. PMID:11783735

Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

2001-12-01

123

Interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial Iridium 192 implantation: a technique and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique using interstitial hyperthermia in combination with interstitial Iridium 192 implantation is described in detail. This technique was initially tested on swine and later successfully tested on seven patients. The preliminary results of the City of Hope Interstitial Hyperthermia Pilot protocol are stated. The authors feel that this simple technique could be used by any radiation oncologist while

Cappil D Joseph; Melvin Astrahan; James Lipsett; John Archambeau; B. Forell; Frederick W George III

1981-01-01

124

Dry needling -- peripheral and central considerations  

PubMed Central

Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

Dommerholt, Jan

2011-01-01

125

Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.  

PubMed

Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

Dommerholt, Jan

2011-11-01

126

BLADDER MICROVASCULATURE IN WOMEN WITH INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA cardinal cystoscopic finding in women with interstitial cystitis is mucosal small vessel hemorrhage or glomerulations after hydrodistention. We quantified and compared microvascular density and endothelial proliferation in the bladder biopsies of women with interstitial cystitis and a control group of women who were undergoing incontinence or prolapse surgery.

ANNE ROSAMILIA; LEONIE CANN; PETER DWYER; JAMES SCURRY; PETER ROGERS

1999-01-01

127

Seasonal variations of Mediterranean interstitial opisthobranch assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic seasonal cycles have been found for interstitial Opisthobranchs living in various sandy biotopes of different exposure in the Gulf of Marseilles (Mediterranean coast of France). Abnormal progressive degradation of the environment caused by increased human pollution and a striking decrease of regional wind frequency throughout a seven year period changed these cycles. The sensitivity of these interstitial Opisthobranchs to

Claude Poizat

1984-01-01

128

Buffon needle method of track counting  

SciTech Connect

A new technique of quantitative track counting, the Buffon needle method, is advanced. It is based on random sampling of the solid state track recorder (SSTR) surface. This new method extends quantitative track scanning to track densities well up into the track pile-up regime. It is shown that the Buffon needle method possesses a reduced dependence upon both track density nonuniformity and track size distribution. Sources of experimental error arising in the Buffon needle method are assessed. The validity of the Buffon needle method is demonstrated down to at least the 10% uncertainty level (1sigma) by manual sampling of high fission track density mica SSTR observed with scanning electron microscopy.

Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

1981-09-04

129

Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional n...

130

A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

2013-03-01

131

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. Main conclusions: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

Cole, K. L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S. T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

2008-01-01

132

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines  

PubMed Central

Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May–June drought. Main conclusions These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer–autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little’s (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey’s (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

2008-01-01

133

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

2013-04-01

134

Dicliques: Finding Needles in Haystacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key task in counterterrorism is finding useful records and combinations of records in very large heterogeneous databases. The bits and pieces of information come from many sources and the pieces do not all tightly connect together. Some (possibly disconnected) pieces tightly connect to some other (possibly disconnected) pieces. The databases are very large and the number of records that pertain to terrorist activity is very small. The problem is to find a needle in a haystack, that involves connections between different types of relevant data. This chapter describes the mathematical properties of the diclique structure, which encodes a key concept of what such meaningful ‘needles’ may look like. We show that the set of dicliques forms a lattice and in two different ways forms commutative idempotent monoids. By investigating groupoid homomorphisms on the monoid structure, we show how to coalesce overlapping dicliques and how coalesing a pair of dicliques may require coalescing other dicliques. These results point towards useful new data mining tools.

Haralick, Robert M.

135

On density effects in point defect solutions under irradiation. II. Formation of interstitial dislocation loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical potential approach, making it possible for one to account for density effects in supersaturated solution of point defects, is applied to consideration of interstitial loop formation kinetics in metals under homogeneous irradiation. Quasi-chemical rate equations are reformulated in terms of chemical potential, rather than in terms of concentrations of species involved in reactions, following a procedure known in

Edward A. Koptelov; Shiori Ishino; Shuichi Iwata; Naoto Sekimura

1996-01-01

136

Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to environmental, economic and safety concerns, car manufacturers need to design lighter and safer vehicles in ever shorter development times. In recent years, High Strength Steels (HSS) like Interstitial Free (IF) steels which have higher ratios of yield strength to elastic modulus, are increasingly used for sheet metal parts in automotive industry to meet the demands. Moreover,

T. Carvalho Resende; T. Balan; F. Abed-Meraim; S. Bouvier; S.-S. Sablin

2010-01-01

137

Investigating the Effects of Three Needling Parameters (Manipulation, Retention Time, and Insertion Site) on Needling Sensation and Pain Profiles: A Study of Eight Deep Needling Interventions  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In traditional Chinese acupuncture, needle sensation (deqi) is purported to contribute to a therapeutic outcome. While researchers have attempted to define deqi qualitatively, few have examined the effects of needling parameters on its intensity. Methods. 24 healthy subjects completed eight interventions scheduled at least one week apart, which involved manual acupuncture to LI4 or a designated nonacupoint (NAP) on the hand, with real or simulated manipulation each three minutes and needle retentions of one or 21 minutes. Intensities of needling sensation and pain were reported every three minutes and sensation qualities were reported post-intervention. Results. Immediately after needle insertion, similar levels of mean needle sensation and of pain were reported independent of intervention. At subsequent measurement times, only two interventions (one at LI4 and one at NAP) maintained statistically significantly elevated needle sensation and pain scores and reported higher numbers of needle sensation descriptors. For both, the needle was retained for 21 minutes and manipulated every three minutes. Neither intervention differed significantly in terms of levels of pain, and needle sensation or numbers and qualities of needle sensation described. Conclusion. In this group of healthy subjects, the initial needling for all eight interventions elicited similar levels of needle sensation and pain. These levels were only maintained if there was ongoing of needle manipulation and retention of the needle. By contrast, the strength of needle sensation or pain experienced was independent of insertion site.

Loyeung, Bertrand Y. K.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.

2013-01-01

138

Cardiac Tamponade following Transbronchial Needle Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoscopic transbronchial fine needle aspiration of the mediastinum is generally known as a safe procedure. Complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, major bronchial haemorrhage and significant bleeding after a major vessel puncture are rare events. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of life-threatening cardiac tamponade following transbronchial fine needle aspiration in precarinal location.

Andreas Gross; Andreas Henri Diacon

2011-01-01

139

Technical note: external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage by percutaneous needle punction in newborn children.  

PubMed

External drainage of CSF in children is indicated in acute hydrocephalus e.g. after intraventricular bleeding or infection. In these cases the drainage has to remain in place until physiological CSF circulation is restored or an internal shunt can be inserted. External drainage is mostly performed using a silicon catheter connected to a plastic bag. An external CSF drainage left for several days in situ bears an increasing risk of bacterial infection. In these cases a metal needle minimizes the risk of ventriculitis. For prevention of accompanying infection we implanted a Cytocan port needle with a 20 G diameter in 7 infants. The needle is easily inserted with low risk of complications. By its plastic top angulated at 90 degrees to the needle the system can be fixed to the skin very safely by suture or tape. With this system neither an implantation related intracerebral haemorrhage nor an accompanying ventriculitis was encountered. In two cases a pre-existing ventriculitis was cured by this needle drainage and antibiotic treatment. In five cases an acute hydrocephalus after intraventricular haemorrhage was drained by the port needle system. PMID:10550655

Winking, M; Schroth, I; Joedicke, A; Boeker, D K

1999-01-01

140

Interstitial Lung Diseases: Respiratory Review of 2013  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung diseases are heterogeneous entities with diverse clinical presentations. Among them, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease are specific categories that pulmonologists are most likely to encounter in the clinical field. Despite the accumulated data from extensive clinical trial and observations, we continue to have many issues which need to be resolved in this field. In this update, we present the review of several articles regarding the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

Kim, Yong Hyun

2013-01-01

141

Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing sediment quality criteria (SQC) for metals, it is essential that bioavailability be a prime consideration. Different studies have shown that while dry weight metal concentrations in sediments are not predictive of bioavailability, metal concentrations in interstitial (pore) water are correlated with observed biological effects. A key partitioning phase controlling cationic metal activity and toxicity in the sediment-interstitial water

Gerald T. Ankley; Dominic M. Di Toro; David J. Hansen; Walter J. Berry

1996-01-01

142

Toxicity Associated With Bowel or Bladder Puncture During Gynecologic Interstitial Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies is associated with significant toxicity. Some reports have correlated this toxicity with needle puncture of the visceral organs. This study examined our experience with interstitial brachytherapy and investigated the relationship between the visceral puncture and toxicity. Methods and Materials: The outcomes of 36 patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Computed tomography was used to guide needle placement based solely on tumor coverage. No attempts were made to avoid visceral puncture; however, the source dwell times were minimized in these areas. Results: At a median follow-up of 21 months, the crude locoregional control rate was 78%. Bowel puncture was noted in 26 patients and bladder puncture in 19. The mean operating time was 50 min, and 86% of patients were discharged in <=3 days. The incidence of acute and late toxicity was similar between patients with and without visceral puncture according to the log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves. No patients with bowel puncture experienced Grade 2 or greater acute gastrointestinal toxicity and only 1 had Grade 3 or greater late gastrointestinal toxicity. No patients with bladder puncture experienced greater than Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity and only 2 had late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The operating time, length of hospital stay, and treatment-induced morbidity in this cohort compared favorably to series using techniques to avoid visceral puncture. Additionally, visceral puncture did not correlate with the occurrence of acute or late toxicity. These data suggest that visceral puncture in the absence of source loading carries a low risk of morbidity.

Shah, Anand P., E-mail: Anand_Shah@rush.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B.; Gielda, Benjamin T.; Zusag, Thomas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

2010-05-01

143

High-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (HF-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a minimally invasive treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology (ENT), next to the laser- induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) or the monopolar HF- surgery the interstitial thermotherapy with high-frequency alternating current (HF-ITT) in bipolar technique is a good alternative. Investigation results are presented which prove the feasibility and show the performance of this technique. Bipolar needles of different geometries, adapted to the various application fields, such as palliative treatment of metastatic carcinomas in liver and concha hyperplasia, were built and tested. Basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. The efficiency of the developed applicators were examined in in vitro experiments with porcine liver, turkey breast and porcine concha. Coagulation volumes of different needle diameters and power settings are show. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through integrated flushing ports and thus the performance is increased. For the treatment of concha hyperplasia special designs are presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode permits the surgeon the use of a partial application of high frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that it is not necessary to fix the neutral electrode to the patient. Thus an easy to handle and a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, T.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1997-05-01

144

Combined treatment with interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy in an animal tumor model.  

PubMed

An interstitial hyperthermia system operating at 27 MHz has been developed at the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. To test this system in combination with interstitial radiotherapy and to study the interactions of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia, animal experiments were performed using rhabdomyosarcoma type R1 transplanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats. Using the 27 MHz system, it appeared feasible to obtain hyperthermic temperatures. In this experiment a thermal dose of 44 degrees C for 30 minutes was delivered by controlling the temperature at the periphery of the tumor to 44 degrees C. The interstitial heating applicators were inserted in four standard afterloading catheters implanted with a fixed spacing of 7 mm; the same catheters were used for the radioactive sources for interstitial radiotherapy treatment following the interstitial hyperthermia sessions. Interstitial radiotherapy was given by means of four Ir192 wires with an average activity of 4.5.10(7) Bq/cm. Minimum tumor doses of 20 to 115 Gy with a mean dose rate of 47 cGy/hour were applied. Interstitial hyperthermia alone resulted in a growth delay (GD1) of 6 +/- 2 days without significant reduction of tumor volume. The 50% tumor cure dose after interstitial radiotherapy alone was 95 +/- 9 Gy. Combination of interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy resulted in reduction of the 50% tumor cure dose to 48 +/- 13 Gy. The dose-effect data for cure for these modalities are compared to existing data for external irradiation and external hyperthermia in the same tumor model. It was found that the addition of hyperthermia to different modes of irradiation, that is, either to single dose or protracted radiotherapy, results in a common level of radiosensitivity through impaired repair of sublethal damage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the 27 MHz heating system in achieving hyperthermic temperatures; in the combined modality experiments a thermal enhancement factor of 2.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- standard deviation) was observed. PMID:2045302

Ruifrok, A C; Levendag, P C; Lakeman, R F; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A G

1991-06-01

145

Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD.

2010-01-01

146

Californium-252 Radiotherapy Sources for Interstitial Afterloading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of exp 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm center...

P. H. Permar V. W. Walker

1976-01-01

147

Fractionalization of interstitials in curved colloidal crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effect of curvature and topological frustration in crystals yields insights into the fragility of the ordered state. For instance, a one-dimensional crystal of identical charged particles can accommodate an extra particle (interstitial) if all the particle positions are readjusted, yet in a planar hexagonal crystal interstitials remain trapped between lattice sites and diffuse by hopping. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three-dimensional imaging, we inserted interstitials in a lattice of similar colloidal particles sitting on flat or curved oil/glycerol interfaces, and imaged the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective particle rearrangement that redistributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. This process can be interpreted in terms of the out-of-equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of particle fractionalization on curved surface crystals.

Irvine, William T. M.; Bowick, Mark J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

2012-11-01

148

Interstitial lung diseases in children  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy.

2010-01-01

149

Current status of idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.  

PubMed

Pulmonary pathologists were aware of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) that morphologically did not fit Liebow's classification scheme. These cases were labeled as "cellular interstitial pneumonia" or "chronic interstitial pneumonia not otherwise specified." The term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was first used in relation to a pattern of lung interstitial inflammation seen in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In 1994 NSIP was used to indicate a group of subacute or chronic interstitial pneumonias characterized morphologically by interstitial inflammation or fibrosis or both, with preservation of the lung architecture and the absence of typical findings for any of the other main categories of IIP (mainly usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). Although these patients presented with "nonspecific" lung histology (categorized as cellular and fibrotic variants), and with a broad spectrum of associated clinical conditions, such as connective tissue diseases (CTDs), environmental exposure, and previous acute lung injury, they showed some peculiar clinical aspects, including favorable response to corticosteroid treatment and overall good prognosis.The clinical and radiographic profiles were better defined in the last decade. The NSIP pattern is the histological background of a subacute/chronic interstitial pneumonitis that may be observed in many conditions, including CTD, drug-induced lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, slowly healing diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), relapsing organizing pneumonia, occupational exposure, immunodeficiency (mainly HIV infection), graft versus host disease (GVHD), familial pulmonary fibrosis, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease, with or without overlap features with Rosai-Dorfman disease, multicentric Castleman disease, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Rarely, NSIP is the histology recognized in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, in whom efforts to find potential causative exposures are futile. This entity occurs mostly in middle-aged, never-smoker women, with a likely association with an autoimmune background. High-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans typically demonstrate ground-glass attenuation with a bibasilar distribution, or in the fibrotic variant, ground-glass attenuation along with reticular lines and traction bronchiectasis. The prognosis is good compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and therapeutic options include mainly corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Recently a more precise definition of clinical profiles and radiographic findings of idiopathic NSIP allows consideration of less invasive diagnostic procedures (bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy). Better understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms might widen the therapeutic horizon giving a role to new therapeutic options in more severe cases. PMID:23001799

Poletti, Venerino; Romagnoli, Micaela; Piciucchi, Sara; Chilosi, Marco

2012-09-21

150

Transrectal ultrasound-guided interstitial radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The use of interstitial implants for the treatment of low-stage prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound guidance is evaluated in 80 patients. This outpatient procedure involves the placement of needles through a template and into the prostate. Ultrasound guidance is used to place the needles into a preselected location. The needles are loaded with a radioactive source. In this study Palladium-103 was utilized. This technique allows accurate and complete seeding of the prostate. There was a 50 percent or greater decrease in prostate size in all of the patients who were implanted. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels became normal or decreased by more than 50 percent in 97 percent of the patients. Most patients experienced urethral irritative symptoms which lasted up to five months, but none of the patients experienced rectal symptoms lasting longer than a month. The mean follow-up is 11.8 months which is too brief to ascertain the effectiveness of this therapy. The method appears to be safe and may represent an alternative to external beam irradiation. PMID:1721754

Brosman, S A; Tokita, K

1991-10-01

151

Interstitial Myofibroblasts in IgA Glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined renal biopsy specimens from patients with mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis (n = 25; plasma creatinine 0.05-0.30 mmol\\/l) to ascertain whether the myofibroblast has a role in progressive renal interstitial fibrosis. Myofibroblasts were identified by morphology and alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) immunostaining at the light and electron microscope level. Results were related to staining for interstitial leukocytes and collagen

Timothy D. Hewitson; Gavin J. Becker

1995-01-01

152

[Comparative investigation of the discharge characteristics of a single needle jet and needle-plate jet].  

PubMed

In the present paper, discharge characteristics were studied in atmospheric pressure argon by a single needle jet and needle-plate jet through combination of optical measurement and electrical one. Results show that the length and cross-sectional area of the plasmas generated in the two jets increase with increasing the peak value of the applied voltage. The cross-sectional area generated by needle-plate jet is bigger than that of the single needle jet at the same voltage. A lower inception voltage is needed for the needle-plate jet compared with the single needle jet at the same U(p). Through the spectra emitted from the two jets, electron temperature and vibration temperature wee compared for the plasmas generated by the single needle jet and needle-plate jet, respectively. It can be found that the electron temperature and the vibrational temperature of the two jets increase with increasing U(p). The needle-plate jet has higher values of electron temperature and vibrational temperature than the single needle jet at the same U(p). These results have significant values for the industrial application of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:23841400

Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Peng-Ying; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Liu, Run-Fu; Di, Cong

2013-04-01

153

Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients.

Nickel, J. C.

2000-01-01

154

[Interstitial lung disease due to domestic moulds].  

PubMed

Identifying the role of fungi present in the domestic environment in the development of interstitial pneumonia can be a difficult clinical problem. We report a case of interstitial lung disease case occurring in a 53-year-old patient. He presented with profound hypoxemia (PaO(2) 54mmHg). Chest CT showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Initial blood tests for allergy and autoimmune disease were negative. Faced with a worsening of his clinical status after returning home he was hospitalized several times. At fibreoptic bronchoscopy, multiple white deposits were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage with differential cell count was performed, revealing a 23% lymphocytosis. Serology for specific household molds showed moderate reaction to various molds found in homes, especially Stachybotrys chartarum. Pulmonary function tests revealed a moderate restrictive pattern with impaired diffusion of carbon monoxide and a bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia was found at lung biopsy. After a permanent move to a new residence, clinical parameters, radiological, biological and functional normalized. The final diagnosis was interstitial lung disease related to mycotoxins of S. Chartarum. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis to domestic mold or interstitial lung disease secondary to mycotoxins should be considered in patients presenting with interstitial pneumonia and requires specific investigations to ensure that an environmental cause with an allergic or toxic role is not missed. PMID:21943538

Blanc, A-L; Delhaes, L; Copin, M-C; Stach, B; Faivre, J-B; Wallaert, B

2011-06-23

155

Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy. PMID:20854464

Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

2010-09-21

156

Study finds legalizing needles reduces HIV risk.  

PubMed

Legal, over-the-counter (OTC) sale of syringes significantly decreased the rate of needle sharing among injection drug users in Connecticut. In 1992, Connecticut passed legislation allowing pharmacies to sell OTC syringes as one component of the State's HIV prevention program. Over eighty-percent of the pharmacies in the State provide sterile needles, and reduction of drug-related HIV transmission is expected. A study commissioned by the Connecticut Department of Health determined that in areas with a high incidence of AIDS among injection drug users, the sale of syringes increased dramatically. The success of the nonprescription sale of sterile needles and syringes is attributed to accessibility and convenience. PMID:11362806

1995-09-22

157

Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models.

Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

158

Procore and Flexible 19 Gauge Needle Can Replace Trucut Biopsy Needle?  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is routinely performed for establishing tissue diagnosis in patients with gastrointestinal tumors. The concept of delivering chemotherapy based on molecular markers and the ability to establish a reliable diagnosis in lieu of an onsite cytopathologist has fuelled the recent trend in procuring core tissue by means of EUS-guided fine needle biopsy. To overcome the technical limitations induced by the rigidity of the Trucut biopsy needle, a new ProCore needle with reverse bevel technology has been developed. Recent data suggests that the newly developed flexible 19 gauge needle can also procure core tissue and has easy maneuverability when navigating the transduodenal route. Irrespective of the needles being used, the best clinical outcomes can be attained only by practicing evidence-based techniques, procuring adequate quantity of sample for ancillary studies, and processing the specimens appropriately.

Bang, Ji Young

2013-01-01

159

The Vienna applicator for combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy of cervical cancer: Clinical feasibility and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical feasibility and to report on preliminary treatment outcomes of combined intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy, using a novel applicator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 cervical cancer patients with insufficient response and/or unfavorable topography after external-beam irradiation were included in this study. Parametrial extent of the disease in these patients was judged to exceed the coverage limit of intracavitary brachytherapy alone. A modified tandem/ring (T/R) applicator for guidance of parametrial needles (N) was used to perform high-dose-rate-brachytherapy with MRI-based treatment planning. Clinical feasibility and preliminary treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: A total of 44 interstitial needle implants were performed. The spatial relations between the T/R + N applicator, high-risk clinical target volume, and organs at risk were visible clearly in all cases. Accurate and reproducible needle placement could be achieved in the majority of cases. No severe adverse events were caused by the intervention. The mean follow-up period was 20 months (range, 5-35 months). No G3 to G4 early or persistent late side effects were observed. Complete remission was achieved in 21 patients (95%). One local recurrence was observed within the high-risk clinical target volume area during follow-up. Conclusions: Our preliminary clinical experience indicates that combined intracavitary and interstitial MRI-based brachytherapy in patients with significant residual disease after external-beam therapy extending up to the distal third of parametria is feasible and allows excellent local control and a low rate of morbidity.

Dimopoulos, Johannes [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: johannes.dimopoulos@akhwien.at; Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Petric, Primoz [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Petra [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lang, Stefan [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Berger, Daniel [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2006-09-01

160

Photosynthesis and respiration of Pinus pumila needles in relation to needle age and season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured for detached needles ofPinus pumila trees growing on the Kiso mountain range in central Japan in 1987. Dependency of photosynthesis on light and temperature\\u000a was examined in relation to needle age and season. The light saturation point of net photosynthesis was lower in 3- and 4-yr-old\\u000a needles than that in current

Takuya Kajimoto

1990-01-01

161

A Model for Relations between Needle Deflection, Force, and Thickness on Needle Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A force-deflection model of needle penetration is proposed and evaluated experimentally. The force at the fixed end of the\\u000a needle and the needle deflection were measured using a force sensor and a bi-plane X-ray imaging system, and the model was\\u000a evaluated with the data. We define a physical quantity w, which we can infinitesimal force per length, analogous to tranction

Hiroyuki Kataoka; Toshikatsu Washio; Michel A. Audette; Kazuyuki Mizuhara

2001-01-01

162

An inexpensive method of improving visualisation of the needle tip in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histological biopsy have often been used to determine the nature of tumours. If the tumour is impalpable and situated deep inside an organ, obtaining the correct specimen requires the needle tip to penetrate into the tumour. To solve this problem we roughened the surface of the needle tip using a sterile ampoule file just before FNAB. We have tested out this method by using 1) a water bath and 2) meat in aspic as an intermediate material. The results indicate that roughening the needle tip improves the visualization. Roughening is the cheapest method and can be performed just before the FNAB. PMID:8323236

Laine, H R; Rainio, J

1993-01-01

163

Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.  

PubMed Central

Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use.

Hantman, J. A.

1995-01-01

164

BK970011 Terumo Phlebotomy Needle Cap Holder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. SECT.LON II - SU-MMARI' OF SAFETY '3~ FJTECTIWNFSS INFQRMATION Proprietary Name: Termno@ Phlebotomy Needle Cap Holder ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

165

Intracranial sewing needles in an adult patient.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old patient is reported with intracranial sewing needles, which were located in the right frontal lobe. Both clinical and radiological findings suggested that these needles must have been introduced in infancy before the closure of anterior fontanelle during an unsuccessful homicide. Usually intracranial foreign objects are placed due to penetrating trauma or surgical procedures. Child abuse has been known for centuries. Many types of physical traumas have been reported, especially in Western countries. In Iran, insertion of sewing needles into the brain aiming to kill the infant have been seen in a lot of cases. This situation takes part in a lot of Persian stories. We reported a 37-year-old man who had 2 intracranial sewing needles with unknown etiology. PMID:23208913

Kazanci, Atilla; Ozdemir, Halil Ibrahim; Kazanci, Burak; Kazanci, Dilek Ozturk; Er, Uygur

2012-01-01

166

Needle stick injuries in the community  

PubMed Central

When children sustain injuries from needles discarded in public places, concerns arise about possible exposure to blood-borne viruses. The risk of infection is low, but assessment, counselling and follow-up of the injured child are needed. The present document reviews the literature concerning blood-borne viral infections after injuries from needles discarded in the community, and provides recommendations for the prevention and management of such incidents.

2008-01-01

167

Needle Insertion Simulator with Haptic Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We introduce a novel injection simulator with haptic feedback which provides realistic physical experience to the medical\\u000a user. Needle insertion requires very dexterous hands-on skills and fast and appropriate response to avoid dangerous situations\\u000a for patients. In order to train the injection operation, the proposed injection simulator has been designed to generate delicate\\u000a force feedback to simulate the needle penetration

Seungjae Shin; Hyunchul Cho; Laehyun Kim

168

Impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We here present experimental findings on the stability of impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes in-vitro.\\u000a Impedance spectra were measured with a 0.3 mm medical grade stainless steel needle electrode in vitro before and after electrolytic\\u000a treatment. These first results show large changes in impedance properties both after electrolytic treatment and long-term\\u000a saline exposure. The electrode polarization impedance of

H. Kalvøy; B. Nordbotten; C. Tronstad; Ø. G. Martinsen; S. Grimnes

169

Introduction to the Needle Electrode Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle EMG remains an important part of the evaluation of the peripheral nervous system and can assist substantially in characterizing\\u000a a variety of disease states. The needle electrode examination generally consists of three parts: evaluation of spontaneous\\u000a activity, evaluation of motor unit potential morphology, and evaluation of motor unit potential recruitment. Abnormal spontaneous\\u000a activity includes the commonly observed fibrillation potential

Gregory J. Esper; Seward B. Rutkove

170

[The origin and development of fire needle therapy].  

PubMed

By reading ancient acupuncture-moxibustion literature, the authors expound the origin and development of fire needle therapy from its sprout, development and mature stage, reveal the origin of fire needle, development of needling instrument and manipulation methods, indications of fire needle therapy and so on, in order to have a better learning on fire needle therapy and make it applicative in clinic. PMID:23885626

Huang, Chang-Jin; Huang, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chu-Yun

2013-05-01

171

Trigger point needling: techniques and outcome.  

PubMed

In this review we provide the updates on last years' advancements in basic science, imaging methods, efficacy, and safety of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The latest studies confirmed that dry needling is an effective and safe method for the treatment of MTrPs when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists. Recent basic studies have confirmed that at the site of an active MTrP there are elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, known to be associated with persistent pain states and myofascial tenderness and that this local milieu changes with the occurrence of local twitch response. Two new modalities, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance elastography, were recently introduced allowing noninvasive imaging of MTrPs. MTrP dry needling, at least partially, involves supraspinal pain control via midbrain periaqueductal gray matter activation. A recent study demonstrated that distal muscle needling reduces proximal pain by means of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Therefore, in a patient too sensitive to be needled in the area of the primary pain source, the treatment can be initiated with distal needling. PMID:22610507

Vulfsons, Simon; Ratmansky, Motti; Kalichman, Leonid

2012-10-01

172

Self-interstitial aggregation in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles methods are used to investigate the self-interstitial and its aggregates in diamond. The experimental assignment of the spin-1 R2 EPR center to the single interstitial has been questioned because of the small fine-structure term observed. We calculate the spin-spin interaction tensor for the three interstitial defects I<001>1, INN2, and I3 and compare with the experimental D tensors. The results give support for the assignments of the single and di-interstitials to microscopic models and allow us to conclusively identify a recently observed EPR center, O3, with I3. This identification, in turn, suggests a low-energy structure for I4 and a generic model for an extended defect called the platelet. We also determine the optical properties of I<001>1 as well as its piezospectroscopic or stress tensor and find these to be in agreement with experiment. Several multi-interstitial defects are found to possess different structural forms which may coexist. We propose that a different form of the charged I2 defect gives rise to the 3H optical peak. Several structures of the platelet are considered, and we find that the lowest-energy model is consistent with microscopic and infrared studies.

Goss, J. P.; Coomer, B. J.; Jones, R.; Shaw, T. D.; Briddon, P. R.; Rayson, M.; Öberg, S.

2001-05-01

173

High mobility field effect transistor from solution-processed needle-like tellurium nanowires.  

PubMed

Well-dispersed and uniform needle-like tellurium nanowires (NWs) have been fabricated in high yield by an environmentally-friendly hydrothermal method. It is found that beta-cyclodextrin ligands and reaction temperature play a great role on the morphology of Te NWs. Uniform needle-like Te NWs can only be obtained at suitable concentration of beta-CD and reaction temperature. A possible mechanism for the formation of the needle-liked Te NWs is discussed based on the experiment results briefly. High quality single Te NW field effect transistors are prepared through photolithographic patterning. By optimizing electrode and surface treatments, the NW FET has a high carrier mobility of 299 cm2V(-1)s(-1), which is the highest value ever reported for Te NW-based FETs. The performance is influenced by purity, crystallinity, surface species of NWs and metal contacts of NW device. PMID:21121289

Tao, Hong; Liu, Hongmei; Qin, Donghuan; Chan, Keith; Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

2010-12-01

174

Foreign metallic pellet in the heart.  

PubMed

Foreign bodies in the heart are a rare but serious form of cardiac injury. The objects usually are sharp pointed. Such as acupuncture needles, sewing needles, coat hangers, fragments of Kirschner wires, pins, etc.(1) We report a patient with a metallic pellet lodged in the heart, which was accurately diagnosed and successfully removed. PMID:17919373

Yong, An; Ying-bin, Xiao; Qian-jin, Zhong

2007-10-01

175

Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

2008-07-01

176

Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis secondary to soy.  

PubMed

A healthy 58-year-old woman developed an asymptomatic papular eruption of the neck, cheek, abdomen, arms, and flexures. There was an 8-year history of the lesions, which had erupted when the patient started a strict vegetarian diet. Lesions lasted 3 to 5 days, cleared without scarring, and were associated with burning and increased tearing of the eyes. The biopsy specimen showed an interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without vascular injury, collagen alteration, or mononuclear atypia. The eruption cleared when the patient omitted soy products from her diet. It subsequently recurred with intake of even minimal amounts of soy. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histologic pattern of inflammation that generates a broad differential diagnosis. No previous reports of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis related to soy products are available in the literature. PMID:15280826

Dyson, Senait W; Hirsch, Ann; Jaworsky, Christine

2004-08-01

177

Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

2010-07-01

178

Idiopathic interstitial lung disease: anatomoradiologic pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease encompasses a large number of clinical disorders that affect the epithelium, the endothelium or both cell surfaces of alveolar wall and satellite structures including terminal and respiratory bronchioles. Causative factors are over 200 from bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoans, to collagen disease, hypersensitivity and inorganic pneumoconiosis. Clinical and histological findings of open lung and transbronchial biopsies from 50 patients are reported, 18 patients were affected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), 15 patients by usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), 8 patients by non specific interstitial pneumonia-fibrosis (NSIP-F), 9 patients by bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) correlated with conventional chest radiography in 30 patients and with HRCT in 31 patients. Interstitial lung disease other than histiocytosis X share anatomoradiologic features indicative for activity, chronic progression, chronic quiescence, chronic advanced and irreversible disease. In general, the histologic features correlate with radiographic patterns and even if radiologic findings do not always supply definitive diagnosis, some HRCT patterns are highly suggestive and usually classified into 4 categories: normal; with ground glass attenuation; linear, nodular or reticulo-nodular; honeycombing, suggestive for end-stage fibrosis. Correlation of HRCT with histologic findings in 31 patients with idiopathic interstitial fibrosis (IIF) allowed assessment of disease activity, follow-up and therapeutic result. HRCT definitely better than conventional radiology detects the presence, type and extent of parenchymal alterations, differentiating potential reversible lesions (inflammatory) from potentially irreversible (fibrotic) lesions. In IIF, for diagnostic accuracy the specimen of open lung (the gold standard), transbronchial or video-thoracoscopic biopsy must be preoperative, HRCT-assisted and centered on ground glass opacties (or nodules in suspected histiocytosis X) since a diagnostically reliable biopsy correlates with HRCT morphology of histologic specimen. Interstitial lung disease includes benign as well as malignant forms, thus only a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term hazardous effects as severe cor pulmonale or a fatal outcome. The histologic HRCT-assisted assessment of "active" lesions is crucial for correct careful treatment of these patients. PMID:9145019

Chiodera, P

179

Needle-tract implantation from hepatocellular cancer:Is needle biopsy of the liver always necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous needle biopsies are frequently used to evaluate focal lesions of the liver. Needle-tract implantation of hepatocellular cancer has been described in case reports, but the true risk for this problem has not been clearly defined. We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases of hepatocellular cancer during a 4-year period from 1994 to 1997. Data on diagnostic studies, therapy, and outcome were

Ryan Takamori; Linda L. Wong; Collin Dang; Livingston Wong

2000-01-01

180

Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review  

SciTech Connect

As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

1981-12-01

181

Characterization of Pre-Curved Needles for Steering in Tissue  

PubMed Central

Needles with tip asymmetry deflect upon insertion into soft tissue, an effect that can be used to steer needles within the body. This paper presents a phenomenological characterization of the steering behavior of pre-curved needles, which have tip asymmetry due to curvature of the needle near the tip. We describe needle construction methods and a needle shaft triangulation algorithm to compute the shape of the needle based on images. Experimental results show that pre-curved needles possess greater dexterity than bevel-tipped needles and achieve radii of curvature similar to pre-bent needles. For long pre-curve arc lengths, the radius of curvature of the needle was found to approach the radius of curvature of the pre-curve. Pre-curved needles were found to display behaviors not seen with bevel-tipped needles, such as the insertion velocity influencing the path of the tip within the tissue and the ability to plastically deform the needle during steering.

Wedlick, Thomas R.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

182

DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR).  

PubMed

In this study, we introduce DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR), in which a guide needle helps in measuring the initial Jones tube length for insertion and reduces unnecessary handling for tube changes. Three CDCR procedures were conducted in which the length of the Jones tube was calculated using a 22-gauge DIY guide needle, and a prospective study of tube position change and migration, (a major cause of CDCR failure) was done. Wound healing was almost complete within 4 weeks postoperatively in the osteotomy site, but in cases of partial middle turbinectomy, a little more time was necessary. There was a slight change in Jones tube position in the nasal cavity compared with the expected position of original tube tip, but no tube migration from the caruncle fixation position had occurred by the final follow-up time. This guide-needle-assisted CDCR has multiple advantages, such as easy measurement of the proper initial tube size, utilization of the initial needle path, and easy replacement of tubes. Finally, this approach to CDCR can be readily applied because it uses materials ordinarily found in hospitals to create the devices needed for the procedure, so there is no additional cost. PMID:22526574

Paik, Ji-Sun; Kim, Su-Ah; Doh, Sang-Hee

2012-04-18

183

Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.  

SciTech Connect

ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2008-11-01

184

Ultrasonic Quantification of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Through Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is characteristic of solid tumors. Elevated TIFP inhibits the assimilation of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue as well as it induces mechanical strain triggering cell proliferation in solid tumors. Common solid epithelial tumors of A431 carcinoma cells exhibit a TIFP of about 10-15 mmHg measured conventionally through wick-in-needle technique. A new scheme to determine topography and acoustic impedance in solid tumor is proposed through scanning acoustic microscopy. The change in amplitude and time of flight at 30 MHz acoustic signal is used to quantify the growth pattern and to calibrate elevation of TIFP. The wide variability of amplitude and frequency in topographic sections indicate discrete envelopes of individual tumors with localized TIFP. Further investigations in applying this non-invasive method as a means of measuring TIFP in subcutaneous mice xenograft tumors in situ could also enhance understanding of tumor microenvironment and vessel architecture in living tissue.

Pflanzer, Ralph; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Hofmann, Matthias

185

Diagnosing interstitial cystitis in women with chronic pelvic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index as a screening tool for interstitial cystitis, and to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for interstitial cystitis in women with chronic pelvic pain.METHODS:Forty-five women scheduled to undergo laparoscopy for chronic pelvic pain were recruited. Women were questioned about lower urinary tract symptoms, administered the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and

Jeffrey L Clemons; Lily A Arya; Deborah L Myers

2002-01-01

186

Idiopathic sensory urgency and early interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory aspects of bladder function are not clearly defined, are poorly understood and imperfectly managed. Sensory urgency or bladder hypersensitivity often present with symptoms without an obvious cause (idiopathic sensory urgency). This article reviews the evidence that some of these symptomatic patients are actually suffering from early interstitial cystitis. The implications of such a possibility are discussed and the

M. I. Frazer

1993-01-01

187

Bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonia in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intravenous administration of Bleomycin to 10 dogs at different dosages resulted in varying degrees of interstitial pneumonia in all cases and a lower incidence of nephrosis, foot pad excoriation and ulceration, onychoptosis, and alopecia. Pulmonary changes did not occur as a simple dose-related phenomenon. The lesions required at least 38 days to become apparent and appeared to increase in

Robert W. Fleischman; John R. Baker; George R. Thompson; Ulrich H. Schaeppi; Vladimir R. Illievski; David A. Cooney; Ruth D. Davis

1971-01-01

188

Interstitial leukocyte migration and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking of leukocytes into and within lymphoid and peripheral tissues is central to immune cell development, immunosurveillance and effector function. Interstitial leukocyte trafficking is the result of amoeboid polarization and migration, guided by soluble or tissue-bound chemoattractant signals for positioning and local arrest. In contrast to other migration modes, amoeboid movement is particularly suited for scanning cellular networks and

Bettina Weigelin; Peter Friedl

2008-01-01

189

Technique and results of interstitial laser coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

By use of thermal “ablation” techniques to apply heat to the prostate from the urethra, the coagulation volume is limited by the limited penetration depth of suitable radiation sources, e.g., lasers, and by heat conduction. Secondarily, the coagulated tissue is removed by sloughing. Interstitial heat application was expected to overcome these problems. Our initial in vitro and animal studies using

R. Muschter; A. Hofstetter

1995-01-01

190

The relationship between fibromyalgia and interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a relatively uncommon and enigmatic disorder characterized by pain in the bladder and pelvic region, typically accompanied by urinary urgency and frequency. Fibromyalgia is a more common disorder, with the prominent symptoms being diffuse musculoskeletal pain and fatigue, and it has been well established that there is substantial clinical overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

Daniel J. Clauw; Maria Schmidt; David Radulovic; Andrea Singer; Paul Katz; John Bresette

1997-01-01

191

The management of interstitial cystitis: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating interstitial cystitis (IC) is one of the greatest challenges facing physicians and other health care providers who manage patients with this condition. The symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria, and chronic pelvic pain characterize IC, but it is the debilitating pelvic pain associated with IC that is most difficult to control. The pathophysiology of IC pain is poorly

Sagar Phatak; Harris E Foster Jr

2006-01-01

192

Interstitial deletion of chromosome 15: two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of interstitial deletion of chromosome 15 with similar clinical features are presented. In one case, assay of hexosaminidase A enabled us to confirm that the structural gene is located between 15q22 and 15q25 and that it is included in the deletion.

L. de F. Formiga; L. Poenaru; F. Couronne; E. Flori; J. L. Eibel; M. M. Deminatti; J. B. Savary; J. L. Lai; S. Gilgenkrantz; M. Pierson

1988-01-01

193

Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an optical technique, point radiance spectroscopy, to directly recover chromophore concentrations and the reduced optical scattering coefficient spectrum from continuous wave interstitial point radiance measurements at a single-source-detector separation in turbid, tissuelike media. The method employs a spectral algorithm to fit the relative radiance data, using the P3 approximation, at only two detection angles (0° and 90°). The

Lee C. L. Chin; Brendan Lloyd; William M. Whelan; I. Alex Vitkin

2009-01-01

194

Interstitial laser photocoagulation of uterine leimyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common benign tumors which may cause heavy or painful periods, may present as a pelvic mass and are associated with infertility. Local excision of symptomatic lesions can be difficult and hazardous, and the alternative is hysterectomy. We are investigating interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) as a less invasive alternative. Initial experiments were undertaken on 40 fibroids after

A. D. Gordon; Giovanni A. Buonaccorsi; Bipin L. Patel; J. A. Broadbent; Wendy Thurrell; S. G. Bown

1996-01-01

195

Interstitial laser photocoagulation for uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty myomas in 24 symptomatic patients who refused conventional surgery were treated by interstitial laser photocoagulation, monitored by laparoscopy. The procedure was well tolerated. Magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound scanning documented shrinkage in 23 lesions (those lesions >6 cm in diameter responded poorly), with clinical benefit in 13 patients. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:382-4.)

Dilip Visvanathan; Rowan Connell; Margaret A. Hall-Craggs; Alfred S. Cutner; Stephen G. Bown

2002-01-01

196

Microengineered needle micro-coils for magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for batch fabrication of low-cost needle-shaped micro-coils for magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy is demonstrated. The conductors are embedded inside a cross-section designed to avoid the signal cancellation effects that can occur with completely immersed detectors. Simple models are developed for the sensitivity of an immersed coil and for the electrical performance of coils on silicon substrates. Conductors are fabricated on oxidized Si by electroplating metals inside a deep photoresist mould, and then capped with a thick layer of plastic. Through-wafer deep reactive ion etching is used to define needle shapes. At 63.8 MHz frequency, Q-factors obtained on Si are comparable to those on glass, and resonators based on single-turn coils have Q-factors of ap14. Total immersion 1H MR imaging and spectroscopy are demonstrated in a 1.5 T magnetic field using tomato fruits. Q-factors are raised at higher frequencies (to >30 at 255 MHz) using thick polymer isolation, and hybrid integration of additional circuitry is demonstrated.

Syms, R. R. A.; Ahmad, M. M.; Young, I. R.; Gilderdale, D. J.; Collins, D. J.

2006-12-01

197

Diagnosing interstitial cystitis in women with chronic pelvic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of interstitial cystitis (IC) and to evaluate the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index as a screening tool for IC in women with chronic pelvic pain.Methods: Forty-five women scheduled to undergo laparoscopy for chronic pelvic pain were recruited. The women were questioned about lower urinary tract symptoms; the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index was

Jeffrey Clemons; Lily A. Arya; Deborah L. Myers

2001-01-01

198

Interstitial cystitis in a woman with systemic mastocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have reported detrusor mastocytosis in patients with interstitial cystitis. The author describes a patient with systemic\\u000a mastocytosis who was confirmed to have detrusor mastocytosis and interstitial cystitis. She responded to therapy with pentosanpolysulfate.\\u000a The literature on systemic mastocytosis and the role of mast cells in the pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis are reviewed.

Ted M. Roth

2007-01-01

199

Pregnancy Outcomes following the Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the outcome of pregnancy in patients treated for interstitial cystitis. Methods: Over a 4-year period, 12 patients with interstitial cystitis who had one course of intravesical dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) therapy for interstitial cystitis were studied. Information on the effects of the treatment-to-conception interval, symptom control during pregnancy and immediately post partum, other pregnancy events and pregnancy outcome

Joseph L. Onwude; Daniel O. Selo-Ojeme

2003-01-01

200

Small Airway Remodeling in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A Pathological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have addressed small airway (SA) histopathological changes and their possible role in the remodeling process in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Objectives: To study morphological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical features of SA in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (usual interstitial pneumonia, UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods: We analyzed SA pathology in lung biopsies from 29 patients with UIP and 8

George Castro Figueira de Mello; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho; Ronaldo Adib Kairalla; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Sandra Fernezlian; Luiz Fernando Ferraz Silva; Marisa Dolhnikoff; Thais Mauad

2010-01-01

201

Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion.

Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

2010-01-01

202

Circular needle and needle-holder localization for computer-aided suturing in laparoscopic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usual localization and registration techniques cannot be used for suturing in laparoscopic surgery. The small size of the needle and the interactions with the tissues do not allow to use conventional sensors. Moreover, the possible modifications of the positions of the needle after the needle has been introduced into the abdomen, makes the use of usual vision-based techniques impossible. In this paper, we present methods to obtain the necessary information by using a color endoscopic camera. So as to simplify the detection and reconstruction problems, the needle-holder is modelled as a cylinder and equipped with passive markers, and the needle is colored. Image processing techniques allow to get an elliptical representation of the image of the needle. From this ellipse and apparent contours of the cylinder, the 3D poses can be obtained. These poses and the needle handling parameters are computed by minimizing the projection error in the images and by using a numerical iterative technique: virtual visual servoing.

Nageotte, Florent; Doignon, Christophe; de Mathelin, Michel; Zanne, Philippe; Soler, Luc

2005-04-01

203

Experimental analysis and evaluation of forming limit diagram for interstitial free steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the suitability of Interstitial Free (IF) steel sheets of thickness 0.6mm, 0.9mm, 1.2mm and 1.6mm for press forming operations were examined by obtaining the forming limit diagrams. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were studied. Forming Limit Diagrams were evaluated for the above sheet metals of four different thicknesses and they were compared. The tensile

R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

2007-01-01

204

TOPICAL REVIEW: Site-specific Raman spectroscopy and chemical dynamics of nanoscale interstitial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site-specific spectroscopy is critical for a molecular-level understanding of the mechanisms and dynamics of the inhomogeneous chemical processes crucial for catalysis, surface and interfacial chemistry, and membrane protein dynamics in living cells. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using metal-coated AFM tips have proven to be powerful in spectroscopic analysis of inhomogeneous processes, providing correlated topographic and spectroscopic information at the nanoscale from sites in highly heterogeneous environments. It has recently been observed that SERS spectral fluctuations are pertinent to site-specific spectroscopy and microscopy. Such fluctuations are important in that they hold promise for the study of molecular structure and dynamics at a single-molecule level. This article reviews our recent work on characterization and analysis of SERS spectral fluctuation dynamics at the nanoscale in metallic interstitial sites. Fluctuations were found to accompany nanoscale confined electromagnetic near-field enhancement. The result of such confinement is that only a few molecules dominate the far-field SERS spectral signal detected in microscopic measurements that probe one nanoscale 'hot' site at a time. The fluctuation amplitude significantly decreased with the number of molecules confined at the nanoscale-local field. A new AFM-coupled two-channel photon time-stamping system, enabling in situ correlation of the topographic and spectroscopic information for single nanoparticle clusters, was used to record the Raman intensity fluctuation trajectories at a sub-microsecond resolution. Experimentally, we found that SERS fluctuation dynamics are highly inhomogeneous amongst nanocluster interstitial sites although molecular translational and rotational motions at the interstitial sites can account for the SERS spectral fluctuations. To further understand these fluctuations at the nanoscale interstitial sites and nanostructures, field enhancement and field distribution at different interstitial site topographies and rough fractal surfaces were studied using finite element method computational simulation in a classic electrodynamics approach.

Lu, H. Peter

2005-02-01

205

Analysis of the NovoTwist Pen Needle in Comparison with Conventional Screw-Thread Needles  

PubMed Central

Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

Aye, Tandy

2011-01-01

206

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of device may include a single or double lumen needle and component parts, including needle guides, such as those used with ultrasound. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin testing,...

2013-04-01

207

21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

2013-04-01

208

41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

209

Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar rf applicators: computer-aided therapy control and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer simulation of the temperature and damage distribution during a bipolar RFITT (radio-frequency current induced interstitial thermotherapy) application has been developed. The electric field and the heat transfer is calculated by the Finite Difference Method. The program calculates the distribution of electrical power density (heat generating term), temperature and tissue damage using standard and cooled bipolar needle applicators and displays the results graphically in real time. Whereby the changes of the tissue parameters due to the heating process are also taken into account. The computer program can not only be a means for therapy planning but as well for on-line therapy control. For this the program has the option to measure the output power of the RF-surgery generator and the tissue impedance via an A/D-converter. This gives more accurate simulation results. Furthermore the power output of the RF- generator can be controlled by the program via a D/A- converter. The option of measuring and steering the generator power allows the possible implementation of various control algorithms with the aim of performing an interstitial coagulation with high efficiency.

Stein, Thomas; Desinger, Kai; Roggan, Andre; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1999-01-01

210

[Clinical pathologic classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: review and perspectives].  

PubMed

The international classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia published in 2002 includes seven clinical-pathologic entities distinguished by their clinical features, aspect on high-resolution computed tomography, and histopathologic findings on lung biopsy. These seven entities are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (with features typical of interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and acute idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (with features of diffuse alveolar damage). This classification provides clearer diagnostic criteria for each entity, has fostered clinical research and therapeutic trials, and forms the basis for international guidelines on patient care. The classification is currently being revised in order to better integrate the recently identified syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, acute exacerbations of fibrosis, and new pathophysiologic and genetic findings. PMID:21166122

Cottin, Vincent

2010-02-01

211

The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

212

Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction  

PubMed Central

A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%.

Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

2010-01-01

213

Tip-holed spinal needle: A new design concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dura-arachnoid puncture for spinal anesthesia is associated with several complications. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and needle bending are significant among these. The incidence of PDPH has been reduced significantly with the advent of pencil-point needles. However, these needles also have their limitations, such as obstruction of the delivery port by tissues affecting both cerebrospinal fluid flash back and drug delivery.

Salim M. Jahangir

2000-01-01

214

Three-Dimensional Sonography With Needle Tracking  

PubMed Central

Objective Image-guided prostate biopsy has become routine in medical diagnosis. Although it improves biopsy outcome, it mostly operates in 2 dimensions, therefore lacking presentation of information in the complete 3-dimensional (3D) space. Because prostatic carcinomas are nonuniformly distributed within the prostate gland, it is crucial to accurately guide the needles toward clinically important locations within the 3D volume for both diagnosis and treatment. Methods We reviewed the uses of 3D image-guided needle procedures in prostate cancer diagnosis and cancer therapy as well as their advantages, work flow, and future directions. Results Guided procedures for the prostate rely on accurate 3D target identification and needle navigation. This 3D approach has potential for better disease diagnosis and therapy. Additionally, when fusing together different imaging modalities and cancer probability maps obtained from a population of interest, physicians can potentially place biopsy needles and other interventional devices more accurately and efficiently by better targeting regions that are likely to host cancerous tissue. Conclusions With the information from anatomic, metabolic, functional, biochemical, and biomechanical statuses of different regions of the entire gland, prostate cancers will be better diagnosed and treated with improved work flow.

Shen, Feimo; Shinohara, Katsuto; Kumar, Dinesh; Khemka, Animesh; Simoneau, Anne R.; Werahera, Priya N.; Li, Lu; Guo, Yujun; Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Wei, Liyang; Al Barqawi; Crawford, E. David; Davatzikos, Christos; Suri, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

215

Direct needle fixation in endoscopic facial rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several authors have described the application of video endoscopy to facial rejuvenation to minimize incisions. Methods of fixation used in this technique include miniplates, tunnels in the outer tissues, and tissue glues. Objective: In this study, we examined the efficacy of endoscopic facial rejuvenation with direct transcutaneous needle fixation. Methods: Detailed preoperative markings were placed to outline important anatomical

Carlos Casagrande; Renato Saltz; Roberto Chem; Rinaldo Pinto; Marcus Collares

2000-01-01

216

Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)

A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal

2010-01-01

217

Electrical impedance of stainless steel needle electrodes.  

PubMed

We present experimental findings regarding variability and stability of the electrical impedance properties of medical grade stainless steel needle electrodes in vitro. Monopolar impedance spectra (1 Hz to 1 MHz) were measured and scanning electron microscope images were obtained for five needle types with active electrode area from 0.28 to 0.7 mm(2). A saline tank (0.9% NaCl) was used as tissue model. Measurements were done before and after electrolytic treatment with anodic and cathodic DC currents of 1 muA. With active electrode areas below 1 mm(2), high influence from electrode polarization impedance (EPI) was expected at low frequencies (LF). For higher frequencies (HF) the EPI decreases and the impedance of the surrounding tissue is more pronounced. The hypothesis tested was that the EPI at LF would depend upon contact area, alloy composition, surface structure, and treatment of the active electrode, and at HF upon the electrode area geometry, and the specific resistivity of saline. Our results show large differences in electrical properties between needle types. After electrolytic treatment the EPI decreased. After 5-48 h of saline exposure the EPI increased, both for treated and untreated needles. Cathodic treatment gave lower impedance and drift than anodic or no treatment. PMID:20217478

Kalvøy, Håvard; Tronstad, Christian; Nordbotten, Bernt; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G

2010-03-09

218

Needle in the Haystack Secure Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Needle in-Haystack (NIH) is a novel physical layer secure optical data encryption scheme is investigated. NIH hides information in classical generated noise in such a way that it is indistinguishable form that noise, unless a key is possessed by a legitim...

G. Li

2008-01-01

219

A sharper point on using safer needles.  

PubMed

National legislation is just one sign of changing attitudes about safety needles. Fifteen states are considering similar bills; five already have passed such laws. OSHA also says it will put needlestick injuries on its agenda this fall. Yet if needlesticks and efforts to prevent them are nothing new, what's causing this change of heart? Two things: improved technology and media attention. PMID:10514800

Hudson, T

1999-09-01

220

Growth of faceted needle crystals: theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle crystals have been observed to be faceted at low velocities of growth. This can be explained by the theory of diffusion-limited growth with the addition of a supplementary condition fixing the shape of the facet depending on the average temperature on it. This leads to a relation between the size of the facet and the growth velocity in a

M. Ben Amar; Y. Pomeau

1988-01-01

221

From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 mum. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased

Devin V. McAllister; Ping M. Wang; Shawn P. Davis; Jung-Hwan Park; Paul J. Canatella; Mark G. Allen; Mark R. Prausnitz

2003-01-01

222

Zellseparationsergebnisse mit neuen Single-needle-Techniken im Vergleich zu einer herkömmlichen Dual·needle-Technik  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZusammenfassungHintergrund: Bei der Thrombozytapherese wurden die neuen Single-needle-Techniken der Zellseparatoren A 201 und AS 104 mit der etablierten Zweiarmtechnik des Zellseparators CS 3000 Plus verglichen. Material und Methoden: Untersucht wurden Spendezeit, ACD-Verbrauch, Thrombozytenertrag, Separationseffizienz und Erythrozyten- sowie Leukozytenkontamination bei verschiedenen Protokollen mit den Dual- und Single-needle-Techniken. Ergebnisse: Thrombozytenertrag und Separationseffizienz waren beim Zellseparator A 201 signifikant niedriger als bei den

R. Moog; N. Müller

1994-01-01

223

Interstitial pregnancy management and subsequent pregnancy outcome.  

PubMed

We report on management and subsequent fertility outcome of interstitial pregnancy in a retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) at a university affiliated teaching hospital. Of 706 women with extrauterine pregnancy, 14 consecutive women with interstitial pregnancy were treated by methotrexate, laparotomy or laparoscopy between 1997 and 2007. The first four women, with significant hemoperitoneum, were treated by laparotomy. Of the next 10 women, four were selected for medical treatment with methotrexate. Only one case was treated successfully. The other six women had laparoscopic treatment. Of nine laparoscopies, one was converted to laparotomy due to excessive blood loss during the procedure. Of nine women desiring a child, three were infertile, whereas six conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy. A change from diagnosis later in pregnancy and laparotomy to more conservative treatment, mainly by laparoscopy, suggests a possibly better subsequent pregnancy rate. PMID:23962257

Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Keidar, Ran; Kerner, Ram; Golan, Abraham

2013-09-16

224

Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

2009-02-01

225

Panic Disorder, Interstitial Cystitis, and Mast Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

trointestinal, and cognitive symptoms.1 It is associated with high levels of stress.1 Genetic evidence has mapped a PD syndrome to chromosome 13q in 60 multiplex families with PD and bladder problems suggestive of interstitial cystitis (IC)2; other evidence from genetic linkage studies associated PD with a polymorphism in the adenosine 2A receptor.3 Families with PD also had a higher incidence

Theoharis C. Theoharides

2004-01-01

226

Bladder Pain Syndrome\\/Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) should be regarded as a true pain syndrome (a collection of symptoms and signs which, together,\\u000a characterize a particular condition or disease) rather than an end-organ disease. The term “interstitial cystitis” (IC) has\\u000a been a misleading name for a condition in which true bladder inflammation is seen only in a small subset of patients with\\u000a chronic

Paul Irwin

227

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

228

Ultrasound applicators for interstitial thermal coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-coupled (DC) and catheter-cooled (CC) ultrasound applicator configurations were evaluated for high-temperature ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) using computer simulations, acoustic beam measurements, and in vivo temperature measurements. The DC devices consist of 2.2-mm diameter tubular ultrasound transducers encapsulated within a thin biocompatible plastic coating, which can be inserted directly into the tissue. The CC devices incorporate 1.5-mm diameter tubular

Chris J. Diederich; William H. Nau; Paul R. Stauffer

1999-01-01

229

Familial Interstitial Nephritis With Progressive Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 53-year-old woman with chronic interstitial nephritis and asymptomatic impairment of renal function. Seven members of her family were suffering from renal failure and underwent hemodialysis. At the time of their hospital admissions, they had shown evidence of end-stage renal failure at 40 to 50 years of age. Lack of proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, hyperuricemia, hearing loss, and visual

Hong Zhang; Jun Wada; Kiyoto Nanba; Mie Kunitomi; Kazuyuki Hida; Yoshio Nagake; Kenichi Shikata; Hirofumi Makino

2000-01-01

230

Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line monitoring of temperature. Beyond these engineering considerations, our clinical experience demonstrates that following interstitial routes for applying HIFU is an interesting therapeutic option when targeted sites cannot be reached from outside the patient.

Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2006-05-01

231

Use of transrectal ultrasound for high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy for patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix  

PubMed Central

Objective Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been widely used for guiding prostate implants, but not much for interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) of cervix cancer. The aim of our study is to report our experience with TRUS guided high dose rate (HDR) IBT in patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix. Methods During the year 2005-2006, 25 patients of cervical cancer not suitable for intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT), were enrolled in this prospective study. We used B-K Medical USG machine (Falcon 2101) equipped with a TRUS probe (8658) having a transducer of 7.5 MHz for IBT. Post procedure, a CT scan was done for verification of needle position and treatment planning. Two weekly sessions of HDR IBT of 8-10 Gy each were given after pelvic external beam radiation therapy. Results A total of 40 IBT procedures were performed in 25 patients. Average duration of implant procedure was 50 minutes. There was no uterine perforation in any of 11 patients in whom central tandem was used. CT scan did not show needle perforation of bladder/rectum in any of the patients. During perioperative period, only 1 procedure (2.5%) was associated with hematuria which stopped within 6 hours. Severe late toxicity was observed in 3 (12%) patients. Overall pelvic control rate was 64%. Conclusion Our experience suggests that TRUS is a practical and effective imaging device for guiding the IBT procedure of cervical cancer patients. It helps in accurate placements of needles thus avoiding the injury to normal pelvic structures.

Rath, Goura Kisor; Thulkar, Sanjay; Kumar, Sunesh; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Julka, Parmod Kumar

2010-01-01

232

Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

1987-10-01

233

Determination of brain interstitial concentrations by microdialysis.  

PubMed

Microdialysis is an extensively used technique for the study of solutes in brain interstitial space. The method is based on collection of substances by diffusion across a dialysis membrane positioned in the brain. The outflow concentration reflects the interstitial concentration of the substance of interest, but the relationship between these two entities is at present unclear. So far, most evaluations have been based solely on calibrations in saline. This procedure is misleading, because the ease by which molecules in saline diffuse into the probe is different from that of tissue. We describe here a mathematical analysis of mass transport into the dialysis probe in tissue based on diffusion equations in complex media. The main finding is that diffusion characteristics of a given substance have to be included in the formula. These include the tortuosity factor (lambda) and the extracellular volume fraction (alpha). We have substantiated this by studies in a well-defined complex medium (red blood cell suspensions) as well as in brain. We conclude that the traditional calculation procedure results in interstitial concentrations that are too low by a factor of lambda 2/alpha for a given compound. PMID:2723633

Benveniste, H; Hansen, A J; Ottosen, N S

1989-06-01

234

Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

2005-01-18

235

Needle in the haystack: purulent pericarditis from injection drug use.  

PubMed

Central needle embolization is a rare complication of intravenous drug abuse which has only been reported on a handful of occasions. Previously reported cases of needle embolization to the heart have been managed conservatively (observation alone) or by surgical intervention. We report a case of purulent pericarditis without evidence of valvular vegetations resulting from an embolized, infected needle fragment. In the present case, the needle was successfully removed from the right ventricle percutaneously. This case illustrates the unique finding of purulent pericarditis due to a persistent foreign body in the right ventricle, and the nontraditional intervention performed for needle fragment removal which resulted in full clinical recovery of the patient. PMID:21805586

Steiner, Johannes; Dhingra, Ravi; Devries, James T

2011-12-12

236

Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation  

PubMed Central

The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (Pi) and protein concentrations (Ci) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for Pi and Ci as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of Pi and Ci arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that Pi and Ci result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and Pi is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict Pi and Ci that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

Dongaonkar, R. M.; Laine, G. A.; Stewart, R. H.; Quick, C. M.

2009-01-01

237

Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations  

SciTech Connect

To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

1988-04-01

238

The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

2013-09-01

239

Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media  

PubMed Central

Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature.

Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

2012-01-01

240

Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium samples to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify diffusible interstitial content. Time series and spectral analysis were used to evaluate behavior during plastic flow. Dynamic modulus analysis and strain relaxation/recovery experiments were used to evaluate anelastic relaxations during elastic loading. Serrations during plastic flow were found to occur at discrete frequency ranges with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. Anelastic relaxations were found at specific temperatures or time constants with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. The results indicate that with considerable research and development, mechanical properties could be used to measure the diffusible interstitial content of niobium and partition the total interstitial content between diffusible (harmful) and non-diffusible (non-harmful) forms.

Ricker, R. E.; Pitchure, D. J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. MS 8553, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Myneni, G. R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2007-08-09

241

Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium samples to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify diffusible interstitial content. Time series and spectral analysis were used to evaluate behavior during plastic flow. Dynamic modulus analysis and strain relaxation/recovery experiments were used to evaluate anelastic relaxations during elastic loading. Serrations during plastic flow were found to occur at discrete frequency ranges with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. Anelastic relaxations were found at specific temperatures or time constants with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. The results indicate that with considerable research and development, mechanical properties could be used to measure the diffusible interstitial content of niobium and partition the total interstitial content between diffusible (harmful) and non-diffusible (non-harmful) forms.

Ricker, R. E.; Pitchure, D. J.; Myneni, G. R.

2007-08-01

242

Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

2012-12-01

243

Melnick- needles osteodysplasty presenting with quadriparesis.  

PubMed

Melnick-Needles syndrome or osteodysplasty, a monogenic heritable bone dysplasia, is characterized by a typical facies and characteristic radiological findings. Less than 70 well-documented cases have been reported in literature; most of them were sporadic. We report the first case from Eastern India in an adolescent male, who had cranio-vertebral junction anomalies and presented with spastic quadriparesis at the age of 13 years. PMID:16800356

Bandyopadhyay, S K; Ghosal, J; Chakrabarti, Nandini; Dutta, Anita

2006-03-01

244

Belonephobia--a fear of needles.  

PubMed

Belonephobia is an unreasonable and altered response due to the fear of needles. It affects up to 10% of the population and has implications for treatment and follow up, especially in the paediatric setting (see Case study). A three step behavioural approach involving recognition and relaxation, control and preparation, and graded exposure, can be effective in overcoming belonephobia. This will assist with non-urgent minor procedures being undertaken. PMID:16894439

Yim, Louisa

2006-08-01

245

Airborne lipophilic pollutants in pine needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental contaminants known today are semivolatile organic compounds (SOC) and are present in the atmosphere. Airborne\\u000a SOC are taken up and enriched by the epicuticular wax that covers leaves of higher plants. The purpose of the present work\\u000a was to use pine needles 1) to map the distribution of airborne SOC in Europe, 2) to identify source regions, and

Henrik Kylin

1996-01-01

246

Interstitial lung disease as initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of disease characterized by fibrosis and scarring of the lung while Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a multisystem disorder and both of these diseases are of unknown etiologies. Interstitial lung disease, as a presenting feature of SLE without any significant systemic involvement is a unique presentation and this case reports such example. Keywords: interstitial lung disease; systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23787534

Kumar, A; Khan, U; Shrestha, B; Thapa, S; Rizvi, N

2013-01-01

247

Exploration of new electroacupuncture needle material.  

PubMed

Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5?mA, 60?min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100?mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

2012-05-20

248

Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material  

PubMed Central

Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5?mA, 60?min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100?mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation.

Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

2012-01-01

249

Bone Marrow Biopsies with a Silverman Needle  

PubMed Central

Advantages and disadvantages of bone marrow biopsies taken from the posterior iliac crest using the Silverman needle were evaluated. Sixty-three biopsies were carried out in patients on whom previous aspirations of the bone marrow space were unsuccessful. Open surgical biopsy was thus avoided in all but one case. Only local anesthesia was required. In 12 cases the first attempt to obtain material with the Silverman needle was unsuccessful. Limitations of the method are largely due to crushing of the specimen so obtained, with polarization of nuclei simulating the appearance of fibroblasts seen in cases of myelosclerosis. At times marrow was completely expressed from the spongy bone, leaving a useless specimen of spicules. The quality of histological material is usually inferior to that yielded by successful aspiration. Despite limitations, the Silverman needle method is considered to be preferable to open biopsy in cases in which attempts at aspiration have failed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8

Hirte, W. E.; Cunningham, T. A.

1963-01-01

250

Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes.

2010-01-01

251

Turbulent flow evaluation of the venous needle during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous (AV) grafts and fistulas used for hemodialysis frequently develop intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous anastomosis of the graft, leading to flow-limiting stenosis, and ultimately to graft failure due to thrombosis. Although the high AV access blood flow has been implicated in the pathogenesis of graft stenosis, the potential role of needle turbulence during hemodialysis is relatively unexplored. High turbulent stresses from the needle jet that reach the venous anastomosis may contribute to endothelial denudation and vessel wall injury. This may trigger the molecular and cellular cascade involving platelet activation and IH, leading to eventual graft failure. In an in-vitro graft/needle model dye injection flow visualization was used for qualitative study of flow patterns, whereas laser Doppler velocimetry was used to compare the levels of turbulence at the venous anastomosis in the presence and absence of a venous needle jet. Considerably higher turbulence was observed downstream of the venous needle, in comparison to graft flow alone without the needle. While turbulent RMS remained around 0.1 m/s for the graft flow alone, turbulent RMS fluctuations downstream of the needle soared to 0.4-0.7 m/s at 2 cm from the tip of the needle and maintained values higher than 0.1 m/s up to 7-8 cm downstream. Turbulent intensities were 5-6 times greater in the presence of the needle, in comparison with graft flow alone. Since hemodialysis patients are exposed to needle turbulence for four hours three times a week, the role of post-venous needle turbulence may be important in the pathogenesis of AV graft complications. A better understanding of the role of needle turbulence in the mechanisms of AV graft failure may lead to improved design of AV grafts and venous needles associated with reduced turbulence, and to pharmacological interventions that attenuate IH and graft failure resulting from turbulence. PMID:16502656

Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Huynh, Thanh N; Brott, B C; Ito, Y; Cheng, C H; Shih, A M; Allon, M; Anayiotos, Andreas S

2005-12-01

252

Effect of needle-like silicon nanosurface on the charge storage characteristics of silicon nanocrystals embedded within silicon nitride matrix.  

PubMed

In this work, a metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structure with a silicon nitride (SiNx) film, in which silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) are embedded as a gate insulator layer, was fabricated on needle-like silicon nanosurfaces. The MIS structure with Si-NCs embedded within the SiNx on the needle-like silicon nanosurface can be used to fabricate nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with increased charge storage capacities compared to planar structures. In this study, as part of a strategy to overcome the technological and physical constraints involved in scaling down of NVM devices, the charge storage effects associated with the electronic properties of the MIS structure with a silicon substrate having a needle-like nanostructure were evaluated. For fabrication of the needle-like silicon nanosurfaces, polystyrene-block-polymethyl methacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer composed of polystyrene (PS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used. The hysteresis width of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the MIS structures embedded with Si-NCs on the silicon substrates of the needle-like nanostructure was greater than that of the MIS structure embedded with Si-NCs fabricated on a planar structure. The interface trap density between the SiNx and uniform needle-like silicon nanosurface was also lower than that of the MIS structure fabricated on a planar structure. Therefore, NVM devices with increased charge storage capacity compared to those fabricated on a planar structure can be realized with a needle-like silicon nanosurface. PMID:19198379

Jung, Sungwook; Son, Hyukjoo; Kim, Jaehong; Park, Dae-Ho; Sohn, Byeong-Heok; Kim, Kyunghae; Yi, Junsin

2008-10-01

253

Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains  

SciTech Connect

Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients.

Sharma, S.C. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))

1989-01-01

254

Procedures for interstitial radioactive gold grains.  

PubMed

Detailed implantation procedures and safety guidelines for use of interstitial radioactive gold grains are presented. These guidelines have been found to be of practical value for personnel involved with the implant to ensure compliance with regulations but are not necessarily the only procedures which could be utilized. Topics covered include: Description of Grains and Implantation, Management and Planning of Au-198, Source Logging, Source Transportation, Source Accounting During and After Implant, Room Monitoring, Recording, Dosimetry Films, Nursing Procedures, Levels in Patients Containing Radioactivity, and Patient Discharge of Radioactive Patients. PMID:2742746

Sharma, S C

1989-01-01

255

Risk of needle stick injuries in health care workers: bad habits (recapping needles) last long.  

PubMed

In order to assess the nurses' knowledge concerning the risk of hepatitis B and C viruses or human immunodeficiency virus infection while performing their professional duties, an anonymous questionnaire developed by the authors was distributed in 2008. Surprisingly 64% respondents occasionally recapping needles after injections, although they know the procedures which are obligatory at the ward. The first step in preventing percutaneous injuries should focus on efforts to eliminate the practice of recapping needles, though education and convenient placement of puncture-resistant containers for the disposal of used sharps. PMID:20731240

Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota; Stanis?awowicz, Ma?gorzata; Chlabicz, S?awomir

2010-01-01

256

Atypical presentation of a large interstitial pregnancy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 20-year-old female who presented to the ER with a 1-week history of worsening abdominal pain and intermittent vaginal bleeding for the previous 5 days. Physical exam was notable for bilateral adnexal tenderness and a closed cervix without motion tenderness or discharge. Laboratory data demonstrated a beta HCG level of 7,787 IU/L, and pelvic ultrasound with transvaginal imaging was subsequently performed. Neither an adnexal mass nor a normal intrauterine pregnancy was demonstrable; however, a focal right fundal 7-cm area of heterogeneous echogenicity was observed. Initial findings were felt indeterminate with considerations including potential degenerating leiomyoma coexistent with a nonvisualized intrauterine pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, or recent spontaneous abortion versus atypical interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The patient, initially declining further clinical intervention, returned within 24 h with continued pain. A repeat ultrasound demonstrated a relatively static and unchanged appearance with only a minimal concurrent interval increase in beta HCG levels. MRI was performed for further elucidation and demonstrated a heterogeneously hypervascular right fundal interstitial 6-cm mass, which, in the clinical context, was most suspicious for an ectopic pregnancy. Confirmatory laparoscopic cornual wedge resection and salpingectomy was subsequently performed. PMID:23250569

Rheinboldt, Matthew; Ibrahim, Sherif

2012-12-19

257

Rosuvastatin-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), most likely induced by rosuvastatin, in an 83-year-old male patient. The patient underwent angioplasty of the left internal carotid artery, after which he began a regimen of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day). After 3 weeks the patient was admitted to our unit for acute renal failure with mild proteinuria with negligible urinary sediment. A left kidney biopsy showed dense interstitial infiltrates, mainly composed of lymphocytes with evident tubulitis. Rosuvastatin withdrawal plus prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) treatment, which was slowly tapered over a period of 4 weeks, allowed for a complete recovery of renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of rosuvastatin-induced AIN. Acute renal failure is associated with a clear increase in morbidity, length of hospital stay and mortality. Moreover, since statins are among the most widely prescribed drugs in Western countries, we think that the risk of AIN should be taken into account as a possible side effect of rosuvastatin.

Londrino, Francesco; Zattera, Tito; Falqui, Valeria; Corbani, Valentina; Cavallini, Marco; Stefanini, Teseo; Chiappini, Nadia; Ardini, Michela; Martina, Valentina; Rombola, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

258

Rosuvastatin-induced acute interstitial nephritis.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), most likely induced by rosuvastatin, in an 83-year-old male patient. The patient underwent angioplasty of the left internal carotid artery, after which he began a regimen of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day). After 3 weeks the patient was admitted to our unit for acute renal failure with mild proteinuria with negligible urinary sediment. A left kidney biopsy showed dense interstitial infiltrates, mainly composed of lymphocytes with evident tubulitis. Rosuvastatin withdrawal plus prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) treatment, which was slowly tapered over a period of 4 weeks, allowed for a complete recovery of renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of rosuvastatin-induced AIN. Acute renal failure is associated with a clear increase in morbidity, length of hospital stay and mortality. Moreover, since statins are among the most widely prescribed drugs in Western countries, we think that the risk of AIN should be taken into account as a possible side effect of rosuvastatin. PMID:24167517

Londrino, Francesco; Zattera, Tito; Falqui, Valeria; Corbani, Valentina; Cavallini, Marco; Stefanini, Teseo; Chiappini, Nadia; Ardini, Michela; Martina, Valentina; Rombolà, Giuseppe

2013-06-13

259

Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

2005-04-01

260

Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: hshima@k8.dion.ne.jp; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)

2007-07-15

261

The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly

Katherine McLean

2011-01-01

262

Piezoelectric control of needle-free transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery occurs primarily through hypodermic needle injections, which cause pain, require a trained administrator, and may contribute to the spread of disease. With the growing number of pharmaceutical therapies requiring transdermal delivery, an effective, safe, and simple needle-free alternative is needed. We present and characterize a needle-free jet injector that employs a piezoelectric actuator to accelerate a micron-scale

Jeanne C. Stachowiak; Marcio G. von Muhlen; Thomas H. Li; Laleh Jalilian; Sapun H. Parekh; Daniel A. Fletcher

2007-01-01

263

The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States  

PubMed Central

Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly in many locales, becoming the purview of professional administration that advocates needle exchange as a necessary public health measure. This article is interested in the ways in which needle exchange has become implicated in and appropriated by networks of power seeking to discipline and regulate injection drug use. Drawing theoretically on Michel Foucault’s writings concerning biopower and governmentality, it will examine the proliferation of discourses, knowledges, and rules surrounding needle exchange in the United States. At the same time, this article will avoid a characterization of needle exchange that envisions the unilateral control of drug users by governmental power, illuminating instead both its negative and productive effects for drug users. Namely, it will explore how needle exchange creates both subjects of interest and subjects of resistance among drug users – that is to say, the governmentalization of needle exchange and its ‘clients’.

McLean, Katherine

2012-01-01

264

Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

2006-10-30

265

Clinical and Pathologic Features of Familial Interstitial Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors and environmental exposures play a role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Objectives: We evaluated families with 2 or more cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia among first-degree family members (familial interstitial pneumonia, or FIP), and identified 111 families with FIP having 309 affected and 360 unaffected individuals. Methods: The presence of

Mark P. Steele; Marcy C. Speer; James E. Loyd; Kevin K. Brown; Aretha Herron; Susan H. Slifer; Lauranell H. Burch; Momen M. Wahidi; John A. Phillips; Thomas A. Sporn; H. Page McAdams; Marvin I. Schwarz; David A. Schwartz

266

Occult connective tissue diseases mimicking idiopathic interstitial pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is usually made after excluding, among other conditions, connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Although in most patients with a CTD and respiratory symptoms, the systemic nature of the disease is obvious, the ILD-related manifestations in CTDs may often dominate the clinical picture or precede systemic findings and thus

G. E. Tzelepis; S. P. Toya; H. M. Moutsopoulos

2008-01-01

267

A deficiency of interstitial cells of Cajal in Chagasic megacolon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered gut motor activity is a feature of patients with Chagas’ disease: colonic involvement leads to the development of megacolon and symptoms of constipation. Interstitial cells of Cajal are thought to modulate gut motility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is an abnormality of the density of distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in

Robert Hagger; Caroline Finlayson; Fiona Kahn; R De Oliveira; L Chimelli; Devinder Kumar

2000-01-01

268

Transbronchial needle aspiration "by the books"  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Training for advanced bronchoscopic procedures is acquired during the interventional pulmonology (IP) Fellowship. Unfortunately a number of such programs are small, limiting dissemination of formal training. OBJECTIVE: We studied success of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in the hands of physicians without formal IP training. METHODS: A technique of C-TBNA was learned solely from the literature, videos and practicing on inanimate models at “Hands-On” courses. Conventional TBNA with 21 and/or 19 gauge Smooth Shot Needles (Olympus®, Japan) was performed on consecutive patients with undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (male 23), mean age 54.9 ± 11.8 years underwent C-TBNA. Twenty-two patients had nodes larger than 20 mms. Suspected diagnoses were malignancy in 20 and nonmalignant conditions in 14. Final diagnoses were malignancy 17, sarcoidosis 4, reactive lymph nodes 12, and tuberculosis 1. Final diagnosis was established by C-TBNA in 14 (11 malignancy, 3 sarcoidosis; yield 41.1%), mediastinoscopy in 14, transthoracic needle aspiration in 3, peripheral lymph node biopsies in 2 and by endobronchial biopsy in 1. Nodal size had an impact on outcome (P = 0.000) while location did not (P = 0.33). C-TBNA was positive in 11/20 when malignancy was suspected (yield 55%), while 3/14 when benign diagnosis was suspected (yield 21.4%) (P = 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 65%, and 79.4%, respectively. There were no complications or scope damage. CONCLUSION: Conventional-TBNA can be learned by the books and by practicing on inanimate models without formal training and results similar to those published in the literature could be achieved.

Kupeli, Elif; Memis, Leyla; Ozdemirel, Tugce S.; Ulubay, Gaye; Akcay, Sule; Eyuboglu, Fusun O

2011-01-01

269

Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis  

PubMed Central

Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis.

Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

2012-01-01

270

Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development  

PubMed Central

Background Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be. Materials and methods The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode. Current scientific knowledge EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (? parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e?]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation). Results For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid’s acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response). Conclusion After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements.

Maarek, Albert

2012-01-01

271

Dynamics and Topography of QUASI-2D Needle-Like Silver Electrochemical Deposits Under a Quasi-Steady Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical formation of single silver needles from aqueous silver sulfate was studied under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions utilizing different quasi-2D cells. Under potentiostatic conditions, four (I-IV) stages of growth were distinguished. Stage III involved single needle growth under a quasi-steady-state (q-ss) regime in which, at the millimeter scale, the tip profile remained almost unchanged. Fast growing needles exhibited a truncated quasi-conical tip, and slow growing ones approached prolate hemispheroids. At stage III, the almost constant q-ss silver deposition rate was evaluated from the tip front displacement (dLz/dt) perpendicularly to the tangential plane of the tip. For the cathode to anode potential difference in the range -1.00 ? Ec-a ? -0.22 V, values of (dLz/dt) in the range 0.08-2.0 ?m s-1 were obtained. At the needle stem, the q-ss radial silver deposition rate (dLx/dt) was about two orders of magnitude lower than (dLz/dt). The transition from stage III to IV was characterized by tip thickening, i.e. a change in the tip q-conical profile to that of a prolate hemispheroid, and eventual tip splitting. Scanning electron micrographs at the micrometer scale of single silver needle tips from potentiostatic runs showed either a defined crystallography or an irregular topography covered by a large number of tiny crystals. In contrast, stems were always faceted. This difference indicated that surface relaxation processes following silver ion mass transport and discharge played a relevant role in the needle growth mode. At stage III, the growth regime is described utilizing a dual diffusion (D) and migration (M) model consisting of a DM direct contribution that becomes dominant at the needle stem, and a space charge (SC)-assisted DM contribution that operates at the tip apex. This explanation is consistent with the local cathodic current density values, the concentration ratio of silver clusters at the stem and tip apex surface, and the distinct kinetic behavior of needles produced from potentiostatic and galvanostatic runs. The complex link between mass transport phenomena of silver ions from the binary solution side, the silver ion discharge at the interface and the surface relaxation of silver adatoms and clusters at the metal lattice shed new light on the aspects of single silver needle formation.

Pasquale, M. A.; Vicente, J. L.; Arvia, A. J.

272

From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain  

PubMed Central

There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems.

Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

2010-01-01

273

From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain.  

PubMed

There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems. PMID:20968203

Persu, C; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, Irina; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

274

Interstitial lung diseases in Saudi Arabia: A single-center study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There are relatively few epidemiological studies on interstitial lung disease (ILD) worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To report the incident cases of ILD and compare our data with reports from other populations. METHODS: Newly diagnosed ILDs were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2008 to December 2011. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with the results from diagnostic procedures, including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), serological tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), transbronchial lung biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and surgical lung biopsy. RESULTS: A total of 330 cases were included. The mean age was 55.4 ± 14.9 years. There was a slight predominance of females (202; 61.2%), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.37. The most frequent disease was connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated ILD (34.8%), followed by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (23.3%), sarcoidosis (20%), and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (6.3%). Non-classifiable ILD was present in 1.8% of the total ILD cases. HRCT was performed in 97.3% of the cases, BAL in 17.5%, transbronchial lung biopsy in 21.8%, EBUS-TBNA in 4.5%, and surgical lung biopsy in 22.7% (38.6% of which were performed among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia cases). CONCLUSIONS: CTD-ILD and IPF were the most frequently observed ILDs in this Saudi Arabian population. Similarities and differences were found with respect to the previous reports from other countries.

Alhamad, Esam H.

2013-01-01

275

High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies--dosimetric changes during treatment period  

PubMed Central

To overcome cranio-caudal needle displacement in pelvic high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRIB), we have been utilizing a fullystretched elastic tape to thrust the template into the perineum. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate dosimetric changes during the treatment period using this thrusting method, and to explore reproducible planning methods based on the results of the dosimetric changes. Twenty-nine patients with gynecologic malignancies were treated with HDRIB at the Cancer Institute Hospital. Pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired and a virtual plan for post-treatment CT was produced by applying the dwell positions/times of the original plan. For the post-treatment plan, D90 for the clinical target volume (CTV) and D2cc for the rectum and bladder were assessed and compared with that for the original plan. Cranio-caudal needle displacement relative to CTV during treatment period was only 0.7 ± 1.9 mm. The mean D90 values for the CTV in the pre- and post-treatment plans were stable (6.8 Gy vs. 6.8 Gy) and the post-treatment/pre-treatment D90 ratio was 1.00 ± 0.08. The post-/pre-treatment D2cc ratio was 1.14 ± 0.22 and the mean D2cc for the rectum increased for the post-treatment plan (5.4 Gy vs. 6.1 Gy), especially when parametrial infiltration was present. The mean D2cc for the bladder was stable (6.3 Gy vs. 6.6 Gy) and the ratio was 1.06 ± 0.20. Our thrusting method achieved a stable D90 for the CTV, in contrast to previous prostate HDRIB reports displaying reductions of 35–40% for D90 during the treatment period.

Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Nose, Takayuki; Yamashita, Hideomi; Yoshioka, Minoru; Toshiyasu, Takashi; Kozuka, Takuyo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Keiichi

2013-01-01

276

Interstitial brachytherapy using virtual planning and Doppler transrectal ultrasonography guidance for internal iliac lymph node metastasis.  

PubMed

To expand the indications for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for deep-seated pelvic tumors, we investigated the usefulness of Doppler transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guidance and virtual planning. The patient was a 36-year-old female. She had right internal iliac lymph node oligometastasis of vaginal cancer 12 months after radical radiotherapy. The tumor could not be found by gray-scale TRUS and physical examination. Virtual planning was performed using computed tomography with template and vaginal cylinder insertion. We uploaded the images to our treatment planning software and reconstructed the contours of the clinical target volume (CTV) and right internal iliac vessel. Virtual needle applicators were plotted using the template holes for virtual planning. At the time of implantation, Doppler TRUS was used to prevent vessel injury by needle applicators. Applicators were implanted in accordance with virtual planning and Doppler TRUS could detect the right iliac vessel. The percentage of CTV covered by the prescribed dose was 99.8%. The minimum dose received by the maximally irradiated 0.1-cc volume for the right internal iliac vessel was 95% prescribed dose. Complete response was achieved, however, radiological findings showed marginal recurrence at 15 months after HDR-ISBT. Post-radiation neuropathy occurred as a late complication four months after treatment; however, the pain was well controlled by medication. We consider that virtual planning and Doppler TRUS are effective methods in cases where it is difficult to detect the tumor by physical examination and gray-scale TRUS, thereby expanding the indications for ISBT. PMID:22240939

Yoshida, Ken; Ueda, Mari; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Yoshida, Mineo; Miyake, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Susumu; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ban, Chiaki; Tanaka, Eiichi

2012-01-13

277

Failure induced by thermomigration of interstitial Cu in Pb-free flip chip solder joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure induced by thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg flip chip solder joints has been investigated by electromigration tests under 9.7×103 A/cm2 at 150 °C. The fast interstitial diffusion of Cu atoms from underbump metallization into Sn matrix caused void formation at the passivation opening on the chip side. The Cu diffusion was driven by a large thermal gradient and led to void formation even in the neighboring unpowered bumps. When the thermal gradient is above 400 °C/cm, theoretical calculation indicates that the thermomigration force is greater than the electromigration force at 9.7×103 A/cm2 stressing.

Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Chih; Tu, King-Ning

2008-09-01

278

Dynamics of Drag of Self-interstitial Clusters by an Edge Dislocation in Iron.  

SciTech Connect

Self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are created in metals under fast neutron irradiation and are believed to interact with dislocations and increase the flow stress. In this paper, atomic-scale computer simulations are used to investigate the dynamic interaction between an edge dislocation and small SIA loops that do not intersect the dislocation glide plane and whose Burgers vector is parallel to it. Such loops can be dragged by a moving dislocation and this effect is simulated as a function of temperature and loop size, spacing, stand-off distance and Burgers vector orientation. The results can be understood in terms of the one-dimensional mobility of SIA loops.

Rong, Zhouwen [University of Liverpool; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

2005-01-01

279

Interstitial-interstitial interaction of oxygen atoms in a Nb-based ternary body-centered-cubic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended statistical mechanical treatment is suggested to calculate the interstitial-interstitial interaction in a ternary bcc system. With the assumption of the first-order quasichemical approximation and the conservative condition of the interstitial solutes concentration, the numerical solution of the interstitial interaction can be determined by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated results for a Nb-M (V or Ti)-O system shown that the O-O interaction in Nb-based alloys exhibits a repulsive effect, and is markedly influenced by the substitutional solute concentration. These results can be applied as useful information for the description and understanding of the interstitials atoms' behaviors in ternary alloy systems.

Yu, Liming; Yin, Fuxing; Ping, Dehai; Liu, Yongchang

2011-06-01

280

Cryosurgery and needle ablation of renal lesions.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic renal cryoablation is a minimally invasive alternative for treating renal tumors utilizing narrow probes cooled with a compressed gas such as argon or carbon dioxide. At this time, cryotherapy has shown the most promise as an alternative to partial nephrectomy as a nephron-sparing treatment for renal tumors. Radiofrequency ablation employs needle electrodes placed percutaneously directly into renal lesions to deliver energy, creating high temperatures leading to cell death. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a noninvasive technique in which focused ultrasound energy is applied to cause cell death within the focal zone. Microwave thermotherapy uses small applicators to deliver microwave energy to tissues, resulting in the generation of heat. Although RF, HIFU, and microwave thermotherapy show promise as energy sources for tumor ablation, they are in the early stages of development. Little is known about their acute and chronic histologic effects and long-term efficacy as a treatment for malignant disease. Further work is needed to develop cryosurgery and needle ablation in order to delineate what role these techniques will ultimately play in the management of RCC. PMID:11394447

Johnson, D B; Nakada, S Y

2001-05-01

281

Effect of plasma needle on cultured cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate a possible application of plasma in fine surgery, we studied the effects of a small atmospheric glow discharge on living cultured cells. The plasma source used for this purpose was the "plasma needle". Plasma needle is a small (below 1mm) non-thermal radio-frequency glow, operating in helium mixtures with air at ambient pressure. Plasma treatment of cultured cells resulted in detachment of the cells. Viability tests using propidium iodide staining in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that detached cells as well as surrounding cells remained alive. When the cells received a low dose of plasma treatment, they reattached within a few hours to the surface of the culture flask and to each other. Removal of cells with high precision, without damage to adjacent cells, promises to become a new surgical technique. For investigation of the mechanism causing this detachment we investigated the gas mixture of the plasma with Raman scattering measurements. Radicals diffusing from the plasma into a liquid were detected by means of fluorescent probe in combination with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

Kieft, I. E.; Dvinskikh, N. A.; Broers, Jos L. V.; Slaaf, Dick W.; Stoffels, Eva

2004-05-01

282

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

283

Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

2007-09-01

284

Tansvaginal Needle Suspension Operation: The Way We Do It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the long–term results of the transvaginal needle suspension operation for urinary stress incontinence.Materials and Methods: A total of 88 women with proved genuine stress incontinence were treated with transvaginal needle suspension with fixation of suspension sutures to the rectus fascia using the technique of crossing suspension sutures. By using this method the proximal end of suspension suture

Ivan Gilja

2000-01-01

285

Sugar Micro Needles as Transdermic Drug Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed and fabricated an array of sugar micro needles of the length ranging from 150 ? m to 2 mm for transdermic delivery of drugs. Micro needles were molded out of maltose mixed with pharmaceutical material, being expected bio-degradable in the human skin. To test basic tolerance to the healthy human skin, a clinical experiment was carried out for

Takaya Miyano; Yoshikazu Tobinaga; Takahiro Kanno; Yasushi Matsuzaki; Hitoshi Takeda; Makoto Wakui; Katsumi Hanada

2005-01-01

286

Force Modeling for Needle Insertion into Soft Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of forces during needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate surgical simulation, preoperative planning, and intelligent robotic assistance for percutaneous therapies. We present a force model for needle insertion and experimental procedures for acquiring data from ex vivo tissue to populate that model. Data were collected from bovine livers using a one-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with a

Allison M. Okamura; Christina Simone; M. D. O'Leary

2004-01-01

287

42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

288

Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model to simulate the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-01-01

289

Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model describing the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

Hu, Shenyang; Henager, Charles H., Jr.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-01-01

290

An interstitial hypothesis for breast cancer related lymphoedema  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer related lymphoedema (BCRL), the chronically swollen arm of patients that have been treated for breast cancer, is no longer considered to be a result of lymphatic obstruction as recent studies have identified failing peripheral lymphatic function as a principal contributing factor. The aetiology and pathophysiology that results in this lymphatic failure is not clearly understood, but it can occur with minimal or even in some cases no damage to the axillary lymph nodes, and evidence suggests that some patients are pre-disposed to develop the disease, and have poor lymphatic function in their non-affected arms. It has been shown that interstitial forces such as hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial fluid velocity, can regulate both lymph flow, and lymph formation, and there is good evidence that interstitial forces are dysregulated in lymphoedema patients. Here I outline a hypothesis for how dysregulation of interstitial parameters could contribute to the generation of breast cancer related lymphoedema, by combining disparate strands of current evidence on the molecular and physiological control of interstitial and lymph flows. One mechanism by which lymphoedema could be generated is that a reduction in interstitial velocity results in increased VEGF-C production, which in low flow conditions, instead of acting on the lymphatics to increase pumping and lymphangiogenesis, acts on vasculature to increase fluid filtration. The resulting increase in interstitial pressure restores flow, but at the expense of increased volume and hence oedema. The evidence supporting the hypothesis and possible tests of it are presented and discussed.

Batse, David O.

2010-01-01

291

Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

2006-03-01

292

Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

2005-11-01

293

A Study of Interstitial and Related Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is given of work concerned with the experimental characterization of certain metal rich intermetallic compounds containing a small metalloid atom. Included are the borides with the Cr23C6 structure type and the eta carbide type and other metal-m...

H. H. Stadelmaier

1969-01-01

294

Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of nitrogen interstitial defects in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of nitrogen doped diamond that has been 15N enriched, electron irradiated and annealed. EPR spectra from two new nitrogen containing S=\\frac {1}{2} defects are detected and labelled WAR9 and WAR10. We show that the properties of these defects are consistent with them being the lang001rang-nitrogen split interstitial and the lang001rang-nitrogen split interstitial-lang001rang-carbon split interstitial pair, respectively. We also provide an explanation for why these defects have previously eluded discovery.

Felton, S.; Cann, B. L.; Edmonds, A. M.; Liggins, S.; Cruddace, R. J.; Newton, M. E.; Fisher, D.; Baker, J. M.

2009-09-01

295

Annealing of interstitial loops in arsenic implanted silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annealing effect of different gas ambient (N2 or O2) on high dose As-ion implanted Si wafer was investigated by transmission electronic microscope. A two layer defect structure is observed. The lower layer defects are interstitial type and attributed to the amorphous island below original crystalline amorphous interface. The upper layer loops are As precipitation in the form of stacking fault. The growth/shrinkage rate of interstitial loops during neutral and oxygen annealing are compared and shown interstitial silicons are injected into bulk silicon during oxidation.

Wu, N. R.; Ling, P.; Sadana, D. K.; Washburn, J.; Current, M. I.

1983-05-01

296

[Subsequent pregnancy following uterine artery embolization for interstitial pregnancy].  

PubMed

Subsequent pregnancy following an interstitial pregnancy is rare. The risk of uterine rupture may be increased in this situation. Uterine selective embolization has been proposed as an effective treatment. However, no further pregnancy has ever been described after this method of management. We are reporting a case of subsequent pregnancy following interstitial pregnancy managed by embolization. The pregnancy was uneventful. A healthy male infant was delivered by C-section. This case supports the hypothesis that selective embolization for interstitial pregnancy may respect fertility. However, as actual risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies remains unknown, a C-section is advised. PMID:16979367

Deruelle, P; Closset, E; Lions, C; Lucot, J-P

2006-09-18

297

Selective uterine artery embolization for management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition of pregnancy and may be very dangerous if not identified and treated urgently. We report a case of successful treatment of an interstitial pregnancy using selective uterine artery embolization. A 27-year-old woman with interstitial pregnancy was treated by uterine artery embolization after failure of systemic methotrexate treatment. Her serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) was undetectable one month after the therapeutic embolization and transvaginal sonography 31 days after embolization showed normal endometrium and cornu. The patient achieved a normal pregnancy eight months after embolization. PMID:17420637

Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

298

Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition of pregnancy and may be very dangerous if not identified and treated urgently. We report a case of successful treatment of an interstitial pregnancy using selective uterine artery embolization. A 27-year-old woman with interstitial pregnancy was treated by uterine artery embolization after failure of systemic methotrexate treatment. Her serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) was undetectable one month after the therapeutic embolization and transvaginal sonography 31 days after embolization showed normal endometrium and cornu. The patient achieved a normal pregnancy eight months after embolization.

Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

2007-01-01

299

Interstitial Lung Disease in a Patient with Dyskeratosis Congenita  

PubMed Central

Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare congenital disorder characterized by a triad of reticular pigmentation of the skin, dystrophic nails, and leukoplakia of the mucous membrane. Sometimes it is associated with bone marrow failure, secondary malignancy and interstitial lung disease. Though it is rare, Dyskeratosis congenita is diagnosed relatively easily when clinicians suspect it. It can be diagnosed just by gross inspection with care. Dyskeratosis congenita should be considered as one cause associated with interstitial lung disease. In Korea, interstitial lung disease with dyskeratosis congenita has not been reported. We report a case and review the literature.

Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Kyu Jin; Lee, Kwan Ho; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Hyun, Myung Soo; Kim, Ki-Hong

2013-01-01

300

Combined interstitial laser therapy for cancer using microwave radiometric sensor and RODEO MRI feedback: I. Radio microwave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of complex laser treatment of localized cancer is recently suggested with the focus on optimization, increasing efficiency and selectivity of Interstitial Laser Therapy (ILT) with interactive imaging and temperature feedback. This treatment is based upon a combination of ILT, photoacoustic (PA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with microwave radiometric remote control of the temperature in the treated zone. The features of this concept for primary breast and head and neck cancer are: 1) the application of microwave thermometry for non-invasive real-time overheating control during ILP; 2) direct intralesional injection of a photosensitizer and dye enhance through a tiny needle, followed by PA and ultrasonic impregnation and partly cancer cells damage; 3) combination ILT and PDT therapies; 4) post- operative PDT of the tumor by positioning LED arrays around breast; 5) using RODEO MRI for control of location of the tumor, needle and fiber and to monitor tissue changes during complex laser treatment. This paper focuses more on development of microwave radiometry temperature control. The previous experiments are presented concerning the study of remote microwave radiometric sensor for diagnostic purpose including the results of the clinical trials that have been conducted among over 1000 patients.

Zharov, Vladimir P.; Vesnin, Sergey G.; Harms, Steven E.; Suen, James Y.; Vaisblat, Alexander V.; Tikhomirova, N.

2001-07-01

301

Hard metal lung disease in an oil industry worker.  

PubMed

Hard metal lung disease, which manifests as giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is caused by exposure to hard metal dust. We report the case of an oil industry worker diagnosed with hard metal lung disease. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, as well as on pulmonary function testing. PMID:20126930

Bezerra, Patrícia Nunes; Vasconcelos, Ana Giselle Alves; Cavalcante, Lílian Loureiro Albuquerque; Marques, Vanessa Beatriz de Vasconcelos; Nogueira, Teresa Neuma Albuquerque Gomes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

2009-12-01

302

Exploitation of interstitial brachytherapy techniques for photodynamic therapy--II. Novel photosensitizeers for the treatment of solid tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of solid human tumors of volume up to 50 cm3 will require significant gains in photosensitizing effect over that obtained with Photofrin and 630 nm light. Some techniques of interstitial radioisotope brachytherapy can be exploited for the uniform delivery of laser light to solid tumor volumes. Our dosimetry planning system (T-PIPET) was used to design 7- and 9- fiber illuminators for the treatment of R3327-AT rat prostate tumors by interstitial PDT. Relatively uniform light fields within encompassed tumor volumes could be achieved with needle spacings of 0.9 and 1.2 cm for light of 670 and 750 nm, respectively. Novel photosensitizers derived from pheophorbide and bacteriopheophorbide and activated by 673 and 753 nm light, respectively, were at least 1000X more potent than Photofrin in photokilling EMT-6 tumor cells in vitro. Tumor response in vivo resulted from perfusion shutdown and secondary ischemic cell death. Complete tumor response and some cures were demonstrated when R3327-AT rat prostate tumors of 3.5-4.5 cm3 volume were treated with 400 J of 673 nm light delivered 1 hour after the i.v. administration of 2mg/kg Ph4-OH. Current studies will optimize the vehicle for drug delivery, the time between drug and light administration and the light dose uniformity required throughout a treatment volume for maximizing tumor cures. A two-fold gain in tissue penetrance by longer wavelength light combined with at least a 100X gain in in vivo effectiveness by these novel photosensitizers makes feasible the treatment of solid human tumors by interstitial PDT with current laser systems.

Chapman, J. Donald; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, Matthew C.; Brown, D. Q.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S.

1994-07-01

303

Approaches for modelling interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumours within or adjacent to bone: Theoretical and experimental evaluations.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop numerical models of interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumours within or adjacent to bone, to evaluate model performance through theoretical analysis, and to validate the models and approximations used through comparison to experiments. Methods: 3D transient biothermal and acoustic finite element models were developed, employing four approximations of 7-MHz ultrasound propagation at bone/soft tissue interfaces. The various approximations considered or excluded reflection, refraction, angle-dependence of transmission coefficients, shear mode conversion, and volumetric heat deposition. Simulations were performed for parametric and comparative studies. Experiments within ex vivo tissues and phantoms were performed to validate the models by comparison to simulations. Temperature measurements were conducted using needle thermocouples or magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI). Finite element models representing heterogeneous tissue geometries were created based on segmented MR images. Results: High ultrasound absorption at bone/soft tissue interfaces increased the volumes of target tissue that could be ablated. Models using simplified approximations produced temperature profiles closely matching both more comprehensive models and experimental results, with good agreement between 3D calculations and MRTI. The correlation coefficients between simulated and measured temperature profiles in phantoms ranged from 0.852 to 0.967 (p-value?interstitial ultrasound energy deposition around bone/soft tissue interfaces produced temperature distributions in close agreement with comprehensive simulations and experimental measurements. These models may be applied to accurately predict temperatures produced by interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumours near and within bone, with applications toward treatment planning. PMID:24102393

Scott, Serena J; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter D; Cam, Richard N; Han, Misung; Rieke, Viola; Burdette, E Clif; Diederich, Chris J

2013-11-01

304

Pulmonary actinomycosis in fine needle aspiration cytology  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare bacterial lung disease caused by one of two types of bacteria, Actinomyces or Propioni. Pulmonary actinomycosis in the lung causes lung cavities, lung nodules, and pleural effusion. We report here a case of pulmonary actinomycosis that was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A 45 year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, presented with complaints of cough with hemoptysis, right-sided chest pain, and fever of two months’ duration. A chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a right upper lobe mass lesion with hilar lymphadenopathy. CT-guided FNAC revealed colonies of Actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs. The disease is commonly confused with other chronic suppurative lung diseases and malignancy. An early diagnosis by FNAC prevents difficulties in the management of the disease, as well as considerable physiological and physical morbidity, including unwarranted surgery.

Patel, Keyuri B; Gupta, Gurudutt; Shah, Menka; Patel, Purvesh

2009-01-01

305

Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles  

SciTech Connect

Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP/sup +/, but also with NAD/sup +/. The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP/sup +/ and NAD/sup +/ are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed.

Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

1986-07-10

306

Multiple needle puncturing: balancing the varus knee.  

PubMed

The so-called "pie crusting" technique using multiple stab incisions is a well-established procedure for correcting tightness of the iliotibial band in the valgus knee. It is, however, not applicable for balancing the medial side in varus knees because of the risk for iatrogenic transsection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). This article presents our experience with a safer alternative and minimally invasive technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the MCL using a 19-gauge needle to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Our technique requires minimal to no additional soft tissue dissection and can even be performed percutaneously when necessary. This technique, therefore, does not impact the length of the skin or soft tissue incisions. We analyzed 61 cases with varus deformity that were intraoperatively treated using this technique. In 4 other cases, the technique was used as a percutaneous procedure to correct postoperative medial tightness that caused persistent pain on the medial side. The procedure was considered successful when a 2- to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 62 cases (95%), a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above-described criteria. Three cases were overreleased and required compensatory release of the lateral structures and use of a thicker insert. Based on these results, we consider needle puncturing an effective and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness during minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. PMID:21902147

Bellemans, Johan

2011-09-09

307

Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.  

PubMed

No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

2013-06-10

308

Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication  

SciTech Connect

Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

1983-07-01

309

Long term follow-up of patients with Cushing's disease treated by interstitial irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The first 86 patients with Cushing's disease treated with interstitial irradiation (by needle implantation) as the sole therapy were reviewed. In the 82 patients who were reassessed 1 yr after treatment 63 (77%) achieved remission. This study comprises the outcome and complications in the 54 patients who had a remission and whom we were able to follow. The follow-up period ranged from 3-26 yr (mean, 10.5) from the time of remission. No instance of clinical or radiological relapse has occurred. Of these 54 patients, yttrium-90 alone was used in 32, of whom 12 (37%) required corticosteroid or T4 replacement therapy in a mean time of 3.5 months; in 7 of these 12 we elected to give an ablative dose. Gold-198 alone was used in 15 patients, of whom 7 (47%) developed hypopituitarism in a mean time of 76 months. Both isotopes were used in 7 patients. A diurnal serum cortisol rhythm was found in 28 of the 31 patients who were not receiving corticosteroid therapy. In 5 of the 7 patients with an initially abnormal pituitary fossa, serial radiological studies revealed remodelling in 3. There have been no complications in the last 17 years. Pituitary implantation with yttrium-90 is an effective alternative to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, with a high remission rate, no recurrence (as yet), no operative complications, and avoidance of hormone replacement in the majority.

Sandler, L.M.; Richards, N.T.; Carr, D.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

1987-09-01

310

Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

2012-07-01

311

Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

2007-04-01

312

Sonophoresis for Rapid Assessment of Interstitial Fluid and Drug Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general objective of the proposed studies was to develop sonophoresis as a platform technology for assessing interstitial fluid from the skin and perform transdermal drug delivery. In this method, a short application of low-frequency ultrasound is use...

S. Mitragotri

2007-01-01

313

Intraoperative interstitial implantation of Iridium 192 in the breast  

SciTech Connect

Intraoperative interstitial implantation of iridium 192 during a lumpectomy for carcinoma of the breast has been well tolerated by the patient. This procedure has decreased the need for anesthesia and repeat hospitalization.

Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.

1984-02-01

314

View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

315

Nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor active in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to imatinib, and has been recently approved for newly diagnosed patients. We present a case of nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). A 67-year-old female patient was initially treated with imatinib for chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML. Imatinib was replaced by nilotinib because of hematological toxicity. The patient had received nilotinib for about 3 years without significant adverse effects. She visited the clinic due to chronic cough; chest X-ray revealed consolidations in both lung fields. Nilotinib-induced ILD was diagnosed based on intensive workup, including lung biopsy. She responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nilotinib-induced ILD in a patient with Ph(+) CML. We emphasize that if unexplained lung abnormalities progress in patients receiving nilotinib, physicians should consider this potentially fatal complication in their differential diagnoses. PMID:23877149

Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Myung Hee; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hoon-Gu

2013-07-23

316

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) can occur after stem cell transplantation, but the aetiology is unknown. Based on the association between angiitis syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection, we identified possible risk factors common to these two conditions. Among 83 patients who underwent stem cell transplantation, four developed IIP. We elucidated various parameters and clinical features in four patients with IIP and 79 patients without, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In all four patients, (1) the conditioning regimen induced total body irradiation, (2) serological reactivation of cytomegalovirus and/or human herpesvirus-6 preceded the onset of IIP, (3) their human leucocyte antigen types were among those suspected to increase susceptibility to angiitis syndrome, (4) serum anti-H. pylori antibody was positive before conditioning and remained positive throughout the post-transplantation course, (5) inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, 8 and 12) were increased during the period of leucocyte recovery after transplantation and (6) the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased at the onset of IIP. These findings suggest the possibility that angiitis syndrome and H. pylori infection are involved in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation IIP. PMID:12868990

Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Takatsuka, Hiroyuki; Wakae, Takeshi; Okada, Masaya; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Takahiro; Kakishita, Eizo; Hara, Hiroshi

2003-08-01

317

Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.  

PubMed

Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL. PMID:7406055

Goldberg, H S

1980-08-01

318

Interstitial lung disease associated with drug therapy  

PubMed Central

Drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) is not uncommon, with diverse patterns ranging from benign infiltrates to the potentially fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. As acute respiratory failure due to drug-associated ILD has an unpredictable onset and rapid time course, establishing a diagnosis is often difficult. An accurate diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological (including high-resolution computed tomography) and histological manifestations, although is often only possible by exclusion. Cancer chemotherapy is commonly associated with acute disease that, on pathology, is often diffuse alveolar damage. Furthermore, a combination of drugs with or without radiotherapy can increase the risk of ILD. This article reviews treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that are associated with the development of ILD and how systematic evaluation of the possible role of these drugs in ILD is warranted. A difference between Japan and the rest of the world in reporting rates of ILD when gefitinib (‘Iressa’) has been used in advanced NSCLC is also discussed. However, the difference remains unexplained, leaving important epidemiological and mechanistic questions.

Camus, P; Kudoh, S; Ebina, M

2004-01-01

319

Self-Interstitial Transport in Vanadium  

SciTech Connect

We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and SIA clusters in vanadium via molecular dynamics simulations with an improved Finnis-Sinclair potential (fit to first-principles results for SIA structure and energetics). The present results demonstrate that single SIAs exist in a <111>-dumbbell configuration and migrate easily along <111> directions. Changes of direction through rotations into other <111> directions are infrequent at low temperatures, but become prominent at higher temperatures, thereby changing the migration path from predominantly one-dimensional to almost isotropically three-dimensional. SIA clusters (i.e., clusters of <111>-dumbbells) can be described as perfect prismatic dislocation loops with Burgers vector and habit planes of 1/2<111>{l_brace}220{r_brace} that migrate only along their glide cylinder. SIA clusters also migrate along <111>-directions, but do not rotate. Both single SIAs and their clusters exhibit a highly non-Arrhenius diffusivity, which originates from a combination of a temperature dependent correlation factor and the presence of very low migration barriers. At low temperature, the diffusion is approximately Arrhenius, while above room temperature, the diffusivity is a linear function of temperature. A simple model is proposed to describe these diffusion regimes and the transition between them.

Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Rottler, J; Wirth, B D; Car, R; Srolovitz, D J

2005-01-13

320

Mathematical analysis of the temperature field during ex-vivo and in-vivo experimental laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) in breast tissue models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser interstitial thermotherapy is a promising minimally- invasive technique for the treatment of small cancers of the breast that are currently removed surgically lumpectomy. The purpose of this work was to analyze in situ temperature fields recorded with stainless-steel thermocoupled probes during experimental laser interstitial thermo-therapy. Both a CW Nd:YAG laser system emitting 20W for 25 to 30s and a 980 nm diode laser emitting 10 to 20 W for up to 1200s delivered through a fiber-optic probe were used to create localized heating in fatty cadaver pig tissue and milk as phantoms. To quantify an artifact due to direct heating of the thermocouple probes by laser radiation, experiments were also performed in air, water and intralipid solution. The temperature field around the fiber-optic probe during laser irradiation was measured every 0.3 s or 1 s with an array of up to fifteen needle thermocoupled probes. The effect of light absorption by the thermocouples probes was quantified and the time-dependence of the temperature distribution was analyzed. After removal of the thermocouple artifact, the temperature was found to vary exponentially with time with a time constant of 600 to 700 s. The time-dependence of the interstitial temperature can be modeled by exponential functions both during ex vivo and in vivo experiments.

Manns, Fabrice; Milne, Peter J.; Salas, Nelson; Pandya, Nish; Denham, David B.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Robinson, David S.

1999-06-01

321

A STUDY OF PRECIPITATION IN INTERSTITIAL ALLOYS. I. PRECIPITATION SEQUENCE IN Ta-C ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

A systematic transmission electron microscopy study of carbide precipitation in quenched-aged tantalum-carbon alloys has clarified the mechanism of precipitation in refractory BCC metal-carbon alloys. Diffraction contrast analysis shows that the precipitate platelets lie on {l_brace}310{r_brace} planes of the matrix, are interstitial in nature, and fully coherent before they thicken further and lose coherency. The precipitation sequence is continuous and involves no renucleation during the formation of the non-coherent phase. Thus, the final orientation relationship of the precipitate with the matrix already is found at the earliest stage at which it is possible to detect it. The interpretation of the results indicates that, as in FCC alloys, vacancies play an important role in the precipitation process during the nucleation and early growth stages and permit the formation of the hexagonal equilibrium M{sub 2}C structure early in the sequence. The model proposed to explain the observations is also consistent with the multistage hardening observed in quenched-aged refractory metal interstitial alloys.

Dahmen, U.; Westmacott, K.H.; Thomas, G.

1980-08-01

322

Silent perforations of the stomach and duodenum by needles.  

PubMed

We present a series of ten patients consecutively admitted to the hospital after swallowing 12 household sewing needles. Ten of these needles, one in each patient, had perforated either the stomach or the duodenum, but in no case did the perforation cause any abdominal symptoms or signs. Immediately after arrival in the emergency ward, the diagnosis was made in most cases by means of a diatrizoate meglumine swallow, which showed the tip of the needle protruding outside the gastrointestinal tract. In the first few cases, the diagnosis was made by finding the needle in the same position after repeated plain abdominal roentgenograms. This method, however, served to delay the diagnosis of perforation. All patients were operated on immediately after the diagnosis of perforation was made, except for two who had an additional ingested needle. Operation was delayed in these patients until the second needle was spontaneously eliminated. Perforation was confirmed by operation in all cases in the present series, the operative extraction of the needle was simple, and recovery was uneventful. The fact that patients may remain asymptomatic despite perforation of their stomach or duodenum by sharp, fine foreign bodies is no cause for procrastination of surgery, as severe complications may subsequently result. PMID:736772

Hashmonai, M; Kaufman, T; Schramek, A

1978-12-01

323

Comparison of procedures for preparation of Pinus strobus needle macromolecules  

SciTech Connect

Eastern white pine foliage is sensitive to adverse atmospheric O{sub 3} and acid rain. The mechanisms by which they promote needle necrosis have not been fully elucidated. Because the literature yielded little regarding needle protein and nucleic acid contents, streptomycin sulfate (SS) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) efficiencies for macromolecule precipitation from 1 and 2 yr-old needles of 30 yr-old trees were compared. Weighed needles were homogenized into buffer and homogenates filtered. The filtrate was mixed with chloroform-methanol-H{sub 2}O (13:4:3, v/v) and centrifuged 30 min 12,000 xg. After the pellet was subjected to SS or TCA, Lowry-positive substances were recovered in SS and TCA-soluble and insoluble fractions of 1st and 2nd yr needles. Similarly, orcinol and diphenylamine-positive substances occurred in SS-soluble and insoluble fractions for yrs 1 and 2. However, the latter were only detected in TCA-soluble fractions. These data suggest that needle proteins were not effectively precipitated and needles contained free pentoses or non-precipitable RNA (orcinol-reactive).

Williams, A.L.; Dashek, W.V. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)); Vose, J.M.; Swank, W.T. (Dept. of Agriculture, Otto, NC (United States))

1991-05-01

324

Interaction of interstitial photodynamic therapy and interstitial hyperthermia in a rat rhabdomyosarcoma--a pilot study.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the activation of photosensitizing drugs by light of appropriate wavelength. The photosensitive agent Hematoporphyrin Derivative (HPD) appears to be preferentially retained in malignant tumors; irradiation of HPD-containing tissue by light of appropriate wavelength (625 nm) and dose leads to (tumor) tissue destruction. The aim of this study is to achieve maximum tumor control probability with minimum normal tissue photosensitivity. In previous work from our laboratory it has been demonstrated that PDT has its fundamental effects on the tumor and normal tissue microcirculation. As it is well established that hyperthermia (HT) has its major effects in less well vascularized areas of the tumor, the combined modality of HT and PDT might prove to be advantageous. Moreover, suppression of sublethal damage repair by HT has been observed. To overcome the problem of poor light penetration into tissues and the high rate of recurrences following PDT with external irradiation, the combined effects of interstitial PDT with interstitial hyperthermia in a new line of animal experiments were studied in our laboratory. An experimental murine tumor (Rhabdomyosarcoma, type R-1) was transplanted in WAG/Rij rats and, after reaching an average diameter of 2 cm, the active component of HPD, that is Photofrin II, was injected intravenously in different dose schedules (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg). After 24 or 48 hrs the tumors were implanted with four flexible catheters, through which either light or heat could be applied. Light was obtained from an Argon-Dye laser system tuned to a wavelength of 625 nm at a dose rate of 75-100 mW per fiber to a dose level of 900 Joule from four linear light applicators. Heat (44 degrees C/30') was delivered by four 27 MHz radiofrequency antennas. Dose response relationships for PDT alone, HT alone and PDT combined with HT were established with cure as endpoint. This study showed that these two modalities, in the proper sequence and spacing, result in an augmented cytotoxicity on the tumor cells in vivo. With the combined modality treatment a cure rate of 41% (90 days) was obtained. As the implantation of flexible catheters is a well-known technique in radiation therapy practice, the potentiating effects of interstitial HT combined with interstitial PDT in solid tumors is very promising and clinical studies are warranted. PMID:2961716

Levendag, P C; Marijnissen, H P; de Ru, V J; Versteeg, J A; van Rhoon, G C; Star, W M

1988-01-01

325

The Efficacy of Chondroitin Sulphate in Treating Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To test in an open label study the response to chondroitin sulphate in patients with the interstitial cystitis syndrome and a positive potassium test.Patients and Methods: Eigtheen patients with interstitial cystitis based on NIH symptom criteria were enrolled in the study. Patients received 40ml chondroitin sulphate 0.2% instilled intravesically once a week for four weeks and then once a

G. Steinhoff

2003-01-01

326

The Role of Borrelia burgdorferi in Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background/Aims:Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete has been found both in bladder biopsies and the urine of patients with Lyme disease (LD) as well as in experimental animals. The urological symptoms in borreliosis resemble those of interstitial cystitis (IC): frequency, urgency and nocturia. The aim of this studies is to find the role of B. burgdorferi in interstitial cystitis.Methods: We studied antibodies against

Mervi Haarala; Pentti Kiiholma; Martti Nurmi; Jaakko Uksila; Anna Alanen

2000-01-01

327

Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon

J. H. Tylczak; J. C. Rawers; D. E. Alman

2007-01-01

328

Electronic structure of LiZnN: Interstitial insertion rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiZnN, like other Nowotny-Juza filled tetrahedral A\\/sup I\\/B\\/sup II\\/C\\/sup V\\/ compounds, consists of a B\\/sup II\\/C\\/sup V\\/ zinc-blende lattice with the A\\/sup I\\/ atoms filling half of the available tetrahedral interstitial sites. Using band calculations we deduce an ''interstitial insertion rule'' which shows, following an earlier argument of Wood, Zunger, and de Groot, how the electronic structures of such ternary

A. E. Carlsson; Alex Zunger; D. M. Wood

1985-01-01

329

Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis. Recently we developed a model of cyclosporine nephropathy in rats characterized by tubulointerstitial (TI) injury, macrophage infiltration, and progressive interstitial fibrosis1,2. To determine if the TI injury accompanying cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy was associated with accelerated apoptosis and ischemia, we treated rats for five weeks with CsA with or without losartan (to block angiotensin

Susan E. Thomas; Takeshi F. Andoh; Raimund H. Pichler; Stuart J. Shankland; William G. Couser; William M. Bennett; Richard J. Johnson

1998-01-01

330

Interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A de novo interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 was prenatally diagnosed in a male fetus, karyotype 46,XY,del(3)(pter?p14.2::p11?qter). The fetus had craniofacial dysmorphisms, a single transverse palmar crease, ulnar deviation in the wrists, cardiovascular anomalies, a slight ureteric dilatation and a mobile caecum. Our observations are compared with five other cases with interstitial deletion of the short

J. M. Hertz; W. Coerdt; N. Hahnemann; M. Schwartz

1988-01-01

331

Interstitial pneumonitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--A study was performed to identify the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features of interstitial pneumonitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS--A retrospective review was made of the case notes, chest radiographs, and histopathological results of seven HIV-1 antibody positive patients with symptomatic diffuse pulmonary disease and a pathological diagnosis of non-specific interstitial pneumonitis. RESULTS--All patients had dyspnoea,

M H Griffiths; R F Miller; S J Semple

1995-01-01

332

Interaction between oxygen and single self-interstitials in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike vacancy-oxygen defects, the role of Si interstitials (I) when trapped by interstitial oxygen (Oi) is far from clear. In an attempt to enlighten this interaction between these complexes, we report ab initio modeling of IOi defects. The calculated properties such as vibrational modes and spin density are compared with the available experimental data. We conclude with the assignment of the A18 EPR signal to a C1h symmetry IOi defect in the positive charge state.

Pinho, N.; Coutinho, J.; Jones, R.; Briddon, P. R.

2003-12-01

333

Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

2004-01-01

334

Interstitial and substitutional Zr in SrTiO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate Zr in SrTiO3 (STO) as an electronic dopant and as a model for nuclear waste forms in which radioactive Sr decays to Y and then to stable Zr through beta emission. Density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model is used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native point defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a ZrTi impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) ZrSr is predicted to be a double electron donor, ZrTi is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. ZrSr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes.

Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renee; Jiang, Weilin

2011-03-01

335

Interstitial and substitutional zirconium in SrTiO3  

SciTech Connect

We investigate Zr in SrTiO3 (STO) as a model for nuclear waste forms in which the fission product Sr90 eventually decays to stable Zr through beta emission. The transformation of a divalent into a tetravalent constituent is expected to affect the long-term structural and chemical stability of this solid. Computational methods of electronic structure theory, specifically the density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model, are used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a ZrTi impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) ZrSr is predicted to be a double electron donor, ZrTi is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. ZrSr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes.

Jaffe, John E.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jiang, Weilin

2012-02-22

336

Abnormal flow cytometry profiles in patients with interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry was performed on bladder cells from patients with interstitial cystitis and control patients. Cells were processed in standard fashion for flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining and analysis was restricted to samples with sufficient cells for cytokeratin gating and acceptable coefficients of variation. Of 14 interstitial cystitis patients 4 (29%) demonstrated aneuploid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles as evidenced by a discrete peak with a DNA index of 1.2 or greater in the cytokeratin positive population. The aneuploid peak accounted for up to 54% of the cytokeratin positive population in these samples. No such aneuploid DNA profiles were evident in specimens obtained from control patients. A significant DNA tetraploid population, as evidenced by a 4C (G2) peak greater than 20%, was observed in 6 of 14 interstitial cystitis patients (43%) and 8 of 11 controls (72%). Manual counting of the per cent of binucleated cytokeratin positive cells in the cytokeratin stained population and nuclear preparations of several samples for flow analysis indicate that apparent DNA tetraploidy in the interstitial cystitis and control patients is due to an abundance of binucleated cells. Aneuploid DNA profiles on barbotage specimens from interstitial cystitis patients may reflect a real karyotypic abnormality or altered chromosome complement (true aneuploidy), abnormal chromatin structure or abnormal cytoplasmic binding of the propidium iodide stain. This finding may signal an underlying abnormality of the epithelial cell population in some patients with the clinical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. PMID:7525999

Bushman, W; Goolsby, C; Grayhack, J T; Schaeffer, A J

1994-12-01

337

Pharmacists' attitudes about pharmacy sale of needles/syringes and needle exchange programs in a city without needle/syringe prescription laws.  

PubMed

We assessed pharmacists' practices for needle and syringe (NS) sales and their attitudes toward a needle exchange program through a telephone survey of 75 randomly selected pharmacies in Baltimore, Maryland, where possession of drug paraphernalia is illegal but where NS can be purchased without a prescription. Pharmacists' (n=46) procedures for NS sales included asking for picture identification (54%), requiring a prescription (34%), or requiring a diabetic identification (DID, 34%) for NS purchase; multiple responses were allowed. The median number of prescription and nonprescription NS sold per month was 950. Most (86.6%) pharmacists reported selling NS without prescriptions at their discretion. Pharmacists sold a median of 16 nonprescription NS per month. Pharmacists who required prescriptions or DID (56.5%) sold nonprescription NS significantly less often than those who did not require prescriptions or DID (p=.007). Most pharmacists (87%) were aware of the needle exchange program, 78.3% supported the program, and 67.4% supported selling nonprescription NS in pharmacies. Although there was no difference in anticipated effects of needle exchange or in support for needle exchange between pharmacists who did or did not require prescriptions, DID, or both, pharmacists who did require these items were significantly less likely to support pharmacy sales of nonprescription NS than pharmacists with less restrictive sales policies (p=.04). Although most pharmacists surveyed supported access to sterile NS by injection drug users through a needle exchange program, there was a diversity of approaches to nonprescription NS sales among pharmacists in a city that does not require prescriptions for access to sterile NS. Most supported nonpharmacy needle exchange programs, and more than one half limited injection drug users' access to NS through restrictive sales practices. To reduce injection drug users' exposure to HIV, pharmacists should be educated about HIV prevention and injection drug use and be included in development of HIV prevention programs, including legal pharmacy NS sales. PMID:9663630

Gleghorn, A A; Gee, G; Vlahov, D

1998-01-01

338

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

339

Modification of commercial force feedback hardware for needle insertion simulation.  

PubMed

A SensAble Omni force feedback device has been modified to increase the face validity of a needle insertion simulation. The new end effector uses a real needle hub and shortened needle shaft in place of the Omni's pre-fitted pen shaped end effector. This modification facilitates correct procedural training through the simulation of co-located visual and haptic cues in an augmented reality approach to simulation. The development of the new end effector is described and a pictorial guide to its manufacture and the fitting process is provided. Initial results from face validation studies bode well for the fidelity of this low cost device. PMID:21335776

Coles, Timothy R; John, Nigel W; Sofia, Giuseppe; Gould, Derek A; Caldwell, Darwin G

2011-01-01

340

Why should we use atraumatic needles in lumbar puncture?  

PubMed

Diagnostic lumbar puncture is essential to the diagnosis of central nervous system infections, subarachnoid haemorrhage and others neurological diseases. Myeloradicular involvement or life-threatening adverse events due to the procedure are rare, but less severe complications are more frequent. Post-lumbar puncture headache is the most common complication, by spinal fluid leakage due to delayed closure of a dural defect. Therefore, the development of fine needles, with differentiated atraumatic bevel, has contributed to minimize that problem. These generically called atraumatic needles cause less deformation of the dura mater then the Quincke® ones. So, why don't we use these atraumatic needles? PMID:24141504

Matas, Sandro Luiz de Andrade

2013-09-01

341

Scots pine needle surfaces on radial transects across the north boreal area of Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.  

PubMed

To gain an understanding of the characteristics of the needle surfaces of naturally regenerated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and their geographical distribution, eight physicochemical variables were investigated within the north boreal forest area. The visibly undamaged needles were collected in autumn 1990 from 114 plots (3-5 pines per plot) along radial transects from the Monchegorsk and Nikel smelters, emitting SO2 and heavy metals, on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, to Finnish Lapland. The needles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measured for surface wettability using the droplet contact angle (DCA) method. Significant geographical south-north and west-east patterns could be observed in needle surface characteristics, correlating with emissions from the smelters and to climate. Despite the slightly higher initial DCAs (61.4-87.6 degrees) towards the north, the pine needle surfaces of the northernmost transects exhibited higher annual needle wettability change (ANWC) and wax erosion rate (AWER), expressed as the reduction in DCAs and epistomatal wax tube distribution (WTD) during one year, respectively, but a lower occurrence of particles and fungal hyphae than those of more southern transects. The higher ANWC was related to higher atmospheric SO2 concentration, and to the lower long-term temperature sum, but not clearly to annual precipitation. In the Monchegorsk smelter area, the current needles exhibited, on average, a 15% higher WTD and seven degree larger DCA, resulting in more hydrophobic needle surfaces than in Finnish Lapland, but during their first year, both the AWER and ANWC, were greatly increased. In Finnish Lapland, 30%, of all the epistomatal wax tubes disappeared from the needle surface during the first year, the value being 70% for the pines located 8 km from the smelter. The mineral composition of the particles deposited on the needle surfaces mirrored that of the minerals being produced by the smelters (e.g. FexSx, CuFeS2, NixSx, FexOx). Stomatal densities were in the range of 71.1-141.7 stomata mm(-2). The lower densities of stomata on needles close to the smelters correlated with reduced number of needle age classes of the pines, higher dry weights, higher pollutant accumulation and lower Mn and Zn concentrations in the needles. The AWER and ANWC were able to indicate the most seriously deteriorated needle surfaces on a regional scale, e.g. including the surroundings of both smelters, although the plot-specific relationships between 'needle surface variables' and 'pollution variables' were generally weak. The present study showed that the exposure of pine needles to the combined effects of ambient pollutants and harsh climate led to a deterioration in the physicochemical characteristics of the epicuticular wax, which may have serious ecophysiological consequences in the long term. PMID:15091357

Turunen, M; Huttunen, S

1996-01-01

342

Critical dislocation density separating different regimes of diffusion transport in metal-semiconductor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion transport of metal impurities in semiconductors is considered. Critical magnitudes of dislocation density are obtained at which the diffusion kinetics change from the interstitial impurity regime of diffusion transport to the self-interstitial regime or the vacancy regime. It is predicted that the critical density of dislocations decreases with increasing temperature.

A. V. Vaisleib

1993-01-01

343

Comparison of a new screw-tipped intraosseous needle versus a standard bone marrow aspiration needle for infusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the speed and ease of establishing intraosseous infusion using a standard bone marrow needle (SBMN; $8) and a new screw-tipped intraosseous needle (Sur-Fast; $42). The study is an experimental design. A total of 42 medical students, without prior IO experience, were recruited as study subjects. Subjects were randomized to perform the IO procedures in one of two models: (1) turkey femur or (2) pork ribs. Each subject performed an initial trial using both IO needles without practice (inexperienced) and a second trial using both IO needles after practice (experienced attempt), such that in total, each subject completed four attempts (two with each needle type). IO placement times were measured, and placement difficulty scores were measured using a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). The averaged elapsed time to successful IO completion was significantly shorter for the SBMN in the initial "inexperienced" attempt (33 versus 54 seconds, P = .019), but there was no significant difference in the postpractice "experienced" attempt. VAS difficulty scores were lower (easier) for the SBMN for both inexperienced and experienced trials. Success rates were significantly higher for the Sur-Fast needle during the experienced attempt (95% versus 79%, P < .05), but there was no significant difference in success rates during the inexperienced attempt. The Sur-Fast screw-tipped intraosseous needle does not show superiority over the SBMN in this intraosseous model, therefore its higher cost is difficult to justify based on this study. PMID:10750915

Jun, H; Haruyama, A Z; Chang, K S; Yamamoto, L G

2000-03-01

344

Liposarcoma subtypes: identification with computed tomography and ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of image-guided percutaneous needle biopsy to enable specific subtype classification of liposarcoma in patients with previously diagnosed disease and compare the yield of fine and large needle techniques for each subtype. We reviewed the medical records and pathology reports of 69 fine (20 g) needle and large (15, 16 g) needle biopsies

Paul Nikolaidis; Stuart G. Silverman; Edmund S. Cibas; Eric vanSonnenberg; Frank J. Rybicki; Judith B. Manola; Kemal Tuncali; Steven H. Karshbaum; Samuel Singer; Christopher D. M. Fletcher; George D. Demetri

2005-01-01

345

Geometric parameter design of a cantilever probing needle used in epoxy ring probe card  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wafer probe card fabrication, contact force and forward displacement of needle tip are both important considerations affecting the probing results critically. This study establishes a finite element model of a cantilever probing needle used in epoxy ring probe card, to explore the effects of needle geometric parameters and probing overdrive upon the needle tip situation. Taguchi's methodology is used

Dar-Yuan Chang; Jing-Tung Choi

2009-01-01

346

In vitro validation of viscoelastic and nonlinear physical model of liver for needle insertion simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle insertion treatments require accurate placement of the needle tip into the target cancer. However, it is difficult to insert the needle into the cancer because of cancer displacement due to the organ deformation. Then, a path planning using numerical simulation to analyze the deformation of the organ is important for the accurate needle insertion. The objective of our work

Yo Kobayashi; Akinori Onishi; Hiroki Watanabe; Takeharu Hoshi; Kazuya Kawamura; Masakatsu G. Fujie

2008-01-01

347

Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38  

SciTech Connect

Using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering we show that interstitial Fe in superconducting Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{1-x}$Se$_x$ induces a magnetic Friedel-like oscillation that diffracts at ${\\bf Q}_{\\perp}=(\\frac{1}{2}0)$ and involves $>$50 neighboring Fe sites. The interstitial $>2$~$\\mu_B$ moment is surrounded by compensating ferromagnetic four spin clusters that may seed double stripe ordering in Fe$_{1+y}$Te. A semi-metallic 5-band model with $(\\frac{1}{2}\\frac{1}{2})$ Fermi surface nesting and four fold symmetric super-exchange between interstitial Fe and two in-plane nearest neighbors largely accounts for the observed diffraction.

Thampy, Vivek [ORNL; Kang, Jian [Johns Hopkins University; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A [NCNR and University of Maryland; Bao, Wei [Renmin University of China; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL; Hu, Jin [Tulane University; Liu, Tijiang [Tulane University; Qian, Bin [Tulane University; Fobes, David [Tulane University; Mao, Z Q [Tulane University; Fu, Changbo [ORNL; Chen, W. C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Ye, Qiang [ORNL; Erwin, R [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Gentile, T. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Tesanovic, Zlatko [ORNL; Broholm, Collin L [ORNL

2012-01-01

348

Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and Reduced Exercise Capacity  

PubMed Central

Rationale: The relationship between interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and exercise capacity has not been comprehensively evaluated. Objectives: To assess the validity of the 6-minute walk test in subjects with ILA, and to examine the association between ILA and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Methods: Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationships between 6MWD and relevant measures of dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and pulmonary function in a cohort of 2,416 people who smoke from the COPDGene study. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the strength of the association between ILA and 6MWD. Measurements and Main Results: In all subjects, and in those with ILA, 6MWD in COPDGene was associated with relevant clinical and physiologic measures. The mean 6MWD in COPDGene subjects with ILA was 386 m (SD, 128 m), and 82% and 19% of subjects with ILA had 6MWDs less than or equal to 500 and 250 m, respectively. ILA was associated with a reduced 6MWD in univariate (?30 m; 95% confidence interval, ?50 to ?10; P = 0.004) and multivariate models (?19 m; 95% confidence interval, ?33 to ?5; P = 0.008). Compared with subjects without ILA, subjects with ILA had an 80% and 77% increase in their odds to have a walk distance limited to less than or equal to 500 and 250 m, respectively. Although these findings were dependent on ILA subtype, they were not limited to those with COPD. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that ILA is associated with measurable decrements in the 6MWD of people who smoke. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00608764).

Doyle, Tracy J.; Washko, George R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Divo, Miguel J.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O.

2012-01-01

349

Co-Morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and fibromyalgia (FM). Materials and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: (1) physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and (2) subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA). These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria >11 times/24?h, and nocturia >2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome, and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47?±?16?years, 92% females), 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria (mean age 40?±?17?years, 79% females) and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31?±?14?years, mean age 77%). Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines, and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain, and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic, and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

Chelimsky, Gisela; Heller, Elizabeth; Buffington, C. A. Tony; Rackley, Raymond; Zhang, Di; Chelimsky, Thomas

2012-01-01

350

24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

351

Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images

Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

1987-01-01

352

Needle and syringe cleaning practices among injection drug users.  

PubMed

Bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) of needles and syringes (NS) has been advocated as a risk-reduction intervention against HIV among injection drug users (IDUs). The effect of needle exchange on the BMD practices of 176 NS-sharing IDUs was evaluated. IDUs were randomly assigned to either 1) Pharmacy Sales Condition, access to NS via legal sales of nonprescription NS; or 2) Needle Exchange Condition, with additional access to NS via an experimental needle exchange program. Repeated measures analysis revealed a main effect of time on BMD, no effect of assignment condition, and no time by assignment interaction. Logistic regression revealed IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. Future interventions should incorporate behavioral BMD components and address the concerns of those who trade sex for money or drugs. PMID:12206065

Fisher, Dennis G; Harbke, Colin R; Canty, John R; Reynolds, Grace L

2002-01-01

353

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

354

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency...

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a) Identification. An emergency...

2010-04-01

356

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical...intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

357

64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

358

60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

359

Emergency Allergy Needles Too Short for Heavy People?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Emergency allergy needles too short for heavy people? (*this news ... 2014) Thursday, October 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Allergy Food Allergy Obesity By Kathryn Doyle NEW YORK ( ...

360

21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type epilator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

361

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

362

48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

363

BK98-0008 ITL Corp., Bloodpack Needle Protector  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... and how assembly is locked into place they integrate into the (Medsep and Medisystem) device Design The needle is secured inside the Same ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

364

Image-guided Control of Flexible Bevel-Tip Needles  

PubMed Central

Physicians perform percutaneous therapies in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of needle interventions. In this paper, we consider the possibility of automating the guidance of a flexible bevel-tip needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic kinematic model to develop a nonlinear observer-based controller. As a first step for control, we show that flexible needles can be automatically controlled to remain within a planar slice of tissue as they are inserted by a physician; our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. In the proposed controller, the distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used as a feedback signal. Numerical simulations demonstrate the stability and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty. We also present results from pilot physical experiments with phantom tissue under stereo image guidance.

Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J.

2010-01-01

365

Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-02-01

366

Abnormal urothelial HLA-DR expression in interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial cystitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the urinary bladder that predominantly afflicts middle-age women. The end stage of the disease is ulceration of the urothelium, the so-called Hunner's ulcer. The aetiology of interstitial cystitis remains obscure. We have studied bladder biopsies from 22 cases of interstitial cystitis and control groups consisting of six cases of bacterial cystitis and eight healthy women. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on the biopsies using murine MoAbs to human HLA class I molecules, and class II molecules, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. In interstitial cystitis, bacterial cystitis and normal controls most cells expressed HLA class I products. In six cases of interstitial cystitis and one case of bacterial cystitis there was evidence of HLA class I hyperexpression. In normal bladder and bacterial cystitis HLA class II expression was restricted to submucosal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes. All but two cases of interstitial cystitis showed surface expression of HLA-DR (but not HLA-DP or DQ). In all cases of interstitial cystitis there was an increase in the numbers of macrophages, activated lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells expressing HLA class II molecules within the submucosa. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of inappropriate HLA molecule expression in a disease suspected of having an autoimmune pathogenesis and where cellular autoimmune mechanisms play a decisive role in the destruction of the target cells--the bladder urothelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Christmas, T J; Bottazzo, G F

1992-01-01

367

Design of Laser-Excited Needle-RF-Gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new-type of laser-excited RF-gun using a needle photocathode is proposed. Design studies of the gun performances are executed with numerical calculations for electric field of the tip of the needle photocathode, laser heating and Joule heating of the tip, and beam parameters of a photoelectron beam in the RF-gun cavity. This calculation assumes a 2856 MHz RF-gun system that

Takahiro Inoue; Shuji Miyamoto; Sho Amano; Mitsuyasu Yatsuzuka; Takayasu Mochizuki

2003-01-01

368

Electrochemical Corrosion of STS304 Acupuncture Needles by Electrical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first investigation of electrical corrosion in acupuncture needles after electrical stimulation. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed the occurrence of electrochemical corrosion on the surface of stainless steel 304 acupuncture needles after electrical stimulation in the tibial muscles of rats. Biphasic pulse electrical stimuli with 10-Hz frequency, 1-mA intensity and 1-ms pulse width were applied to the

Hye Suk Hwang; Eun Jin Yang; Yeon Hee Ryu; Myeong Soo Lee; Sun-Mi Choi

2010-01-01

369

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of

John I. Hedges; K. Weliky

1989-01-01

370

Stainless Steel MicroNeedle Electrodes Made by Electrolytic Pointing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-needle electrodes of any desired taper and sharpness for insertion into living tissue can be made quickly by electrolytic etching. For stainless steel wire the electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric and ortho-phosphoric acids. The wire to be pointed is made the anode of a circuit initially carrying about 0.03 amp. Gross shaping of the needle is done by repeatedly

Harry Grundfest; Robert W. Sengstaken; Walter H. Oettinger; R. W. Gurry

1950-01-01

371

Characterization of the discharge in array needle cathodes and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new direct current (DC) plasma source for surface alloying using array-needle-cathode has been designed and manufactured. The array-needle-cathode is used to produce a stable abnormal glow discharge plasma in a rectangular chamber. During the surface alloying process, it is noticed that the discharge modes severely influenced the plasma parameters including electron density (Ne) and electron temperature

Yang Lizhen; Zhang Yuefei; Chen Qiang; Zhang Guangqiu; Ge Yuanjing

2011-01-01

372

Influence of needling point Hegu(LI 4) on colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the influence of needling bilateral points Hegu (LI 4) before colonoscopy on the examined patients and the\\u000a time of inserting colonoscope.Methods: 185 patients to receive colonoscopy were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (93 cases) and a control group (92 cases)\\u000a in order of examination. Bilateral points Hegu (LI 4) were needled before colonoscopy in the acupuncture

Du Yan-jun; Sun Guo-jie

2006-01-01

373

Development of needle-type glucose sensor with high selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amperometric needle-type glucose biosensor employing rhodium as electrocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide detection is described. A novel transducer design is based on electrodeposition of rhodium particles on the external wall of the needle which serves as the working electrode and an external Ag\\/AgCl reference\\/counter electrode. Electropolymerized 1,3-diaminobenezene (1,3-phenylenediamine) is employed as a protective layer for the rhodium particles as well

Qingling Yang; Plamen Atanasov; Ebtisam Wilkins

1998-01-01

374

Out-of-plane micro-needle arrays using silicon micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

An array of out-of-plane silicon processed micro-needles has been successfully fabricated using relatively simple fabrication techniques. This abstract describes the methods explored to produce 100-element needle arrays (10times10) on a single die. Applications of the micro-needles include transdermal drug delivery and tissue delivery (during surgery). Two types of needles were fabricated: solid electrode and hollow through-hole. The solid-core micro-needles can

H. Trada; K. Walsh; A. Isham; S. Cambron

2007-01-01

375

'Needle with ease': rapid stress management techniques.  

PubMed

For some patients, even looking at a needle is enough to make them feel anxious. Repeated cannulation for bloods and all other intravenous therapies, such as scans and chemotherapy treatment can become so frightening that they escalate to feeling overwhelmed and panicky. If this response persists without any intervention, it may eventually become a phobia (Choy et al, 2007). Four-hundred-thousand patients are treated at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust each year, with many receiving intravenous chemotherapy treatments. The 'CALM' service was initiated over 5 years ago to enable and support patients to achieve a calm state during procedural-related anxieties and panic. Thanks to recent funding from 'Walk the Walk' Breast Cancer Charity, the service has grown, enabling more patients to access the service. Increasing skill has led to development of training courses for health professionals. The training provides easy-to-learn skills, some of which are described here, that can be used to prevent and/or interrupt panic states triggered by medical procedures. PMID:23252177

Mackereth, Peter; Hackman, Eileen; Tomlinson, Lynne; Manifold, Julie; Orrett, Linda

376

[Needle aspiration cytology in euthyroid uninodular goiter].  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been shown to be second only to surgical biopsy for demonstration of malignancy in thyroid nodules. A prospective study of FNAC for euthyroid uninodular goiter (EUG) was conducted between January 1987 and June 1990, totaling 87 patients of which 61 were submitted to surgical biopsy. FNAC in the latter were interpreted as benign in 41 cases, suspected malignancy in 8, and definitely malignant in 7. The remaining 5 smears were considered technically inadequate for diagnosis. In 39 of the 41 patients with a benign (negative) cytology result, the histopathological diagnosis confirmed the absence of a neoplastic process (2 false negatives). In 12 of the 15 patients with a suspected malignant (positive) cytology result, a subsequent histopathological report confirmed a neoplastic process (3 false positives). Thus FNAC had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 93%. We conclude that FNAC is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of erythroid goiter and could help reduce significantly the number of patients who need to be surgically intervened. PMID:1824158

Pérez, J A; Pisano, R; Kinast, C; Valencia, V; Araneda, M; Mera, M E

1991-02-01

377

Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.  

PubMed

During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

2009-11-20

378

Prevention of tumour cell dissemination in diagnostic needle procedures  

PubMed Central

Background: A side effect of diagnostic needle biopsies is the possibility to disseminate tumour cells into the needle track, which may cause concern in certain malignant tumour types. Methods: In order to prevent tumour cell dissemination we developed a technology that uses radiofrequency (RF) pulses to sterilise the needle track and denaturate tumour cells. To determine feasibility, we applied this technology to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and used breast cancer as a model tumour. Routine FNAB was performed in 88 patients with adenocarcinoma and blood droplets passing the skin orifice were cytomorphologically analysed for the presence of tumour cells. Results: The analysis showed the presence of tumour cells in 65/88 cases (74%). When using an experimental anti-seeding device in a subset of patients viable tumour cells were found in 0/31 cases (P<0.001). In all 31 patients blood passing the skin orifice was sparse. No degrading effect on the cytological sample inside the needle was detected and pain caused by the RF pulses was comparable to that of the biopsy procedure itself. Conclusion: The herein presented method has the potential to prevent the dissemination of viable tumour cells in the needle track and minimize bleeding without additional pain or degradation of the aspirate.

Wiksell, H; Schassburger, K-U; Janicijevic, M; Leifland, K; Lofgren, L; Rotstein, S; Sandberg, P-O; Wadstrom, C; Auer, G

2010-01-01

379

Neuromuscular Damage and Repair after Dry Needling in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective. Some dry needling treatments involve repetitive and rapid needle insertions into myofascial trigger points. This type of treatment causes muscle injury and can also damage nerve fibers. The aim of this study is to determine the injury caused by 15 repetitive punctures in the muscle and the intramuscular nerves in healthy mouse muscle and its ulterior regeneration. Methods. We repeatedly needled the levator auris longus muscle of mice, and then the muscles were processed with immunohistochemistry, methylene blue, and electron microscopy techniques. Results. Three hours after the dry needling procedure, the muscle fibers showed some signs of an inflammatory response, which progressed to greater intensity 24?hours after the procedure. Some inflammatory cells could still be seen when the muscle regeneration was almost complete seven days after the treatment. One day after the treatment, some changes in the distribution of receptors could be observed in the denervated postsynaptic component. Reinnervation was complete by the third day after the dry needling procedure. We also saw very fine axonal branches reinnervating all the postsynaptic components and some residual sprouts the same day. Conclusion. Repeated dry needling punctures in muscle do not perturb the different stages of muscle regeneration and reinnervation.

Domingo, Ares; Mayoral, Orlando; Monterde, Sonia; Santafe, Manel M.

2013-01-01

380

Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs.

Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

2009-01-01

381

Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: paga@hol.gr; Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos [Helenic Red Cross Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece)

2004-08-15

382

Does Washing the Biopsy Needle with PovidoneIodine Have an Effect on Infection Rates after Transrectal Prostate Needle Biopsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the effect of washing the biopsy needle with povidone-iodine solution on infection rates after transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: 180 patients with transrectal prostate biopsy were included. Infection was excluded with midstream urine culture before biopsy, and patients were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 84), the needle was washed with povidone-iodine

Gokhan Koc; Sitki Un; Devrim Nihat Filiz; Kaan Akbay; Yuksel Yilmaz

2010-01-01

383

Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue  

SciTech Connect

A clinical study using /sup 252/Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. /sup 252/Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of /sup 252/Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of /sup 252/Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received /sup 252/Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received /sup 252/Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from /sup 252/Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy.

Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

1985-03-01

384

Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.  

PubMed

We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

1992-12-01

385

Pore formation in a p-type silicon wafer using a platinum needle electrode with application of square-wave potential pulses in HF solution.  

PubMed

By bringing an anodically biased needle electrode into contact with n-type Si at its tip in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid, Si is etched at the interface with the needle electrode and a pore is formed. However, in the case of p-type Si, although pores can be formed, Si is likely to be corroded and covered with a microporous Si layer. This is due to injection of holes from the needle electrode into the bulk of p-type Si, which shifts its potential to a level more positive than the potential needed for corrosion and formation of a microporous Si layer. However, by applying square-wave potential pulses to a Pt needle electrode, these undesirable changes are prevented because holes injected into the bulk of Si during the period of anodic potential are annihilated with electrons injected into Si during the period of cathodic potential. Even under such conditions, holes supplied to the place near the Si/metal interface are used for etching p-type Si, leading to formation of a pore at the place where the Pt needle electrode was in contact. PMID:23347641

Sugita, Tomohiko; Hiramatsu, Kazuki; Ikeda, Shigeru; Matsumura, Michio

2013-02-06

386

From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2003-11-01

387

Syringe and needle exchange programs: Part I.  

PubMed

Syringe and needle exchange (SANE) programs appear to be a pragmatic approach to reducing the rising incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDUs). One purported indication of the effectiveness of SANE programs is lower prevalence rates of cases of AIDS or of HIV seropositivity in cities with SANE programs than in cities without such programs. In each positive comparison cited, however, the lower levels of HIV seropositivity were already present before the establishment of SANE programs. A second indicator of SANE effectiveness is a reduction in prevalence of hepatitis B in SANE program participants. Multiple factors working in concert, not simply the SANE programs, however, account for such progress; such factors include reductions in sharing of uncleaned injection equipment; legal exchange or sale of syringes at pharmacies; regular rinsing of used "works" with bleach; and epidemiologic fluctuations in the prevalence or a saturation level of the hepatitis B virus in IVDUs. A third indicator of the value of SANE programs is that they enable some otherwise unreachable IVDUs to make contact with a social or health facility. SANE programs do not facilitate the induction of new IVDUs or increase the frequency of injection by older addicts. From 60% to 90% of SANE attenders will return borrowed used injection equipment. Most participants reported that they reduced the frequency of lending or borrowing unclean injection equipment. Counterbalancing the above, SANE programs attract only a minority of all IVDUs in most cities, and they fail to attract the youngest subset of IVDUs. The attrition rate is high; only a small percentage of attenders remain with the program for more than a few months. Although many of the initial concerns about SANE programs have not been realized and there have been important public health gains to those who continue to attend them, SANE programs deserve more careful, unbiased, longitudinal research before they are established on a wide scale in the United States. PMID:8451672

Schwartz, R H

1993-03-01

388

The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. (l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

1988-04-01

389

Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

1988-07-01

390

Role of inflammation in bladder function and interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which is usually reserved for refractory cases.

Grover, Sonal; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lee, Richard; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Te, Alexis E.

2011-01-01

391

Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part I: magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution temporal and spatial control of atmospheric pollutants is of crucial importance for environmental health monitoring. Passive sampling using natural vegetation biomonitoring allows acquisition of well-defined samples at affordable costs. We here present results from a study conducted in the conurbation of Cologne, Germany, based on airborne pollutants accumulated on pine needles. This integrated study includes (i) the microscopic analysis of pine needles and analysis of their magnetic properties, (ii) PAH, and (iii) selected trace elements (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu). A major proportion of atmospheric pollutants is bound to particles, for which in part I of the study we present data on magnetic susceptibility, remanence measurements (IRM, ARM) and total Fe content. SEM-analysis indicates that particles accumulated on needles are mostly <2.5 ?m in diameter and comprise pollen or spores, mineral dust and silica-glassy or metallic spheroids. The latter were identified as magnetite with minor pyrrhotite. These particles derive from combustion of coal in power plants or fuels in vehicular engines. A close correlation of magnetic properties (susceptibility, SIRM, ARM) and Fe content shows that non-destructive, time-efficient enviromagnetics of needles serves as an excellent proxy for biomonitoring of combustion pollutants. Their spatial distribution within the conurbation of Cologne was determined for 43 locations integrated in a GIS-database. The dominant sources of fine metallic particulates (PM 2.5) are emissions from road traffic, including fuel combustion, corrosion and brake-wear and from railroad and tram traffic preferentially due to material wear. Parks, forests and agricultural areas show the lowest levels of pollution by magnetic particles, followed by residential areas. This implies that traffic emissions with short transportation distances (<1.0 km) are dominant in the Cologne conurbation, whereas the contribution from power plants is negligible.

Urbat, M.; Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

392

Atomic model of the type III secretion system needle.  

PubMed

Pathogenic bacteria using a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cells cause many different infections including Shigella dysentery, typhoid fever, enterohaemorrhagic colitis and bubonic plague. An essential part of the T3SS is a hollow needle-like protein filament through which effector proteins are injected into eukaryotic host cells. Currently, the three-dimensional structure of the needle is unknown because it is not amenable to X-ray crystallography and solution NMR, as a result of its inherent non-crystallinity and insolubility. Cryo-electron microscopy combined with crystal or solution NMR subunit structures has recently provided a powerful hybrid approach for studying supramolecular assemblies, resulting in low-resolution and medium-resolution models. However, such approaches cannot deliver atomic details, especially of the crucial subunit-subunit interfaces, because of the limited cryo-electron microscopic resolution obtained in these studies. Here we report an alternative approach combining recombinant wild-type needle production, solid-state NMR, electron microscopy and Rosetta modelling to reveal the supramolecular interfaces and ultimately the complete atomic structure of the Salmonella typhimurium T3SS needle. We show that the 80-residue subunits form a right-handed helical assembly with roughly 11 subunits per two turns, similar to that of the flagellar filament of S. typhimurium. In contrast to established models of the needle in which the amino terminus of the protein subunit was assumed to be ?-helical and positioned inside the needle, our model reveals an extended amino-terminal domain that is positioned on the surface of the needle, while the highly conserved carboxy terminus points towards the lumen. PMID:22699623

Loquet, Antoine; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Goosmann, Christian; Griesinger, Christian; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

2012-05-20

393

Magnetic Evolution of the 100Interstitial Loop Formation Process in bcc Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial loops are a signature of radiation damage in materials and are only observed in systems far from equilibrium state due to their high formation energies (approximately 4eV). Unlike other bcc metals, in which the interstitial loops are almost exclusively 12 111type, two types of loops, 100and 12 111,re identified in bcc iron. Although 12 111loops can be formed directly by atomic displacment cascades, the mechanism of 100loop formation had remained undetermined since they were observed fifty years ago. Recently, the formation mechanism has been discovered using self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) simulations. Here we describe the influence of magnetism in the corresponding loop formation process using the ab initio locally self-consistent multiple-scattering (LSMS) method. Significant magnetic moment changes during the loop formation process are observed and their effect on the loop stability are evaluated. In addition, the effects of 100loop formation on the microstructural evolution and material properties will be discussed.

Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger; Stocks, G. Malcolm

2013-03-01

394

Lanthanum and Praseodymium Bromide Pnictides. A Convergence of Interstitial Chemistry in Cluster Halides and Intermetallic Pnictides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactions of metal R, RBr_3 (R=La, Pr), and pnictogen Pn (P, As, Sb, Bi) at 900-1000 degC provide a new series of condensed cluster products, either cubic R_3Br_3Pn or hexagonal R_5Pn_3Br, but not both for the same Pn. Syntheses and lattice dimensions for all eight examples are reported. Cubic R_3Br_3Pn results with interstitial P or As (Ca_3I_3P type, I4_132 (No. 214), Z=8), whereas hexagonal P_5Pn_3Br is formed for Pn=Sb, Bi with interstitial Br (stuffed Mn_5Si_3 type), a new range of composition for these compounds. The latter structure for La_5Sb_3Br was refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (P6_3solarmcm (No. 193), Z=2, a=9.602(2) Å, c=6.7331(3) Å, R(F)solarR_w=1.7solar2.0%). Features that determine the formation of a particular set of compounds in each structure type are discussed.

Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Hoistad, Laura M.; Corbett, John D.

1999-04-01

395

Interstitial fluid pressure, vascularity and metastasis in ectopic, orthotopic and spontaneous tumours  

PubMed Central

Background High tumour interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been adversely linked to poor drug uptake in patients, and to treatment response following radiotherapy in cervix cancer patients. In this study we measured IFP values in a selection of murine and xenograft models, spontaneously arising or transplanted either intramuscularly (i/m) or orthotopically and analysed their relationship to tumour vascularity and metastatic spread. Methods KHT-C murine fibrosarcoma, ME180 and SiHa human cervix carcinoma were grown either intramuscularly (i/m), sub-cutaneously (s/c) or orthotopically. Polyoma middle-T (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic spontaneous mammary tumours were studied either as spontaneous tumours or following orthotopic or i/m transplantation. IFP was measured in all tumours using the wick-in-needle method. Spontaneous metastasis formation in the lungs or lymph nodes was assessed in all models. An immunohistochemical analysis of tumour hypoxia, vascular density, lymphatic vascular density and proliferation was carried out in ME180 tumours grown both i/m and orthotopically. Blood flow was also assessed in the ME180 model using high-frequency micro-ultrasound functional imaging. Results Tumour IFP was heterogeneous in all the models irrespective of growth site: KHT-C i/m: 2–42 mmHg, s/c: 1–14 mmHg, ME180: i/m 5–68 mmHg, cervix 4–21 mmHg, SiHa: i/m 20–56 mmHg, cervix 2–26 mmHg, MMTV-PyMT: i/m: 13–45 mmHg, spontaneous 2–20 mmHg and transplanted 2–22 mmHg. Additionally, there was significant variation between individual tumours growing in the same mouse, and there was no correlation between donor and recipient tumour IFP values. Metastatic dissemination to the lungs or lymph nodes demonstrated no correlation with tumour IFP. Tumour hypoxia, proliferation, and lymphatic or blood vessel density also showed no relationship with tumour IFP. Speckle variance analysis of ultrasound images showed no differences in vascular perfusion between ME180 tumours grown i/m versus orthotopically despite differences in IFP. Conclusion Our studies across a range of different tumour models showed substantial heterogeneity in tumour IFP, suggesting differences in the vascular development and interstitial fluid dynamics in the individual tumours. The results demonstrate a strong stochastic aspect to tumour IFP development, notably the variation apparent between different tumours within the same animal and the lack of correlation between donor and recipient tumours.

Lunt, Sarah Jane; Kalliomaki, Tuula MK; Brown, Allison; Yang, Victor X; Milosevic, Michael; Hill, Richard P

2008-01-01

396

Needle with a Novel Attachment versus Conventional Screw-Thread Needles: A Preference and Ease-of-Use Test among Children and Adolescents with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background This usability test investigated the overall preference and usability of the novel NovoTwist® insulin pen needle versus conventional screw-thread needles, when used with Next Generation FlexPen®, in children and adolescents with diabetes. Methods This was an open-label, randomized, crossover usability test in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes who administered insulin with an insulin pen. Test needles were NovoTwist and the participant’s current screw-thread needle (or NovoFine® needle). Following instruction, participants attached the needle to Next Generation FlexPen, made an injection into a foam cushion, and detached the needle. This procedure was conducted three times with both needles in a random order. Responses to 13 questions on user experience with each needle (including overall preference, ease of attachment/detachment of needle/cap, handling, learning, confidence in attachment, and convenience of use) were subsequently recorded on a six-point rating scale (1 = very difficult; 6 = very easy). Results Fifteen children aged ?6 to ?12 years and 15 adolescents aged ?13 to ?17 years participated in the test. A significantly higher proportion of children and adolescents (77%) indicated that they would prefer to use NovoTwist compared with screw-thread needles (p = .005). NovoTwist was preferred by most children and adolescents for overall ease of use (77%; p = .005), for ease of attachment (87%; p < .001) and detachment (83%; p < .001), and as the most appropriate needle to handle for daily injections (73%; p = .016). The mean rating for confidence in correct needle attachment was not significantly different between the two needle types. Seven out of eight parents of children who required assistance for their daily insulin injections stated that they would be “very likely” to allow their child to attach NovoTwist. Conclusions These factors may promote confidence in this needle, and thus in self-injecting, among younger patients and their parents.

Hofman, Paul; Lille?re, S?ren Kruse; Ter-Borch, Gitte

2011-01-01

397

Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.  

PubMed

We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150 mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3 mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2 mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution. PMID:23674421

Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

2013-05-13

398

Postdural puncture headache: a randomized comparison of five spinal needles in obstetric patients.  

PubMed

This prospective, blinded, randomized study compares the incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and the epidural blood patch (EBP) rate for five spinal needles when used in obstetric patients. One thousand two women undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were recruited. We used two cutting needles: 26-gauge Atraucan and 25-gauge Quincke, and three pencil-point needles: 24-gauge Gertie Marx (GM), 24-gauge Sprotte, and 25-gauge Whitacre. The needle for each weekday was chosen randomly. Cutting needles were inserted parallel to the dural fibers. The incidences of PDPH were, respectively, 5%, 8.7%, 4%, 2.8%, and 3.1% for Atraucan, Quincke, GM, Sprotte, and Whitacre needles (P = 0.04, chi(2) analysis), and the corresponding EBP rates in those with PDPH were 55%, 66%, 12.5%, 0%, and 0% (P = 0.000). The Quincke needle had a more frequent PDPH rate than the Sprotte or the Whitacre needle (P = 0.02) and a more frequent EBP rate than the GM, Sprotte, or the Whitacre needle (P = 0.01). The Atraucan needle had a more frequent EBP rate than the Sprotte or Whitacre needle (P = 0.05). Neither the PDPH rate nor the EBP rates differed among the pencil-point needles. The cost of EBP must be taken into consideration when choosing a spinal needle. We conclude that pencil-point spinal needles should be used for subarachnoid anesthesia in obstetric patients. PMID:11004048

Vallejo, M C; Mandell, G L; Sabo, D P; Ramanathan, S

2000-10-01

399

Self-trapped interstitial-type defects in iron.  

PubMed

Small interstitial-type defects in iron with complex structures and very low mobilities are revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. The stability of these defect clusters formed by nonparallel {110} dumbbells is confirmed by density functional theory calculations, and it is shown to increase with increasing temperature due to large vibrational formation entropies. This new family of defects provides an explanation for the low mobility of clusters needed to account for experimental observations of microstructure evolution under irradiation at variance with the fast migration obtained from previous atomistic simulations for conventional self-interstitial clusters. PMID:18518046

Terentyev, D A; Klaver, T P C; Olsson, P; Marinica, M-C; Willaime, F; Domain, C; Malerba, L

2008-04-09

400

[Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (type B) with subacute progressively enlarged bullae].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man with a 10-year history of seal engraving presented with exertional dyspnea and dry coughing. Chest roentgenograms showed an interstitial shadow and bilateral progressively enlarging bullae. Open lung biopsy led to the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (Type B). The size of bullae usually does not change, so cases such as this are rare because the bullae continued to expand subacutely. Persistent stimulation by the inhaled A1 and Si may have played a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:7791274

Ishiura, Y; Fujimura, M; Saito, M; Matsuda, T; Maruyama, M; Suzuki, E; Hayashi, Y; Watanabe, Y; Nonomura, A; Kitagawa, M

1995-04-01

401

Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

2013-10-01

402

Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy  

SciTech Connect

The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

NONE

1997-12-30

403

Measuring interstitial diffusion, convection, and binding parameters in mouse tumors.  

PubMed

Noninvasive techniques have been developed for the assessment of various parameters in normal and diseased tissues of mice. This protocol describes the measurement of extravascular parameters, including interstitial diffusion, convection, and binding parameters, in mouse tumors. A fluorescently labeled molecule of interest is infused into the tumor interstitium, followed by imaging using single-photon microscopy or multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPLSM). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) with spatial Fourier analysis is performed. To measure interstitial diffusion coefficients, multiphoton FRAP is performed. PMID:23818670

Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

2013-07-01

404

Gallium interstitial in irradiated germanium: Deep level transient spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Two electronic levels at 0.34 eV above the valence band and 0.32 eV below the conduction band, in gallium doped, p-type Ge irradiated with 2 MeV electrons have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with both majority- and minority-carrier injections, and Laplace DLTS spectroscopy. It is concluded that these levels, having donor and acceptor characters, respectively, are correlated with interstitial Ga atoms, formed by the Watkins-replacement mechanism via self-interstitials.

Kolkovsky, Vl.; Petersen, M. Christian; Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mesli, A. [Institut d'Electronique du Solide et des Systemes, CNRS/ULP, Strasbourg (France); Gheluwe, J. van; Clauws, P. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2008-12-15

405

Granular Materials Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1954, R.A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of liquid-solid flows. We recently completed an extensive reevaluation of Bagnold's work, and our analysis and simulations indicate that the rheological measurements of Bagnold were affected significantly by secondary flows within the experimental apparatus. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed by Bagnold to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range for solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime. As the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward at the midheight of the annulus. These cells contribute significantly to the measured torque, and obscured any accurate measurements of the shear or normal stresses. Before doing the reevaluation of Bagnold's work, our research objective was to examine the effects of the interstitial fluid for flows in which the densities of the two phases were different. After reevaluating Bagnold's work, we redesigned our experimental facility to minimize secondary flow effects. Like Bagnold's facility, we use a concentric cylinder rheometer with a rotating outer wall. The inner cylinder also is able to rotate slightly but will also be restrained by flexible supports; the torque is measured from the deformation of the flexures. The normal force is measured using piezoelectric transducers that record both impacts with the surface and fluid pressure variations resulting from particle collisions. Unlike Bagnold's apparatus, the top and bottom plates of the annulus will not rotate, and the torque measurement will be measured only in the center region of the inner annulus; these changes will minimize the secondary flow effects. The experiments will cover a range of particle sizes (from d = 1.5 to 4 mm), particle concentrations (up to 55% solids concentration by volume), shear rates (gamma = 10-160/sec) and solid-to-fluid densities (rhop = 1.2 to 8). During one flight of the KC-135 we will change two parameters: the rotational speed and the fluid viscosity (mu). At one time during a flight, we plan to withdraw some of the fluid (water for example) within the annulus while injecting some fluid of a different viscosity (water-glycerin mixture). Hence, the experiments will cover flows where the particle inertia dominates the fluid effects (granular flows) to flows in which the fluid inertia dominates that of the particles (dilute suspension). The range of Stokes numbers (St=d2 gamma rhop)/mu will be from about 5 to 3000. Currently, the experimental facility has just been completed. We have calibrated the normal impact measurements using carefully controlled single particle impacts with the transducers. The torque measurements have also been calibrated by mounting the inner cylinder in such a way that we could impose a known load on the drum. We use reluctance transducers to measure the motion and deformation of the flexures and calibrate the device with the imposed load. Measurements will also be made of the fluid temperature, acceleration and rotational speed of the outer drum.. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Hunt, M. L.; Brennen, C. E.; Campbell, C. S.

2002-11-01

406

First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals  

SciTech Connect

He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

2011-05-01

407

A Randomized Trial Comparing Buttonhole with Rope Ladder Needling in Conventional Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Buttonhole needling is reported to be associated with less pain than standard needling. The purpose of this study was to compare patient perceived pain and fistula complications in buttonhole and standard needling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this study, 140 conventional hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to buttonhole or standard needling. The primary outcome was patient perceived pain with needling at 8 weeks. Fistula complications of hematoma, bleeding postdialysis, and infection were tracked. Results Median pain score at 8 weeks using a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 cm was similar for standard and buttonhole needling (1.2 [0.4–2.4] versus 1.5 [0.5–3.4]; P=0.57). Rate of hematoma formation in standard needling was higher (436 versus 295 of 1000 hemodialysis sessions; P=0.03). Rate of no bleeding postdialysis was 23.6 and 28.3 per 1000 in standard and buttonhole needling, respectively (P=0.40). Rate of localized signs of infection in standard versus buttonhole needling was 22.4 versus 50 per 1000 (P=0.003). There was one episode of Staphylococcal aureus bacteremia during the 8 weeks with buttonhole needling and no episodes with standard needling (P=1.00). Within 12 months of follow-up, another two buttonhole needling episodes developed S. aureus bacteremia, and nine buttonhole needling episodes had needling site abscesses requiring intravenous antibiotics versus zero standard needling episodes (P=0.003). Conclusions Patients had no difference in pain between buttonhole and standard needling. Although fewer buttonhole needling patients developed a hematoma, there was an increased risk of bacteremia and localized signs of infection. Routine use of buttonhole needling is associated with increased infection risk.

Ahmed, Sofia B.; Atkar, Rajneet; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2012-01-01

408

Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

409

Surgical motion characterization in simulated needle insertion procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PURPOSE: Evaluation of surgical performance in image-guided needle insertions is of emerging interest, to both promote patient safety and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Markov model-based algorithm can more accurately segment a needle-based surgical procedure into its five constituent tasks than a simple threshold-based algorithm. METHODS: Simulated needle trajectories were generated with known ground truth segmentation by a synthetic procedural data generator, with random noise added to each degree of freedom of motion. The respective learning algorithms were trained, and then tested on different procedures to determine task segmentation accuracy. In the threshold-based algorithm, a change in tasks was detected when the needle crossed a position/velocity threshold. In the Markov model-based algorithm, task segmentation was performed by identifying the sequence of Markov models most likely to have produced the series of observations. RESULTS: For amplitudes of translational noise greater than 0.01mm, the Markov model-based algorithm was significantly more accurate in task segmentation than the threshold-based algorithm (82.3% vs. 49.9%, p<0.001 for amplitude 10.0mm). For amplitudes less than 0.01mm, the two algorithms produced insignificantly different results. CONCLUSION: Task segmentation of simulated needle insertion procedures was improved by using a Markov model-based algorithm as opposed to a threshold-based algorithm for procedures involving translational noise.

Holden, Matthew S.; Ungi, Tamas; Sargent, Derek; McGraw, Robert C.; Fichtinger, Gabor

2012-02-01

410

Numerical description of discharge characteristics of the plasma needle  

SciTech Connect

The plasma needle is a small atmospheric, nonthermal, radio-frequency discharge, generated at the tip of a needle, which can be used for localized disinfection of biological tissues. Although several experiments have characterized various qualities of the plasma needle, discharge characteristics and electrical properties are still not well known. In order to provide initial estimates on electrical properties and quantities such as particle densities, we employed a two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model to describe the plasma needle. In this model the balance equation is solved in the drift-diffusion approach for various species and the electron energy, as well as Poisson's equation. We found that the plasma production occurs in the sheath region and results in a steady flux of reactive species outwards. Even at small (<0.1%) admixtures of N{sub 2} to the He background, N{sub 2}{sup +} is the dominant ion. The electron density is typically 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and the dissipated power is in the order of 10 mW. These results are consistent with the experimental data available and can give direction to the practical development of the plasma needle.

Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Dijk, J. van; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Kroesen, G.M.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2005-07-01

411

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in GenBank. Although 95% of the endophytes in needles from mature trees belonged to the Rhytismataceae, 82 unique ITS sequences were obtained from at least 21 genera and 10 different orders of fungi. Significantly, none of the endophytes in seed were rhytismataceous (chi(2) = 180; P < 0.001). Similarly, needles of greenhouse seedlings yielded only non-rhytismataceous isolates, whereas seedlings of the same age that had naturally regenerated near older white pines in roadless areas were colonized by rhytismataceous endophytes almost to the same extent as in mature trees. Only one of 17 rhytismataceous isolates were able to grow on a medium containing only 0.17% nitrogen, whereas 25 of 31 non-rhytismataceous endophytes grew. Rhytismataceous endophytes are dominant in needles of P. monticola, but they appear to be absent in seed, and unlikely colonists of nitrogen-limiting host tissues such as the apoplast. PMID:16492396

Ganley, Rebecca J; Newcombe, George

2006-02-21

412

Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys  

SciTech Connect

In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

2006-02-23

413

A New Family of Transition Metal Nitrides  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical stability of platinum nitride has been studied using first-principles calculations. By calculating the single-crystal elastic constants, we show that platinum nitride can be stabilized in the fluorite structure, in which the nitrogen atoms occupy all the tetrahedral interstitial sites of the metal lattice. The stability is attributed to the pseudogap effect from analysis of the electronic structure.

Yu, Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

2005-10-01

414

Imbibition-Displacement of an Aqueous Interstitial Liquor by an Organic Fluid Containing a Surfactant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imbibition was investigated as a method of assisting the removal of interstitial liquor from the salt cake contained in the Hanford underground storage tanks. In this application, imbibition would be the displacement of the interstitial liquor from the sa...

W. E. Sande

1975-01-01

415

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia: an unusual finding in a case of preoperative death.  

PubMed

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is an exceedingly rare, debatable, perplexing, occupational lung disease, which most commonly affects individuals exposed to hard metal dust. We report a case of GIP in a 60-year-old man, scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and died during induction of general anesthesia despite all efforts to resuscitate him. Patient's relatives lodged complaint with the police alleging the negligence by the attending physicians. Despite inaccessible data pertaining to the occupation, clinical history, and radiographic findings, the diagnosis was GIP due to the presence of intra-alveolar, bizarre, "cannibalistic" multinucleated giant cells-the histologic sine qua non of GIP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of GIP in the world literature that was diagnosed on histopathologic examination of lung tissue obtained at medicolegal autopsy. PMID:23629398

Sisodia, Shantilal M; Bendale, Kiran; Khan, Wasif Ali Zafarali; Sanklecha, Vandana

2013-06-01

416

[Study on needling Ying method for treatment of sore throat].  

PubMed

To explore the mechanism of needling Ying method for treatment of sore throat. By the analysis of pathogenesis of sore throat, the authors think the key of its pathogenesis is stagnation of pathogenic factors such as hotness and phlegm accumulating, and meridian-vessel obstruction in the throat is its meridian foundation. There are several meridians passing through the throat, so the throat is closely related to viscera and meridians, and stagnation of pathogenic factors such as hotness and phlegm accumulating in the throat lead to sore throat when exogenous pathogenic factors invading or dysfunction of viscera and meridians. The treatment of needling Ying at local throat or combined with corresponding meridian point selection can dredge collaterals, dispel pathogenic factors, remove pathogenic factors to dispel swelling, resolve phlegm and dissipate stagnation and harmonize yin and yang, so as to relieve sore throat. In conclusion, needling Ying method is an important method in the treatment of sore throat. PMID:19873925

Xie, Qiang; He, Xing-wei; Huang, Bing-lin; Tao, Bo

2009-10-01

417

Carbon Nanotubes Based Glucose Needle-type Biosensor  

PubMed Central

A novel needle-type biosensor based on carbon nanotubes is reported. The biosensor was prepared by packing a mixture of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite powder and glucose oxidase (Gox) freeze-dried powder into a glass capillary of 0.5 mm inner diameter. The resulting amperometric biosensor was characterized electrochemically using amperometry in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in the presence of glucose. The glucose biosensor sensitivity was influenced by the glucose oxidase concentration within the MWCNTs mixture. The optimized glucose needle-type biosensor displayed better sensitivity and stability, and a detected range of up to 20 mM. Based on its favorable stability, the needle biosensor was first time used in real-time monitoring system as a kind of online glucose detector. The decay of current response is less than 10% after 24-hour continuous observation.

Jia, Jinyan; Guan, Wenjun; Sim, Minghao; Li, Yongquan; Li, Hong

2008-01-01

418

Treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain with deep dry needling  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of deep dry needling in the treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain. Study Design: We selected 36 patients with myofascial pain located in the external pterygoid muscle (30 women/6 men, mean age=27 years with SD±6,5). We studied differences in pain with a visual analog scale and range of mandibular movements before and after intervention. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship (p<0,01) between therapeutic intervention and the improvement of pain and jaw movements, which continued up to 6 months after treatment. Pain reduction was greater the higher was the intensity of pain at baseline. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest that deep dry needling in the trigger point in the external pterygoid muscle can be effective in the management of patients with myofascial pain located in that muscle. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, myofascial pain, external pterygoid muscle, trigger point, deep dry needling.

Gonzalez-Perez, Luis M.; Granados-Nunez, Mercedes; Urresti-Lopez, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

419

A comparative multicentre trial of spinal needles for caesarean section.  

PubMed

We studied 681 patients in a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, parallel group trial designed to assess the incidence of headache following spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section using four different pencil point spinal needles. The needles used were: Whitacre 25G (n = 170), Polymedic 25G (n = 170), Sprotte 24G (n = 173) and Polymedic 24G (n = 168). The incidence of all headaches prior to discharge was 11.1%. Only five headaches (0.75%) were severe with features of post dural puncture headache (PDPH) and required an epidural blood patch: Whitacre 25G = 0, Polymedic 25G = 1 (0.6%), Sprotte 24G = 2 (1.2%), Polymedic 24G = 2 (1.2%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four groups for PDPH. We conclude that all four needles studied performed satisfactorily and comparably. PMID:9370847

Hopkinson, J M; Samaan, A K; Russell, I F; Birks, R J; Patrick, M R

1997-10-01

420

Diagnosis of zygomaticus muscle paralysis using needle electromyography with ultrasonography.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman visited our clinic with a history of radiofrequency volumetric reduction for bilateral masseter muscles at a local medical clinic. Six days after the radiofrequency procedure, she noticed a facial asymmetry during smiling. Physical examination revealed immobility of the mouth drawing upward and laterally on the left. Routine nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography (EMG) in facial muscles did not suggest electrodiagnostic abnormalities. We assumed that the cause of facial asymmetry could be due to an injury of zygomaticus muscles, however, since defining the muscles through surface anatomy was difficult and it was not possible to identify the muscles with conventional electromyographic methods. Sono-guided needle EMG for zygomaticus muscle revealed spontaneous activities at rest and small amplitude motor unit potentials with reduced recruitment patterns on volition. Sono-guided needle EMG may be an optimal approach in focal facial nerve branch injury for the specific localization of the injury lesion. PMID:23869344

Yoo, Seung Han; Kwon, Hee Kyu; Lee, Sang Heon; Lee, Seok Jun; Ha, Kang Wook; Yun, Hyeong Suk

2013-06-30

421

Diagnosis of Zygomaticus Muscle Paralysis Using Needle Electromyography With Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old woman visited our clinic with a history of radiofrequency volumetric reduction for bilateral masseter muscles at a local medical clinic. Six days after the radiofrequency procedure, she noticed a facial asymmetry during smiling. Physical examination revealed immobility of the mouth drawing upward and laterally on the left. Routine nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography (EMG) in facial muscles did not suggest electrodiagnostic abnormalities. We assumed that the cause of facial asymmetry could be due to an injury of zygomaticus muscles, however, since defining the muscles through surface anatomy was difficult and it was not possible to identify the muscles with conventional electromyographic methods. Sono-guided needle EMG for zygomaticus muscle revealed spontaneous activities at rest and small amplitude motor unit potentials with reduced recruitment patterns on volition. Sono-guided needle EMG may be an optimal approach in focal facial nerve branch injury for the specific localization of the injury lesion.

Yoo, Seung Han; Kwon, Hee Kyu; Lee, Seok Jun; Ha, Kang Wook; Yun, Hyeong Suk

2013-01-01

422

A compact dynamic force model for needle-tissue interaction.  

PubMed

In this paper, the interaction force between a surgical needle and soft tissue is studied. The force is modeled using nonlinear dynamics based on a modified LuGre model that captures all stages of needle-tissue interaction including puncture, cutting, and friction forces. An estimation algorithm for identifying the associated parameters is then presented. This approach, which is based on extended Kalman filtering (EKF), enables us to characterize the interaction with a mathematical model in the force domain. It compares the axial force measured at the needle base with its expected value and then adapts the model parameters to represent the actual interaction. To evaluate the performance of our model, experiments were performed on an artificial phantom. PMID:21097018

Asadian, Ali; Kermani, Mehrdad R; Patel, Rajni V

2010-01-01

423

Protein kinases expressed by interstitial cells of Cajal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are involved in the generation of electrical rhythmicity of intestinal muscle and in the transduction of neural inputs in the gut. Although the expression of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones and some second messengers have been investigated in ICC, the protein kinases present in these cells have not been well documented. This study has demonstrated

Daniel P. Poole; Trung Van Nguyen; Mitsuhisa Kawai; John B. Furness

2004-01-01

424

Factors Influencing Survival in Children with Chronic Interstitial Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors influencing survival in children with chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD), we extracted specific clinical information from a data base of 99 children with ILD who met entry criteria for our study. The effects of a weight below the fifth percentile for the patient's age, crackles, club- bing, family history of ILD, symptom duration, and severity-of-illness score on

LELAND L. FAN; CLAUDIA A. KOZINETZ

1997-01-01

425

Intravesical Heparin and Peripheral Neuromodulation on Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We wanted to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravesical heparin and peripheral neuromodulation on patients with interstitial cystitis. Materials and Methods: From March 2002 to August 2003, 8 female and 2 male subjects conform to the NIDDK criteria and not responsive to the previous conventional treatments were included in the study. Wisconsin pain scores, maximal cystometric capacities, and night

Kadir Baykal; Bülent Sen; Kenan Karademir; Cuneyt Adayener; Dogan Erden

2005-01-01

426

Efficacy of Oral Doxepin and Piroxicam Treatment for Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish the efficacy of a multidrug oral treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant agent doxepin and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor piroxicam in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC), who had failed standard therapy in an open, prospective, nonrandomized study.Methods: A total of 37 patients diagnosed with IC received 75mg doxepin and 40mg piroxicam daily. The treatment was termed DOXCAM. Effectiveness

Robert Wammack; Mesut Remzi; Christian Seitz; Bob Djavan; Michael Marberger

2002-01-01

427

Etiology: where does prostatitis stop and interstitial cystitis begin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (MCPPS) and interstitial cystitis (IC) patients show striking similarities in clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, purported pathogenesis, and even response to therapy. This makes the distinction between them very difficult. This review aims to show just how easy it is for the clinician to miss the features of IC in the MCPPS patient (and conversely). Misdiagnosis

Evan R. Eisenberg; Robert M. Moldwin

2003-01-01

428

Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A review  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is commonly encountered in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Besides the lung parenchyma, the airways, pulmonary vasculature and structures of the chest wall may all be involved, depending on the type of CTD. As a result of this so-called multi-compartment involvement, airflow limitation, pulmonary hypertension, vasculitis and extrapulmonary restriction can occur alongside fibro-inflammatory parenchymal abnormalities in CTD. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), poly-/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and undifferentiated (UCTD) as well as mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) can all be associated with the development of ILD. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the most commonly observed histopathological pattern in CTD-ILD, but other patterns including usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) may occur. Although the majority of patients with CTD-ILD experience stable or slowly advancing ILD, a small yet significant group exhibits a more severe and progressive course. Randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of immunomodulatory treatments have been conducted only in SSc-associated ILD. However, clinical experience suggests that a handful of immunosuppressive medications are potentially effective in a sizeable portion of patients with ILD caused by other CTDs. In this manuscript, we review the clinical characteristics and management of the most common CTD-ILDs.

Gutsche, Markus; Rosen, Glenn D.; Swigris, Jeffrey J.

2012-01-01

429

The fine structure of differentiating interstitial cells in Hydra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cells of hydra are small undifferentiated cells containing an abundance of free ribosomes and few other cytoplasmic organelles. They are capable of differentiating into epitheliomuscular, digestive, glandular, nerve cells, and cnidoblasts. Developing epitheliomuscular and digestive cells acquire bundles of filaments, 50 Å in diameter, which later are incorporated into the muscular processes. Early gland cells develop an elaborate rough-surfaced

Thomas L. Lentz

1965-01-01

430

Tumor interstitial fluid - A treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.  

PubMed

Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. PMID:23416532

Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

2013-02-14

431

Formability of galvanized interstitial-free steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot dip galvanized steel sheets are being widely used in automotive applications for better corrosion protection. Formability of hot dip galvanized steel sheets has been one of the key issues in the automotive industry's transition to more corrosion resistant vehicle parts. In the present work, formability of hot dip galvanized interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets has been characterized. Forming limit diagrams

Amit Kumar Gupta; D. Ravi Kumar

2006-01-01

432

Analysis of thermal conductance of contacts with interstitial plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental analysis has been carried out for the prediction of contact conductance with interstitial plates and an expression has been developed in terms of known properties and parameters. The model assumes that the interface is composed of similar macroscopic and microscopic contact elements. These elements are considered to be made up of two cylindrical solids having a

T. N. Veziroglu; H. Yuncu; S. Kakac

1976-01-01

433

A new device for interstitial 125Iodine seed implantation  

SciTech Connect

A new device for interstitial implantation of I125 seeds is presented. The technical details and function of the system are described and compared with well-known commercial systems. Its unique design allows for simple, fast, and safe treatment of most tumor sites including stereotactic implantation of brain. Radiation measurements indicate low exposure to both patients and personnel during implantation.

Hawliczek, R.; Neubauer, J.; Schmidt, W.F.; Grunert, P.; Coia, L.R. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

1991-03-01

434

Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis associated with Chinese herbal drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional

Chwei-Shiun Yang; Ching-Hao Lin; Shu-Horng Chang

2000-01-01

435

Lupus nephritis: Correlation of interstitial cells with glomerular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lupus nephritis: Correlation of interstitial cells with glomerular function. Mononuclear inflammatory cells were studied using monoclonal antibodies in the interstitium and glomeruli of 35 renal biopsy specimens from patients with lupus nephritis already taking immunosuppressants. The aims of this study were to assess the composition and significance of the infiltrate, and to assess correlations with immediate glomerular function and ability

Efstathios Alexopoulos; Daniel Seron; R Barrie Hartley; J Stewart Cameron

1990-01-01

436

Diode lasers for interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) of the prostate is the generation of intraprostatic lesions of large volumes, which secondarily are resorbed. In previously published experimental and clinical studies Nd:YAG lasers in combination with specially designed light guides were used. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of diode lasers to be used in ILC. Diode

Rolf Muschter; Aaron P. Perlmutter; K. Anson; P. Jahnen; Juan C. Vargas Stuve; Hassan A. Razvi; Ronald Sroka; Alfons G. Hofstetter; Darracott E. Vaughan

1995-01-01

437

Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced. PMID:2319613

Kumar, P P; Good, R R; Bartone, F F

1990-03-01

438

Dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth under cascade damage irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling

C. H. Woo; A. A. Semenov

1993-01-01

439

Interstitial iridium 192 for cutaneous carcinoma of the external nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several implantation techniques useful for nasal skin carcinoma have been developed at the Henri Mondor Hospital in Creteil, France and are described in detail. Iridium 192 wires, 0.3 mm in diameter, are afterloaded into either supple plastic tubes or rigid needles implanted according to the rules of the Paris system. Dosimetry is performed by computer, based on either direct measurements

J. M. Crook; J. J. Mazeron; G. Marinello; M. Raynal; J. Huart; S. Leung; J. P. LeBourgeois; B. Pierquin

1990-01-01

440

High interstitial fluid pressure is associated with low tumour penetration of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies applied for molecular imaging purposes.  

PubMed

The human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is highly expressed in a variety of clinical tumour entities. Although an antibody against EpCAM has successfully been used as an adjuvant therapy in colon cancer, this therapy has never gained wide-spread use. We have therefore investigated the possibilities and limitations for EpCAM as possible molecular imaging target using a panel of preclinical cancer models. Twelve human cancer cell lines representing six tumour entities were tested for their EpCAM expression by qPCR, flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemistry. In addition, EpCAM expression was analyzed in vivo in xenograft models for tumours derived from these cells. Except for melanoma, all cell lines expressed EpCAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Although they exhibited different mRNA levels, all cell lines showed similar EpCAM protein levels upon detection with monoclonal antibodies. When grown in vivo, the EpCAM expression was unaffected compared to in vitro except for the pancreatic carcinoma cell line 5072 which lost its EpCAM expression in vivo. Intravenously applied radio-labelled anti EpCAM MOC31 antibody was enriched in HT29 primary tumour xenografts indicating that EpCAM binding sites are accessible in vivo. However, bound antibody could only be immunohistochemically detected in the vicinity of perfused blood vessels. Investigation of the fine structure of the HT29 tumour blood vessels showed that they were immature and prone for higher fluid flux into the interstitial space. Consistent with this hypothesis, a higher interstitial fluid pressure of about 12 mbar was measured in the HT29 primary tumour via "wick-in-needle" technique which could explain the limited diffusion of the antibody into the tumour observed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:22590529

Heine, Markus; Freund, Barbara; Nielsen, Peter; Jung, Caroline; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Lüers, Georg H; Schumacher, Udo

2012-05-08

441

Interstitial doppler OCT monitoring of microvascular shutdown during photodynamic therapy in a Dunning prostate model: irradiance rate dependences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcirculatory changes, such as vascular shutdown, may be a predictor to the therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The aim of this study was to measure the tumour vascular response to varying irradiance rates during PDT deep within prostate tumour xenograft, via interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). DOCT provides micron-scale spatial resolution allowing visualization of structures at near histological levels, and yields flow velocity resolution of ~20 ?m/s. Current in vivo DOCT imaging probes are limited to intraluminal and near-surface sites. To improve the accessibility of DOCT to anatomically relevant sites deep within the body (e.g., prostate), an interstitial (IS) needle (~700?m diameter) probe was developed for minimally invasive monitoring of the microvascular response to PDT (irradiance administered superficially) within tumour tissue. Rats were given a photosensitizer drug, Photofrin, and 20-24 h later the tumours were exposed to light (635nm) with an irradiance rate of 8-133 mW/cm2 for 25 minutes to a total irradiance of 12-200 J/cm2. Results illustrated different rates of vascular shutdown within the tumour as imaged by IS-DOCT, related to the administered PDT irradiance rate and total irradiance. Controls (probe only, probe + light) showed no significant microvascular changes. IS-DOCT was able to detect and monitor microvascular changes during PDT. Microvascular shutdown occurred at different rates and showed correlation with PDT light dose and irradiance rate. These dependencies may play an important role in PDT treatment planning, feedback control for treatment optimization, and post treatment assessment.

Standish, Beau A.; Jin, Xiao; Smolen, Jurek; Mariampillai, Adrian; Munce, Nigel R.; Vitkin, I. A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

2006-11-01

442

Tensile and Impact Toughness Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Friction Stir Welded Interstitial Free Steel Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Welded regions of interstitial free (IF) steel grades in the vicinity of weld center exhibits larger grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often causes inferior weld mechanical properties. In the present study, tensile properties, charpy impact toughness, microhardness, microstructure, lowest hardness distribution profile, and fracture surface morphology of the gas tungsten arc welded (GTAW) and friction stir welded joints were evaluated, and the results are compared. From this investigation, it is found that friction stir welded joint of IF steel showed superior tensile and impact properties compared with GTAW joint, and this is mainly due to the formation of very fine, equiaxed microstructure in the weld zone.

Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Balasubramanian, V.

2011-02-01

443

Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area. PMID:23537875

Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Müller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina

2013-01-30

444

Hollow needle-to-plate electrical discharge at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological applications dealing with the cleaning of flue gases, the decomposition of volatile hydrocarbons and the destruction of toxic pollutants require, in order to reach high efficiency, the use of non-thermal plasma sources. Typical sources of such non-equilibrium plasmas are barrier discharge, direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) gliding arc, pulsed or DC corona and DC atmospheric pressure discharge stabilized by a fast gas flow (APD-GFS). In case of APD-GFS the gas flows in a rectangular channel, the top wall of which serves as the anode and the multi-needle cathode is built into the bottom wall of the channel. In order to prevent the transition to a spark and to stabilize this type of discharge the velocity of the gas should be about 100-200 m s-1 or the discharge current must be limited. To avoid the problem connected with the acceleration of the primary (polluted) gas at such a velocity, the external flow of the primary gas around the needle electrodes can be superimposed by a flow of a secondary gas through the needles. Thus the primary gas need not be accelerated to high velocity and in order to stabilize the discharge a relatively small amount of a secondary gas supplied through the needle is required. This work is therefore focused on the study of the DC APD-GFS in hollow needle-to-plane geometry. The basic electrical characteristics, magnetic noise and integral emission spectra of this type discharge with the flow of nitrogen or air through the needle are given.