Note: This page contains sample records for the topic interstitial metallic needle from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Frameless image guidance improves accuracy in three-dimensional interstitial brachytherapy needle placement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work was to adapt a computer-assisted real-time three-dimensional (3D) navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Methods and materials: The 3-D navigation system Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer System (SPOCS; Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) was adapted for use in interstitial brachytherapy. A special needle holder with mounted infrared-emitting diodes (IRED) for 3D navigation-based needle implantation was developed. Measurements were made on a series of different phantoms to study the feasibility and the overall accuracy and precision of the navigation system with regard to single-needle application and volume implants (multiple-needle implantations). In all, 250 single implants and 20 volume implants were performed. Accuracy was measured as the target registration error (TRE) between the preoperatively defined and the achieved target position. Results: Analyses of the 250 different targets showed a mean TRE for single-needle applications of 1.1 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 0.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm), and 0.7 mm (SD {+-} 0.3 mm) in the x, y, and z direction, respectively. The maximal deviation was 2.3 mm. The corresponding TRE in the x, y, and z direction for volume implants was 1.6 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), 1.9 mm (SD {+-} 0.6 mm), and 1.0 mm (SD {+-} 0.4 mm), respectively. The maximum deviation was 2.9 mm. Conclusions: The adaptation of a commercially available surgical planning and navigation system to interstitial brachytherapy is feasible. It enables virtual planning and improved accuracy in 3D interstitial needle implantation.

Krempien, Robert [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hassfeld, Stefan [Clinic for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kozak, Josef [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Tuemmler, Hans-Peter [Aesculap, AG and CoKG, Tuttlingen (Germany); Daeuber, Sascha [Institute for Process Control and Robotics, University of Karlsruhe - TH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Treiber, Martina [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2004-12-01

2

Hard Metal Interstitial Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard metal lung disease is an unusual disease which can occur in individuals exposed to hard metals. Clinically, the condition resembles hypersensitivity pneumonitis depending mainly on individual susceptibility, which eventually progresses to pulmonary fibrosis. We present two patients with pulmonary fibrosis, who were actually diagnosed after an exhaustive anamnesis and examination of the tissue by scanning microscope to discard hard

M. Ángeles Montero; Javier de Gracia; Ferràn Morell

2010-01-01

3

Localisation and mobility of trace metal in silver fir needles.  

PubMed

Trace metals (TM: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) as well as Al, Mn, and Fe content was measured in needles of a remote silver fir stand in the south of France. TM localisation and behaviour in needles was evaluated by measuring total and internal content of needles of different ages. Measured concentrations fell within background values. Al, Fe, Co, and Pb were trapped in wax following atmospheric particulate deposition. Contrasting accumulation and migration behaviours of the different elements studied were observed. The wax contained less than 10% Mn, Al, Ni, Co, and Zn and 15-45% Fe, Cu, and Cd in the young needles. Lead was mostly located in the wax (50-80%), and this proportion decreased with needle age. Only the internal content of Pb and Fe increased significantly with needle age. Finally, due to atmospheric deposition accumulation, higher input fluxes of Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb can be expected in forest soil. PMID:22221667

Gandois, L; Probst, A

2012-04-01

4

Vibrational properties of self-interstitials in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of understanding of vibrational properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. The thoery of vibrations of SIAs in metals is discussed. The vibrational behaviour of <100>-dumbbell in fee metals and <110>-dumbbell in bcc metals is treated in detail with the use of Green's function method showing the occurrence of resonance modes and localized modes of

P. N. Ram

1991-01-01

5

Vibrational properties of self-interstitials in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of understanding of vibrational properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. The thoery of vibrations of SIAs in metals is discussed. The vibrational behaviour of -dumbbell in fee metals and -dumbbell in bcc metals is treated in detail with the use of Green's function method showing the occurrence of resonance modes and localized modes of

P. N. Ram

1991-01-01

6

Effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine small intestine.  

PubMed

Extracts of pine needles (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have diverse physiological and pharmacological actions. In this study we show that pine needle extract alters pacemaker currents in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) by modulating ATP-sensitive K+ channels and that this effect is mediated by prostaglandins. In whole cell patches at 30 degrees , ICC generated spontaneous pacemaker potentials in the current clamp mode (I = 0), and inward currents (pacemaker currents) in the voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -70 mV. Pine needle extract hyperpolarized the membrane potential, and in voltage clamp mode decreased both the frequency and amplitude of the pacemaker currents, and increased the resting currents in the outward direction. It also inhibited the pacemaker currents in a dose-dependent manner. Because the effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were the same as those of pinacidil (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener) we tested the effect of glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channels blocker) on ICC exposed to pine needle extract. The effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were blocked by glibenclamide. To see whether production of prostaglandins (PGs) is involved in the inhibitory effect of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents, we tested the effects of naproxen, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor, and AH6809, a prostaglandin EP1 and EP2 receptor antagonist. Naproxen and AH6809 blocked the inhibitory effects of pine needle extract on ICC. These results indicate that pine needle extract inhibits the pacemaker currents of ICC by activating ATP-sensitive K+ channels via the production of PGs. PMID:16267398

Cheong, Hyeonsook; Paudyal, Dilli Parasad; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Yeum, Cheol Ho; Yoon, Pyung Jin; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Yoo; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan; Choi, Seok

2005-10-31

7

Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to visualize and track temporarily or permanently implanted metal devices is important in many applications ranging from diagnosis to therapy. Specifically, reliable imaging of metal needles is required in today's clinical settings. Currently, ultrasound is utilized to image a needle inserted into tissue in real time. However, the diagnostic value and tracking ability of these images depends highly on the orientation of the needle, and also its proximity to regions of interest in the tissue. We examine the use of photoacoustic imaging combined with current ultrasound imaging methods to obtain high-contrast images of commonly used needles in the body. Experiments were performed using 21 G and 30 G needles inserted into ex vivo porcine tissue and tissue-mimicking phantoms. The needles and surrounding tissue were imaged using an ultrasound imaging system interfaced with the pulsed laser source necessary for photoacoustic imaging. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging, combined with ultrasound imaging, is capable of real-time, high-contrast, and high-spatial-resolution visualization of metal implants within anatomical landmarks of the background tissue.

Su, Jimmy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Emelianov, Stanislav

2010-03-01

8

Elastic calculation of self-interstitial formation energies in fcc metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elastic calculation of self-interstitial formation energies in fcc metals is presented. The formation energy of an interstitial is identified with the elastic deformation energy inside an infinite crystal containing an extra atom. The following configurations of interstitials in fcc metals are analyzed: octahedral and tetrahedral single interstitials and single , , and splits. The deformation resulting from the insertion

L. Kornblit

1980-01-01

9

Solvus thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen interstitial solutions  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic equations are derived relating the solvus properties of metal-hydrogen interstitial solutions which form hydride phases to single phase and two solid phase thermodynamic parameters and standard thermodynamic reaction parameters. The role of non-ideality is examined. The influences of stress alloying and traps on solvus properties are discussed.

Flanagan, T.B.; Kishimoto, S.; Oates, W.A.

1983-01-01

10

Acid dissolution methods for heavy metals determination in pine needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave digestion procedures using HNO 3, HNO 3+H 2O 2, HNO 3+HClO 4, HF mixtures and dry ashing with HF were investigated for heavy metals analysis by either inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in pine needles. The HF digestion procedures gave about 1.5 times higher values than a mixture of HNO 3+H 2O 2 alone.

R. Pöykiö; P. Perämäki

2003-01-01

11

Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.

2009-11-01

12

Dynamics of self-interstitial atoms in bcc metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present calculations of the local frequency spectrum of -split-interstitial atoms in bcc metals with the use of the Green's-function method. The dumbbell vibrates with low-frequency resonant modes and high-frequency localized modes with little contribution from the host frequencies. In agreement with experiment the spectrum leads to enhanced mean-square thermal displacements of the dumbbell atom. The frequencies of the librational

P. N. Ram

1991-01-01

13

The Problem of Metal Needles in Acupuncture-fMRI Studies  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapy based on sensory stimulation of the human body by means of metal needles. The exact underlying mechanisms of acupuncture have not been clarified so far. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an important tool in acupuncture research. Standard acupuncture needles, which are made of ferromagnetic steel, however, are problematic in acupuncture-fMRI studies for several reasons, such as attraction by the scanner's magnetic field, significant image distortions and signal-dropouts, when positioned close to the head or even heating due to absorption of radio frequency (RF). The aim of this study was to compare two novel types of acupuncture needles with a standard needle for their effect on MRI image quality. The standard needle severely reduced image quality, when located inside the RF coil. The nonferromagnetic metal needle may pose a risk due to RF heating, while the plastic needle has a significantly larger diameter. In conclusion, our recommendations are: (1) standard needles should not be used in MRI; (2) Nonferromagnetic metal needles seem to be the best choice for acupoints outside of the transmitter coil; and (3) only plastic needles are suited for points inside the coil. Laser acupuncture may be a safe alternative, too.

Beissner, Florian; Noth, Ulrike; Schockert, Thomas

2011-01-01

14

On the interaction between a vacancy and self-interstitial atom clusters in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic-scale computer simulation is used to study the interaction between a vacancy and a cluster of self-interstitial atoms in metals with hcp, fcc and bcc crystal structure: ?-zirconium, copper and ?-iron. Effects of cluster size, atomic structure, dislocation nature of the cluster side and temperature are investigated. A vacancy can recombine with any interstitial in small clusters and this does

M. A. Puigví; N. de Diego; A. Serra; Yu. N. Osetsky; D. J. Bacon

2007-01-01

15

Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and juniper (Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses

D ?eburnis; E Steinnes

2000-01-01

16

The use of metal or plastic needles in continuous subcutaneous infusion in a hospice setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.Battery-driven portable syringe drivers are a convenient method for administering many drugs by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) to patients who cannot swallow medications. At the St. Clare Hospice, nurses usually use plastic needles to minimize needlestick injury but sometimes have patients transferred to metal needles. This study retrospectively examines this practice and its effectiveness.Methods.The duration of audit was four months.

Syed Qamar Abbas; Margaret Yeldham; Suzanne Bell

2005-01-01

17

METAL-COLLOID PARTITIONING IN ARTIFICIAL INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS: INFLUENCES OF SALINITY, PH AND COLLOIDAL ORGANIC CARBON CONCENTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, these metals may represent a risk to benthic organisms. Dissolved interstitial water metal concentrations have been shown to be better ...

18

Galactic Center Extinction: Evidence of Metallic Needles in the General Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction curve derived from Infrared Space Observatory mid-infrared observations of the Galactic center (GC) exhibits a surprisingly flat behavior in the ~3-8 ?m region, contrary to the deep minimum expected from standard interstellar dust models consisting of bare silicate and graphite dust particles. We show that this extinction is likely caused by the presence of metallic needles in the interstellar medium (ISM) toward the GC. If the needles contribute only to the 3-8 ?m extinction, they must have a long-wavelength cutoff at ~8 ?m and therefore a typical length over radius ratio of ~600, smaller than the ~3×103 aspect ratio determined for the needles in Cas A. Homogeneously distributed throughout the ISM, they comprise only a minor mass fraction of the ISM, with a needle-to-H mass ratio of ~5×10-6, which is equivalent to 0.14% of the silicate dust mass. Their total ISM abundance then can be readily explained by the combined production in supernovae and O-rich stellar outflows. The GC observations show that metallic needles, in spite of their low abundance or nonuniform distribution, can be the dominant source of opacity in the 3-8 ?m wavelength region. However, expelled into the intergalactic medium, their abundance is too low to cause any dimming of cosmological sources, and their length is too short to make them a significant source of submillimeter emission.

Dwek, Eli

2004-08-01

19

Self-interstitial atom defects in bcc transition metals: Group-specific trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an investigation of systematic trends for the self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect behavior in body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals using density-functional calculations. In all the nonmagnetic bcc metals the most stable SIA defect configuration has the symmetry. Metals in group 5B of the periodic table (V, Nb, Ta) have significantly different energies of formation of the and SIA configurations,

D. Nguyen-Manh; A. P. Horsfield; S. L. Dudarev

2006-01-01

20

Self-interstitial atom defects in bcc transition metals: Group-specific trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an investigation of systematic trends for the self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect behavior in body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals using density-functional calculations. In all the nonmagnetic bcc metals the most stable SIA defect configuration has the <111> symmetry. Metals in group 5B of the periodic table (V, Nb, Ta) have significantly different energies of formation of the <111> and

D. Nguyen-Manh; S. L. Dudarev; A. P. Horsfield

2006-01-01

21

Quadrupole Influence on the Dipolar-Field Width for a Single Interstitial in a Metal Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipolar broadening of the magnetic field sensed by an interstitial impurity in a rigid lattice is calculated with the electric-field gradient set up by the impurity taken into account. This is shown to give a strong dependence of the dipolar width on the applied magnetic field. The theory is especially applicable to the linewidth of precessing muons in metals.

O. Hartmann

1977-01-01

22

Preparation of superconducting thin films of transition-metal interstitial compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sputtering technique forms transition-metal interstitial compounds into superconducting thin films having transition temperatures similar to those of the bulk materials. Since the magnetic-field and current-carrying properties of the films exceed those of the bulk materials, they may have applications other than in tunneling devices.

Gavaler, J. R.

1969-01-01

23

Upon the magnitude of the recombination volume between vacancies and self-interstitials in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously obtained results of measurements of the radiation damage rate in metals as a function of the irradiation temperature are analysed. It is found that the effective migration energy of self-interstitials is linearly decreasing with decreasing irradiation temperature i.e. with increasing concentration of defects. It results from the analysis that i) the recombination volume must be as large as 10

Wolfgang Schdle

1981-01-01

24

Immobilization of interstitial loops by substitutional alloy and transmutation atoms in irradiated metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small platelike clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in irradiated metals are extremely mobile. This mobility can be greatly reduced by foreign atoms. Where the plates are large enough to form edge dislocation loops, their immobilization is analysed as a solid solution hardening. The misfitting substitutional solute atoms can significantly reduce the mobility of small SIA loops when in the central

G. A. Cottrell; S. L. Dudarev; R. A. Forrest

2004-01-01

25

Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

1974-01-01

26

Ultralow contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping.  

PubMed

Heteroepitaxial growth of Cr metal on Nb-doped SrTiO?(001) is accompanied by Cr diffusion to interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes, an anchoring of the Cr film to the substrate, charge transfer from Cr to Ti, and metallization of the near-surface region, as depicted in the figure. The contact resistance of the resulting interface is exceedingly low. PMID:23649872

Chambers, Scott A; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Peter V; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chongmin; Browning, Nigel D

2013-08-01

27

Lichen biomonitoring of metals in the San Rossore park: Contrast with previous pine needle data.  

PubMed

The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata collected in San Rossore park was analyzed for trace elements. Metal deposition in the park was found to be low throughout the year. A slight increase in Cu, Co, and Ni occurred at the east-southeastern edge of the park adjacent to Pisa. Lichens ware not affected by the sea-spray which has destroyed the coastal vegetation. The contrast with the results of previous pine needle biomonitoring is discussed. PMID:24254228

Bargagli, R; D'Amato, M L; Iosco, F P

1987-11-01

28

Ultra-low contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping  

SciTech Connect

The ability to form reliable, low-resistance Ohmic contacts is of critical importance to the ongoing development of oxide electronics. Most metals form Schottky barriers when deposited on oxide surfaces. Ohmic contacts rarely occur, and the associated contact resistances are not particularly low. Little is known at an atomistic level about what leads to a good Ohmic contact on a wide-gap oxide. Here we describe the structure of a simple, yet exceptionally low-contact resistance Ohmic metal on an important oxide semiconductor -- epitaxial Cr on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001). Heteroepitaxial growth is accompanied by Cr diffusion into the STO and occupation of interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes. Interstitial Cr is ionized and the resulting electrons occupy the STO conduction band, resulting in effective metallization near the interface.

Chambers, Scott A.; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Petr V.; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-08-07

29

Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

1989-07-01

30

Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant  

SciTech Connect

We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1992-01-01

31

Self-interstitial atom defects in bcc transition metals: Group-specific trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of systematic trends for the self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect behavior in body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals using density-functional calculations. In all the nonmagnetic bcc metals the most stable SIA defect configuration has the ?111? symmetry. Metals in group 5B of the periodic table (V, Nb, Ta) have significantly different energies of formation of the ?111? and ?110? SIA configurations, while for the group 6B metals (Cr, Mo, W) the two configurations are linked by a soft bending mode. The relative energies of SIA defects in the nonmagnetic bcc metals are fundamentally different from those in ferromagnetic bcc ? -Fe. The systematic trend exhibited by the SIA defect structures in groups 5B and 6B transition metals correlates with the observed thermally activated mobility of SIA defects.

Nguyen-Manh, D.; Horsfield, A. P.; Dudarev, S. L.

2006-01-01

32

On the Theory of Interstitial Solutions of the Noble Metals in Lead, Tin, Thallium, Indium, and Cadmium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interstitial dissolution of the noble metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) in lead, tin, thallium, indium, and cadmium is explained by d-d correlations binding between the isoelectronic cores of the solute and solvent atoms. (Author)

T. R. Anthony D. Turnbull

1966-01-01

33

Necrotic granulomatous pseudotumor following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty: a potential mimic of sarcoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old female presented with left leg pain 4 months after total hip replacement for left hip joint protrusio acetabuli. A "cystic" mass lesion was identified radiologically in relation to the arthroplasty and an initial CT-guided core needle biopsy showed a spindle cell proliferation with associated necrosis, interpreted as suspicious for malignancy. A repeat CT-guided fine needle aspiration showed necrosis, "ghost" spindle cells, aggregates of histiocytes, giant cells, and inflammatory cells as well as scattered large atypical spindle cells. The simultaneously obtained core biopsy showed extensive necrosis with ghost spindle cells that was surrounded by CD68+ histiocytes, which in turn were surrounded by a predominantly CD3+, CD4+ lymphocytic infiltrate. A diagnosis of necrotic granulomatous pseudotumor was made after a diagnosis of sarcoma was initially entertained. This unusual tissue response is rarely seen after metal-on-metal arthroplasty, occurs more often in females and may represent a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction incited by very small-sized particulate metallic debris that forms haptens in association with serum proteins. PMID:22927292

Singh, Charanjeet; Kaplan, Alesia; Pambuccian, Stefan E

2012-08-01

34

Local Magnetism of Isolated Mo Atoms at Substitutional and Interstitial Sites in Yb Metal: Experiment and Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed large 4d moments on isolated Mo atoms at substitutional and octahedral interstitial lattice sites in Yb metal, showing Curie-Weiss local susceptibility and a Korringa-like spin relaxation rate. The interstitial Mo atoms, despite strong hybridization with the Yb neighbors, show rather small Kondo temperature ( TK<=60 K), implying high moment stability. While magnetism of Mo at the substitutional site is consistent with Kondo-type d-sp interaction, we suggest that moment stability at the interstitial site is strongly influenced by ferromagnetic polarization of Yb-4f5d band electrons.

Tulapurkar, A. A.; Mishra, S. N.; Pillay, R. G.; Salunke, H. G.; Das, G. P.; Cottenier, S.

2000-08-01

35

ANELASTIC RELAXATION OF INTERSTITIAL FOREIGN ATOMS AND THEIR COMPLEXES WITH INTRINSIC DEFECTS IN B.C.C. METALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In body-centred cubic metals, heavy interstitial foreign atoms N and C give rise t o relaxations of Snoek type. For dilute alloys, relaxation parameters are summarized. In concentrated alloys (group Va metals containing 0 or N) Snoek relaxations are influenced by the interaction of IFA. The recent cont.roversy is discussed as to whether this interaction is based on clustering or

M. WELLER

1985-01-01

36

EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

37

The Detection of Cold Dust in Cassiopeia A: Evidence for the Formation of Metallic Needles in the Ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ejecta from core-collapse supernovae contain a few solar masses of refractory elements and therefore can be the most important source of interstellar dust if these elements condense efficiently into solids. However, infrared observations of young supernova remnants, such as Cas A or Kepler, and observations of SN 1987A have detected only ~10-3 Msolar of hot dust in these objects. Recently, Dunne et al. obtained 450 and 850 ?m SCUBA images of Cas A and reported the detection of 2-4 Msolar of cold (18 K) dust in the remnant. Here we show that their interpretation of the observations faces serious difficulties. Their inferred dust mass ignores the effect of grain destruction by sputtering and is larger than the mass of refractory material in the ejecta of a 10-30 Msolar star. The cold dust model faces even more difficulties if the 170 ?m observations of the remnant are included in the analysis, which decreases the cold dust temperature to ~ 8 K and increases its mass to >~ 20 Msolar. We offer here a more plausible interpretation of their observation, in which the cold dust emission is generated by conducting needles in the ejecta. The needle properties are completely determined by the combined submillimeter and X-ray observations of the remnant. The needles are collisionally heated by the shocked gas. They are very efficient emitters at submillimeter wavelengths and, with a resistivity of a few ?? cm, can readily attain a temperature of 8 K. Taking the destruction of needles into account, a dust mass of only 10-4 to 10-3 Msolar is needed to account for the observed SCUBA emission. The needles consist of metallic whiskers with <~1% of embedded impurities, which may have condensed out of blobs of material that were expelled at high velocities from the inner metal-rich layers of the star in an asymmetric explosion. Conductive needles may also be the source of the cold dust emission detected by Morgan et al. in Kepler. When aligned in the magnetic field, needles may give rise to observable polarized emission. The detection of submillimeter polarization will therefore offer definitive proof for a needle origin for the cold dust emission. Supernovae may yet be proven to be important sources of interstellar dust, but the evidence is still inconclusive.

Dwek, Eli

2004-06-01

38

Immobilization of interstitial loops by substitutional alloy and transmutation atoms in irradiated metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small platelike clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in irradiated metals are extremely mobile. This mobility can be greatly reduced by foreign atoms. Where the plates are large enough to form edge dislocation loops, their immobilization is analysed as a solid solution hardening. The misfitting substitutional solute atoms can significantly reduce the mobility of small SIA loops when in the central cores of their edge dislocation lines. An activation energy is required to unpin a loop from such atoms and this - unlike in conventional solid solution hardening - remains finite even with no applied stress driving the dislocation. In dilute solutions break-away occurs by the thermally activated escape from single atom obstacles on the loops. Application to a proposed fusion power plant alloy (EUROFER 97) shows that the W alloy atoms provide the most severe immobilization, although Mn atoms produced by transmutation run a close second. The contribution of Cr is evaluated.

Cottrell, G. A.; Dudarev, S. L.; Forrest, R. A.

2004-02-01

39

An interstitial-impurity-induced increase of vacancies and self-diffusion in close-packed metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of vacancies (v) is analyzed as a function of the concentration of interstitial impurity (X) inside a close-packed metal (Me). Over a wide interval of X concentration, the v content exceeds the concentration of thermally activated vacancies in the ‘pure’ Me at the same temperature. For instance, a monotonously increasing dependence is established for both v concentration and

V. A. Tatarenko; C. L. Tsynman

1997-01-01

40

Heavy metals in marine sediment phases determined by sequential chemical extraction and their interaction with interstitial water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sediment core obtained in a highly polluted area of the Baie de Villefranche (Mediterranean Sea, France) was analysed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Ni and Zn using EDX?RF (interstitial water) and AAS (sediment extracts). Characterization of the chemical forms of the metals in the solid phase was carried out using chemical extraction techniques, and the vertical

F. Rapin; G. P. Nembrini; U. Förstner; J. I. Garcia

1983-01-01

41

Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and juniper ( Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses indicated that accumulation processes may be similar, but mosses appear to be clearly preferable as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition because of their higher elemental concentrations and more quantitative reflection of deposition rates. Precipitation in the open field and under the canopy was investigated at two stations with respect to the same metals. The canopy was shown to retain a considerable part of lead, whereas elements such as Zn and Mn were enriched in precipitation under the canopy. Study of metal concentrations in moss growing, respectively, below and outside the canopy showed that none of so studied elements was significantly retained by the canopy. Most of the metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, V) were leached from the canopy to a smaller or greater extent.

?eburnis, D.; Steinnes, E.

42

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The results of a phase I clinical trial in which heat was combined with interstitial (low dose rate) radiation are described with emphasis on response and technical and physical aspects of heating. We treated 25 patients (27 lesions) using interstitial implants to locally recurrent, accessible tumors heated by radiofrequency currents to 43 degrees -45 degrees C for 30 minutes, with needle guides as electrodes. They were subsequently irradiated with either 192Ir or 226Ra. All patients had failed previous conventional treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, and, in most, near tolerance doses of irradiation. In all but one, a single hyperthermic treatment was given and the average dose of low dose irradiation was under 3,000 rad over 60 hours. No patient failed to respond, 63% achieved a complete disappearance of tumor in the treated volume, and 37% had partial response (50% less than volume reduction less than 100%). Duration of response was from 2 to 30 months, and no patient showed regrowth at the site treated. Normal tissue complications were minimal. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy is both a safe and an effective means of treatment in advanced or recurrent accessible disease.

Manning, M.R.; Cetas, T.C.; Gerner, E.W.

1982-06-01

43

Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular dynamics computer simulations using embedded atom potentials. Near the melting temperature these concentrations are both {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} . Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute more to diffusion. In perfect, or pulse-heated crystals, spontaneous Frenkel pair production results in even higher interstitial concentrations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Nordlund, K.; Averback, R.S. [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1998-05-01

44

Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular dynamics computer simulations using embedded atom potentials. Near the melting temperature these concentrations are both ~10-6. Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute more to diffusion. In perfect, or pulse-heated crystals, spontaneous Frenkel pair production results in even higher interstitial concentrations.

K. Nordlund; R. S. Averback

1998-01-01

45

The non-Arrhenius migration of interstitial defects in bcc transition metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally activated migration of defects drives microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation. In the case of vacancies, the activation energy for migration is many times the absolute temperature, and the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature is well approximated by the Arrhenius law. On the other hand the activation energy for the migration of self-interstitial defects, and particularly self-interstitial

Sergei L. Dudarev

2008-01-01

46

Seasonal changes in chlorophyll content and reflectance of metal-stressed and nonstressed spruce needles and their implication for biogeochemical remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory reflectance and chlorophyll measurements of first and second year stressed and nonstressed Norway spruce needles collected from trees overlying a copper-lead-zinc base metal deposit exhibited little change in the chlorophyll absorption maximum near 680 nanometers or in chlorophyll a + b content between respective needle years over the growing season from mid-May to late November. This implies an adaptation of the spruce trees to the toxic metal conditions present at the site with respect to their photosynthetic apparatus, which brings into question the usefulness of the chlorophyll absorption maximum for metal stress detection in coniferous forests.

Banninger, C.

47

On the self interstitial atom interactions in metals and their study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of self-interstitial atomic defect interaction radii Ri from recovery experiments after electron irradiation is re-examined in the light of the recent results obtained in Jülich, with particular attention paid to interstitial-defect interactions. The possible sources of errors are mainly neglect of impurity effects, of electrical size effect and casually adapted treatment of the data. The latter point is

P. Lucasson; F. Maury

1979-01-01

48

Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a hard-metal worker. Cytologic, histologic and analytical electron microscopic investigation  

SciTech Connect

A case of biopsy-proven giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with occupational exposure to hard-metal dust is reported. Bronchial washings performed several days prior to open-lung biopsy yielded an almost exclusive population of nonpigmented alveolar macrophages and pleomorphic, phagocytic multinucleated giant cells. Microorganisms, viral inclusions in the giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes and well-formed granulomas were not seen. This cytologic picture strongly suggests the presence of giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a patient with restrictive lung disease, particularly when exposure to hard-metal dust is known or suspected. A specific diagnosis early in the course of the disease may facilitate removal of the individual from the workplace and forestall the development of end-stage interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, the working environment may be modified to minimize inhalational exposure. Recognition of this entity by the cytopathologist may direct diagnostic efforts toward accurate histologic evaluation and the identification of particulates by microprobe analysis of either cellular or biopsy material.

Tabatowski, K.; Roggli, V.L.; Fulkerson, W.J.; Langley, R.L.; Benning, T.; Johnston, W.W.

1988-03-01

49

The non-Arrhenius migration of interstitial defects in bcc transition metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally activated migration of defects drives microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation. In the case of vacancies, the activation energy for migration is many times the absolute temperature, and the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature is well approximated by the Arrhenius law. On the other hand the activation energy for the migration of self-interstitial defects, and particularly self-interstitial atom clusters, is very low. In this case a trajectory of a defect performing Brownian motion at or above room temperature does not follow the Arrhenius-like pattern of migration involving infrequent hops separated by the relatively long intervals of time during which a defect resides at a certain point in the crystal lattice. This article reviews recent atomistic simulations of migration of individual interstitial defects, as well as clusters of interstitial defects, and rationalizes the results of simulations on the basis of solutions of the multistring Frenkel-Kontorova model. The treatment developed in the paper shows that the origin of the non-Arrhenius migration of interstitial defects and interstitial defect clusters is associated with the interaction between a defect and the classical field of thermal phonons. To cite this article: S.L. Dudarev, C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

Dudarev, Sergei L.

2008-04-01

50

First-principles study of self-interstitial point defects in BCC metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a study of the energetics of self-interstitial defects in V and Mo based on plane-wave supercell density functional calculations. We use a 128 atom cubic supercell and 2x2x2 k-point grid for BZ sampling, which we found to be sufficient to obtain accurate results on the basis of a careful convergence study. In our calculations, all the atoms of the supercell are allowed to fully relax in presence of the self-interstitial defect. We find that, both in V and in Mo, the most stable orientation of the self-interstitial is [111]. This is different from predictions based on commonly available empirical potentials. We also find that the [111] self-interstitial can easily migrate along the [111] direction passing through an intermediate crowdion configuration. This [111] pathway is essentially barrierless within density functional theory, consistent with experimental data. Finally, we construct a Finnis-Sinclair type potential that reproduces well the first-principles results. This potential will be useful to model self-interstitial diffusion processes, which play a key role in radiation damage cascade evolution.

Seungwu, Han; Luis, Zepeda-Ruiza; Roberto, Car; David, Srolovitz; Graeme, Ackland

2002-03-01

51

First-principles study of self-interstitial point defects in BCC metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study of the energetics of self-interstitial defects in V and Mo based on plane-wave supercell density functional calculations. We use a 128 atom cubic supercell and 2x2x2 k-point grid for BZ sampling, which we found to be sufficient to obtain accurate results on the basis of a careful convergence study. In our calculations, all the atoms of

Han Seungwu; Zepeda-Ruiza Luis; Car Roberto; Srolovitz David; Ackland Graeme

2002-01-01

52

Self-interstitials generated by low energy heavy ion bombardment of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal helium desorption spectrometry (THDS) has been used to study the ion bombardment conditions for creating stable self-interstitial atoms (SIA) below the surface of monocrystalline Mo, W and Ni. The SIA are observed by the relase of helium atoms when SIA recombine with HeV defects. Threshold energies for SIA generation are found to be 80 eV for Ar --> Mo

A. van Veen; G. J. van der Kolk; H. A. Filius; K. T. Westerduin; L. M. Caspers

1984-01-01

53

Magnetism of Interstitial Atoms in Transition and Rare-Earth Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ferromagnetic exchange splitting of the 3d electron band was found to play an important role in the physical nature of self-interstitial atoms in bec Fe. This effect is related to the problem of the large magnetic moment of Fe-N, in which the Fe-Fe atomic distance also plays an important role. The threshold energy for defect creation has been explained

F. Onoiswith; H. Maeta

1991-01-01

54

Channeling measurements of the trapping efficiencies of solute atoms for self-interstitial atoms in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channeling techniques were used to measure the concentration of mixed dumbbells as a function of irradiation fluence in crystals of Al-0.10 at.% Ag, Cu-0.25 at.% Be and Mg-0.18 at.% Ag. From the experimentally observed production rates of mixed dumbbells from alpha or deuteron irradiations at temperatures where self-interstitials were mobile, it was concluded that the dominant trapping configuration was the

M. L. Swanson; L. M. Howe

1979-01-01

55

INTERACTION OF METALS AND ORGAINIC CARBON COLLOIDS IN ANOXIC INTERSTITIAL WATERS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine colloids are an important component of natural water geochemistry critical to the cycling, speciation and bioavailability of metals in marine sediments. In sediment, metals exist in three phases: particulate, colloidal and dissolved. Dissolved metal concentrations have bee...

56

Interstitial Hypertension in Superficial Metastatic Melanomas in Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1950, several investigators have demonstrated that interstitial hypertension is a pathophysiological characteristic of experimental solid tumors. To date, interstitial fluid pressure (IFF) has not been measured in human tumors in situ. In this study we measured with the nick-in- needle technique the interstitial fluid pressure in superficial melanoma métastases (n = 12) in patients (n = 10) before and

Yves Boucher; John M. Kirkwood; Deborah Opacic; Mark Desantis; Rakesh K. Jain

57

Stabilization and annealing of interstitials formed by radiation in binary metal oxides and fluorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestations of non-impact creation mechanisms of Frenkel defects have been revealed in MgO and ?-Al 2O 3 crystals irradiated at 295 K by 2.20-2.4-GeV U ions providing an extremely high density of electronic excitations. Besides F and F + centers, the creation of anion vacancies has been detected in both ion-irradiated crystals by measuring the emission spectra at the excitation by 5-keV electrons at 9 K. In MgO, the stabilization of oxygen interstitials is conducted by their association with the holes localized near cation vacancies. The creation, stabilization and annealing of F centers, impurity defects and trifluorine F3- molecules have been investigated in LiF:Mg, Ti irradiated by X-rays or 10-17 eV photons. The role of separated electrons and holes, anion excitons and near-impurity excitations in the formation of thermally stimulated luminescence at 350-750 K has been clarified. Stabilization (up to 650 K) of H interstitials in LiF occurs via the formation of F3- molecules.

Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Schwartz, K.; Vasil'chenko, E.; Kärner, T.; Kudryavtseva, I.; Isakhanyan, V.; Shugai, A.

2008-06-01

58

Molecular Dynamics Study of Self-Interstitial Atoms in BCC Metals: Crystallization in Mo and ferromagnetic Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among point defects, the self-interstitial atom (SIA) is less well investigated than its relative, the atomic vacancy. Experimentally, the SIA is important for understanding of embrittlement in irradiated materials, however there are other processes in which the SIA may also be important, namely, the solidification and crystallization, at the atomic scale, of matter from the amorphous state. Amorphous structure may be treated within the context of density functional theory as a network of SIA and vacancies. We will present tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) studies of interactions between SIA, vacancies, surfaces and interfaces, within bcc-based metals, with focus on Mo and ferromagnetic Fe. We will show, via TBMD simulation, that structural transformation and mass transfer are facilitated and made rapid by the presence of a SIA. Results are compared, as a benchmark, to previous plane-wave pseudopotential results for SIA formation energies.

Finkenstadt, Daniel; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios; Mehl, Michael

2006-03-01

59

Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

1991-01-01

60

ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

61

Lichen biomonitoring of metals in the San Rossore park: Contrast with previous pine needle data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata collected in San Rossore park was analyzed for trace elements. Metal deposition in the park was found to be low throughout the year. A slight increase in Cu, Co, and Ni occurred at the east-southeastern edge of the park adjacent to Pisa. Lichens ware not affected by the sea-spray which has destroyed the coastal vegetation.

R. Bargagli; M. L. D'Amato; F. P. Iosco

1987-01-01

62

The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mahony, J.D. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.)

1995-01-01

63

Interaction of carbon with vacancy and self-interstitial atom clusters in ?-iron studied using metallic-covalent interatomic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of even small amount of carbon interstitial impurity affects properties of Fe and Fe-based ferritic alloys. From earlier experiments it follows that carbon exhibits considerably strong interaction with lattice defects and therefore influences their mobility, hence affecting the evolution of the microstructure under irradiation. This work is dedicated to understanding the interaction of carbon-vacancy complexes with glissile dislocation loops, which form in Fe, Fe-based alloys and ferritic steels under irradiation. We apply large scale atomistic simulations coupled with the so-called 'metallic-covalent bonding' interatomic model for the Fe-C system, known to be the most consistent interatomic model available today. With these techniques we have studied (i) the stability of vacancy-carbon clusters; (ii) the interaction of octahedral carbon with ½<1 1 1> loops; (iii) possibility of the dynamic drag of carbon by ½<1 1 1> loops and (iv) the interaction of ½<1 1 1> loops with the most stable vacancy-carbon clusters expected to occur under irradiation. Finally, we have shown that carbon-vacancy complexes act as strong traps for ½<1 1 1> loops.

Terentyev, Dmitry; Anento, Napoleón; Serra, Anna; Jansson, Ville; Khater, Hassan; Bonny, Giovanni

2011-01-01

64

Vibrational modes and diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in body-centered-cubic transition metals: A tight-binding molecular-dynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method, we have calculated the formation energies, diffusivity, and localized vibrational frequencies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA's) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tantalum. As a test of our methods, we compare to experiment for the perfect bcc phonon spectra and we compare to previous ab initio SIA formation energies. In addition, we present

Daniel Finkenstadt; N. Bernstein; J. L. Feldman; M. J. Mehl; D. A. Papaconstantopoulos

2006-01-01

65

Properties of vacancies and self-interstitials in silicon deduced from crystal growth, wafer processing, self-diffusion and metal diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacancies and self-interstitials in silicon are involved, in a straightforward way, in the formation of grown-in microdefects, diffusion of metals (Au, Zn), self-diffusion and installation of vacancy depth profiles in thin quenched wafers. The diffusivities and equilibrium concentrations of the intrinsic point defects, in dependence of temperature, could be deduced by analyzing these phenomena. The defect diffusivities are high while

V. V. Voronkov; R. Falster

2006-01-01

66

CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

67

Interstitial keratitis  

MedlinePLUS

... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

68

Mn 5Si 3-type host-interstitial boron rare-earth metal silicide compounds RE5Si 3: Crystal structures, physical properties and theoretical considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of binary rare-earth metal silicides RE5Si 3 and ternary boron-interstitial phases RE5Si 3B x ( RE=Gd, Dy, Ho, Lu, and Y) adopting the Mn 5Si 3-type structure, have been prepared from the elemental components by arc melting. Boron "stuffed" phases were subsequently heated at 1750 K within a high-frequency furnace. Crystal structures were determined for both binary and ternary series of compounds from single-crystal X-ray data: hexagonal symmetry, space group P6 3/ mcm, Z=2. Boron insertion in the host binary silicides results in a very small decrease of the unit cell parameters with respect to those of the binaries. According to X-ray data, partial or nearly full boron occupancy of the interstitial octahedral sites in the range 0.6-1 is found. The magnetic properties of these compounds were characterized by the onset of magnetic ordering below 100 K. Boron insertion induces a modification of the transition temperature and ?p values in most of the antiferromagnetic binary silicides, with the exception of the ternary phase Er 5Si 3B x which was found to undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 14 K. The electrical resistivities for all binary silicides and ternary boron-interstitial phases resemble the temperature dependence of metals, with characteristic changes of slope in the resistivity curves due to the reduced electron scattering in the magnetically ordered states. Zintl-Klemm concept would predict a limiting composition RE5Si 3B 0.6 for a valence compound and should then preclude the stoichiometric formula RE 5Si 3B. Density functional theory calculations carried out on some RE5Si 3Z x systems for different interstitial heteroatoms Z and different x contents from 0 to 1 give some support to this statement.

Roger, Jérome; Ben Yahia, Mouna; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Bauer, Joseph; Cordier, Stéphane; Guérin, Roland; Hiebl, Kurt; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Halet, Jean-François

2006-08-01

69

Transbronchial fine needle aspiration.  

PubMed Central

In a pilot study, 21 patients underwent transbronchial fine needle aspiration (TBFNA) using a 45 cm-22 gauge needle guided by means of a semi-rigid metal sleeve, which was introduced through a standard rigid bronchoscope. A total of 33 aspirations were performed from main carina (15), paratracheal (five), and lobar carinal (13) foci. Six aspirations yielded malignant cellular samples, 22 aspirations presented only normal cells, and in five no adequate cellular sample was obtained. Fifteen patients underwent surgical exploration (mediastinoscopy with or without thoracotomy). Four of the cytologically malignant cases were explored and in three the aspiration site was confirmed histologically. In the remaining patients where the site of aspiration was explored, no tumour was demonstrated in the cytologically negative or cytologically inadequate cases. There were no complications from TBFNA. We suggest that TBFNA is useful in determining mediastinal malignant involvement rapidly and with lesser invasion than with current techniques. Images

Lemer, J; Malberger, E; Konig-Nativ, R

1982-01-01

70

Interstitial lung disease and asthma in hard-metal workers: bronchoalveolar lavage, ultrastructural, and analytical findings and results of bronchial provocation tests.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with respiratory disorders associated with hard metal exposure are described. In four patients electron microprobe analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cells or lung tissue was used to show tungsten and other hard-metal components. Three patients had interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis with unusual multinucleate giant cells. Electron microscopy showed that the giant cells comprised both type II alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. The multinucleate macrophages formed a distinctive feature of the bronchoalveolar lavage material but the multinucleate alveolar epithelial lining cells were evident only in lung tissue. The other two patients both suffered from work-related asthma, one of whom also had pulmonary opacities. Bronchial provocation tests in these patients supported the diagnosis of hard-metal-induced asthma and implicated cobalt as the agent responsible. Images

Davison, A G; Haslam, P L; Corrin, B; Coutts, I I; Dewar, A; Riding, W D; Studdy, P R; Newman-Taylor, A J

1983-01-01

71

Molecular Dynamics Study of Self-Interstitial Atoms in BCC Metals: Crystallization in Mo and ferromagnetic Fe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among point defects, the self-interstitial atom (SIA) is less well investigated than its relative, the atomic vacancy. Experimentally, the SIA is important for understanding of embrittlement in irradiated materials, however there are other processes in which the SIA may also be important, namely, the solidification and crystallization, at the atomic scale, of matter from the amorphous state. Amorphous structure may

Daniel Finkenstadt; Dimitrios Papaconstantopoulos; Michael Mehl

2006-01-01

72

Interstitial lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias represent an important group of interstitial lung diseases, encompassing seven entities: (1) usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)\\/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; (2) non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); (3) organizing pneumonia\\/cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP); (4) diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)\\/acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP); (5) respiratory bronchiolitis (RB)\\/respiratory bronchiolitis–interstitial lung disease (RB–ILD); (6) desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP); and (7) lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). The

William D. Travis

2008-01-01

73

Interstitial implant with interstitial hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

A Phase I Pilot Study combining interstitial or intracavitary irradiation using /sup 192/Ir or /sup 137/Cs and interstitial hyperthermia in advanced or recurrent tumors is underway at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Hyperthermia is performed using 0.5 megahertz RF (500 kilohertz) radiofrequency localized current fields. In the implanted volume, a temperature of 41/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/C is maintained for 30 to 40 minutes. Hyperthermia is performed prior to irradiation in all patients. All patients had either failed previous conventional treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, or had advanced malignant tumors which were not felt to be controllable by conventional means. Sixteen lesions were implanted in 15 patients. Of the 16 lesions, 11/16 (68%) achieved complete response, and three had no response or recurred locally. The six patients (100%) receiving interstitial implant and hyperthermia as the primary therapy achieved complete response. Normal tissue complications were minimal. Range of response was three to 13 months. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy appears to be a safe and promising mode of therapy in advanced or recurrent accessible malignant tumors.

Vora, N.; Forell, B.; Joseph, C.; Lipsett, J.; Archambeau, J.D.

1982-12-01

74

Interstitial hyperthermia of experimental brain tumor using implant heating system.  

PubMed

New experimental system of induction hyperthermia for brain tumor using ferromagnetic implant with low Curie point has been developed. The metal implant is cylindrical needle and made of Fe-Pt alloy with low Curie point suitable for hyperthermia (50-60 degrees C). Induction coil and generator which produce maximum power of 200W and variable frequency of 100-500kHz, yielding magnetic power of 16.7Oe, have been developed. Interstitial hyperthermia was made on rat brain tumor model (T9 gliosarcoma) by this system. Significant effects of single hyperthermia (45 degrees C for 30 minutes) were observed by the extension of life span and morphological changes of the tumor. PMID:2778493

Kobayashi, T; Tanaka, T; Kida, Y; Matsui, M; Ikeda, T

1989-07-01

75

Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC-60) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distortion relaxation of the host fullerene (C-60) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distortion field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. The given paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of static concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method(*). In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the static inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the 'average-lattice' sites' as well as on the lattice parameter a of a elastically-anysotropic 'cubic' C-60 crystal are taken into account.

Tatarenko, Valentine A.; Tsysman, Constantin L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Yelena T.

1995-01-01

76

[Interstitial lung disease].  

PubMed

This concise article summarizes recent advances in the field of interstitial lung disease (ILD) with particular focus on clinically relevant findings. As a novel treatment option for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), pirfenidone has been granted marketing authorization in the European Union for the treatment of mild to moderate IPF. In contrast, the FDA refused to approve pirfenidone for the US market. Promising study results for the treatment of IPF were published for the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor intedanib, other drugs such as the endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) macitentan are currently investigated in clinical trials. Further studies that investigated the ERA bosentan, the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil, or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in IPF failed to show a benefit for the pertinent primary endpoint. Additionally, an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis and management of IPF has very recently been published. The European Respiratory Society established a guideline for the management of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), while another study showed the cost effectiveness of HRCT screening for LAM in selected female patients suffering from spontaneous pneumothorax. Data from a scleroderma-ILD study show the prognostic relevance of antitopoisomerase antibodies in the progression of this form of ILD. Bosentan treatment did not significantly enhance exercise capacity in patients with scleroderma-ILD in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. With regard to sarcoidosis with mediastinal lymphadenopathy the diagnostic sensitivity can be significantly improved by endobronchial ultrasonography-guided transbronchial needle aspiration vs. conventional needle aspiration. As a possible future treatment option for sarcoidosis vasointestinal peptide has been successfully evaluated in a phase 2 tolerability trial. PMID:21611927

von der Beck, D; Günther, A; Markart, P

2011-06-01

77

Interstitial Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... MS Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

78

Magnetovolume effect of self-interstitial atoms in bcc iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic volume of an interstitial atom in bcc iron was found to be smaller than in other transition metals. The origin of this effect is interpreted in terms of the magnetovolume effect of the highly compressed state of the interstitial atom. The anomalously high migration temperature and the low threshold energy of interstitial creation are also explained by considering

F. Ono; H. Maeta; J. P. Jakubovics

1989-01-01

79

Buffon's Needle Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

Siegrist, Kyle

80

Immunization without needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current immunization procedures make use of needles and syringes for vaccine administration. With the increase in the number of immunizations that children around the world routinely receive, health organizations are beginning to look for safer alternatives that reduce the risk of cross-contamination that arises from needle reuse. This article focuses on contemporary developments in needle-free methods of immunization, such

Samir Mitragotri

2005-01-01

81

[Needle sticking method].  

PubMed

Needle sticking method, which can be combined with multiple needling techniques, has been attached with great importance in recent years by doctors in clinic. Combining with the clinical experiences, the authors expounded the needle sticking method through its unified concept, differences between needle sticking method, which was an acupuncture technique, and stuck needle which was an accident during acupuncture, selection of needles, manipulations, mechanism of treatment, range of application, attentions and advantages of popularization. It is held that the technique can be widely applied for treatment of acute and chronic diseases of various departments with filiform needles. Easy to be manipulated, understood and mastered, the technique is without side effect and valuable to be popularized. PMID:21644309

Wang, Shang-Chen; Shan, Wen-Zhe; Sun, Shu-Fen

2011-03-01

82

A method for studying the self-interstitial trapping and clustering at impurities in an irradiated metal and its application to chromium-doped aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple analysis based on chemical rate theory is used to determine the trapping radius rt of a self-interstitial atom by an impurity, relative to that by a vacancy, ru—both from recovery experiments and damage rate experiments. It gives estimates for the concentrations of the various small interstitial clusters, nucleated or not at the impurities, in a temperature range extending

F. Maury

1982-01-01

83

First-principles pseudopotential calculations for hydrogen in 4d transition metals. II. Vibrational states for interstitial hydrogen isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid. vol.4, p.5189 (1992). In this second part of the authors' first-principles study of hydrogen in transition metals within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer and the local density-functional approximations, the mixed-basis pseudopotential method, which was outlined in the first part, is applied to calculate total energies and internal forces in PdnH supercells with n

C. Elsasser; K. M. Ho; C. T. Chan; M. Fahnle

1992-01-01

84

High-temperature nuclear spin relaxation in 51V metal: self-diffusion and interstitial-impurity diffusion effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeeman and dipolar reservoir nuclear spin relaxation times T1Z, T1D and T2 in 51V metal have been measured in samples with different purities, over temperatures within the 300-1700K range. T1Z and T1D have been analysed into electronic, quadrupolar and diffusion contributions, whose temperature dependences have been determined. For the electronic contributions it has been shown that T1eZ=(2+ epsilon )T1eD with

J. F. Tiers; Y. Chabre

1981-01-01

85

Vibrational modes and diffusion of self-interstitial atoms in body-centered-cubic transition metals: A tight-binding molecular-dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a tight-binding molecular-dynamics method, we have calculated the formation energies, diffusivity, and localized vibrational frequencies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA’s) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tantalum. As a test of our methods, we compare to experiment for the perfect bcc phonon spectra and we compare to previous ab initio SIA formation energies. In addition, we present vibrational spectra calculated from molecular dynamics via the velocity autocorrelation method. For all of the systems studied, we find that the localized vibration frequency of a SIA dumbbell pair is roughly twice the frequency of the bcc phonon-density-of-states peak. We also find an Arrhenius temperature dependence for SIA hopping, with frequency prefactors ranging between the cutoff of the ideal bcc lattice and the highest frequencies of the SIA dumbbell. In all cases, we find that the energy barrier to SIA diffusion is approximately 0.1eV .

Finkenstadt, Daniel; Bernstein, N.; Feldman, J. L.; Mehl, M. J.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.

2006-11-01

86

Trigger Point Dry Needling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Trigger point dry needling,is a treatment,technique,used,by physical therapists around the world. In the United States, trigger point dry needling has been approved as within the scope of physical,therapy,practice in a,growing,number,of states. There are several dry needling techniques, based on different models, including the radiculopathy model and the trigger point model, which are discussed here in detail. Special attention is

Jan Dommerholt

87

Buffon's Needle (MSTE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Buffon's Needle, first stated in 1777, is one of the oldest problems in the field of geometrical probability. It involves dropping a needle on a lined sheet of paper and determining the probability of the needle crossing one of the lines on the page. The remarkable result is that the probability is directly related to the value of pi. These pages present an analytical solution.

Forum, Math; George Reese; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)

2001-01-01

88

Interstitial cystitis - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on insterstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association - www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - www.kidney.niddk. ...

89

Examination of surface conditions and other physical properties of commonly used stainless steel acupuncture needles  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries. Methods Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out. Results The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users.

Xie, Yi Min; Xu, Shanqing; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-01-01

90

Ab initio investigation of radiation defects in tungsten: Structure of self-interstitials and specificity of di-vacancies compared to other bcc transition metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of DFT calculations on radiation point defects in tungsten are presented. The lowest energy configuration of the self-interstitial has exactly the ?111? orientation and no tilt from this direction is observed when using appropriate cell geometry and pseudopotential. The present DFT calculations confirm that in pure tungsten the interactions between two vacancies are unexpectedly repulsive until the fifth

Lisa Ventelon; F. Willaime; Chu-Chun Fu; M. Heran; I. Ginoux

91

Mechanics of needle-tissue interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a needle is inserted into soft tissue, interaction forces are developed at the needle tip and along the needle shaft. The needle tip force is due to cutting of the tissue, and the force along the needle shaft is due to friction between needle and tissue. In this study, the friction force is determined for needles inserted into a

Roy J. Roesthuis; Youri R. J. van Veen; Alex Jahya; Sarthak Misra

2011-01-01

92

Mechanics of needle-tissue interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a needle is inserted into soft tissue, interac- tion forces are developed at the needle tip and along the needle shaft. The needle tip force is due to cutting of the tissue, and the force along the needle shaft is due to friction between needle and tissue. In this study, the friction force is determined for needles inserted into

Roy J. Roesthuis; Youri R. J. van Veen; Alex Jahya; Sarthak Misra

2011-01-01

93

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are diseases of the lung interstitium where the etiology is unknown. They constitute the largest group of interstitial lung diseases. Making a diagnosis can be challenging due to the diversity of clinical presentations and frequently, non-specific radiological and pathological findings. The most common form, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has a poor prognosis with median survival of 3 years

Ahmed Fahim; Simon P. Hart

2009-01-01

94

Evaluation of nonholonomic needle steering using a robotic needle driver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate needle placement is a common need in the medical environment. While the use of small diameter needles for clinical applications such as biopsy, anesthesia and cholangiography is preferred over the use of larger diameter needles, precision placement can often be challenging, particularly for needles with a bevel tip. This is due to deflection of the needle shaft caused by asymmetry of the needle tip. Factors such as the needle shaft material, bevel design, and properties of the tissue penetrated determine the nature and extent to which a needle bends. In recent years, several models have been developed to characterize the bending of the needle, which provides a method of determining the trajectory of the needle through tissue. This paper explores the use of a nonholonomic model to characterize needle bending while providing added capabilities of path planning, obstacle avoidance, and path correction for lung biopsy procedures. We used a ballistic gel media phantom and a robotic needle placement device to experimentally assess the accuracy of simulated needle paths based on the nonholonomic model. Two sets of experiments were conducted, one for a single bend profile of the needle and the second set of tests for double bending of the needle. The tests provided an average error between the simulated path and the actual path of 0.8 mm for the single bend profile and 0.9 mm for the double bend profile tests over a 110 mm long insertion distance. The maximum error was 7.4 mm and 6.9 mm for the single and double bend profile tests respectively. The nonholonomic model is therefore shown to provide a reasonable prediction of needle bending.

Wilson, Emmanuel; Ding, Jeinan; Carignan, Craig; Krishnan, Karthik; Avila, Rick; Turner, Wes; Stoianovici, Dan; Yankelevitz, David; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

2010-03-01

95

Percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the history, technique, applications, advantages, disadvantages and complications of percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy. This technique, particularly when performed with a time needle (21-gauge or less), is a relatively painless, inexpensive and safe method of obtaining a pathologic diagnosis, and it can often be carried out at the bedside or in the outpatient department. It complements other methods and may obviate, but never precludes, subsequent excisional biopsy. Its advantages are insufficiently recognized. Considerable expertise of the cytopathologist and close cooperation with the clinician are necessary for consistent results. Images FIG. 1

McLoughlin, M. J.; Ho, C. S.; Tao, L. C.

1978-01-01

96

Fight over needles.  

PubMed

The governor of New Jersey and her AIDS advisory committee are in disagreement over the best way to prevent HIV infection among injection drug users. Gov. Christie Whitman is opposed to needle exchange programs, but an ad hoc advisory committee is pushing for both needle exchanges and the legalization of over-the-counter sales of syringes. State Attorney General Peter Verniero says that the decriminalization of laws against the possession of hypodermic equipment will weaken the State's fight against illegal drugs. Whitman is currently filling ten vacancies on the 36-member committee. PMID:11366008

1998-10-30

97

The needle necropsy.  

PubMed Central

The technique of limited necropsy by histological examination of needle tissue cores obtained percutaneously is indicated when a full necropsy is not justified owing to the risk of infection or when tissue for special investigations is needed soon after death without recourse to full necropsy facilities. The method is ideal for detecting conditions producing diffuse changes in an organ. Because the cadaver is preserved essentially intact relatives who refuse permission for a standard necropsy might consent to a needle necropsy if this option is offered to them. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Underwood, J C; Slater, D N; Parsons, M A

1983-01-01

98

Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

99

Single Needle Dialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The single needle method is simple, effective and safe. No disadvantages have become apparent. The method has been successfully applied to acute and chronic dialysis on a long term basis in the center and in the home. Patients and personnel have accepted ...

W. J. Kolff

1972-01-01

100

Nonholonomic Modeling of Needle Steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a flexible needle with a bevel tip is pushed through soft tissue, the asymmetry of the tip causes the needle to bend. We propose that, by using nonholonomic kinematics, control, and path planning, an ap- propriately designed needle can be steered through tissue to reach a specified 3D target. Such steering capability could enhance targeting accuracy and may improve

Robert J. Webster III; Jin Seob Kim; Noah J. Cowan; Gregory S. Chirikjian; Allison M. Okamura

2006-01-01

101

Needle Insertion Modelling and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for estimating the force dis- tribution that occurs along a needle shaft during inser- tion is described. To validate the approach, an exper- imental system for measuring planar tissue deforma- tion during needle insertions has been developed and is presented. The planar motion of a soft tissue phan- tom is measured during needle penetration and used in conjunction

Simon P. Dimaio; S. E. Salcudean

2002-01-01

102

Biopsy needle tip artifact in MR-guided neurosurgery.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of both the appearance and origin of metallic biopsy needle tip artifact in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as its interaction with various magnetic resonance (MR) sequence parameters is beneficial for its application in today's MR-guided therapeutic procedures. In a more practical setting, this investigation has focused on the characteristics of MR image artifacts associated with a finite-length metallic needle, specifically at the tip of a biopsy needle when it is approximately parallel to the main magnetic field. The image artifact at needle tip, which exhibits as a blooming ball-shaped signal void, was demonstrated and studied using MR imaging and numerical simulation employing the finite difference method (FDM). In order to understand the origin of this image artifact, a numerical model or simulation software based on the FDM has been developed specifically to solve for the field disturbance to a uniform magnetic field due to a finite-length metallic needle. The solution for magnetic field shows that the field disturbance is spatially localized at the needle tip. From the numerical results, simulated images were generated which were in a very satisfactory agreement MR imaging experiment. Results showed that the MR image artifacts associated with MR-compatible metallic biopsy needles are not only present due to the magnetic susceptibility difference between the needle and its surrounding tissue, but also predictable in routine MR-guided procedures, and the size of the image artifacts could be reduced if optimal imaging parameters were used. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:16-22. PMID:11169798

Liu, H; Hall, W A; Martin, A J; Truwit, C L

2001-01-01

103

Robot-Assisted Needle Steering  

PubMed Central

Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation.

Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

2012-01-01

104

Needle Decompression in Appalachia Do Obese Patients Need Longer Needles?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Needle decompression of a tension pneumothorax can be a lifesaving procedure. It requires an adequate needle length to reach the chest wall to rapidly remove air. With adult obesity exceeding one third of the United States population in 2010, we sought to evaluate the proper catheter length that may result in a successful needle decompression procedure. Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS) currently recommends a 51 millimeter (mm) needle, while the needles stocked in our emergency department are 46 mm. Given the obesity rates of our patient population, we hypothesize these needles would not have a tolerable success rate of 90%. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 91 patient records that had computed tomography of the chest and measured the chest wall depth at the second intercostal space bilaterally. Results: We found that 46 mm needles would only be successful in 52.7% of our patient population, yet the ATLS recommended length of 51 mm has a success rate of 64.8%. Therefore, using a 64 mm needle would be successful in 79% percent of our patient population. Conclusion: Use of longer length needles for needle thoracostomy is essential given the extent of the nation’s adult obesity population.

Carter, Thomas Edward; Mortensen, Curtis Dee; Kaistha, Salita; Conrad, Christopher; Dogbey, Godwin

2013-01-01

105

[Transvesical radiofrequency needle ablation on prostatic benign hyperplasia].  

PubMed

Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) of the prostate is an effective method of thermal treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Suprapubic transvesical access was used in order to extend indications for interstitial application of radiofrequency energy. Transvesical needle ablation (TVNA) was performed in 89 patients with BPH under conditions of chronic ischuria or in the presence of a suprapubic cystostoma. A cystoscope with an attachment for fixation and insertion of a needle electrode into prostatic tissue is inserted into the bladder through a newly created or adapted suprapubic access. The position of the needle is monitored by transurethral sonography. The ablation protocol is virtually the same as transurethral. Spontaneous urination normalized in 63 (70.8%) patients within 12 months. I-PSS, Qol, Qmax, RU, and PQmax improved. The prostate volume decreased by 1-.5%. TVNA is more effective than TUNA as a less invasive method which allows interventions under local anesthesia; there are virtually no contraindications to the use of TVNA and in many patients it can be performed in an outpatient setting. PMID:11186320

Arustamov, D L; Mukhtarov, Sh T; Arustamov, L D

2000-01-01

106

Fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed Central

Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images

Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

1985-01-01

107

Self-interstitial defects in hexagonal close packed metals revisited: Evidence for low-symmetry configurations in Ti, Zr, and Hf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the eight conventional high-symmetry configurations for self-interstitials in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure, we show that four other configurations, obtained by breaking the symmetry of some of the original ones, may be low-energy local minima or saddle points. The first two, BC' and C', consist of the basal crowdion and the crowdion buckled perpendicular to their axes in the pyramidal plane, respectively. The two others, PS and P2S, are obtained by rotating the c-axis split dumbbell in the prismatic plane of first and second type, respectively. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations we show that BC', C', and PS are within 0.4 eV of the lowest-energy conventional structure, BO, in Ti, Zr, and Hf. BC' could even be the lowest-energy configuration in hcp-Zr and its symmetry and possible reorientation mechanisms are compatible with internal friction measurements at variance with the conventional structures. The PS and C' configurations exhibit a helicoidal easy glide motion of the dumbbell-crowdion type in the c-axis direction. These configurations therefore constitute an important element to take into account when predicting the microstructural evolution of zirconium-based materials under irradiation.

Vérité, G.; Domain, C.; Fu, Chu-Chun; Gasca, P.; Legris, A.; Willaime, F.

2013-04-01

108

21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The device may have...

2013-04-01

109

Theoretical Study of Defect Properties in Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several characteristic properties (formation and migration enthalpies and volumes, dipole tensors, effects on shear elastic constants) of several point defects (vacancy, divacancy, interstitial, di-interstitial) in different metals: f.c.c. metals (Al, Cu,...

P. Sindzingre

1987-01-01

110

Needle insertion modeling and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A methodology for estimating the force distribution that occurs along a needle shaft during insertion is described. An experimental system for measuring planar tissue phantom defor- mation during needle insertions has been developed and is pre- sented. A two-dimensional linear elastostatic material model, dis- cretised using the finite element method, is used to derive con- tact force information that is

Simon Peter DiMaio; Septimiu E. Salcudean

2003-01-01

111

Interstitials on Si 113 surface.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the energetics of a Si 113 reconstructed surface with respect to the interstitial concentration and perform dynamics simulations at high temperatures in a tight-binding representation. Recent experiments and first-principle calculations(J. Dabrowski et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1660 (1994). have shown that Si 113 surface is very stable due to incorporating subsurface interstitials. In addition, interstitials are known to condense on 113 plane in bulk Si, forming so called 113 defects.(J. Kim et al.), Phys. Rev. B 55, 16186 (1997) and references therein. We investigate (i) the role of interstitials in stabilizing the surface reconstruction; (ii) migration of interstitials at high temperatures; (iii) transition from (3× 2) to (3× 1) reconstruction; (iv) possible links between the subsurface interstitials on 113 surface and the extended 113 defects; and (v) the relative stability of interstitials on low index surfaces.

Trinkle, Dallas R.; Kim, Jeongnim; Wilkins, John W.

1998-03-01

112

Acute interstitial nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a frequent cause of acute kidney injury, accounting for 15–27% of renal biopsies performed because of this condition. By and large, drug-induced AIN is currently the commonest etiology of AIN, with antimicrobials and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs being the most frequent offending agents. Pathogenesis is based on an immunologic reaction against endogenous nephritogenic antigens or exogenous

Manuel Praga; Ester González

2010-01-01

113

Interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. PMID:23457161

Cottin, Vincent

2013-03-01

114

Comments on the role of 1-D and 2-D self-interstitial atom transport mechanisms in void and bubble-lattice formation in cubic metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that the early stages of void- and bubble-lattice formation in metals allows one to distinguish between linear and planar alignment of voids. Examples from voids in molybdenum and bubbles in aluminium clearly demonstrate planar rather than linear ordering. This letter also includes a rebuttal of a published criticism of an assumption made by the present author

J. H. Evans

2007-01-01

115

Gurley Dip Needle Lake Superior Model with Case  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Also known as a Forrester's Compass or Miner's Compass, a dip (or dipping) needle is an instrument for measuring the intensity of the earth's magnetic field. It is used to locate buried or hidden metal. Manufactured by W. & L.E. Gurley, Troy, New York. Object ID: USGS-000345...

2009-07-22

116

Flexible needle steering for percutaneous therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A robotic system is presented for flexible needle steering and control in soft tissue. Materials and Methods: Flexible needle insertion into a deformable tissue is modeled as a linear beam supported by virtual springs, where the stiffness coefficients of the springs can vary along the needle. Using this simplified model, the forward and inverse kinematics of the needle are

Daniel Glozman; Moshe Shoham

2006-01-01

117

Interstitial duplication 19p  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-07-17

118

[Research on needle-acupointomics].  

PubMed

The concept of needle-acupointomics should be clarified initially in order to discuss the relative researches. The comprehension can be deepened through the aspects of researching methods, content and goals. Proper researching model and analysis method should be selected so as to bring the advantages of the ancient acupuncture literatures, case records and clinical experiences of famous physicians into full play. Only in this way can the domestic needle acupointomics studies achieve a breakthrough. PMID:22471146

Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wei, Lian-Hai; Guo, Yi

2012-03-01

119

Fabrication of tungsten wire needles  

SciTech Connect

Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

Roder, A.

1983-02-01

120

Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We present the smallest reported side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design, fabrication, optical characterization, and initial application of a 30-gauge (outer diameter 0.31 mm) needle probe are demonstrated. Extreme miniaturization is achieved by using a simple all-fiber probe design incorporating an angle-polished and reflection-coated fiber-tip beam deflector. When inserted into biological tissue, aqueous interstitial fluids reduce the probe's inherent astigmatism ratio to 1.8, resulting in a working distance of 300 ?m and a depth-of-field of 550 ?m with beam diameters below 30 ?m. The needle probe was interfaced with an 840 nm spectral-domain OCT system and the measured sensitivity was shown to be only 7 dB lower than that of a comparable galvo-scanning sample arm configuration. 3D OCT images of lamb lungs were acquired over a depth range of ~600 ?m, showing individual alveoli and bronchioles. PMID:21964133

Lorenser, D; Yang, X; Kirk, R W; Quirk, B C; McLaughlin, R A; Sampson, D D

2011-10-01

121

On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were ? 499 ± 79 ??, ? 463 ± 51 ?? and ? 431 ± 59 ?? for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

Chehura, Edmon; Dell’Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

2014-07-01

122

The ACUSITT ultrasonic ablator: the first steerable needle with an integrated interventional tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steerability in percutaneous medical devices is highly desirable, enabling a needle or needle-like instrument to avoid sensitive structures (e.g. nerves or blood vessels), access obstructed anatomical targets, and compensate for the inevitable errors induced by registration accuracy thresholds and tissue deformation during insertion. Thus, mechanisms for needle steering have been of great interest in the engineering community in the past few years, and several have been proposed. While many interventional applications have been hypothesized for steerable needles (essentially anything deliverable via a regular needle), none have yet been demonstrated as far as the authors are aware. Instead, prior studies have focused on model validation, control, and accuracy assessment. In this paper, we present the first integrated steerable needle-interventional device. The ACUSITT integrates a multi-tube steerable Active Cannula (AC) with an Ultrasonic Interstitial Thermal Therapy ablator (USITT) to create a steerable percutaneous device that can deliver a spatially and temporally controllable (both mechanically and electronically) thermal dose profile. We present our initial experiments toward applying the ACUSITT to treat large liver tumors through a single entry point. This involves repositioning the ablator tip to several different locations, without withdrawing it from the liver capsule, under 3D Ultrasound image guidance. In our experiments, the ACUSITT was deployed to three positions, each 2cm apart in a conical pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of ablating large liver tumors 7cm in diameter without multiple parenchyma punctures.

Burdette, E. Clif; Rucker, D. Caleb; Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.; Croom, Jordon M.; Clarke, Clyde; Stolka, Philipp; Juang, Titania; Boctor, Emad M.; Webster, Robert J., III

2010-03-01

123

Self-interstitial structures in body-centred-cubic W studied by molecular dynamics simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a simulation study of the detailed structure of an interstitial in a body-centred-cubic (bcc) metal, tungsten (W), using molecular dynamics and the embedded-atom method. Several distinct configurations can be discerned, including the well-known split-interstitial icons\\/Journals\\/Common\\/langle\\

M. H. Carlberg; E. P. Münger; L. Hultman

1999-01-01

124

Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

2007-04-01

125

MEASURING INTERSTITIAL FLUID PRESSURE WITH FIBEROPTIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe a practical procedure for measuring interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) using fiberoptic pressure transducers based on optical interferometry. Eight mice were used for subcutaneous IFP measurements and four mice for intramuscular IFP measurements with a FOBPS-18 fiberoptic pressure transducer. We used four mice for subcutaneous IFP measurements with a SAMBA-420 MR fiberoptic pressure transducer. One measurement was made for each mouse simultaneously by using a fiberoptic system and an established approach, either transducer-tipped catheter or wick-in-needle technique. The mean IFP values obtained in subcutaneous tissues were ?3.00 mm Hg (SEM ?/+?0.462, n=8), ?3.25 mmHg (SEM ?/+ 0.478, n=4), ?3.34mm Hg (SEM?/+ 0.312, n=6), and ?2.85 (SEM ?/+ 0.57, n= 6) for the FOBPS fiberoptic transducer, the SAMBA fiberoptic transducer, the transducer-tipped catheter, and the wick-in–needle technique, respectively. There was no difference between these techniques to measure IFP (Friedman test, p=0.7997). The subcutaneous IFP measurements showed strong linear correlation between fiberoptic transducer and transducer-tipped catheter (R2= 0.9950) and fiberoptic transducer and wick–in-needle technique (R2= 0.9966). Fiberoptic pressure transducers measure the interstitial fluid pressure accurately, comparable to conventional techniques. The simplified IFP measurement procedures described in this report will allow investigators to easily measure IFP, and elucidate the unit pressure change per unit volume change (dP/dV) in normal or cancer tissues in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields encountered in MRI.

Ozerdem, Ugur

2008-01-01

126

Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1996-12-01

127

Needle tract seeding: An avoidable complication.  

PubMed

Needle tract seeding refers to implantation of tumor cells by contamination when instruments like biopsy needles are used to examine, excise or ablate a tumor. Implantation along needle tract may lead to change of stage of the tumor, converting a resectable tumor into an inoperable one. In this paper we have reviewed the cases of needle tract seeding due to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) procedure. We analyzed the various aspects of needle tract seedling and suggested how to take precautionary measures to prevent it. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:636-640. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24591300

Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

2014-07-01

128

Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report  

PubMed Central

We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis.

Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

2012-01-01

129

Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells  

PubMed Central

Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood.

Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

2007-01-01

130

Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans.  

PubMed

During acupuncture treatments, acupuncture needles are manipulated to elicit the characteristic "de qi" reaction widely viewed as essential to acupuncture's therapeutic effect. De qi has a biomechanical component, "needle grasp," which we have quantified by measuring the force necessary to pull an acupuncture needle out of the skin (pullout force) in 60 human subjects. We hypothesized that pullout force is greater with both bidirectional needle rotation (BI) and unidirectional rotation (UNI) than no rotation (NO). Acupuncture needles were inserted, manipulated, and pulled out by using a computer-controlled acupuncture needling instrument at eight acupuncture points and eight control points. We found 167 and 52% increases in mean pullout force with UNI and BI, respectively, compared with NO (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001). Pullout force was on average 18% greater at acupuncture points than at control points (P < 0.001). Needle grasp is therefore a measurable biomechanical phenomenon associated with acupuncture needle manipulation. PMID:11717207

Langevin, H M; Churchill, D L; Fox, J R; Badger, G J; Garra, B S; Krag, M H

2001-12-01

131

Self-interstitial clusters in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there have been made many calculations for structures of the self-interstitial in Si and small aggregates of interstitials, I n, there have been relatively few attempts to relate these defects with experimental data. Here, we discuss the assignments of the self-interstitial to the AA12 EPR centre and the di-interstitial to the P6 EPR centre.

Eberlein, T. A. G.; Pinho, N.; Jones, R.; Coomer, B. J.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Öberg, S.

2001-12-01

132

Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

Lee, Angelene M.

1992-01-01

133

Declining interstitial transsudation in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results and methodology of experimentation dealing with declining interstitial transsudation are discussed. Concepts of the formation of interstitial fluids are in agreement with measurements of calf volume in normal young women, in horizontal recumbency or after horizontal immersion. The volume of the calf is reduced when the hydrostatic pressure of the blood column is diminished under the phlebostatic level and when the external pressure is increased by the hydrostatic pressure of a water bath.

Demarchin, P.; Lagneaux, D.; Lecomte, J.

1980-01-01

134

Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

1992-02-24

135

Stability of the Needle Crystal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mullins and Sekerka type perturbation analysis has been applied to the steady-state, non-isothermal paraboloid of revolution (i.e., the Temkin 'needle crystal'). The resulting stability criterion indicates that such a body is highly unstable under the n...

G. R. Kotler W. A. Tiller

1968-01-01

136

Coaxial needle insertion assistant for epidural puncture effect of lateral force on needle.  

PubMed

We validated the effectiveness of a coaxial needle insertion assistant under the condition that the needles were laterally deformed. The coaxial needle insertion assistant separates the cutting force at the needle tip from shear friction on the needle shaft, and haptically display it to a user in order to assists her/his perception during epidural puncture. An outer needle covers the side of an inner needle, preventing the shear friction from acting on the inner needle. However when the needles are laterally deformed and make contact to each other, it is concerned that the effect of the separation is degraded. In this paper, the users punctured an artificial tissue with variable insertion angles, so that the needle is intentionally laterally deformed. The overshoot and user confidence in detecting puncture was examined. PMID:24111276

Koseki, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Masato; De Lorenzo, Danilo; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki

2013-01-01

137

MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

2014-03-01

138

Photoacoustic needle: minimally invasive guidance to biopsy.  

PubMed

We introduce a needle probe based on photoacoustics (PA) to extend the scope of optical needle methods in guiding biopsies. Pulsed light is coupled to an optical fiber in a needle to be inserted in tissue, and PA signals are detected using an ultrasound imager used for needle guidance. This PA needle samples large volumes and possesses an imaging component so that sites forward and off-axis of the fiber are surveyed. This allows navigation of those regions for optical characterization and direct biopsy in a subsequent step. The concept is explored on simple phantoms and biological specimens. PMID:23817760

Piras, Daniele; Grijsen, Chiel; Schütte, Peter; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

2013-01-01

139

Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2010-03-01

140

Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease.

Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Markl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

141

Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%.

Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

2010-01-01

142

Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS{sub clinical}) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC{sub study}). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1-6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4-35%) and 7% (range, 2-14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC{sub study} and the IC/IS{sub clinical} were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10}, respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic resonance imaging-guided (pre)treatment planning with the IC/IS Utrecht applicator.

Nomden, Christel N., E-mail: c.nomden@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

143

Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1998-01-01

144

Dynamics of self-interstitial structures in body-centred-cubic W studied by molecular dynamics simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, using the embedded-atom method (EAM), of the self-diffusion of an interstitial in the bcc metal tungsten (W) at 2000 K. It is found that the interstitial moves only along icons\\/Journals\\/Common\\/langle\\

M. H. Carlberg; E. P. Münger; L. Hultman

2000-01-01

145

Interstitial deletion of band 3q25.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 3 are rare. We report a man with an interstitial deletion involving band 3q25. To our knowledge, this is the first patient to be described with this cytogenetic abnormality. Images

Slavotinek, A M; Huson, S M; Fitchett, M

1997-01-01

146

Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

2011-12-01

147

Assessment of thermal effects of interstitial laser phototherapy on mammary tumors using proton resonance frequency method  

PubMed Central

Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses a synergistic approach to treat cancer systemically through local laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. Currently, LIT utilizes dye-assisted noninvasive laser irradiation to achieve selective photothermal interaction. However, LIT faces difficulties treating deeper tumors or tumors with heavily pigmented overlying skin. To circumvent these barriers, we use interstitial laser irradiation to induce the desired photothermal effects. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using proton resonance frequency (PRF). An 805-nm near-infrared laser with an interstitial cylindrical diffuser was used to treat rat mammary tumors. Different power settings (1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 W) were applied with an irradiation duration of 10 min. The temperature distributions of the treated tumors were measured by a 7 T magnetic resonance imager using PRF. We found that temperature distributions in tissue depended on both laser power and time settings, and that variance in tissue composition has a major influence in temperature elevation. The temperature elevations measured during interstitial laser irradiation by PRF and thermocouple were consistent, with some variations due to tissue composition and the positioning of the thermocouple's needle probes. Our results indicated that, for a tissue irradiation of 10 min, the elevation of rat tumor temperature ranged from 8 to 11°C for 1 W and 8 to 15°C for 1.5 W. This is the first time a 7 T magnetic resonance imager has been used to monitor interstitial laser irradiation via PRF. Our work provides a basic understanding of the photothermal interaction needed to control the thermal damage inside a tumor using interstitial laser treatment. Our work may lead to an optimal protocol for future cancer treatment using interstitial phototherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy.

Le, Kelvin; Li, Xiaosong; Figueroa, Daniel; Towner, Rheal A.; Garteiser, Philippe; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

2011-01-01

148

Study on Korean pine needle rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needle rust of Korean pine is a common disease in the forest region in Yichun of Heilongjiang Province. It mainly harms\\u000a the needles of young trees which are under the age of fifteen. The pathogenic fungus is identified asColeosporium saussureae Th ü m. Needle rust doesn’t cause pine trees to die, but reduces the growth rate of young trees.

Gao Yuhai

1996-01-01

149

Image-Guided Robotic Flexible Needle Steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper presents a robotic system for steering under real-time fluoroscopic guidance a flexible needle in soft tissue. Given a target and possible obstacle locations, the com- puter calculates the flexible needle-tip trajectory that avoids the obstacle and hits the target. Using an inverse kinematics algo- rithm, the needle base maneuvers required for a tip to follow this trajectory are

Daniel Glozman; Moshe Shoham

2007-01-01

150

Self-trapping of helium in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomistic calculations are presented which demonstrate that helium atoms in a metal lattice are able to cluster with each other, producing vacancies and nearby self-interstitial defects. Even a small number of helium atoms is found to be sufficient to create these large distortions. As few as five interstitial helium atoms can spontaneously produce a lattice vacancy and nearby self-interstitial. An

W. D. Wilson; C. L. Bisson; M. I. Baskes

1981-01-01

151

Interstitial cystitis and systemic autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of interstitial cystitis, a chronic disease that affects the bladder, is unknown. Autoantibodies, such as those against nuclear and bladder epithelium antigens, have been found in patients with interstitial cystitis, but these are likely to be secondary to the disease. No data support a direct causal role of autoimmune reactivity in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Indirect evidence,

Joop P van de Merwe

2007-01-01

152

Observations of Needle-Tissue Interactions  

PubMed Central

Needles with asymmetric bevel tips naturally bend when they are inserted into soft tissue. In this study, we present an analytical model for the loads developed at the bevel tip during needle-tissue interaction. The model calculates the loads based on the geometry of the bevel edge and gel material properties. The modeled transverse force developed at the tip is compared to forces measured experimentally. The analytical model explains the trends observed in the experiments. In addition to macroscopic studies, we also present microscopic observations of needle-tissue interactions. These results contribute to a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models.

Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

153

Effect of Zn Interstitials on Enhancing Ultraviolet Emission of ZnO Films Deposited by MOCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO films are grown on Si (111) substrates by a metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. Samples with different stoichiometric composition of Zn and O are obtained by varying II/VI molar ratio between 3 and 1/3 in precursors. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence results show that the ultraviolet emission enhances with the increasing Zn/O composition ratio of the samples. It is suggested that the superfluous Zn atoms pile up at interstitial positions to form Zn interstitial defects. The radiated recombination of the coupling of free excitons with donor Zn interstitial enhances the ultraviolet emission of the samples.

Zhong, Ze; Sun, Li-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Fu, Zhu-Xi

2010-09-01

154

Suppression of interstitial cluster diffusion by oversized solute atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in metals with oversized substitutional impurities. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations are performed which include elastic interactions between defects. We show that the SIA clusters can become confined in a 1-D segment between impurity atoms due to repulsion from these stress centres. Rare rotation of the easy direction of motion of

T. S Hudson; S. L Dudarev; A. P Sutton

2004-01-01

155

Confinement of interstitial cluster diffusion by oversized solute atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of oversized solute atoms on the diffusion of clusters of self-interstitial atoms produced in metals by high-energy irradiation. We use kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations in model body-centred cubic iron, and include elastic interactions between the defects. We show that elastic repulsion between solute atoms and the clusters can confine the latter to one-dimensional segments. The

Toby S. Hudson; Sergei L. Dudarev; Adrian P. Sutton

2004-01-01

156

An analytical model for deflection of flexible needles during needle insertion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new needle deflection model that is an extension of prior work in our group based on the principles of beam theory. The use of a long flexible needle in percutaneous interventions necessitates accurate modeling of the generated curved trajectory when the needle interacts with soft tissue. Finding a feasible model is important in simulators with applications

Ali Asadian; Mehrdad R. Kermani; Rajni V. Patel

2011-01-01

157

Formation of stable sessile interstitial complexes in reactions between glissile dislocation loops in bcc Fe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (loops) are commonly observed in the microstructure of irradiated metals. These clusters can be formed directly in high-energy displacement cascades or by growth as a result of interaction between individual self interstitials. The majority of these clusters have features of glissile dislocation loops and migrate by fast one-dimensional glide. In this paper, we present results of

Dmitry Terentyev; Lorenzo Malerba; Peter Klaver; Par Olsson

2008-01-01

158

Magnetic dipole fields at interstitial sites in disordered binary alloys of ferromagnetic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dipole fields at interstitial sites occupied by positive particles (?\\u000a +,p) in f.c.c. and b.c.c. diluted binary alloys of ferromagnetic metals are investigated. The characteristic shapes of the distribution\\u000a functions of the dipole fields is shown to depend on the interstitial site occupied by the positive particle, and they may\\u000a give information on the formation of diatomic complexes of

P. Monachesi; M. Fähnle; H. Kronmüller

1980-01-01

159

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines  

PubMed Central

Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May–June drought. Main conclusions These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer–autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little’s (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey’s (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum.

Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

2008-01-01

160

Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.  

PubMed

AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes. Pinus monophylla and californiarum-type needles occur in regions with high winter precipitation. Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles are found in regions with high monsoon precipitation. Areas supporting californiarum-type and fallax-type needle distributions are additionally characterized by a more extreme May-June drought. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These pinyon needle types seem to reflect the amount and seasonality of precipitation. The single needle fascicle characterizing the fallax type may be an adaptation to early summer or periodic drought, while the single needle of Pinus monophylla may be an adaptation to summer-autumn drought. Although the needles fit into four distinct categories, the parent trees are sometimes less easily classified, especially near their ancestral Pleistocene ranges in the Mojave and northern Sonoran deserts. The abundance of trees with both one- and two-needled fascicles in the zones between P. monophylla, P. edulis and fallax-type populations suggest that needle fascicle number is an unreliable characteristic for species classification. Disregarding needle fascicle number, the fallax-type needles are nearly identical to P. edulis, supporting Little's (1968) initial classification of these trees as P. edulis var. fallax, while the californiarum-type needles have a distinctive morphology supporting Bailey's (1987) classification of this tree as Pinus californiarum. PMID:21188300

Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

2008-02-01

161

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

2009-04-01

162

21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

2013-04-01

163

Needle assembly malfunction: an unusual complication related to endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.  

PubMed

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration has become an invaluable tool for thoracic physicians. Along with medical complications, it is also important to understand the equipment-related malfunctions. The EBUS scope is delicate and requires dedicated needle assembly for performing the needle aspirates. EBUS scope damage could be expensive and has been well described. We report 2 rare cases of Olympus EBUS needle assembly malfunction (model NA-201SX-4021/4022). The first case describes needle breakage and the second case reports the separation of shaft of sheath-sliding mechanism. PMID:23857201

Dhillon, Samjot S; Yendamuri, Sai

2013-07-01

164

Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

DeSimone, Jeff

2005-01-01

165

Fine needle aspiration cytology of rectal masses.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K

1990-01-01

166

Cardiac Tamponade following Transbronchial Needle Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoscopic transbronchial fine needle aspiration of the mediastinum is generally known as a safe procedure. Complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, major bronchial haemorrhage and significant bleeding after a major vessel puncture are rare events. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of life-threatening cardiac tamponade following transbronchial fine needle aspiration in precarinal location.

Andreas Gross; Andreas Henri Diacon

2011-01-01

167

Needle Steering and Model-Based Trajectory Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Needle insertion for percutaneous therapies is formulated as a trajectory planning and control problem. A new concept of needle steering is developed and a Needle Manipulation Jacobian is defined using numerical needle insertion models that include needle deflection and soft tissue deformation. This concept\\u000a is used in conjunction with a potential-field-based path planning technique to demonstrate needle tip placement and

Simon P. Dimaio; S. E. Salcudean

2003-01-01

168

Interstitial nephritis of acute onset.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial nephritis was diagnosed at renal biopsy in 10 previously healthy children. All had identical clinical symptoms: anaemia, raised sedimentation rate, low glomerular filtration rate, protein and leucocytes in the urine, but no bacteria; nine also had glycosuria. Six of the children had a history of recent ingestion of drugs or a serologically proved infection, or both. One child later developed uveitis. After the acute phase all made at least partial recovery, but after a mean follow up of two years and eight months only four were without any signs of disease, three had equivocal findings, two definite renal disease, and one renal failure. Interstitial nephritis, therefore, seems to be a clinical entity often occurring without known cause or triggering factor, its prognosis is variable, and some patients may develop chronic renal failure.

Koskimies, O; Holmberg, C

1985-01-01

169

Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

Siauve, N.; Lormel, C.

2012-11-01

170

[Bladder interstitial cells and pathophysiology].  

PubMed

Bladder interstitial cell (IC) is a cell, which lacks thick filaments and dense bodies but with incomplete basement membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus. IC is divided into 4 subtypes: lamina propria IC, intramuscular IC, IC between the detrusor bundles and perivascular IC. There are different ion currents and related activation pathways in the lamina propria IC and intramuscular IC. Ca2+ signaling pathways play an important role in the communication between IC and detrusor. Any bladder lesions affecting the ion current and Ca2+ signaling pathways can lead to bladder dysfunction. The bladder lesions include bladder outlet obstruction, bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, neurogenic bladder and diabetes. Imatinib mesylate is currently an available treatment target in IC, and electrical stimulation of acupuncture therapy is a new direction. PMID:25011974

Yin, Zhuo; Yang, Jinrui

2014-06-01

171

Development of an open source software module for enhanced visualization during MR-guided interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy.  

PubMed

In 2010, gynecologic malignancies were the 4th leading cause of death in U.S. women and for patients with extensive primary or recurrent disease, treatment with interstitial brachytherapy may be an option. However, brachytherapy requires precise insertion of hollow catheters with introducers into the tumor in order to eradicate the cancer. In this study, a software solution to assist interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy has been investigated and the software has been realized as an own module under (3D) Slicer, which is a free open source software platform for (translational) biomedical research. The developed research module allows on-time processing of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) data over a direct DICOM connection to a MR scanner. Afterwards follows a multi-stage registration of CAD models of the medical brachytherapy devices (template, obturator) to the patient's MR images, enabling the virtual placement of interstitial needles to assist the physician during the intervention. PMID:24790816

Chen, Xiaojun; Egger, Jan

2014-01-01

172

New theories in interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic symptom-complex characterized by pathological sensation of the bladder (i.e. bladder pain in addition to augmented sensory signals such as urinary frequency and urgency) without evidence of bacterial cystitis or other identifiable lower urinary tract disease. Patients with IC typically describe feeling the urge to void frequently, as well as pain in the bladder and\\/or

Susan Keay; Toby C Chai

2004-01-01

173

The endo-extralaryngeal needle carrier.  

PubMed

A laryngeal needle holder has been devised. This instrument will allow endoscopic insertion of sutures for lateralization of a paralyzed vocal cord or for fixation of endoscopically inserted stents or keels in laryngotracheal stenosis. The suture material is delivered by a curved nontraumatic cutting needle. After the needle is inserted in the desired endoscopic area, the tip protrudes through the anterior neck skin. The needle and distal suture are then pulled through the skin and the needle holder is withdrawn. The proximal portion of the suture is then inserted in the same fashion. Both ends of the suture are then fixed over buttons on the neck. The technique avoids the blind and cumbersome method of placing suture material from the skin to airway and back out to skin again. PMID:1754265

Lichtenberger, G; Toohill, R J

1991-11-01

174

Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.  

PubMed

Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. PMID:22006671

Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

2012-01-01

175

Combined external and interstitial irradiation in the treatment of stage III breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

One hundred six patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the breast underwent definitive radiation therapy for loco-regional control following incisional and/or needle biopsy. Doses of external and interstitial irradiation were 5000 rad (50 Gy) in 5 to 6 weeks, and 3000 to 4000 rad (30-40 Gy) in 60 to 80 hours, respectively. Forty-eight of 106 patients (45%) also received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Loco-regional control was observed in 93 of the 106 patients (88%), with five-year disease-free survival of 47%. Distant metastases developed in 59 of the 106 patients (56%). Good to satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in the majority of these patients; morbidity was at an acceptable level. Locally advanced breast cancer can be treated adequately and satisfactorily without mastectomy by a combination of external and interstitial irradiation.

Puthawala, A.A.; Syed, A.M.N.; Sheikh, K.M.; Gowdy, R.A.; McNamara, C.S.

1984-12-01

176

Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

Shukla, Pragya [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

2012-03-15

177

[Comparative investigation of the discharge characteristics of a single needle jet and needle-plate jet].  

PubMed

In the present paper, discharge characteristics were studied in atmospheric pressure argon by a single needle jet and needle-plate jet through combination of optical measurement and electrical one. Results show that the length and cross-sectional area of the plasmas generated in the two jets increase with increasing the peak value of the applied voltage. The cross-sectional area generated by needle-plate jet is bigger than that of the single needle jet at the same voltage. A lower inception voltage is needed for the needle-plate jet compared with the single needle jet at the same U(p). Through the spectra emitted from the two jets, electron temperature and vibration temperature wee compared for the plasmas generated by the single needle jet and needle-plate jet, respectively. It can be found that the electron temperature and the vibrational temperature of the two jets increase with increasing U(p). The needle-plate jet has higher values of electron temperature and vibrational temperature than the single needle jet at the same U(p). These results have significant values for the industrial application of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:23841400

Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Peng-Ying; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Liu, Run-Fu; Di, Cong

2013-04-01

178

[Immunohistology of interstitial lung processes].  

PubMed

Immunohistologic investigations were performed in 124 lung tissue test of diffuse pulmonary processes obtained by transthoracic needle biopsy. In 40.3% the unselected material showed a positive immunofluorescence. It appeared in all groups formed by light microscopy. In the exogenic allergic alveolitis with 36.8% it was falling short of the expectations. The investigations allow of the conclusion that the immunohistology in diffuse pulmonary processes shows clearly applicable results neither for the diagnostics nor for the therapy and also not for the prognosis. PMID:2669393

Liebetrau, G; Waldmann, G; Henzgen, S; Haenselt, V

1989-06-15

179

Buffon's Needle: An Analysis and Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by George Reese of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, this resource gives some background on the Buffon's needle problem. The site provides a link to an applet that allows one to simulate dropping a needle once, ten times, one-hundred times, or one-thousand times. One also has control over the length of the needle. Aside from the applet, the author provides an introduction, the simplest case, other cases, a brief series of questions and references. This is a nice case study of one statistical problem.

Reese, George

2009-02-23

180

Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method

T. El Khoukhi; R. Cherkaoui El Moursli; A. Chouak; Z. Moutia; M. Lferde; A. Senhou; A. Gaudry; S. Ayrault; M. Chakir

2005-01-01

181

Self-interstitial clusters in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there have been many calculations of the structures of the self-interstitial in Si and small aggregates of interstititals, I n, there has been little attempt to relate the defects with experimental data. Here we discuss the assignments of the self-interstitial to the AA12 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) centre, and the tri-interstitial and tetra-interstitial to the W-optical centre and the B3 EPR centre, respectively. Difficulties in the assignment of I 2 to the P6 EPR centre are also noted.

Jones, R.; Eberlein, T. A. G.; Pinho, N.; Coomer, B. J.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Öberg, S.

2002-01-01

182

Interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial Iridium 192 implantation: a technique and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A simple technique using interstitial hyperthermia in combination with interstitial Iridium 192 implantation is described in detail. This technique was initially tested on swine and later successfully tested on seven patients. The preliminary results of the City of Hope Interstitial Hyperthermia Pilot protocol are stated. The authors feel that this simple technique could be used by any radiation oncologist while performing interstitial implants in selected sites.

Joseph, C.D. (City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA); Astrahan, M.; Lipsett, J.; Archambeau, J.; Forell, B.; George, F.W. III

1981-06-01

183

Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models.

Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

184

Evaluation of robotic needle steering in ex vivo tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers

Ann Majewicz; Thomas R. Wedlick; Kyle Brandon Reed; Allison M. Okamura

2010-01-01

185

Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Needles syndrome is a disorder involving abnormalities in skeletal development and other health problems. It is a ... of the roof of the mouth (palate), and skeletal abnormalities involving the fingers and/or toes (digits). ...

186

Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. (Petco International, Kingwood, TX (US))

1989-12-01

187

An inexpensive method of improving visualisation of the needle tip in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).  

PubMed

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and histological biopsy have often been used to determine the nature of tumours. If the tumour is impalpable and situated deep inside an organ, obtaining the correct specimen requires the needle tip to penetrate into the tumour. To solve this problem we roughened the surface of the needle tip using a sterile ampoule file just before FNAB. We have tested out this method by using 1) a water bath and 2) meat in aspic as an intermediate material. The results indicate that roughening the needle tip improves the visualization. Roughening is the cheapest method and can be performed just before the FNAB. PMID:8323236

Laine, H R; Rainio, J

1993-01-01

188

Sapphire needle capillaries for laser medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

New devices for laser photochemical and thermal methods of treatment of tumors of the prostate, liver, thyroid gland, and\\u000a brain are developed on the basis of sapphire needle capillaries. These needles allow one to increase the irradiation volume\\u000a substantially, to obtain an optimal temperature distribution, to simplify the design, and to eliminate a system for cooling\\u000a the device.

I. A. Shikunova; V. V. Volkov; V. N. Kurlov; V. B. Loschenov

2009-01-01

189

Needle stick injuries: nurses at risk.  

PubMed

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American health care workers suffer between 600,000 and 1 million needle sticks and other sharps injuries every year. Needle stick injuries are considered to be widely underreported. Eighty percent of blood contacts occur through needle sticks, making this the most common cause of health care work-related exposure to bloodborne pathogens. More than 20 pathogens can be transmitted through small amounts of blood. These include HIV, hepatitis B and C, other forms of hepatitis, syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, varicellazoster, and malaria. Hepatitis B is the most common infectious disease transmitted through work-related exposure to blood. The CDC reports that 5,100 health care workers become infected with hepatitis B each year through job-related blood contact. There have been 54 documented cases of HIV seroconversions among U.S. health care workers resulting from occupational exposures. Needle stick injuries caused by hollow-bore needles accounted for 86 percent of all reported occupational HIV exposures. Nurses make up 24 percent of the cases of HIV infection among health care workers known or thought to have been infected on the job. Research shows that 83 percent of these injuries can be prevented--most through the use of needles with safety features or needleless systems. According to the American Hospital Association, one case of serious infection by bloodborne pathogen can result in expenditures of $1 million or more for testing, follow-up, time lost from work, and disability payments. The cost of follow-up for a high-risk exposure is almost $3,000 per needle stick injury, even when no infection occurs. Safe needle devices cost about 28 cents more than standard devices. PMID:12040556

2000-03-01

190

Needle stick injuries in the community  

PubMed Central

When children sustain injuries from needles discarded in public places, concerns arise about possible exposure to blood-borne viruses. The risk of infection is low, but assessment, counselling and follow-up of the injured child are needed. The present document reviews the literature concerning blood-borne viral infections after injuries from needles discarded in the community, and provides recommendations for the prevention and management of such incidents.

2008-01-01

191

The impact of a needle exchange's closure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The Windham, Connecticut, needle exchange closed in May 1997 after becoming embroiled in a public controversy in which it was blamed for the city's drug problem, discarded syringes, and even the economic decline of the city itself. The authors interviewed injection drug users and conducted a community survey of discarded drug paraphernalia to explore the effects of the needle exchange's closure. METHODS: After the needle exchange was closed in March 1997, the authors re-recruited former participants in an AIDS prevention research project, the majority of whom were clients of the needle exchange. The authors analyzed responses from these respondents' pre-closure interviews and from III post-closure initial interviews and 78 post-closure follow-up interviews as well as data on discarded syringes and "dope bags". RESULTS: Following the closure of the needle exchange, significant increases were found in the percentage of respondents who reported an unreliable source as their primary source of syringes, in respondents' reports of the frequency of reusing syringes, and in the percentage of respondents who reported sharing of syringes. Surveys of outdoor drug-use areas found that the closure of the needle exchange did not reduce the volume of discarded syringes and other drug-injection debris. CONCLUSIONS: The problems in Windham that led to the closure of the exchange still remain, and the city's drug injectors are engaging in higher levels of HIV risk behavior.

Broadhead, R S; van Hulst, Y; Heckathorn, D D

1999-01-01

192

Thoracic core needle biopsy using ultrasound guidance.  

PubMed

This article demonstrates the usefulness of ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of thoracic lesions. Between January 1997 and June 2000, 45 US-guided core needle biopsies were performed in the department of radiology. This method was chosen in every case when the lesion abutted the chest wall. Conventional histologic examinations supplemented by immunohistochemical methods were performed. The location and size of the mass, the number of samplings, the needle size, the histologic results, and any complications were recorded. Twenty-two lesions reached the anterior, six reached the lateral, and 14 reached the posterior chest wall. Biopsies were performed on three masses from the supraclavicular region. The mean diameter was 4.5 cm and the number of passes was 1.8; 18-G, 16-G, and 14-G needles were used in 41, two, and two cases, respectively. In 43 of the 45 cases (95.68%), an exact histologic diagnosis could be provided. In two cases, only necrotic tissue was seen in the biopsy sample. No major complications occurred. Minor complications, including pain and collaptiform weakness, were documented in four patients. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of thoracic lesions is a safe, quick, and accurate method. For diagnosing thoracic lesions, a single sample with an 18-G biopsy needle is sufficient to achieve a final diagnosis when using appropriate histologic methods. PMID:12973082

Morvay, Z; Szabó, E; Tiszlavicz, L; Furák, J; Troján, I; Palkó, A

2001-06-01

193

[A brief analysis of taking off the needle slowly].  

PubMed

The ancients highlight taking off the needle slowly. From aspects of proper timing of withdrawing the needle, the safe treatment, treating and keeping the spirit, dealing with the acupuncture accidents, reinforcing and reducing manipulation and strengthening the post-needling sensation, etc. advantages of taking off the needle slowly are described in this paper. So the taking off the needle slowly is worthwhile in clinic. PMID:23885615

Zhu, An-Ning; Meng, Xian-Jun; Feng, Dan-Dan

2013-05-01

194

Needle Insertion Modelling for the Interactive Simulation of Percutaneous Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel interactive virtual needle insertion simulation is presented. The insertion model simulates three-degree-of-freedom\\u000a needle motion, physically-based needle forces, linear elastostatic tissue deformation and needle flexibility for the planning\\u000a and training of percutaneous therapies and procedures. To validate the approach, an experimental system for measuring planar\\u000a tissue deformation during needle insertions has been developed and is presented. A real-time simulation

Simon P. Dimaio; S. E. Salcudean

2002-01-01

195

The effect of interstitial gaseous pressure on the thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 lunar soil sample  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 soil sample is measured as a function of interstitial gas density, and implications for the thermal properties of lunar and Martian regolith are discussed. Measurements were performed for samples consisting of a mixture of Knippa and Berkely basalt powders with a grain size distribution identical to that of Apollo 12 lunar soil samples by the needle probe technique at interstitial pressures of He, N2, Ar and CO2 from 133,000 to 0.0133 Pa. It is shown that sample thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing interstitial gas pressure down to 1.0 Pa, due to the decreasing effective thermal conductivity of interstitial gas with decreasing gas pressure. Constant thermal conductivity values of 8.8 mW/m per K and 10.9 mW/m per K are obtained for sample densities of 1.70 and 1.85 g/cu cm, respectively, in agreement with in situ lunar regolith measurements. The results, which are greater than those obtained in previous soil studies, are explained by the dense packing of soil particles and enhanced intergranular thermal contact in the present experimental configuration, rather than the influence of interstitial gas pressure. The differences in conductivity between loose soils and packed regolith may also be used to account for the two peaks observed in Martian surface thermal inertia data.

Horai, K.-I.

1981-01-01

196

Surgical management of intractable interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cystitis represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Most patients can be managed conservatively, but a small number of patients do not respond to conservative therapy and for them surgical treatment is indicated. This article reviews the historical and currently used surgical modalities. Enterocystoplasty is the surgical treatment of choice for intractable interstitial cystitis. The results of enterocystoplasty are satisfactory

G. Zhang; D. Kappor; A. Sidi

1992-01-01

197

New simple endoscopic operations for interstitial pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Our aim was to report a new approach of endoscopic management (endoloop and encircling suture methods) for interstitial or cornual pregnancy and to determine the safety and effectiveness of these procedures and their effects on subsequent pregnancies. Study Design: This is an uncontrolled retrospective review of 24 patients treated for interstitial pregnancies through endoscopic operations with 14 to 72

Hwa Sook Moon; Young Joo Choi; Yang Hee Park; Sang Gap Kim

2000-01-01

198

Metals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast reviews the evolution of metals since the discovery of copper in ancient times, and looks at how science and technology are continually upgrading the design and development of metal alloys. There are explanations of five ways the chemical composition of an alloy can be modified to produce different properties; how heat treating is used to process metals; how mining metals can be sped up by microwaving metals; how metals are deformed to test them for structural properties; and how nano-crystalline alloys are designed using computer models to find the best chemical composition and processing parameters with minimal experimentation. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

2007-02-03

199

Determination of Si self-interstitial diffusivities from the oxidation-enhanced diffusion in B doping-superlattices: The influence of the marker layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Si self-interstitial diffusivities can be extracted from the diffusive behavior of certain metals (e.g., Au) in an inert annealing ambient or from the diffusion of dopant markers (typically B) under oxidizing conditions. Each type of experiment yields fairly consistent results; however, interstitial diffusivities obtained in these two ways differ greatly. The marker layer experiments rely on the assumption that the

H.-J. Gossmann; G. H. Gilmer; C. S. Rafferty; F. C. Unterwald; T. Boone; J. M. Poate; H. S. Luftman; W. Frank

1995-01-01

200

Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

Olszewski, Adam J.

2014-01-01

201

Acute In Vivo Performance Evaluation of the Fluorescence Affinity Sensor in the Intravascular and Interstitial Space in Swine  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed and compared the performance levels of a fiber-coupled fluorescence affinity sensor (FAS) for glucose detection in the intradermal tissue and intravascular bed during glucose clamping and insulin administration in a large animal model. Research Design and Methods The FAS (BioTex Inc., Houston, TX) was implanted in interstitial tissue and in the intravenous space in nondiabetic, anesthetized pigs over 6–7 h. For intradermal assessment, a needle-type FAS was implanted in the upper back using a hypodermic needle. For intravenous assessment, the FAS was inserted through a catheter into the femoral artery and vein. Blood glucose changes were induced by infusion of dextrose and insulin through a catheterized ear or jugular vein. Results Based on retrospective analysis, the mean absolute relative error (MARE) of the sensor in blood and interstitial tissue was 11.9% [standard deviation (SD) = ±9.6%] and 23.8% (SD = ±19.4%), respectively. When excluding data sets from sensors that were affected by exogenous insulin, the MARE for those sensors tested in interstitial tissue was reduced to 16.3% (SD = ±12.5%). Conclusions The study demonstrated that the performance level of the FAS device implanted in interstitial tissue and blood can be very high. However, under certain circumstances, exogenous insulin caused the glucose concentration in interstitial tissue to be lower than in blood, which resulted in an overall lower level of accuracy of the FAS device. How significant this physiological effect is in insulin-treated persons with diabetes remains to be seen. In contrast, the level of accuracy of the FAS device in blood was very high because of high mass transfer conditions in blood. While the use of the FAS in both body sites will need further validation, its application in critically ill patients looks particularly promising.

Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P.; Gowda, Ashok; McNichols, Roger; Rios, Jesse; Cohn, William

2013-01-01

202

Treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Interstitial cystitis is the most therapeutically frustrating condition of the urinary tract. The vast array of treatments available clearly indicates that none is particularly effective. As the majority of patients fail to experience a significant and prolonged response to standard treatments, new options are frequently being developed. These include the oral administration of cimetidine, the intravesical use of hyaluronic acid and BCG, and total cystectomy with the formation of a continent urinary diversion. Unfortunately, the acceptance of many new treatments is based on incomplete evaluation, and this has resulted in a confusing array of disparate alternatives. Effective and durable treatment will not be available until the nature of the disease is better understood and the mechanisms of action of current therapies are elucidated. PMID:10895807

Morales, A; Emerson, L; Nickel, J C

1996-01-01

203

Comparison of glomerular number and specimen length obtained from 100 dogs via percutaneous echo-assisted renal biopsy using two different needles.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate possible differences in the number of glomeruli and length of renal biopsies collected in canine subjects by two different types of biopsy needles: a semiautomatic 18-gauge Trucut and an automated 18-gauge Jamshidi modified (Biopince). One hundred biopsy samples obtained from dogs of different ages and gender affected by different nephropathies were evaluated retrospectively. All animals were biopsied using one of the two different needles. Biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance and evaluated by a single pathologist. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate possible differences in the number of glomeruli and length of renal biopsies collected comparisons were determined between subgroups of dogs with or without the identification of renal interstitial infiltrates and/or fibrosis. Neither the mean difference of the number of glomeruli nor the length of tissue sample collected with the different needles was significantly different. Likewise, the average biopsy length did not differ in dogs with or without renal interstitial infiltrate in animals biopsied with either biopsy needle. Both the Biopince and the Trucut devices provide diagnostically adequate biopsy renal specimens using ultrasound-guidance. PMID:16250404

Zatelli, Andrea; D'Ippolito, Paola; Zini, Eric

2005-01-01

204

Characterization of Pre-Curved Needles for Steering in Tissue  

PubMed Central

Needles with tip asymmetry deflect upon insertion into soft tissue, an effect that can be used to steer needles within the body. This paper presents a phenomenological characterization of the steering behavior of pre-curved needles, which have tip asymmetry due to curvature of the needle near the tip. We describe needle construction methods and a needle shaft triangulation algorithm to compute the shape of the needle based on images. Experimental results show that pre-curved needles possess greater dexterity than bevel-tipped needles and achieve radii of curvature similar to pre-bent needles. For long pre-curve arc lengths, the radius of curvature of the needle was found to approach the radius of curvature of the pre-curve. Pre-curved needles were found to display behaviors not seen with bevel-tipped needles, such as the insertion velocity influencing the path of the tip within the tissue and the ability to plastically deform the needle during steering.

Wedlick, Thomas R.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

205

High-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (HF-ITT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a minimally invasive treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology (ENT), next to the laser- induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) or the monopolar HF- surgery the interstitial thermotherapy with high-frequency alternating current (HF-ITT) in bipolar technique is a good alternative. Investigation results are presented which prove the feasibility and show the performance of this technique. Bipolar needles of different geometries, adapted to the various application fields, such as palliative treatment of metastatic carcinomas in liver and concha hyperplasia, were built and tested. Basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. The efficiency of the developed applicators were examined in in vitro experiments with porcine liver, turkey breast and porcine concha. Coagulation volumes of different needle diameters and power settings are show. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through integrated flushing ports and thus the performance is increased. For the treatment of concha hyperplasia special designs are presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode permits the surgeon the use of a partial application of high frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that it is not necessary to fix the neutral electrode to the patient. Thus an easy to handle and a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1997-05-01

206

Toxicity Associated With Bowel or Bladder Puncture During Gynecologic Interstitial Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies is associated with significant toxicity. Some reports have correlated this toxicity with needle puncture of the visceral organs. This study examined our experience with interstitial brachytherapy and investigated the relationship between the visceral puncture and toxicity. Methods and Materials: The outcomes of 36 patients treated with interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Computed tomography was used to guide needle placement based solely on tumor coverage. No attempts were made to avoid visceral puncture; however, the source dwell times were minimized in these areas. Results: At a median follow-up of 21 months, the crude locoregional control rate was 78%. Bowel puncture was noted in 26 patients and bladder puncture in 19. The mean operating time was 50 min, and 86% of patients were discharged in <=3 days. The incidence of acute and late toxicity was similar between patients with and without visceral puncture according to the log-rank analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves. No patients with bowel puncture experienced Grade 2 or greater acute gastrointestinal toxicity and only 1 had Grade 3 or greater late gastrointestinal toxicity. No patients with bladder puncture experienced greater than Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity and only 2 had late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The operating time, length of hospital stay, and treatment-induced morbidity in this cohort compared favorably to series using techniques to avoid visceral puncture. Additionally, visceral puncture did not correlate with the occurrence of acute or late toxicity. These data suggest that visceral puncture in the absence of source loading carries a low risk of morbidity.

Shah, Anand P., E-mail: Anand_Shah@rush.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B.; Gielda, Benjamin T.; Zusag, Thomas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

2010-05-01

207

Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.  

SciTech Connect

ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2008-11-01

208

DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR).  

PubMed

In this study, we introduce DIY guide-needle-assisted conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR), in which a guide needle helps in measuring the initial Jones tube length for insertion and reduces unnecessary handling for tube changes. Three CDCR procedures were conducted in which the length of the Jones tube was calculated using a 22-gauge DIY guide needle, and a prospective study of tube position change and migration, (a major cause of CDCR failure) was done. Wound healing was almost complete within 4 weeks postoperatively in the osteotomy site, but in cases of partial middle turbinectomy, a little more time was necessary. There was a slight change in Jones tube position in the nasal cavity compared with the expected position of original tube tip, but no tube migration from the caruncle fixation position had occurred by the final follow-up time. This guide-needle-assisted CDCR has multiple advantages, such as easy measurement of the proper initial tube size, utilization of the initial needle path, and easy replacement of tubes. Finally, this approach to CDCR can be readily applied because it uses materials ordinarily found in hospitals to create the devices needed for the procedure, so there is no additional cost. PMID:22526574

Paik, Ji-Sun; Kim, Su-Ah; Doh, Sang-Hee

2013-01-01

209

The dynamics of dislocation interaction with sessile self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction dynamics between dislocations and radiation induced sessile self-interstitial atom (SIA) dislocation loops in FCC metals are investigated. As a result of dislocation line flexibility, its equilibrium configuration is found to be sensitive to the elastic field of nearby SIA dislocation loops. Dislocation line flexibility also influences the critical stress to free trapped dislocations from pinning atmospheres (i.e. the

Jianming Huang; Nasr M. Ghoniem

2002-01-01

210

Mechanism of one-dimensional glide of self-interstitial atom clusters in ?-iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of pure copper and iron have shown that clusters consisting of up to a few tens of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are highly mobile along close-packed crystallographic directions. This effect has important consequences for microstructure evolution in irradiated metals and so it is desirable to investigate the mechanisms of cluster motion. In the present paper,

A. V. Barashev; Yu. N. Osetsky; D. J. Bacon

2000-01-01

211

Mechanism of one-dimensional glide of self-interstitial atom clusters in a-iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of pure copper and iron have shown that clusters consisting of up to a few tens of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are highly mobile along close-packed crystallographic directions. This effect has important consequences for microstructure evolution in irradiated metals and so it is desirable to investigate the mechanisms of cluster motion. In the present paper,

A. V. Barashev; Yu. N. Osetsky; D. J. Bacon

2000-01-01

212

Dynamics of drag of self-interstitial clusters by an edge dislocation in iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are created in metals under fast neutron irradiation and are believed to interact with dislocations and increase the flow stress. In this paper, atomic-scale computer simulations are used to investigate the dynamic interaction between an edge dislocation and small SIA loops that do not intersect the dislocation glide plane and whose Burgers vector is parallel to

Zhouwen Rong; David J Bacon; Yuri Osetsky

2005-01-01

213

A technique for simultaneous needle insertion in prostate seed implantation.  

PubMed

The purpose was to develop a fast needle insertion system to shorten the implantation time and to restrain prostate swelling during the implantation, thus reducing the seed setup error. The basic idea is to insert all the needles simultaneously using ultrasound guidance. The developed system consists of two similar templates that are connected. All the needles are set and locked to a moveable rear template according to the dose plan. The needle pack is then pushed into position, the lock released and seeds implanted needle by needle. A test and training phantom was also built. PMID:18263939

Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Suorsa, Niina

2008-02-21

214

Interstitial Lung Diseases: Respiratory Review of 2013  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung diseases are heterogeneous entities with diverse clinical presentations. Among them, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease are specific categories that pulmonologists are most likely to encounter in the clinical field. Despite the accumulated data from extensive clinical trial and observations, we continue to have many issues which need to be resolved in this field. In this update, we present the review of several articles regarding the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

Kim, Yong Hyun

2013-01-01

215

Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies.

Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

2014-01-01

216

[Percutaneous and interstitial radiotherapy in the function-preserving treatment of laryngeal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Since September 1986 an Ir-192 source with a high dose rate has been used for interstitial boosting of the tumor-bearing vocal cord in the organ-preserving management of larynx carcinoma. The combined percutaneous and interstitial treatment has been administered either as the primary treatment or after incomplete removal of the tumour (stripping). So far 16 patients with 18 vocal cord tumors have been treated. 9 patients presented with a T1-tumour, and 7 patients presented with a T2-stage (2 patients presented with tumours on both cords). All patients refused surgical interventions, 4 of them refused cord stripping too. The treatment method included external radiotherapy with a dose of 4600 to 5000 cGy to the larynx. 1 to 2 weeks after external XRT an interstitial implant into the vocal cord was performed. Using 2 needles per cord, a boost dose of 1000 cGy was given to the tumour area. The median follow-up time is 21.3 months (range 5 to 49, calculated October 1990). So far no local or regional failures occurred. None of the patients had intra- or postoperative complications. All patients have preserved their voice, 2 of them present with a mild hoarseness. Concerning the late effects, 1 patient developed a mild submental edema, 1 patient presents with telangiectasia on the treated vocal cord. The number of patients is very low, but the psycho-social aspects of preserving the ability to speak is of high value. PMID:1903900

Hammer, J; Hochleitner, F; Meindl, J; Kundrath, E

1991-01-01

217

Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion.

Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

2010-01-01

218

Nerve excitability test using fine needle electrodes.  

PubMed

The NET using needle electrodes is a simple and useful test. Children readily tolerate the procedure. For prognosticative purposes it is more effective than the conventional NET using surface electrodes. When positive responses to NET using needle electrodes are recorded after 3 days from onset of palsy, irrespective of the absolute threshold value, prognosis is good. In Bell's palsy, NET is positive for 90%, and for 73% in Hunt's syndrome. Apart from one case our patients showed complete recovery by EMG evaluation. PMID:3166590

Kobayashi, T; Kudo, Y; Chow, M J

1988-01-01

219

Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD.

2010-01-01

220

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia: is differentiation possible by high-resolution computed tomography?  

PubMed

Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by varying degrees of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis that are temporally and morphologically homogeneous in comparison with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Differentiation from UIP is very important because treatment and prognosis are different between NSIP and UIP. Although there are limitations for the differentiation between NSIP and UIP on computed tomography, some computed tomography findings contribute to it. Relatively peribronchovascular distribution, wide extent of areas with ground-glass attenuation, and subpleural sparing are more highly seen in patients with NSIP, whereas wide extent of honeycombing and subpleural distribution are more common characteristics in patients with UIP. PMID:24480140

Johkoh, Takeshi

2014-02-01

221

Interstitial lung diseases in children  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy.

2010-01-01

222

Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

2000-01-01

223

Interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial lung disease occurs in approximately one-third of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM\\/DM) and\\u000a has an adverse effect on survival. It is commonly a component of early PM\\/DM and can precede the onset of muscle or skin disease.\\u000a Its most common histopathology is nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. This is a more benign pattern, with respect to response\\u000a to immunosuppression and

Armin Schnabel; Bernhard Hellmich; Wolf gang Ludwig Gross

2005-01-01

224

Celecoxib-induced acute interstitial nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data about the nephrotoxicity of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are still evolving. Acute interstitial nephritis is a well-described complication of therapy with nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We report a case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis in a 73-year-old diabetic woman, who had taken celecoxib for more than 1 year before presentation. She presented with clinical findings of subnephrotic proteinuria and acute

Justine Henao; Irfan Hisamuddin; Chike M. Nzerue; Geetanjali Vasandani; Karlene Hewan-Lowe

2002-01-01

225

41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

226

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain gametes from the...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain gametes from the...

2012-04-01

228

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

...Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain gametes from the...

2014-04-01

229

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used...anesthetics into a patient to provide regional anesthesia. (b) Classification....

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used...anesthetics into a patient to provide regional anesthesia. (b) Classification....

2009-04-01

231

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain gametes from the...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain gametes from the...

2009-04-01

233

Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

2011-02-01

234

Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites  

PubMed Central

Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription.

Yang, Dong; Xiong, Yuanyan; Kim, Hyeung; He, Quanyuan; Li, Yumei; Chen, Rui; Songyang, Zhou

2011-01-01

235

Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

2013-12-01

236

New insight into silicide formation: The creation of silicon self-interstitials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion studies of Cu+Re and Re+CU films on silicon show that the formation of Cu3Si precursor lowers the formation temperature of ReSi2 from over 900 to 550 °C. The results are explained and generalized to all metal-rich silicides by the specific volume of silicon being much larger in these compounds than in elementary silicon. In forming metal-rich silicides, silicon atoms are forced out of their original planes and are free to form silicon-rich silicides with adjacent metals, or to form silicon self-interstitials at the metal-rich-silicide-silicon interface.

Ronay, Maria; Schad, R. G.

1990-04-01

237

Self-trapping of helium in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomistic calculations are presented which demonstrate that helium atoms in a metal lattice are able to cluster with each other, producing vacancies and nearby self-interstitial defects. Even a small number of helium atoms is found to be sufficient to create these large distortions. As few as five interstitial helium can spontaneously produce a lattice vacancy and nearby self-interstitial. An eight-helium-atom

W. D. Wilson; C. L. Bisson; M. I. Baskes

1981-01-01

238

Needle perforation of the bowel in childhood.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies occurs frequently in childhood. The majority of them are passed spontaneously, and conservative management generally is recommended for foreign bodies in the stomach and duodenum. However, in some cases, operative intervention should be considered to prevent undesirable complications, such as intestinal perforation. Two cases of intestinal perforation owing to accidental ingestion of a needle are reported. PMID:14966749

Li Voti, G; Di Pace, M R; Castagnetti, M; De Grazia, E; Cataliotti, F

2004-02-01

239

The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

240

Three-Dimensional Sonography With Needle Tracking  

PubMed Central

Objective Image-guided prostate biopsy has become routine in medical diagnosis. Although it improves biopsy outcome, it mostly operates in 2 dimensions, therefore lacking presentation of information in the complete 3-dimensional (3D) space. Because prostatic carcinomas are nonuniformly distributed within the prostate gland, it is crucial to accurately guide the needles toward clinically important locations within the 3D volume for both diagnosis and treatment. Methods We reviewed the uses of 3D image-guided needle procedures in prostate cancer diagnosis and cancer therapy as well as their advantages, work flow, and future directions. Results Guided procedures for the prostate rely on accurate 3D target identification and needle navigation. This 3D approach has potential for better disease diagnosis and therapy. Additionally, when fusing together different imaging modalities and cancer probability maps obtained from a population of interest, physicians can potentially place biopsy needles and other interventional devices more accurately and efficiently by better targeting regions that are likely to host cancerous tissue. Conclusions With the information from anatomic, metabolic, functional, biochemical, and biomechanical statuses of different regions of the entire gland, prostate cancers will be better diagnosed and treated with improved work flow.

Shen, Feimo; Shinohara, Katsuto; Kumar, Dinesh; Khemka, Animesh; Simoneau, Anne R.; Werahera, Priya N.; Li, Lu; Guo, Yujun; Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Wei, Liyang; Al Barqawi; Crawford, E. David; Davatzikos, Christos; Suri, Jasjit S.

2012-01-01

241

Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires accurate assessment of the mediastinal lymph nodes which determines treatment and outcome. As radiological staging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity, it is necessary to sample the mediastinal nodes. Traditionally, mediastinoscopy has been used for evaluation of the mediastinum especially when radical treatment is contemplated, although conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)

A. R. L. Medford; J. A. Bennett; C. M. Free; S. Agrawal

2010-01-01

242

Breast core needle biopsy: issues and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core needle biopsy (CNB) is increasingly being used in the investigation of breast disease whether this is asymptomatic and suspected after screening mammography, or presents symptomatically in the patient. In most cases, the result of the procedure provides a definitive diagnosis or at least provides information that is used to plan the further management of the patient. There are, however,

Michael Bilous

2010-01-01

243

Compensation for relative velocity between needle and soft tissue for friction modeling in needle insertion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous therapies and in particular needle insertion treatments require an accurate model of needle-tissue interaction. Friction is a major interaction force component during needle insertion, and force-velocity mapping is an indicator of the interaction characteristics. However, soft tissue deformation is an inevitable and complex phenomenon that should be taken into account in order to correct the friction-velocity cycle. The main purpose of this study is to provide a means of compensating for the velocity of tissue with respect to a moving needle in the insertion direction. A high-gain observer is presented which can track this relative motion in a simple manner with no need for computer vision that may pose further challenges. To evaluate the performance of the velocity observer, experiments were carried out on gelatin and agar phantoms. PMID:23366053

Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R

2012-01-01

244

Needle tract implantation of hepatoblastoma after percutaneous needle biopsy: report of a case.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old boy was referred to us for investigation of a giant liver mass, approximately 16 cm in diameter. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle biopsy was performed and histological examination revealed a fetal-type hepatoblastoma. After four courses of chemotherapy, we performed a left hepatic trisegmentectomy. Follow-up computed tomography, 55 months after the surgery, showed a 1-cm tumor on the route of the preoperative needle biopsy. A second laparotomy revealed a peritonealised tumor, which was excised. The histology of this tumor was identical to that of the primary hepatoblastoma. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of needle tract implantation of hepatoblastoma after percutaneous needle biopsy. PMID:23605217

Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Nishiuchi, Ritsuo; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Kouzuki, Akihito; Noda, Yoshihiro; Hata, Yasuhiro; Uka, Kiminobu

2014-06-01

245

Flexible Needle Steering and Optimal Trajectory Planning for Percutaneous Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible needle insertion into viscoelastic tissue is modeled in this paper with a linear beam supported by virtual springs. Using this simplified model, the forward and inverse kinematics of the needle is solved analytically, providing a way for simulation and path planning in real-time. Using the in- verse kinematics, the required needle basis trajectory can be computed for any desired

Daniel Glozman; Moshe Shoham

2004-01-01

246

Evaluation of Robotic Needle Steering in ex vivo Tissue  

PubMed Central

Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers asymmetric-tip needles under fluoroscopic imaging. For bevel-tip needles, we found that larger diameter needles resulted in less curvature, i.e. less steerability, confirming previous experiments in artificial tissue. The needles steered with radii of curvature ranging from 3:4 cm (for the most steerable pre-bent needle) to 2:97m (for the least steerable bevel needle). Pre-bend angle significantly affected needle curvature, but bevel angle did not. We hypothesize that biological tissue characteristics such as inhomogeneity and viscoelasticity significantly increase path variability. These results underscore the need for closed-loop image guidance for needle steering in biological tissues with complex internal structure.

Majewicz, Ann; Wedlick, Thomas R.; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.

2010-01-01

247

Modeling and control of needles with torsional friction.  

PubMed

A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of more than 45 ( degrees ) for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

Reed, Kyle B; Okamura, Allison M; Cowan, Noah J

2009-12-01

248

Interactive simulation of surgical needle insertion and steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for simulating and visualizing the insertion and steering of needles through deformable tissues for surgical training and planning. Needle insertion is an essential component of many clinical procedures such as biopsies, injections, neurosurgery, and brachytherapy cancer treatment. The success of these procedures depends on accurate guidance of the needle tip to a clinical target while avoiding vital

Nuttapong Chentanez; Ron Alterovitz; Daniel Ritchie; Lita Cho; Kris K. Hauser; Ken Goldberg; Jonathan R. Shewchuk; James F. O'Brien

2009-01-01

249

No Risk of Metal Toxicity in Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the single level needle-through-needle technique for combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) may in- troduce very fine metal particles abraded by the spinal needle from the inner ground edge of the Tuohy needle into the patient. Either the local anesthetic administered epidurally or the peridural catheter may also pass intra- thecally through the hole in the dura made by the spinal

Dietmar Holst; Michael Mollmann; Beate Schymroszcyk; Claudia Ebel; Michael Wendt

1999-01-01

250

Formation of stable sessile interstitial complexes in reactions between glissile dislocation loops in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (loops) are commonly observed in the microstructure of irradiated metals. These clusters can be formed directly in high-energy displacement cascades or by growth as a result of interaction between individual self interstitials. The majority of these clusters have features of glissile dislocation loops and migrate by fast one-dimensional glide. In this paper, we present results of a systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study of reactions involving glissile interstitial loops. By the example of bcc iron we demonstrate that the reactions can produce a number of specific, stable microstructural features, with different properties compared to the reactants. Namely, the reactions between the most common glissile clusters of <1 1 1> crowdions can result in coarsening or formation of immobile self interstitial complexes. The coarsening leads to a decrease of the total dislocation line length and therefore is favourable. The structure and stability of the junction formed in the reactions has been studied using many-body potentials and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. No evidence of the formation of a <1 0 0> loop from two glissile <1 1 1> clusters was found among the studied reactions. The immobile self interstitial complexes that form as a result of these reaction have, however, high binding energies, of the order of tens of eV, implying that a relatively long life time should be assigned to the resulting configurations and therefore that such objects are expected to contribute to the evolution of the microstructure under irradiation.

Terentyev, Dmitry; Malerba, Lorenzo; Klaver, Peter; Olsson, Par

2008-12-01

251

Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member  

DOEpatents

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

2005-01-18

252

The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

2013-09-01

253

From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 mum. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased

Devin V. McAllister; Ping M. Wang; Shawn P. Davis; Jung-Hwan Park; Paul J. Canatella; Mark G. Allen; Mark R. Prausnitz

2003-01-01

254

The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFR?+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFR?+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract.

Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

2014-01-01

255

The significance of interstitial cells in neurogastroenterology.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFR?(+)) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFR?(+) cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

2014-07-31

256

Brain interstitial fluid TNF-? after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective: TNF-? is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in promoting the cascade of events leading to an inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-? may play a key role in the formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and that the underlying cerebral inflammatory response is a major determinate of outcome following subrarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We studied 14 comatose SAH patients who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring with intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral microdialysis as part of their clinical care. Continuous physiological variables were time-locked every 8 hours and recorded at the same point that brain interstitial fluid TNF-? was measured in brain microdialysis samples. Significant associations were determined using generalized estimation equations. Results: Each patient had a mean of 9 brain tissue TNF-? measurements obtained over an average of 72 hours of monitoring. TNF-? levels rose progressively over time. Predictors of elevated brain interstitial TNF-? included higher brain interstitial fluid glucose levels (?=0.066, P<0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (?=0.085, P<0.021), and aneurysm size >6 mm (?=0.14, p<0.001). There was no relationship between TNF-? levels and the burden of cisternal SAH; concurrent measurements of serum glucose, or lactate-pyruvate ratio. Interpretation: Brain interstitial TNF-? levels are elevated after SAH, and are associated with large aneurysm size, the burden of intraventricular blood, and elevation brain interstitial glucose levels.

Hanafy, Khalid A.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Fernandez, Luis; Kurtz, Pedro; Connolly, ES; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schindler, Christian; Badjatia, Neeraj

2010-01-01

257

Self-interstitial aggregation in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles methods are used to investigate the self-interstitial and its aggregates in diamond. The experimental assignment of the spin-1 R2 EPR center to the single interstitial has been questioned because of the small fine-structure term observed. We calculate the spin-spin interaction tensor for the three interstitial defects I<001>1, INN2, and I3 and compare with the experimental D tensors. The results give support for the assignments of the single and di-interstitials to microscopic models and allow us to conclusively identify a recently observed EPR center, O3, with I3. This identification, in turn, suggests a low-energy structure for I4 and a generic model for an extended defect called the platelet. We also determine the optical properties of I<001>1 as well as its piezospectroscopic or stress tensor and find these to be in agreement with experiment. Several multi-interstitial defects are found to possess different structural forms which may coexist. We propose that a different form of the charged I2 defect gives rise to the 3H optical peak. Several structures of the platelet are considered, and we find that the lowest-energy model is consistent with microscopic and infrared studies.

Goss, J. P.; Coomer, B. J.; Jones, R.; Shaw, T. D.; Briddon, P. R.; Rayson, M.; Öberg, S.

2001-05-01

258

Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

2013-12-01

259

Needles as urethral foreign body in a child: successful removal using a new method with a laparoscopic needle holder.  

PubMed

Self-inserted foreign bodies in the lower urinary tract are rare among children. The treatment of foreign bodies in the urethra is determined by their type, size, location, shape, and mobility. We describe here a 13-year-old boy who had self-inserted a needle into his urethra out of curiosity. Initial attempts to remove the needle from the urethra by inserting a cystoscope failed due to the weak biting force of the forceps and because the needle was trapped in the urethral mucosa. We successfully used a laparoscopic needle holder to remove the needle through the perineum. PMID:23200962

Park, Sungchan; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Sun Hyu; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Young Woo; Cho, Suk Ju; Park, Seonghun

2013-01-01

260

Basic technique in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for solid lesions: What needle is the best?  

PubMed Central

Basic technique for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of solid lesions has developed during 30 years of EUS, as endoscopes and accessory equipment, particularly needles, have been developed. Systematic high-quality examinations require understanding and planning. Needles used for EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) have gone through many improvements; some 18 characteristics of any needle are presented and these come under consideration whenever choosing the best needle for each procedure. The bright future of EUS and FNA for solid lesions currently still leaves much room for continued developments.

Lachter, Jesse

2014-01-01

261

Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited  

SciTech Connect

Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece)] [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom) [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

2013-11-21

262

Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

2008-07-01

263

An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

1989-11-01

264

Hypodermic needle without recipient paraffin block technique.  

PubMed

This technique allows building TMA blocks with more than 300 tissue cores without using a recipient paraffin block for the tissue cores and without using a commercial TMA builder instrument. It is based on the construction of TMA needles modifying conventional hypodermic needles to punch tissue cores from donor blocks. Tissue cores are punctured from donor blocks and attached by double-sided adhesive tape on a computer-generated paper grid used to align the cores on the block mold, which is filled with liquid paraffin. TMA blocks constructed using this method can be utilized as positive and negative controls for immunohistochemistry, histochemistry and other techniques, interlaboratory quality control and also in research, but never for diagnosis purposes. This technique has the following advantages: it is easy to reproduce, affordable, quick, and creates uniform blocks with more than 300 cores aligned, at the same plane, adherent, and easy to cut, with negligible losses during conventional cutting and technical procedures. PMID:20690052

Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; de Souza, Simone Rabello

2010-01-01

265

Threshold displacement and interstitial-atom formation energies in Ni sub 3 Al  

SciTech Connect

Threshold displacement energies for atomic displacements along {l angle}110{r angle}, {l angle}100{r angle} and {l angle}111{r angle} directions, and formation enthalpies of several symmetric interstitial atom configurations were calculated for Ni{sub 3}Al by computer simulation using embedded atom method'' potentials. The Ni-Ni(100) dumbbell in the plane containing only Ni atoms has the lowest interstitial-atom enthalpy although the enthalpies of other configurations are similar. Interstitial configurations involving Al atoms all have much higher enthalpies. The anisotropy of the threshold energies in Ni{sub 3}Al is similar to pure metals and no significant difference in threshold energy was observed for {l angle}110{r angle} replacement chains in rows containing all Ni atoms or alternating Ni-Al atoms. Various metastable interstitial atom configurations were observed, including crowd-ions. In addition, the spontaneous recombination volume for some configurations can be much smaller than in pure metals. The consequences of these results for radiation induced segregation and amorphization {ital are} {ital discussed}.

Caro, A.; Victoria, M. (Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villingen (Switzerland)); Averback, R.S. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA))

1990-07-01

266

Ultrasonic Quantification of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Through Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is characteristic of solid tumors. Elevated TIFP inhibits the assimilation of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue as well as it induces mechanical strain triggering cell proliferation in solid tumors. Common solid epithelial tumors of A431 carcinoma cells exhibit a TIFP of about 10-15 mmHg measured conventionally through wick-in-needle technique. A new scheme to determine topography and acoustic impedance in solid tumor is proposed through scanning acoustic microscopy. The change in amplitude and time of flight at 30 MHz acoustic signal is used to quantify the growth pattern and to calibrate elevation of TIFP. The wide variability of amplitude and frequency in topographic sections indicate discrete envelopes of individual tumors with localized TIFP. Further investigations in applying this non-invasive method as a means of measuring TIFP in subcutaneous mice xenograft tumors in situ could also enhance understanding of tumor microenvironment and vessel architecture in living tissue.

Pflanzer, Ralph; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Hofmann, Matthias

267

Respiratory muscle function in interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung diseases limit daily activities, impair quality of life and result in (exertional) dyspnoea. This has mainly been attributed to a decline in lung function and impaired gas exchange. However, the contribution of respiratory muscle dysfunction to these limitations remains to be conclusively investigated. Interstitial lung disease patients and matched controls performed body plethysmography, a standardised 6-min walk test, volitional tests (respiratory drive (P0.1), global maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure (PImax), sniff nasal pressure (SnPna) and inspiratory muscle load) and nonvolitional tests on respiratory muscle function and strength (twitch mouth and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (TwPmo and TwPdi)). 25 patients and 24 controls were included in the study. PImax and SnPna remained unaltered (both p>0.05), whereas P0.1 and the load on the inspiratory muscles were higher (both p<0.05) in interstitial lung disease patients compared with controls. TwPmo and TwPdi were lower in interstitial lung disease patients (mean±sd TwPmo 0.86±0.4 versus 1.32±0.4, p<0.001; TwPdi 1.34±0.6 versus 1.88±0.5, p=0.022). Diaphragmatic force generation seems to be impaired in this cohort of interstitial lung disease patients while global respiratory muscle strength remains preserved. Central respiratory drive and the load imposed on the inspiratory muscles are increased. Whether impaired respiratory muscle function impacts morbidity and mortality in interstitial lung disease patients needs to be investigated in future studies. PMID:23258788

Walterspacher, Stephan; Schlager, Daniel; Walker, David J; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Windisch, Wolfram; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

2013-07-01

268

Nine hexagonal ca(5)pb(3)z phases in stuffed mn(5)si(3)-type structures with transition metal interstitial atoms z. Problems with classical valence States in possible zintl phases.  

PubMed

Ternary hexagonal Ae(5)Tt(3)Z phases have been obtained from high-temperature reactions (1000-1300 degrees C in Ta) only for Ae (alkaline-earth metal) = Ca, Tt (tetrel) = Pb, and Z = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ru, or Cd. The hexagonal crystal structures (stuffed Mn(5)Si(3)-type, P6(3)/mcm, Z = 2) were refined for Z = Mn and Fe (a = 9.3580(3), 9.3554(5) A, c = 7.009(1), 7.009(1) A, respectively). In contrast, Ca(5)Pb(3)Z for Z = Cu or Ag form only with a trigonal structure (P3c1, Z = 2, a = 9.4130(3) A, c = 7.052(1) A for Cu) in which regular displacements of only the linear strings of Ca1 atoms occur. The existence of these compounds stands in contrast to the nonexistence of all binary Ae(5)Tt(3) products from Ca to Ba (Ae) and Si to Pb (Tt) with a Mn(5)Si(3)-type structure. Therefore, it once seemed attractive to consider the Z elements in these Ca(5)Pb(3)Z compounds as reducing agents (electron donors). The Mn and Fe structures appropriately exhibit greatly enlarged antiprismatic calcium cavities about Z. Other indications of relatively electron-poor environments around Fe are found in its properties, which include soft ferromagnetism with an elevated magnetic moment (6.3 micro(B)) and a large Fe 3p(3/2) binding energy relative to that in La(5)Ge(3)Fe, La(15)Ge(9)Fe, etc. The Ca(5)Pb(3)Mn phase exhibits metallic behavior (rho(295) = 135 microOmega cm) and temperature-independent Pauli paramagnetism. These properties are supported by ab initio band structure calculations for Ca(5)Pb(3)Mn, which show strong Ca-Pb bonding and a broad Pb-based band, with appreciable Ca-Mn and Ca-Pb bonding states at and above E(F). Distortion of the Cu analogue gives strengthened Ca-Pb bonding and reduced Cu-Ca1 repulsions. A Zintl phase description of these compounds and some related compounds in terms of closed Pb bands is not appropriate. PMID:14552619

Guloy, Arnold M; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Corbett, John D

2003-10-20

269

Development and application of needle trap devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle trap devices (NTDs), like solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers, represent a new approach to one-step, solvent-free sample preparation and injection. New NTDs, packed with divinylbenzene (DVB) or Carboxen 1000 particles, are prepared, characterized, and used for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzne, and xylene (BTEX) sampling in our laboratory. This paper describes optimization parameters, performance evaluation, and application of NTDs for the analysis

In-Yong Eom; Anca-Maria Tugulea; Janusz Pawliszyn

2008-01-01

270

[Surgical pulmonary biopsy in diffuse interstitial pneumopathies].  

PubMed

On the basis of 81 cases of surgical lung biopsy performed in the course of diffuse interstitial lung disease, the authors report the yield and the tolerance which they observed with this technique in comparison with data from the literature. Like other authors, they obtained an excellent histological yield, as only one case was uninterpretable in this present series. However, they emphasise the "final yield", which consists of a precise aetiological diagnosis, i.e. the exclusion of the diagnosis of diffuse interstitial fibrosis. The analysis of the tolerance of the procedure revealed a higher morbidity and mortality than those generally reported in the literature. PMID:3834573

Hallet, J F; Feintrenie, X; Martinet, Y; Borrelly, J; Lamy, P

1985-01-01

271

Extended defects in diamond: The interstitial platelet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and properties of the {001} planar platelet in diamond are investigated using ab initio theory. We find that a carbonaceous model, based on a layer of self-interstitials, satisfies the requirements of transmission electron microscopy, infrared absorption data, and energetic considerations. The energetics of self-interstitial production during nitrogen aggregation are considered. It is found that the growth mechanism of the platelet involves a thermally activated release of vacancies from platelets. The role of vacant sites and platelet nitrogen are also investigated and it is shown that these defects embedded within the platelet could account for the observed optical activity.

Goss, J. P.; Coomer, B. J.; Jones, R.; Fall, C. J.; Briddon, P. R.; Öberg, S.

2003-04-01

272

Use of needle-free injection systems to alleviate needle phobia and pain at injection.  

PubMed

Needle phobia affects at least 10% of the general population. Subcutaneous injections are used for many reasons, including immunizations, administration of medications such as insulin and heparin, and to provide local anesthesia, both for surgery and for intravenous cannulation. Whatever the reason for its application, the injection itself may cause discomfort and/or pain. In children, in patients with needle phobia, in those who require frequent intravenous cannulations, or in those who need daily medication, the pain at injection can reach unbearable intensity that could lead to refusal of medical care. Various approaches are employed to alleviate the pain caused by intravenous cannulation. These include the use of topical analgesia [i.e., EMLA, Ametop (tetracaine], Numby Stuff and ethylchloridespray], skin infiltration with lidocaine using 25-30-gauge needles and jet injectors. This article will review the complex topic of needle phobia and needle pain, and will summarize the currently available alternatives and the new developments intended to reduce the intensity of injection pain. PMID:19807264

Szmuk, Peter; Szmuk, Eleonora; Ezri, Tiberiu

2005-08-01

273

Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

2001-06-01

274

A Tale of Two Compartments: Interstitial Versus Blood Glucose Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose was described as one of the most important advancements in diabetes management since the invention of insulin in 1920. Recent advances in glucose sensor technology for measuring interstitial glucose concentrations have challenged the dominance of glucose meters in diabetes management, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. This article will review the differences between interstitial and blood glucose and some of the challenges in measuring interstitial glucose levels accurately.

Tamborlane, William V.

2009-01-01

275

Suppression of interstitial cluster diffusion by oversized solute atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in metals with oversized substitutional impurities. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations are performed which include elastic interactions between defects. We show that the SIA clusters can become confined in a 1-D segment between impurity atoms due to repulsion from these stress centres. Rare rotation of the easy direction of motion of the clusters allows them to escape to new confined segments. This suppressed diffusion is examined by both kMC simulations and an analytic theory, which are shown to agree well. We suggest some of the possible applications of these findings to radiation damage resistance in structural materials for fusion devices.

Hudson, T. S.; Dudarev, S. L.; Sutton, A. P.

2004-08-01

276

Creeping Motion of Self Interstitial Atom Clusters in Tungsten  

PubMed Central

The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2?eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along ?111?. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation.

Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

2014-01-01

277

Creeping motion of self interstitial atom clusters in tungsten.  

PubMed

The formation and motion features of self interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The static calculations show that the SIA clusters are stable with binding energy over 2?eV. The SIA clusters exhibit a fast one dimensional (1D) motion along ?111?. Through analysis of the change of relative distance between SIAs, we find that SIAs jump in small displacements we call creeping motion, which is a new collective diffusion process different from that of iron. The potential energy surface of SIAs implicates that the creeping motion is due to the strong interaction between SIAs. These imply that several diffusion mechanism for SIA clusters can operate in BCC metals and could help us explore deep insight into the performance of materials under irradiation. PMID:24865470

Zhou, Wang Huai; Zhang, Chuan Guo; Li, Yong Gang; Zeng, Zhi

2014-01-01

278

On the Hazard Caused by the Heat of Acupuncture Needles in Warm Needling (??W?n Zh?n)  

PubMed Central

Due to its simplicity and convenience, acupuncture has become popular as a complementary therapy. In this Chinese medicine, doctors have to find the traditional meridian acupuncture points before puncturing the needles into them. Moxibustion (?? Ài Ji?) is also an important part of the acupuncture remedy. Treatment by acupuncture can be classified roughly into two types – direct moxibustion and indirect moxibustion. Warm-needling acupuncture (??? W?n Zh?n Ji?) is classified under the method of indirect moxibustion. In the present study, 10 standard stainless steel acupuncture needles with 10 pieces of cylinder-shaped moxa cone (?? Ài Zhù) as the heat source of warm needles were used. In order to prevent the practitioners from getting burns, it is necessary to study the temperature changes in some designated parts of the needles. Two sizes, 0.6 g and 1.0 g, of moxa cones were used for comparison of the measured temperatures. The needles are typically divided into two parts – the handle part and the needle body. In our experiment, the temperatures of WNA at different parts of the needles were measured. The larger the size of moxa cone is, the longer is the burning time. Based on the observations we suggest that when 0.6 g moxa is used, the physicians should better pick out the needles around 9 min after ignition; however, while using the 1 g moxa, it might be safer to pick out the needles around 13 min after ignition.

Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Wen-Jiuan; Lo, Lun-Chien

2013-01-01

279

Mica-associated pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.  

PubMed

We present the clinical and biopsy findings of a 63-yr-old white male with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and a long history of extensive exposure to mica while working in the rubber industry. The patient presented 30 yr after the initial exposure with complaints of progressive shortness of breath and a chronic nonproductive cough. Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive lung function with a mild reduction in the total lung capacity (80% of predicted) and a moderate-to-severe reduction in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (50% of predicted). The chest radiogram and high-resolution chest CT scan showed diffuse fibrosis and focal honeycombing involving the upper and lower lung zones bilaterally. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 20% neutrophils in the lavage fluid with abundant rectangular flaking crystals. Open-lung biopsy exhibited extensive fibrosis and architectural remodeling with abundant sheets and fragments of engulfed polarizable crystalline material. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron diffraction studies confirmed the material to have the features of mica. Asbestos and other silicates were not identified. The documentation of prolonged exposure to mica, the clinical and radiographic features of severe interstitial fibrosis, and the histopathologic delineation of the interstitial lesion, including spectroscopic and crystallographic verification of crystalline mica, support the causal relationship between mica and interstitial fibrosis. PMID:1892315

Landas, S K; Schwartz, D A

1991-09-01

280

Interstitial Laser Therapy of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) of benign prostatic enlargement is to achieve a marked volume reduction and to decrease bladder outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms with minimal morbidity. Coagulation necrosis is generated well inside the adenoma by means of specifically designed laser applicators combined with either a Nd:YAG laser or a diode laser. Because the laser

Rolf Muschter; Hugh Whitfield

1999-01-01

281

Congenital Tuberculosis Complicated by Interstitial Pulmonary Emphysema  

PubMed Central

We report a case of congenital tuberculosis, a rare entity itself; complicated by pulmonary interstitial emphysema, thus leading to air entrapment in lungs and prolonged oxygen dependence. The diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis is often missed and under-reported due to low index of suspicion and less sensitivity of diagnostic tools.

Singh, Tarsem; Natt, Navreet Kaur; Sharma, Manu; Singh, Harmanjit

2014-01-01

282

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis mimicking interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Lymphoid granulomatosis is a rare form of pulmonary angiitis. This case report presents a patient with lymphoid granulomatosis in whom the clinical presentation, radiological features and the partial response to corticosteroid therapy mimicked interstitial lung disease. Lymphoid granulomatosis was only diagnosed at post-mortem examination. The range of reported clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and outcomes are described. PMID:18699810

Braham, Emna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Smati, Belhassen; Ben Mrad, Sonia; Besbes, Mohammed; El Mezni, Faouzi

2008-11-01

283

Novel Aspects of Treatment for Interstitial Lung Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogenous group of diseases with a complex pathogenesis. Inflammation was noticed first to be a component of ILDs, but anti-inflammatory therapy proved effective only in a subgroup of disease entities with predominant inflammatory features such as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). In fibrotic lung diseases such

J. Behr

2007-01-01

284

Small Airway Remodeling in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A Pathological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have addressed small airway (SA) histopathological changes and their possible role in the remodeling process in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Objectives: To study morphological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical features of SA in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (usual interstitial pneumonia, UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods: We analyzed SA pathology in lung biopsies from 29 patients with UIP and 8

George Castro Figueira de Mello; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho; Ronaldo Adib Kairalla; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Sandra Fernezlian; Luiz Fernando Ferraz Silva; Marisa Dolhnikoff; Thais Mauad

2010-01-01

285

Tissue Cooperation in a Proteolytic Cascade Activating Human Interstitial Collagenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cascade of proteolytic events catalyzed by the proteases secreted by cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts that results in the activation of interstitial procollagenase. Cultured human skin fibroblasts constitutively secrete interstitial collagenase and stromelysin as proenzymes. In contrast, interstitial collagenase found in serum-free skin organ culture conditioned medium is activated. Cocultivation of the major cellular components of skin organ

Chengshi He; Scott M. Wilhelm; Alice P. Pentland; Barry L. Marmer; Gregory A. Grant; Arthur Z. Eisen; Gregory I. Goldberg

1989-01-01

286

Lattice vibrations of (100) split self-interstitial in copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local density of states (LDOS) of the most stable self-interstitial ((100) split interstitial) in copper and its neighbouring atoms were calculated by the recursion method. Three resonant modes were found in the low-frequency region in the LDOS of the self-interstitial atom.

K. Oda; R. Yamamoto; M. Doyama

1982-01-01

287

The hard metal diseases  

SciTech Connect

Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

Cugell, D.W. (Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-06-01

288

Neck needle foreign bodies: an added risk for autopsy pathologists.  

PubMed

The risk to pathologists of contracting diseases due to cuts or needles punctures while performing autopsies is well known. An additional risk is an accidental needle puncture due to retained needle fragments within the subcutaneous tissues or internal organs of intravenous drug addicts. We report 4 cases of drug addicted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus who came to autopsy and had retained needle fragments within their cervical-clavicular soft tissues. The presence of retained needle fragments increases the risk to the autopsy pathologist of accidental needle puncture and exposure to disease. Because of this phenomenon, the pathologist should take precautions in addition to those currently prescribed when performing autopsies on possible drug abusers. PMID:11371232

Hutchins, K D; Williams, A W; Natarajan, G A

2001-06-01

289

Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

Verkoelen, Carl F.

2007-04-01

290

Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses  

PubMed Central

EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

2013-01-01

291

Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy  

SciTech Connect

We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

Shimamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: hshima@k8.dion.ne.jp; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Horio, Yoshitsugu [Achi Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Oncology (Japan)

2007-07-15

292

Mobility of self-interstitial atom clusters in vanadium, tantalum and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the mobility of isolated self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and their clusters in V, Ta and Cu. The migration of an isolated SIA is accompanied by rotation of a dumbbell axis to the close-packed direction of metals. The migration of an SIA cluster strongly depends on its structure. A relatively smaller-size cluster can migrate

K. Morishita; T Diaz de la Rubia; A. Kimura

2001-01-01

293

Computer simulation of reactions between an edge dislocation and glissile self-interstitial clusters in iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are formed in metals by high-energy displacement cascades, often in the form of small dislocation loops with a perfect Burgers vector, b. Atomic-scale computer simulation is used here to investigate their reaction with an edge dislocation gliding in ?-iron under stress for the situation where b is inclined to the dislocation slip plane. The b

D. J. Bacon; Y. N. Osetsky; Z. Rong

2006-01-01

294

One-dimensional atomic transport by clusters of self-interstitial atoms in iron and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic-scale computer simulation has been used to study the thermally activated atomic transport of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of planar clusters in pure Cu and f-Fe. There is strong evidence that such clusters are commonly formed in metals during irradiation with high-energy particles and play an important role in accumulation and spatial distribution of surviving defects. An extensive

Yu. N. Osetsky; D. J. Bacon; A. Serra; B. N. Singh; S. I. Golubov

2003-01-01

295

Computer simulation of reactions between an edge dislocation and glissile self-interstitial clusters in iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are formed in metals by high-energy displacement cascades, often in the form of small dislocation loops with a perfect Burgers vector, b. Atomic-scale computer simulation is used here to investigate their reaction with an edge dislocation gliding in alpha-iron under stress for the situation where b is inclined to the dislocation slip plane. The b

D. J. Bacon; Y. N. Osetsky; Z. Rong

2006-01-01

296

One-dimensional atomic transport by clusters of self-interstitial atoms in iron and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic-scale computer simulation has been used to study the thermally activated atomic transport of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of planar clusters in pure Cu and f-Fe. There is strong evidence that such clusters are commonly formed in metals during irradiation with high-energy particles and play an important role in accumulation and spatial distribution of surviving defects. An extensive

Yu. N. Osetsky; D. J. Bacon; A. Serra; B. N. Singh; S. I. Golubov

2003-01-01

297

Redistribution of implanted noble gas atoms by self-interstitials in molybdenum and nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) has been used to study the interactions of Self-Interstitial Atoms (SIA) with noble gas associated defects in Mo and Ni. Low energy heavy ion bombardment (100 eV Ar and Xe for Mo; 50 eV Kr for Ni) has been used to introduce SIA into the metals. Interactions have been observed of SIA with He n V

A. van Veen; W. Th. M. Buters; T. R. Armstrong; B. Nielsen; K. T. Westerduin; L. M. Caspers; J. Th. M. De Hosson

1983-01-01

298

The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States  

PubMed Central

Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly in many locales, becoming the purview of professional administration that advocates needle exchange as a necessary public health measure. This article is interested in the ways in which needle exchange has become implicated in and appropriated by networks of power seeking to discipline and regulate injection drug use. Drawing theoretically on Michel Foucault’s writings concerning biopower and governmentality, it will examine the proliferation of discourses, knowledges, and rules surrounding needle exchange in the United States. At the same time, this article will avoid a characterization of needle exchange that envisions the unilateral control of drug users by governmental power, illuminating instead both its negative and productive effects for drug users. Namely, it will explore how needle exchange creates both subjects of interest and subjects of resistance among drug users – that is to say, the governmentalization of needle exchange and its ‘clients’.

McLean, Katherine

2012-01-01

299

"Facial" and standard concentric needle electrodes are not interchangeable.  

PubMed

Motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were recorded using a standard concentric needle (SCN), a "facial" concentric needle (FCN) and a monopolar needle (MN) in the biceps brachii and first dorsal interosseous manus muscles of 7 normal subjects. For each muscle, the MUAP durations were similar for all electrodes. However, the FCN electrode more frequently registered high-amplitude MUAPs compared to the SCN electrode. Hence, the FCN and SCN needles should not be considered interchangeable in assessment of EMG signal amplitude. Although, the pattern of changes in amplitude and duration on FCN and MN recordings is similar, the electrodes have different uptake areas. PMID:17059096

Barkhaus, P E; Roberts, M M; Nandedkar, S D

2006-09-01

300

Pilot trial of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interstitial chemoradiation of UICC-T4 pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: Both interstitial brachytherapy and interstitial chemotherapy are effective in improving local control in patients with local UICC-T4 pancreatic cancer. In this study, we report the results of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided interstitial chemoradiation (EUS-ICR) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, with respect to tumor response, clinical response, safety, and complications. Patients and methods: A total of 8 patients (3 men, 5 women; median age of 69) with T4 pancreatic adenocarcinoma were the subjects of this study. A mean of 18 radioactive seeds and 36 intratumoral implants for sustained delivery of 5-fluorouracil in each patient were implanted into the tumors using EUS-guided needle puncture. The mean total implanted radioactive activity was 13.68 mCi, the mean total dose of intratumoral 5-fluorouracil was 3.6 g, and the mean volume of implants was 28 cm3. The conditions of the patients were followed-up by examination and imaging tests every two months. Clinical endpoints included the Karnofsky performance status, pain response, tumor response (assessed by computed tomography and/or EUS), and survival. Results: During a median follow-up period of 8.3 months, the objective tumor response was classified as “partial” in 1 of 8 patients (with a median duration of partial response of 3 months), “minimal” in 2 patients, and indicative of “stable disease”, in 3 of 8 patients. Clinical benefit was shown in 4 of 8 patients, which was mostly due to pain reduction, and lasted for 3.5 months. No local complications or hematologic toxicity occurred. Conclusions: EUS-ICR had a moderate local anti-tumor effect, showed some clinical benefits in 4 of the 8 patients, and was well tolerated by all the patients in this study.

Sun, Siyu; Ge, Nan; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Guoxin; Guo, Jintao

2012-01-01

301

Mobility of interstitial clusters in alpha-zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) formed in displacement cascades in metals irradiated with energetic particles play an important role in microstructure evolution under irradiation. They have been studied in the fcc and bcc metals by atomic-scale computer simulation, and in this article, we present the results of a similar study in a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal. Static and dynamic properties of clusters of up to 30 SIAs were studied using a many-body Finnis-Sinclair type interatomic potential for Zr. The results show a qualitative similarity of some properties of clusters to those for cubic metals. In particular, all clusters larger than four SIAs exhibit fast thermally activated one-dimensional (1-D) glide, which is in a <1120> direction in the hcp lattice. Due to the structure of the hcp lattice, this mechanism leads to two-dimensional mass transport in basal planes. Some clusters exhibit behavior peculiar to the hcp structure, for they can migrate two-dimensionally (2-D) in the basal plane. The jump frequency, activation energy, and correlation factors of clusters have been estimated, and comparisons drawn between the behavior of SIA clusters in different structures.

de Diego, N.; Osetsky, Y. N.; Bacon, D. J.

2002-03-01

302

Dose distribution around a needle-like anode X-ray tube: dye-film vs. planar thermoluminescent detectors.  

PubMed

The dosimetry around the X-ray tube with a needle-like anode (NAXT), developed at the Institute of Nuclear Studies, for interstitial brachytherapy has been performed using (1) dye films (Gafchromic XR-T), (2) large-area thermoluminescent (TL) detectors--prepared either by gluing TL powder onto thin Al foil (so-called planar detectors with spatial resolution of 0.1 mm) and (3) miniature (2 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick) TL detectors. The measurements were performed in following geometries. (1) Needle inside a PMMA cylinder--the planar TL detector mounted on the surface of the cylinder. (2) Needle inside a thick block of PMMA and TL detector mounted vertically 7 mm from needle axis. TL detectors were read with the planar (2D) thermoluminescence reader, developed at IFJ, with a sensitive CCD (charge couple device) camera. Gafchromic films were evaluated with a system based on Agfa Arcus 1200 scanner and calibrated with X rays (35 kV) filtered with 0.03 mm Mo and with Co-60 photons. The intensity distribution of TL light on the planar detector was calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, using (137)Cs gamma-rays. TL planar detectors seem to be a promising tool for 2D dosimetry of miniature X-ray sources. Obtained results for TLDs and Gafchromic films seem to be comparable but differences have been found. Both methods are useful for measurements of dose distribution around the NAXT X-rays source. PMID:16614087

Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; Marczewska, B; Czopyk, L; Slapa, M; Stras, W; Traczyk, M; Talejko, M

2006-01-01

303

Contamination of Polish national parks with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of screening analysis of all Polish national parks (23) contamination with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on\\u000a the basis of a three-level characteristic of heavy metal presence in Norway spruce stands: accumulation on the needle surface,\\u000a concentration of heavy metals in spruce needles and concentration of bioavailable heavy metals in the soil. Based on the obtained

Tomasz Staszewski; W?odzimierz ?ukasik; Piotr Kubiesa

304

ON THE CHARACTER OF SELF-INTERSTITIAL LOOPS IN VANADIUM--L. A. Zepeda-Ruiz (Lawrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated self-interstitial atoms (SIA) and SIA clusters produced during collision cascades are key components of the microstructure observed when metals are irradiated with high-energy particles. The evolution of these defects may cause undesirable changes in the mechanical properties of the material under irradiation. Therefore, knowledge of the properties, formation and diffusion mechanisms of SIA is essential for understanding and predicting

J. Marian; B. D. Wirth; D. J. Srolovitz

305

Rocker handle for endoscopic needle drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The design of the handle on instruments for endoscopic surgery determines comfort and efficiency of use by the surgeon. This\\u000a applies particularly to needle drivers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A novel rocker handle was designed to provide holding comfort and intuitive function. This rocker handle was compared with\\u000a a finger-loop handle in a study involving 10 surgeons who tied a total of

T. A. Emam; T. G. Frank; G. B. Hanna; G. Stockham; A. Cuschieri

1999-01-01

306

Fabrication of Metallic Microneedle by Electroplating and Sharpening of it by Electrochemical Etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the use in low-invasive medical treatments, this paper reports a fabrication of metallic microneedle, which has a three-dimensionally sharp tip. Compared to a silicon or polymer needle which we previously proposed, a metallic needle has toughness to evade breakage. Even if it is broken, it does not become small pieces thanks to its ductility, which increases the safety for a human body. A nickel needle was fabricated using electroplating, followed by sharpening it by electrochemical etching. A smooth tip surface is obtained due to electrochemical etching reactions. Sharpness and smoothness of the tip are effective for easy insertion in the viewpoint of large stress concentration and small friction, respectively. An experiment of inserting the fabricated needle into an artificial skin of silicone rubber was carried out. The resistance force during insertion was much reduced compared to that of commercial stainless needle (23 G: shank diameter 650 µm). Although a fabricated metallic needle was inserted and pulled-out for several times, it was not broken in any trial. By changing the angle between object surface and needle axis, the insertion experiments were carried out. Fabricated nickel needle was not broken for any angle, while silicon needle was broken in case the angle is small, i.e., the needle is much inclined from normal direction of the surface, which ensures the safety of metallic microneedle to human body in the viewpoint of breakage.

Huang, Chih-Hao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Takaoki, Yutaka; Izumi, Hayato; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato; Aoyagi, Seiji

307

Hardening of irradiated alloys due to the simultaneous formation of vacancy and interstitial loops  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented for the simultaneous nucleation and growth of vacancy and interstitial loops in irradiated metals. The model is based on the homogeneous time-dependent rate theory. Conservation equations are developed for single defects as well as defect clusters. Defect-conservation equations include production by irradiation and thermal sources; and destruction by mutual recombination, migration to sinks as well as clustering into loops. Interstitial clustering is assumed to occur by diffusion of interstitial atoms. Vacancy loops, on the other hand, are assumed to form by an athermal cascade-collapse process. The density of such loops is determined as a result of the production of cascades and the finite loop lifetime. Cascade overlap and coalescence are also included in the model. The calculations are extended to the analysis of the radiation-induced changes in tensile properties due to formation of interstitial and vacancy loops. A simpe hardening model relates the microstructural calculations to predictions of changes in tensile strength. The results of this study show good agreement with hardening data for copper irradiated in RTNS-II at room temperature. The results also provide insight on differences in microstructural results observed in various experimental studies on copper. 7 figures.

Ghoniem, N.M.; Alhajji, J.; Garner, F.A.

1982-01-01

308

[Clinical pathologic classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: review and perspectives].  

PubMed

The international classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia published in 2002 includes seven clinical-pathologic entities distinguished by their clinical features, aspect on high-resolution computed tomography, and histopathologic findings on lung biopsy. These seven entities are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (with features typical of interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organising pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and acute idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (with features of diffuse alveolar damage). This classification provides clearer diagnostic criteria for each entity, has fostered clinical research and therapeutic trials, and forms the basis for international guidelines on patient care. The classification is currently being revised in order to better integrate the recently identified syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, acute exacerbations of fibrosis, and new pathophysiologic and genetic findings. PMID:21166122

Cottin, Vincent

2010-02-01

309

Activation energy for long-range migration of self-interstitial atoms in tungsten obtained by direct measurement of radiation-induced point-defect clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation energy for the long-range intrinsic migration of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals, , is an important physical quantity closely associated with microstructural evolution upon energetic particle irradiation. The values for various metals have been widely investigated through recovery experiments on specimens irradiated at low temperatures upon thermal annealing, and the values have been estimated from the dependence of

T. Amino; K. Arakawa; H. Mori

2011-01-01

310

Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous mastitis  

PubMed Central

Aims: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon breast lesion that mimics carcinoma. The fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) features of GM have rarely been discussed in the literature. These features are reported in eight histologically confirmed cases of GM. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken in which a diagnosis of GM had been made on histopathology, and the FNAC slides were reviewed and assessed for the presence of granulomas, necrosis, multinucleated giant cells, and inflammatory background cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was performed on the histological material to exclude tuberculosis. Results: All cases were confirmed histologically and PCR for mycobacterial DNA was negative. In the FNACs, varying numbers of granulomas composed of epithelioid histiocytes were present in four cases. The same four cases showed giant cells of either foreign body or Langhan’s type. No necrosis was noted. Six cases showed many histiocytes, some plump and others epithelioid, in the background. The number of epithelioid histiocytes corresponded to the presence of granulomas. Neutrophils were the predominant background inflammatory cells in most cases (six). Conclusions: The cytological diagnosis of GM is difficult because the features overlap with other aetiologies, including tuberculosis. Specific features are absent. The absence of necrosis and a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate in the background favour a diagnosis of GM. This diagnosis should also be considered when abundant epithelioid histiocytes are seen in smears, even in the absence of granulomas. However, the definitive diagnosis of GM depends on histology from fine needle biopsies and negative microbiological investigations.

Tse, G M K; Poon, C S P; Law, B K B; Pang, L M; Chu, W C W; Ma, T K F

2003-01-01

311

Interstitial hyperthermia in combination with brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Flexible coaxial cables were modified to serve as microwave antennas operating at a frequency of 915 MHz. These antennas were inserted ito nylon afterloading tubes that had been implanted in tumors using conventional interstitial implantation techniques for iridium-192 seed brachytherapy. The tumor volume was heated to 42 to 45/sup 0/C within 15 minutes and heating was continued for a total of 1 hour per treatment. Immediately following a conventional brachytherapy dose and removal of the iridium seeds the tumors were heated again in a second treatment. This interstitial technique for delivering local hyperthermia should be compatible with most brachytherapy methods. The technique has proved so far to be practical and without complications. Temperature distributions obtained in tissue phantoms and a patient are described.

Coughlin, C.T.; Douple, E.B.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Eaton, W.L. Jr.; Trembly, B.S.; Wong, T.Z.

1983-07-01

312

Serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of biomarkers in medicine lies in their ability to detect disease and support diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. New research and novel understanding of the molecular basis of the disease reveals an abundance of exciting new biomarkers who present a promise for use in the everyday clinical practice. The past fifteen years have seen the emergence of numerous clinical applications of several new molecules as biologic markers in the research field relevant to interstitial lung diseases (translational research). The scope of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge about serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases and their potential value as prognostic and diagnostic tools and present some of the future perspectives and challenges.

Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Kouliatsis, George; Anevlavis, Stavros; Bouros, Demosthenes

2005-01-01

313

Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

2009-02-01

314

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2010-07-01

315

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2013-07-01

316

41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section 109-27...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures and practices...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use. Controls...

2009-07-01

317

Self-consistent one-electron states of substitutional and interstitial 5d transition-atom impurities in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of the 5d transition-metal impurities Hg, Au, Pt, Ir, Os, Re, and W in silicon has been studied theoretically within the framework of a nonrelativistic self-consistent one-particle model. The energy spectra of the substitutional and tetrahedral-site interstitial neutral atoms have been obtained by using the Watson-sphere-terminated multiple-scattering Xalpha molecular cluster method. The role played by the metal

J. L. A. Alves; J. R. Leite

1986-01-01

318

Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Interstitial Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a distinct type of chronic respiratory disorder that can result in pulmonary hypertension.\\u000a There are numerous causes of ILD but all are characterized by dyspnea and abnormal lung function, with arterial oxygen desaturation\\u000a occurring as the disease advances. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a relentlessly progressive form of ILD,\\u000a are particularly likely to develop

Mary E. Strek; Julian Solway

319

Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major catego- ries. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical\\/radiologic\\/pathologic subsets.Thesedisordersgenerallyshareacommonpatternofphysi- ologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). Pulmonary function testing is

Fernando J. Martinez; Kevin Flaherty

2006-01-01

320

Concept of dose nonuniformity in interstitial brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the 3-dimensional dose distributions of interstitial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio was performed. Single source, two sources, three and four sources arranged both linearly and in the form of a triangle or a square, ribbons with different seed spacings, a single-plane and double-plane implants were evaluated. The evaluations involved the use of differential dose volume histograms and

Cheng B. Saw; A. Wu; N. Suntharalingam

1993-01-01

321

Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line monitoring of temperature. Beyond these engineering considerations, our clinical experience demonstrates that following interstitial routes for applying HIFU is an interesting therapeutic option when targeted sites cannot be reached from outside the patient.

Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2006-05-01

322

Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury. Many etiologies of AIN have been recognized—including allergic\\/drug-induced, infectious, autoimmune\\/systemic, and idiopathic forms of disease. The most common etiology of AIN is drug-induced disease, which is thought to underlie 60–70% of cases. Multiple agents from many different classes of drugs can cause AIN, and the clinical presentation and

Mark A. Perazella; Glen S. Markowitz

2010-01-01

323

Needle exchange and aids prevention: Controversies, policies and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the key public health issues, social science research, and policy debates that surround the issue of needle exchange as an AIDS prevention strategy among injection drug users. As worldwide rates of drug use?related HIV infection and injection drug use have continued to rise, there is growing public health pressure to identify effective prevention strategies. Needle exchange, while

Merrill Singer

1997-01-01

324

Effects of drought on needle anatomy of Pinus canariensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The needles of Pinus canariensisexhibit morphological drought adaptations, such as special stomata morphology or rigid scle- renchymatic hypodermis. In the present paper the hypothesis that drought exposure during needle elongation triggers formation of xeromorphic traits was tested. With onset of the elongation growth of the new flush, 5-year old P. canariensis seedlings were exposed to 53 days of reduced

Dieter Grill; Michael Tausz; Ute Pöllinger; Maria Soledad Jiménez; Domingo Morales

325

Measurement of prostate rotation during insertion of needles for brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeThe purpose of this study is to investigate whether prostate rotation due to needle insertion for prostate brachytherapy is predictable and if so, to quantify this rotation, and to see whether locking needles reduce the magnitude of prostate rotation.

Vera Lagerburg; Marinus A. Moerland; Jan J. W. Lagendijk; Jan J. Battermann

2005-01-01

326

Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

2002-01-01

327

Improving needle-point sharpness in prefillable syringes.  

PubMed

Improvement of needle-point sharpness and improved injection comfort for patients remain active areas of research. This article reports on a five-bevel needle for subcutaneous administration with a prefillable syringe, and the results of a clinical trial to verify and validate the bench measure of sharpness. PMID:12774577

Vedrine, L; Prais, W; Laurent, P E; Raynal-Olive, C; Fantino, M

2003-05-01

328

Prostate Needle Biopsy: 12 vs. 18 Cores – Is It Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare the histological results of a prostate needle biopsy scheme of 12 and 18 cores used in 372 consecutive patients submitted to an early stage diagnosis programme for prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: From February 2002 to July 2003 a transperineal TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsy was performed in 372 patients aged

Pietro Pepe; Francesco Aragona

2005-01-01

329

Needle and lichen sulphur analyses on two industrial gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total S concentrations in Scots pine (Pine sylvestris L.) needles and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in southern Finland and a steel works in northern Finland were used as a bioindicator for SO2 deposition. The mean total S concentration in the youngest pine needles decreased by 22% (p 2 emissions in 1985. The

S. Manninen; S. Huttunen; H. Orvela

1991-01-01

330

Circumstances surrounding the community needle-stick injuries in Georgia.  

PubMed

Community needle-stick injuries are important public health problem due to concern of blood-borne pathogen transmission. Purpose of this study was to describe circumstances related to non-occupational needle-stick injuries in Georgia. Data were collected from one outpatient clinic in Tbilisi. Medical records from 2002 to 2007 were reviewed. Blood tests were performed on HBV, HCV and HIV at first visit and 6 months after exposure. 25 (54.4%) study subjects were children playing in street/yard and being accidentally stuck by used needle. Most frequent circumstances related to needle stick among adult individuals were recapping or discarding used needle while taking care of family member needed home injections (12 cases). Eight participants (17.4%) reported accidentally stepping on used needle at sea shore. No infection with HIV and HCV were documented. Only one case of HBV infection occurred in female patient taking care of mother with chronic HBV infection. Study suggests that seroconversion for blood-borne infections after community needle-stick injuries is very low. Family members of patients receiving home injections should be informed about potential risks and advised using infection-control measures. Parents/teachers should be educated about the circumstances related to exposure to used needles among children. PMID:21533886

Butsashvili, Maia; Kamkamidze, George; Kajaia, Maia; Kandelaki, George; Zhorzholadze, Nana

2011-12-01

331

Characteristics of probe electrospray generated from a solid needle.  

PubMed

Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) has recently been developed, in which the electrospray was generated from a solid needle instead of by using a capillary. In this paper, the characteristics of probe electrospray ionization were studied based on the measurement of spray current, optical microscopy, and PESI mass spectrometry. In the experiment, the solid needle was moved up and down a vertical axis, and a small amount of sample was repeatedly loaded to the needle when the tip of the needle touched the surface of the liquid sample at the lowest position. After the application of high voltage, a liquid droplet was formed on the tip of the solid needle probe, with its size was determined by the size of the needle tip. The liquid flow rate to the tip, as indicated by the spray current, depends on the voltage applied to the needle as well as the loaded liquid amount. Stable electrospray can be maintained until the total consumption of liquid sample. The kilohertz current pulsation takes place in the case of overloading the sample to the needle. The influences of the applied voltage and the liquid flow rate on the PESI mass spectra were also examined. PMID:18698704

Chen, Lee Chuin; Nishidate, Kentaro; Saito, Yuta; Mori, Kunihiko; Asakawa, Daiki; Takeda, Sen; Kubota, Takeo; Hori, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Kenzo

2008-09-01

332

Mass analysis of an atmospheric pressure plasma needle discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric measurements of a plasma needle (an example of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma source) were made for neutrals and ions. The measurements were performed for the same geometry as the standard plasma needles albeit for a somewhat increased gas flow. We discuss some of the problems of performing mass analysis at atmospheric pressures. The yields of N, O and

G. Malovic; N. Puac; S. Lazovic; Z. Petrovic

2010-01-01

333

42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

334

MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance.

Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

2011-01-01

335

Direct trocar insertion versus veress needle insertion in laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Direct insertion of the trocar is an alternative method to Veress needle insertion for the creation of pneumoperitoneum. The safety of direct disposable shielded trocar insertion for the creation of pneumoperitoneum was assessed by comparing with Veress needle insertion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).METHODS:One thousand five hundred patients undergoing LC with pneumoperitoneum were included in this study. In 470 patients

Mehmet Ali Yerdel; Kaan Karayalcin; Ayhan Koyuncu; Baris Akin; Cuneyt Koksoy; Ahmet G Turkcapar; Nezih Erverdi; Iskender Alaçayir; Cihan Bumin; Nusret Aras

1999-01-01

336

Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error.

Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

2009-01-01

337

Development of the Syringe Needle Auto-Detaching Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nowadays' medical care, needle-stick injury accounts for a great proportion in all of the accidents. For example when doctors and nurses do the acts of medical treatment, or when relevant personnel dispose of the medical wastes, it is a high probability that they are injured by the used syringe needle. Because there is a serious potential fatal crisis in

C. C. Chen; C. S. Ho; S. H. Ciou; C. H. Chou; S. W. Hong; Y. S. Hwang; Y. L. Chen

2011-01-01

338

CUDA accelerated simulation of needle insertions in deformable tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a stiff needle-deformable tissue interaction model. The model uses a mesh-less discretization of continuum; avoiding thus the expensive remeshing required by the finite element models. The proposed model can accommodate both linear and nonlinear material characteristics. The needle-deformable tissue interaction is modeled through fundamental boundaries. The forces applied by the needle on the tissue are divided in tangent forces and constraint forces. The constraint forces are adaptively computed such that the material is properly constrained by the needle. The implementation is accelerated using NVidia CUDA. We present detailed analysis of the execution timing in both serial and parallel case. The proposed needle insertion model was integrated in a custom software that loads DICOM images, generate the deformable model, and can simulate different insertion strategies.

Patriciu, Alexandru

2012-10-01

339

Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

2010-10-01

340

Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

2006-03-01

341

Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

2005-11-01

342

Evaluation of vascular puncture needles with specific modifications for enhanced ultrasound visibility: In vitro study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine which modification to a vascular puncture needle results in increased visualization during ultrasound (US)-guided vascular puncture. METHODS: We evaluated US images of a phantom made of degassed gelatin and each of the following four modified versions of a commercially available vascular puncture needle (18 G): re-cut needle, dimple needle, rough-surface needle (rough over the sections of needle located 3-6 mm from the tip), and a needle with four side holes (side holes covered by the sheath). An unmodified commercially available puncture needle was used as a control. Five interventional radiologists evaluated image quality according to the following classification grade:?I, invisible; II, poor; III, moderate; IV, good; V, excellent. RESULTS: The highest score for needle visualization was obtained for the needle with four side holes. The re-cut needle scored the same as the control. Multiple comparisons were conducted using overall evaluation scores among the commercially available needle, dimple needle, rough-surface needle (3-6 mm), and the needle with four side holes. A significantly higher score was obtained for the needle with four side holes (P < 0.05/6). CONCLUSION: The needle with four side holes was prominently visualized and gained a significantly higher score (compared with the other needles) in a phantom evaluation.

Kawai, Nobuyuki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sato, Morio; Nakai, Motoki; Sanda, Hiroki; Tanaka, Takami; Ikoma, Akira; Nakata, Kouhei; Shirai, Shintaro; Sonomura, Tetsuo

2012-01-01

343

Usual interstitial pneumonia coexisted with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, What's the diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis between idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia(INSIP) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)/usual interstitial pneumonia(UIP)is tough in both clinicians and pathologists. In this study, we analyzed the lesions of right lung removed from a 58-year-old patient by gross and microscopy. The results showed that the pathological appearance of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and UIP coexisted in his upper lobe. Besides, because of severe fibrosis in middle and lower lobes, it was hard to distinguish the lesions of NSIP fibrotic pattern (NSIP-F) or UIP. Based on clinic-radiologic-pathological data, the diagnosis of INSIP-F was made for this patient finally. Our study suggests that UIP is not always an accurate diagnosis when the NSIP and UIP coexist, and NSIP can have regions of UIP. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2573531681608730

2012-01-01

344

An Unusual Complication of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA): the Needle Breakage.  

PubMed

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is now becoming a widely accepted procedure to investigate the mediastinum for the staging of non-small-cell lung cancer and diagnosing mediastinal lesions. During the intervention, some minor or major complications may occasionally occur. The present case report describes the first reported case of needle breakage during EBUS-TBNA. PMID:23518624

Ozgül, M Akif; Cetinkaya, Erdogan; Tutar, Nuri; Ozgül, Güler

2013-03-22

345

Mutual reaction between interstitial clusters in bcc Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are commonly observed in microstructure of irradiated metals. These clusters can be formed directly in high-energy displacement cascades or as a result of interaction between individual SIAs. The majority of these clusters has features of glissile dislocation loops and perform fast thermally-activated one-dimensional glide. In this paper we present results of systematic molecular dynamics study of reactions where glissile clusters are involved. On the example of bcc iron we demonstrate that the reactions can result in a number of specific microstructural objects with different properties which may affect the microstructure evolution of irradiated metals. Particularly the reactions between the most common glissile clusters of (111) crowdions can result in coarsening, formation of immobile complexes and change of the crowdion orientation to (100) -type direction. However, particular mechanism responsible for that was found to be different from the one reported in the similar computer simulation studies. Properties of the products of mutual reactions between clusters are quite different which can influence the total microstructure evolution under irradiation. The results are obtained with the most promising interatomic potential for iron.

Terentyev, Dmitry; Malerba, Lorenzo

2007-04-01

346

Core needle biopsy versus fine needle aspiration biopsy: are there similar sampling and diagnostic issues?  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that in experienced hands fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is highly safe and effective for the evaluation of patients who have palpable breast lesions. In most cases, FNAB leads to an appropriate clinical or surgical management. FNAB can also be effectively used in evaluation of cystic lesions under ultrasound guidance. Other nonpalpable lesions can benefit from image-directed core needle biopsy (CNB). Overall, cost should influence the decision to use FNAB or CNB. FNAB may be the only affordable procedure in developing countries. Breast cancer affects significant numbers of women worldwide. Attempts should be made to take all the measures necessary to consider optimal approaches to breast health care for everyone regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or social status. PMID:16308086

Masood, Shahla

2005-12-01

347

One-dimensional atomic transport by clusters of self-interstitial atoms in iron and copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic-scale computer simulation has been used to study the thermally activated atomic transport of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of planar clusters in pure Cu and f-Fe. There is strong evidence that such clusters are commonly formed in metals during irradiation with high-energy particles and play an important role in accumulation and spatial distribution of surviving defects. An extensive study of the mobility of SIA clusters containing two to 331 interstitials has been carried out using the molecular dynamics simulation technique for the temperature range from 180 to 1200 K. The results obtained show that clusters larger than three to four SIAs are one-dimensionally mobile in both Cu and Fe. Large clusters of more than 100 SIAs in Cu and 300 SIAs in Fe have significantly reduced mobility. The problem of describing one-dimensional (1D) motion in three-dimensional space is discussed. An attempt is made to describe the mobility of SIA clusters within the approximation of 1D diffusion. For clusters in both metals the effective migration energy of 1D diffusion as estimated via the jump frequency of the cluster centre of mass is found to be independent of the number of SIAs in the clusters, although the cluster jump frequency decreases with increasing cluster size. Mechanisms of 1D mobility of interstitial clusters are discussed.

Osetsky, Yu. N.; Bacon, D. J.; Serra, A.; Singh, B. N.; Golubov, S. I.

2003-01-01

348

First-principles study of diffusion of interstitial and vacancy in ? U-Zr.  

PubMed

Metallic uranium-zirconium alloys are of interest for a variety of fast reactor designs, and there is substantial experience with the behavior of metallic fuels. Yet, there remain a number of questions regarding the mechanisms controlling fission-gas-driven swelling in these alloys. Here we present results of ab initio calculations of the diffusion behavior of interstitial and vacancy point defects in ? U-Zr alloys. The formation energy and migration barrier of vacancy and interstitial defects, and the influence of Zr on these values, is obtained and compared with experimental results. Our results confirm that self-diffusion in pure ? U is via a simple vacancy mechanism, and shows anisotropic character. The calculated values of activation energy are consistent with the experimental results in the literature. For interstitial diffusion, the kick-out mechanism was found to have the smallest energy barrier. The calculations of point defects, and later Xe, in U-Zr alloys will provide a foundation for computational modeling of fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. PMID:21540501

Huang, Gui-Yang; Wirth, Brian D

2011-05-25

349

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors?  

PubMed Central

A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized.

Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

2012-01-01

350

Shear modulus estimation with vibrating needle stimulation.  

PubMed

An ultrasonic shear wave imaging technique is being developed for estimating the complex shear modulus of biphasic hydropolymers including soft biological tissues. A needle placed in the medium is vibrated along its axis to generate harmonic shear waves. Doppler pulses synchronously track particle motion to estimate shear wave propagation speed. Velocity estimation is improved by implementing a k-lag phase estimator. Fitting shear-wave speed estimates to the predicted dispersion relation curves obtained from two rheological models, we estimate the elastic and viscous components of the complex shear modulus. The dispersion equation estimated using the standard linear solid-body (Zener) model is compared with that from the Kelvin-Voigt model to estimate moduli in gelatin gels in the 50 to 450 Hz shear wave frequency bandwidth. Both models give comparable estimates that agree with independent shear rheometer measurements obtained at lower strain rates. PMID:20529711

Orescanin, Marko; Insana, Michael

2010-06-01

351

Transbronchial needle aspiration: where are we now?  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer, as the leading cause of cancer-related motility and mortality worldwide, usually ends up with poor prognosis, despite abundant progress of therapeutic approaches. Early diagnosis and staging is extremely critical and directly affects clinical managements and outcomes. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), serving as an effective tool, has been widely used for mediastinal and hilar lung cancer staging. Recent advance in bronchoscopy introduces ultrasound probe to regular bronchoscope, resulting in TBNA procedures real-time visualized. Here, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and ultrasound-guided TBNA by comparing the instruments, methodology as well as the anatomy. We believe these two techniques are not competitive but complementary, judging the indications of patients for different technique would be a raising issue applied for pulmonologists.

Xia, Yang

2013-01-01

352

Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.  

PubMed

No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

2013-08-01

353

Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease. PMID:23969008

Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios

2013-01-01

354

Biomechanical performance of microsurgical spatula needles for the repair of nail bed injuries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical performance of microsurgical spatula needles for repair of nail bed injuries. Standard biomechanical tests have been devised to evaluate the performance of microsurgical spatula needles. Two comparable groups of microsurgical spatula needles were selected from two different manufacturers for these biomechanical studies. The results of this testing demonstrated that needle point geometry and needle composition were important determinants of needle performance. When needles of comparable size were evaluated, the biomechanical performance of the CS160-8 spatula needle (Ethicon, Inc., Somerville, NJ) was superior to the C-5 spatula needles (Alcon, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). While the development of these biomechanical tests has allowed the evaluation of these microsurgical spatula needles, these same tests can be used to assess the performance of new microsurgical spatula needles. PMID:8505525

Wu, M M; Morgan, R F; Thacker, J G; Edlich, R F

1993-01-01

355

Smoking-Related Small Airways and Interstitial Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of airways and interstitial inflammation caused by cigarette smoking are many and varied. In addition to\\u000a well-recognized smoking-related disorders, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, there is increasing appreciation of\\u000a the complex relationship between small airways and interstitial damage, typified by respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial\\u000a lung disease. Individual diseases ascribable to cigarette smoking and their relationship to each other are

David M. Hansell; Athol U. Wells

356

Comparison of procedures for preparation of Pinus strobus needle macromolecules  

SciTech Connect

Eastern white pine foliage is sensitive to adverse atmospheric O{sub 3} and acid rain. The mechanisms by which they promote needle necrosis have not been fully elucidated. Because the literature yielded little regarding needle protein and nucleic acid contents, streptomycin sulfate (SS) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) efficiencies for macromolecule precipitation from 1 and 2 yr-old needles of 30 yr-old trees were compared. Weighed needles were homogenized into buffer and homogenates filtered. The filtrate was mixed with chloroform-methanol-H{sub 2}O (13:4:3, v/v) and centrifuged 30 min 12,000 xg. After the pellet was subjected to SS or TCA, Lowry-positive substances were recovered in SS and TCA-soluble and insoluble fractions of 1st and 2nd yr needles. Similarly, orcinol and diphenylamine-positive substances occurred in SS-soluble and insoluble fractions for yrs 1 and 2. However, the latter were only detected in TCA-soluble fractions. These data suggest that needle proteins were not effectively precipitated and needles contained free pentoses or non-precipitable RNA (orcinol-reactive).

Williams, A.L.; Dashek, W.V. (Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)); Vose, J.M.; Swank, W.T. (Dept. of Agriculture, Otto, NC (United States))

1991-05-01

357

Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles  

PubMed Central

Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach.

Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

2010-01-01

358

Improving door to needle times with nurse initiated thrombolysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the effect of nurse initiated thrombolysis on door to needle time (the interval between arriving at the hospital and starting thrombolytic treatment) in patients with acute myocardial infarction.?DESIGN—Comparison of door to needle times before and after the employment of nurses trained and approved to initiate thrombolysis without prescription by a doctor but with a protocol for rapid triage of patients with chest pain.?SETTING—A district general hospital.?SUBJECTS—All patients admitted with suspected myocardial infarction between April 1995 and March 1999.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Speed (door to needle time) and appropriateness of administration of thrombolytic drugs to patients with acute myocardial infarction who gave a characteristic history and had appropriate criteria on the admission ECG.?RESULTS—During seven periods (each of four months) before the introduction of nurse initiated thrombolysis and a new chest pain triage protocol, the median door to needle time varied from 50-58 minutes. In four periods (each of 4-6 months) following the introduction of the changes, the median door to needle time was 25-30 minutes. The improvement was significant (p < 0.001). Nurses trained to initiate thrombolysis currently provide cover for 66% of the time. Median door to needle time for nurses was 15 minutes. Median door to needle time for junior doctors improved to 35 minutes. The median door to needle times when nurses initiated thrombolysis was significantly shorter than when doctors did so (p < 0.001). There have been no inappropriate management decisions by nurses approved to initiate thrombolysis.?CONCLUSIONS—The use of nurse initiated thrombolysis has resulted in a clinically important reduction in the time taken for thrombolysis to be started in patients with acute myocardial infarction.???Keywords: thrombolysis; acute myocardial infarction; door to needle time

Wilmshurst, P; Purchase, A; Webb, C; Jowett, C; Quinn, T

2000-01-01

359

Idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a rare form of interstitial lung disease in children. Respiratory symptoms appear progressively, are often subtle, and diagnosis is often delayed by a mean of 6 months after onset. High resolution chest computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for demonstrating and identifying interstitial pneumonia. The typical histologic pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonia, with prominent clustered alveolar macrophages, diffuse reactive alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and globular proteinaceous material, is diagnostic. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in children can be idiopathic, though it is mostly related to an inborn error of surfactant metabolism. Case presentation We present the complex clinical course and pathologic findings of a 30-months-old Mauritian and Senegalese girl with idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia and multiple extrapulmonary manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of desquamative interstitial pneumonia to occur as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement. Conclusion We believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is not always associated with mutations of the surfactant proteins, and can still be idiopathic, especially when occurring as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement, as described in other interstitial lung diseases.

2014-01-01

360

Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

2005-01-01

361

Bistability of Cation Interstitials in II-VI Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The stability of cation interstitials in II-VI semiconductors is studied using ab initio methods. We find that interstitials in the neutral charge state are more stable in the tetrahedral interstitial site near the cation, whereas in the (2+) charge state, they are more stable near the anion. The diffusion energy barrier changes when the defect charge state changes. Therefore, if electrons/holes are taken from the defect level by light, changing its charge state, the interstitial atom will be able to diffuse almost spontaneously due to a reduced diffusion barrier.

Wei, S. H.; Dalpian, G. M.

2005-11-01

362

Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mainly encountered in patients with diffuse disease and/or anti-topoisomerase 1 antibodies. ILD develops in up to 75% of patients with SSc overall. However, SSc-ILD evolves to end-stage respiratory insufficiency in only a few patients. Initial pulmonary function tests (PFT) with measurement of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, together with high-resolution computed tomography, allows for early diagnosis of SSc-ILD, before the occurrence of dyspnea. Unlike idiopathic ILD, SSc-ILD corresponds to non-specific interstitial pneumonia in most cases, whereas usual interstitial pneumonia is less frequently encountered. Therefore, the prognosis of SSc-ILD is better than that for idiopathic ILD. Nevertheless, ILD represents one of the two main causes of death in SSc patients. To detect SSc-ILD early, PFT must be repeated regularly, every 6 months to 1 year, depending on disease worsening. Conversely, broncho-alveolar lavage is not needed to evaluate disease activity in SSc-ILD but may be of help in diagnosing opportunistic infection. The treatment of SSc-ILD is not well established. Cyclophosphamide, which has been used for 20 years, has recently been evaluated in two prospective randomized studies that failed to demonstrate a major benefit for lung function. Open studies reported mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and rituximab as alternatives to cyclophosphamide. On failure of immunosuppressive agent treatment, lung transplantation can be proposed in the absence of other major organ involvement or severe gastro-esophageal reflux. PMID:20863911

Bussone, Guillaume; Mouthon, Luc

2011-03-01

363

Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

2014-06-01

364

Current strategies for managing interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Interstitial cystitis is a relatively common disorder that can be treated successfully in the majority of cases. Symptoms can be effectively controlled, and disease pathophysiology addressed, using a multimodal medical regimen based on heparinoid therapy. As appropriate to the individual patient, heparinoid therapy is supplemented by oral medications aimed at reversing neural upregulation and controlling any allergies. A new and promising adjunct to the multimodal regimen is an intravesical therapeutic solution that combines pentosan polysulfate or heparin with lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate. Preliminary results indicate this therapeutic solution provides immediate temporary relief of symptoms. PMID:14996625

Parsons, C Lowell

2004-02-01

365

[Significance of needle biopsy for surgical dermatologic intervention].  

PubMed

Out of 890 fine needle aspiration biopsies performed at the Fachklinik Hornheide (195 in 1984, 277 in 1985, and 418 in the first half of 1986), we present 8 typical cases in order to demonstrate that needle biopsy is a valuable morphological technique, which allows a quick and reliable diagnosis of tumors. Moreover, it hardly affects the patient, does not destroy the prospective operation field, allows difficult bioptic approaches, and promotes the histological epicrisis. Needle biopsy is also useful in therapy control and follow-up examinations of tumors. PMID:1963247

von Gizycki-Nienhaus, B

1990-10-01

366

A needle penetrating the stomach cavity after acupuncture.  

PubMed

Although acupuncture is known as a safe procedure that is widely used in many countries, complications including infection, hemorrhage, hematoma, pneumothorax, nerve damage, and cardiac tamponade have been reported. A needle penetrating the stomach after acupuncture, however, is very rare. Here, we report the case of 47-year-old woman who experienced abdominal pain 2 days after receiving acupuncture. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy identified an approximately 2.5-cm long needle in the posterior wall of the antrum. The needle was removed endoscopically using rat tooth forceps with no complications. PMID:24944991

Lee, Sin Won; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Won Jung; Kim, Eun Jin; Bae, Seung-Hyeon; Choi, Yun Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

2014-05-01

367

A Needle Penetrating the Stomach Cavity after Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Although acupuncture is known as a safe procedure that is widely used in many countries, complications including infection, hemorrhage, hematoma, pneumothorax, nerve damage, and cardiac tamponade have been reported. A needle penetrating the stomach after acupuncture, however, is very rare. Here, we report the case of 47-year-old woman who experienced abdominal pain 2 days after receiving acupuncture. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy identified an approximately 2.5-cm long needle in the posterior wall of the antrum. The needle was removed endoscopically using rat tooth forceps with no complications.

Lee, Sin Won; Choi, Won Jung; Kim, Eun Jin; Bae, Seung-Hyeon; Choi, Yun Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

2014-01-01

368

Automated Analysis of PIN-4 Stained Prostate Needle Biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate Needle biopsies are stained with the PIN-4 marker cocktail to help the pathologist distinguish between HGPIN and adenocarcinoma. The correct interpretation of multiple IHC markers can be challenging. Therefore we propose the use of computer aided diagnosis algorithms for the identification and classification of glands in a whole slide image of prostate needle biopsy. The paper presents the different issues related to the automated analysis of prostate needle biopsies and the approach taken by BioImagene in its first generation algorithms.

Sabata, Bikash; Babenko, Boris; Monroe, Robert; Srinivas, Chukka

369

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

370

Design and fabrication of tri-axial capillary needles in flow focusing for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents is significant for various biomedical applications. In this work we describe a novel method based on flow focusing geometry using tri-axial metallic capillary needles manufactured by a laser beam welding process. The tri-axial needle can be readily cleaned, assembled, and aligned. With this needle assembly, we develop a tri-axial capillary flow focusing device in which different combinations of liquids are focused in the core of a high-speed gas stream coflowing through a small orifice. Under appropriate working conditions, stable cone-jet configurations with three layers of liquids in an external gas stream can be obtained, resulting in multilayered microparticles with outer shell, middle layer, and inner core. The new design of tri-axial needles enables reliable encapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in biodegradable microcapsules with the enhanced size distribution, increased productivity, and improved drug-loading efficiency. Furthermore, in this method the outer and the middle shell fluids can be released to produce monodisperse microparticles at smaller scales which have potential applications in multi-modal imaging, drug delivery, material processing and biomedicine.

Si, Ting; Feng, Hanxin; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald

2014-03-01

371

Development of a tapping device: a new needle insertion method for prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a tapping device for needle insertion for prostate brachytherapy. This device will tap the needle into the prostate with a certain, well-defined, amount of momentum, instead of the currently used method of pushing the needle. Because of the high needle insertion velocity, we expect prostate motion and deformation to be

V Lagerburg; M A Moerland; M K Konings; R E van de Vosse; J J W Lagendijk; J J Battermann

2006-01-01

372

Flexible Needle–Tissue Interaction Modeling With Depth-Varying Mean Parameter: Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible needle steering has aroused a lot of research interest in recent years. It has the potential to correct targeting errors, which may be caused by needle bending, tissue deformation, or error in insertion angle. In addition, control and planning based on a steering model can guide the needle to some areas that are currently not amenable to needles because

Kai Guo Yan; Tarun Podder; Yan Yu; Tien-I Liu; C. W. S. Cheng; Wan Sing Ng

2009-01-01

373

Exhaled nitric oxide in interstitial lung diseases.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a biomarker of nitrosative stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). This study evaluates exhaled NO levels in IIP patients and relates alveolar concentrations of NO (CalvNO) to pulmonary function test (PFT) and 6-minute walking test (6MWT) parameters. We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), CalvNO and maximum conducting airway wall flux (J'awNO) in 30 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IIP (22 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 8 idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonias). IIP patients had higher FeNO at flow rates of 50-100-150 ml/s and higher CalvNO levels than healthy controls (p<0.0001). CalvNO was significantly correlated with 6-minute walking distance (p<0.0001), recovery time (p<0.0005), TLC (p<0.001), FVC (p=0.01) and TLCO (p<0.01). IIP patients showed abnormal nitric oxide production, probably due to lung fibrosis and oxidative-mediated lung injury. CalvNO was correlated with PFT and 6MWT parameters and is proposed as a potential biomarker of lung fibrosis and exercise tolerance. PMID:24703971

Cameli, P; Bargagli, E; Refini, R M; Pieroni, M G; Bennett, D; Rottoli, P

2014-06-15

374

Atypical presentation of a large interstitial pregnancy.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 20-year-old female who presented to the ER with a 1-week history of worsening abdominal pain and intermittent vaginal bleeding for the previous 5 days. Physical exam was notable for bilateral adnexal tenderness and a closed cervix without motion tenderness or discharge. Laboratory data demonstrated a beta HCG level of 7,787 IU/L, and pelvic ultrasound with transvaginal imaging was subsequently performed. Neither an adnexal mass nor a normal intrauterine pregnancy was demonstrable; however, a focal right fundal 7-cm area of heterogeneous echogenicity was observed. Initial findings were felt indeterminate with considerations including potential degenerating leiomyoma coexistent with a nonvisualized intrauterine pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, or recent spontaneous abortion versus atypical interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The patient, initially declining further clinical intervention, returned within 24 h with continued pain. A repeat ultrasound demonstrated a relatively static and unchanged appearance with only a minimal concurrent interval increase in beta HCG levels. MRI was performed for further elucidation and demonstrated a heterogeneously hypervascular right fundal interstitial 6-cm mass, which, in the clinical context, was most suspicious for an ectopic pregnancy. Confirmatory laparoscopic cornual wedge resection and salpingectomy was subsequently performed. PMID:23250569

Rheinboldt, Matthew; Ibrahim, Sherif

2013-06-01

375

Fire performance of interstitial space construction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

Lawson, J. R.

1985-05-01

376

Interstitial Fe in MgO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated 57Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of 57Mn decaying to 57Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

Mølholt, T. E.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Ølafsson, S.; Sielemann, R.; Weyer, G.

2014-01-01

377

An ultrasound needle insertion guide in a porcine phantom model.  

PubMed

We compared nerve blockade with and without the Infiniti(TM) needle guide in an ultrasound in-plane porcine simulation. We recruited 30 anaesthetists with varying blockade experience. Using the guide, the needle tip was more visible (for a median (IQR [range]) of 67 (56-100]) % of the time; and invisible for 2 (1-4 [0-19]) s) than when the guide was not used (respectively 23 (13-43 [0-80]) % and 25 (9-52 [1-198]) s; both p < 0.001). The corresponding block times were 8 (6-10 [3-28]) s and 32 (15-67 [5-225]) s, respectively; p < 0.001. The needle guide reduced the block time and the time that the needle was invisible, irrespective of anaesthetist experience. PMID:23672592

Whittaker, S; Lethbridge, G; Kim, C; Keon Cohen, Z; Ng, I

2013-08-01

378

64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

379

Transscleral intraocular lens fixation with a "homemade" needle and hook.  

PubMed

We describe an ab externo, transscleral, intraocular lens (IOL) fixation technique using a surgeon-fashioned 25-gauge hook, a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)-modified 27-gauge needle, and 9-0 polypropylene suture. This is a simple, inexpensive technique for creating small-gauge surgical instruments to accurately and atraumatically pass 9-0 and 10-0 polypropylene sutures through sclera. Holes, through which sutures can be threaded, are "burned" near the tips of 27-gauge or 30-gauge needles with an Nd:YAG laser. Using a fine needle holder, a 25-gauge hook is fashioned from a hypodermic needle. A surgical technique incorporating 2 ab externo incisions and achieving transscleral posterior chamber IOL fixation is discussed. PMID:16564993

Stewart, Michael W; Landers, Maurice B

2006-02-01

380

Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-02-01

381

[Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].  

PubMed

Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually. PMID:24195225

Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

2013-08-01

382

24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

383

How to Identify and Control Cyclaneusma Needle Cast of Pines,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclaneusma needle cast is caused by Cyclaneusma minus (=Naemacyclus minor) (Ascomycetes:Rhytisma-taceaae). In North America, this disease occurs from Virginia to Missouri northward through New England and southern Canada western Nebraska and Manitoba, pl...

W. Merrill K. Robbins

1987-01-01

384

Image-guided Control of Flexible Bevel-Tip Needles  

PubMed Central

Physicians perform percutaneous therapies in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of needle interventions. In this paper, we consider the possibility of automating the guidance of a flexible bevel-tip needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic kinematic model to develop a nonlinear observer-based controller. As a first step for control, we show that flexible needles can be automatically controlled to remain within a planar slice of tissue as they are inserted by a physician; our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. In the proposed controller, the distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used as a feedback signal. Numerical simulations demonstrate the stability and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty. We also present results from pilot physical experiments with phantom tissue under stereo image guidance.

Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J.

2010-01-01

385

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

386

21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5350 Needle-type epilator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

387

Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldberger, W.M. [Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-10

388

Precision of coaxial needle placement in computed tomography-guided transthoracic needle biopsy  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a set of self-designed measurement protocols for the precision of coaxial needle placement (PCNP) was proposed and applied in a computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TNB) audit of an interventional radiologist to determine if the PCNP was commensurate with the experience of the operator. A total of 102 patients (98 with lung lesions and four with mediastinum lesions) consented to be subjected to CT-guided TNB performed by staff interventional radiologists. The patients were divided into two groups based on appointment date. Group A consisted of the first 51 patients and group B comprised of the latter 51 patients. A set of self-designed measurement protocols for PCNP was proposed, and the PCNP was classified into four grades, from grade 1 (most accurate) to grade 4 (least accurate). PCNPs were independently measured by three staff radiologists who were blind to the grouping. The anatomical features of the lesions were also analyzed between the two groups. A significant difference in the PCNP gained after the first needle placement was identified between the two groups (P=0.003, two-tailed). The number of patients in group B with grade I PCNP (51.0%) was significantly higher than that in group A (21.6%) (P<0.05). The number of patients in group B with grade III PCNP (11.8%) was significantly lower than that in group A (29.4%, P<0.05). The PCNP was observed to be commensurate with the experience of the operator and should be considered as a routine audit index in CT-guided TNB.

HUANG, RUI; JIANG, NAN-CHUAN; LU, HAO-HAO; WANG, YU-HUI; LI, HUI; SHI, HE-SHUI; HAN, PING

2013-01-01

389

Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

Johanson, Richard E.

2004-08-01

390

Activating function of needle electrodes in anisotropic tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analytical solution for the electrical potential and activating function (AF) established by cylindrical needle\\u000a electrodes in anisotropic tissue. We compare this activating function to (1) AF computed assuming line-source electrodes and\\u000a (2) AF computed using a finite element program. The results show that when the fiber is two needle diameters away from the\\u000a electrodes, the maximum of

Liheng Guo; Jonathan P. Cranford; John C. Neu; Wanda Krassowska Neu

2009-01-01

391

Microbiologic evaluation of needleless and needle-access devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was carried out to determine whether needleless intravenous access devices are more likely to allow microorganisms to enter the fluid pathway than intravenous needle-access devices.Methods: A laboratory study was conducted with two needleless and one intravenous needle-access devices and Enterococcus faecium as a bacterial challenge. Inocula of E. faecium were prepared on the basis of the numerical

Matthew J. Arduino; Lee A. Bland; Lisa E. Danzig; Sigrid K. McAllister; Sonia M. Aguero

1997-01-01

392

Naturally occurring monoterpenoids in needles of Picea abies (L.) Karst  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was made of the effects of different sampling and extraction techniques on the amounts and pattern of monoterpenoids isolated from needles of Norway spruce. The following isolation and analysis procedure was finally adopted: liquid nitrogen-cooled needles were pulverized by a microdismembrator, extracted with pentane overnight at 2°–3°C and concentrated to a volume not less than 3 ml\\/g fresh

Roswitha Schiinwitz; Lydia Merk; H. Ziegler

1987-01-01

393

Shear waves induced by moving needle in MR elastography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast-based method for observing shear wave propagation in a material to determine its stiffness. The objective of this study was to determine whether shear waves suitable for MRE could be induced using a moving acupuncture needle. Tissue-simulating bovine gel phantom and a 0.4 mm diameter acupuncture needle were used in the experiment. The

Q. C. C. Chan; G. Li; R. L. Ehman; P. J. Rossman; G. Cao; R. Li; E. S. Yang

2004-01-01

394

Development of needle-type glucose sensor with high selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amperometric needle-type glucose biosensor employing rhodium as electrocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide detection is described. A novel transducer design is based on electrodeposition of rhodium particles on the external wall of the needle which serves as the working electrode and an external Ag\\/AgCl reference\\/counter electrode. Electropolymerized 1,3-diaminobenezene (1,3-phenylenediamine) is employed as a protective layer for the rhodium particles as well

Qingling Yang; Plamen Atanasov; Ebtisam Wilkins

1998-01-01

395

A strategy to improve the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a bronchoscopic technique that provides access to masses within the mediastinum.\\u000a It is operator dependent, and factors such as needle type, lymph node site, and endobronchial ultrasosonography (EBUS) have\\u000a been implicated as having an impact on its accuracy. This study aimed to develop a strategy for TBNA and specimen preparation\\u000a techniques as the first step

Ghee Chee Phua; Kyung-Jae Rhee; Mariko Koh; Chian Min Loo; Pyng Lee

2010-01-01

396

Retained surgical sponges, needles and instruments  

PubMed Central

Introduction Retained sponges and instruments (RSI) due to surgery are a recognised medical ‘never event’ and have catastrophic implications for patients, healthcare professionals and medical care providers. The aim of this review was to elucidate the extent of the problem of RSI and to identify preventative strategies. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on MEDLINE®, Embase™, the Science Citation Index and Google™ Scholar for articles published in English between January 2000 and June 2012. Studies outlining the incidence, risk, management and attempts to prevent RSI following surgical intervention were retrieved. Results The overall incidence of RSI is low although its incidence is substantially higher in operations performed on open cavities. Sponges are the most commonly retained item when compared with needles and instruments. Clinical presentation is varied, leading to avoidable morbidity, and the error is indefensible medicolegally. Risk factors include emergency operations, operations involving unexpected change in procedure, raised body mass index, and a failure to perform accurate sponge and instrument counts. The existing strategy for prevention is manual counting of sponges and instruments undertaken by surgical personnel. This, however, is fallible. Computer assisted counting of sponges using barcodes and gauze sponges tagged with a radiofrequency identification device aiding manual counting have been trialled recently, with success. Conclusions Vigilance among operating theatre personnel is paramount if RSI is to be prevented. Prospective multicentre trials to assess efficacy of new technologies aiding manual counting should be undertaken if this medical error is to be eliminated completely.

Hariharan, D

2013-01-01

397

Needle aspiration biopsy: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Since its inception more than 50 years ago at Memorial Hospital for Cancer (New York), needle aspiration biopsy has traveled to its present popularity over a torturous road. The early influence of Stewart on the interpretation of aspiration smears and the use of this biopsy method is still worthy of review, particularly the importance of close cooperation between clinician and pathologist. While cytology has been profoundly influenced by individual cell interpretation as practiced by Papanicolaou, it is really pattern recognition that dominates successful diagnosis by the aspiration biopsy smear method. Present concerns over technical variation in procurement of the biopsy and staining methods should be of less importance than identification of the aspiration methodology that produces the best-quality microscopic image. Reliability of diagnosis by aspiration smear must also be judged by a suitable and reproducible standard, something that is not necessarily fulfilled by tissue pathology, although many would believe otherwise. The author proposes that aspiration may also now be judged, like tissue pathology, by clinical outcome. The application and ease of procuring cell samples from tumors for cell image analysis, for flow cytometry and ploidy studies, and for gene rearrangement place this biopsy method in the forefront of the integration of biologic research and clinical medicine. Aspiration biopsy has caused us to explore how the human eye and brain analyze microscopic images and may even assist in the design of useful artificial intelligence diagnostic systems in the future. PMID:2656496

Frable, W J

1989-06-01

398

Transbronchial needle aspiration for cytology specimens.  

PubMed

Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) for diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma has evolved in the USA since the late 1970's. Initial reports advised that aspirated specimens be flushed into a container by normal saline or Hank's solution and processed in a cytology laboratory usually by Millipore filter and other techniques. A highly sophisticated cytology laboratory is the key to the success of this procedure. This study was designed to assess a simpler alternative method of processing the specimen by a direct smear technique. From June 1990 to September 1990, 40 procedures were performed on 34 consecutive patients. Seventy two paired direct smear and fluid specimens for cytology examination were collected. Fifty specimens were found to be negative in both types of specimen preparation. Fifteen were found to be positive in both types of specimens preparation, and six specimens were found to be positive only in the direct smear preparation. One of the 72 specimens was found to be positive in the Millipore and other preparation techniques. Based on our data, we conclude that the use of the direct smear for TBNA specimen preparation is an effective, simpler, and improved method. Proper use of it may increase the diagnostic yield and result in better acceptance of this new procedure. PMID:8087128

Wang, K P; Selcuk, Z T; Erozan, Y

1994-06-01

399

Needle core biopsy for breast lesions: An audit of 467 needle core biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in urban India. Triple assessment includes clinical, radiological and cytological assessment of breast lesions. Guided core needle biopsy has replaced fine needle aspiration cytology in most of the western countries. In resource poor countries FNAC is still a very valuable and cost effective method to diagnose breast lesions. Pitfalls include increased rates of non diagnostic smears, and inadequate smears. Further procedures may be required and this increases the cost, anxiety and delay in diagnosis. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the concordance of radiological and histopathology findings in BI-RADS category 3,4,5 lesions following a core biopsy. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from consecutive symptomatic and opportunistic screen detected patients with abnormalities who underwent ultrasound guided interventional procedures from Jan 2010 to Aug 2011. Symptomatic patients underwent clinical examination, mammogram and breast ultrasound. Women under 35 years of age had only breast ultrasound. Core biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance or clinically by a breast surgeon/ radiologist for BI-RADS category 3,4,5 lesions. Statistical Methods: Chi square test was done to show the strength of association of imaging findings and histopathology results of core biopsy. Results: 437 patients were symptomatic and 30 patients had screen detected abnormalities. The positive predictive value for BI-RADS 5 lesions for malignancy is 93.25% and the negative predictive value of BI-RADS category 3 lesions for cancer is 98.4%. False negative diagnosis on core biopsy was 0.85%. We were able to defer surgery in 60% of the patients with a clear radiological and pathological benign diagnosis. Conclusion: The PPV and NPV for cancer is high with needle core biopsy in BI-RADS 3,4,5 lesions. Where there is no discordance between clinical, radiology and pathology findings, surgery can be avoided in benign lesions. While in resource poor countries FNAC continues to be a valuable method in the diagnosis of palpable and non palpable breast lesions, the practice of needle core biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information.

Radhakrishna, Selvi; Gayathri, Anu; Chegu, Deepa

2013-01-01

400

Conservative medical and surgical management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the definition and diagnosis of interstitial and heterotopic interstitial pregnancy and to evaluate the conservative management of these conditions.Design: A MEDLINE computer search was used to identify relevant studies. The mean values for the duration of amenorrhea, serum ?-hCG level, size of the ectopic mass, and success rates of the various treatment modalities were calculated from the

Susie Lau; Togas Tulandi

1999-01-01

401

Microdialysis separately monitors myocardial interstitial myoglobin during ischemia and reperfusion.  

PubMed

Direct monitoring of myoglobin efflux during ischemia and reperfusion has been limited because of inherent sample collection problems in the ischemic region. Recently, the cardiac dialysis technique has offered a powerful method for monitoring myocardial interstitial levels of low-molecular-weight compounds in the cardiac ischemic region. In the present study, we extended the molecular target to high-molecular-weight compounds by use of microdialysis probes with a high-molecular-mass cutoff and monitored myocardial interstitial myoglobin levels. A dialysis probe was implanted in the left ventricular free wall in anesthetized rabbits. The main coronary artery was occluded for 60 or 120 min. We examined the effects of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion on myocardial interstitial myoglobin levels. Interstitial myoglobin increased within 15 min of ischemia and continued to increase during 120 min of ischemia, whereas blood myoglobin increased at 45 min of ischemia. Lactate and myoglobin in the interstitial space increased during the same period. At 60 min of ischemia, reperfusion markedly accelerated interstitial myoglobin release. The interstitial myoglobin level was fivefold higher at 0-15 min of reperfusion than at 60-75 min of coronary occlusion. The dialysis technique permits earlier detection of myoglobin release and separately monitors myoglobin release during ischemia and reperfusion. Myocardial interstitial myoglobin levels can serve as an index of myocardial injury evoked by ischemia or reperfusion. PMID:15833797

Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Yamazaki, Toji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mori, Hidezo

2005-08-01

402

Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial

Christos Chatzikyrkou; Iyas Hamwi; Christian Clajus; Jan Becker; Carsten Hafer; Jan T Kielstein

2010-01-01

403

The carbon ?100? split interstitial in SiC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster calculation of hyperfine coupling constants based on density functional theory (DFT) has been performed for the carbon ?100? split interstitial (VC + 2C) in various charge and spin states in cubic SiC along with the dihydrogen-containing defect (VC + 2H). Compared to the isolated carbon vacancy, the presence of two carbon atoms in the split interstitial centre causes

T T Petrenko; T L Petrenko; V Ya Bratus’

2002-01-01

404

Pertechnegas lung clearance in different forms of interstitial lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertechnegas lung clearance in different forms of interstitial lung disease. M.J. Thomeer, B. Dehaes, L. Mortelmans, M. Demedts. #ERS Journals Ltd 2002. ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are characterized by an acute or chronic inflammation of the alveolar capillary membrane, which affects the permeability of this membrane. A possible way to measure the permeability of the membrane is by radionuclide

M. J. Thomeer; B. Dehaes; L. Mortelmans; M. Demedts

2002-01-01

405

Characterization of lymphocyte populations in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has been identified as a distinct entity with a more favorable prognosis and better response to immunosuppressive therapies than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). However the inflammatory profile of NSIP has not been characterized. DESIGN: Using immunohistochemistry techniques on open lung biopsy specimens, the infiltrate in NSIP was characterized in terms of T and B

Karina A Keogh; Andrew H Limper

2005-01-01

406

Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ? 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in Si?B clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

1996-12-01

407

Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material  

PubMed Central

During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue.

Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

2010-01-01

408

Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.  

PubMed

During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

2010-04-01

409

Mass spectrometry of radicals created in plasma needle discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present diagnostics of the properties of a plasma needle operating at atmospheric pressure. Our configuration has additional grounded copper ring placed near the tip of the needle. Generated plasma has a larger volume and lower ignition powers with the ring. This configuration is convenient both for treatment of samples and for mass spectroscopy. Our measurements were performed on a standard size plasma needle that we originally used for the treatment of plant cells. Similar work of Stoffels et al. has been done on the `robust' version of the plasma needle that generates an elongated jet of 4 mm length and consumes higher powers. After some efforts we were able to make plasma needle to operate for conditions similar to those used during the treatments of biological samples. Hiden HPR60 mass analyzer was used to obtain the mass spectra. Plasma mode transition was observed for higher values of power transmitted to plasma. Concentrations of N, O, NO, NO2 and O3 were measured. We have also measured spatial profiles of emission and voltage and current waveforms by derivative probes placed close to the tip of the needle.

Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Antonije; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

2008-10-01

410

Prevention of tumour cell dissemination in diagnostic needle procedures  

PubMed Central

Background: A side effect of diagnostic needle biopsies is the possibility to disseminate tumour cells into the needle track, which may cause concern in certain malignant tumour types. Methods: In order to prevent tumour cell dissemination we developed a technology that uses radiofrequency (RF) pulses to sterilise the needle track and denaturate tumour cells. To determine feasibility, we applied this technology to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and used breast cancer as a model tumour. Routine FNAB was performed in 88 patients with adenocarcinoma and blood droplets passing the skin orifice were cytomorphologically analysed for the presence of tumour cells. Results: The analysis showed the presence of tumour cells in 65/88 cases (74%). When using an experimental anti-seeding device in a subset of patients viable tumour cells were found in 0/31 cases (P<0.001). In all 31 patients blood passing the skin orifice was sparse. No degrading effect on the cytological sample inside the needle was detected and pain caused by the RF pulses was comparable to that of the biopsy procedure itself. Conclusion: The herein presented method has the potential to prevent the dissemination of viable tumour cells in the needle track and minimize bleeding without additional pain or degradation of the aspirate.

Wiksell, H; Schassburger, K-U; Janicijevic, M; Leifland, K; Lofgren, L; Rotstein, S; Sandberg, P-O; Wadstrom, C; Auer, G

2010-01-01

411

Could electrical needle stimulation reduce diagnostic errors in electromyography?  

PubMed

During the electromyographic examination there is a risk of wrongly inserting the needle in a muscular area contiguous to the muscle of investigation. The objective of the work is to verify the mistakes chance during the needle placement into the muscle target. We have investigated on 45 patients the identification of the insertion site by electrical stimulation of the muscle, where the needle electrode is inserted, through the same recording needle and calculated how many times the needle can be inserted incorrectly in a muscle close to muscle target. The results showed that during standard needle electromyographic there are a significant error prevalence (33.3%) in the examination of some deeper muscles such as pronator teres (26.3%) and tibialis posterior (40.5%). In conclusion, a correct identification of the muscles tested may a useful practice for all patients especially in patients with motor recruitment problems avoiding other serial examinations and reducing patients discomfort. In other hand, this kind of method can be helpful during a training for a neurophysiologist to improve their technical skill. PMID:18677190

Vecchio, Michele; Molteni, Franco; Falsaperla, Raffaele

2008-08-01

412

Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: paga@hol.gr; Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos [Helenic Red Cross Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece)

2004-08-15

413

Interstitial thermoradiotherapy: thermal dosimetry and clinical results.  

PubMed

From August 1977 to August 1986, 72 patients with advanced primary or recurrent cancers were treated using interstitial thermoradiotherapy. Sites treated included the pelvis in 49 patients, the head and neck in 15, and other sites in six. Median tumor volume was 52 cm3, and all but nine patients had received prior irradiation. In 69 patients, hollow stainless steel catheters were implanted and used as electrodes with a 0.5 MHz radiofrequency (RF) generator, whereas in three patients, standard plastic Henschke tubes were used with a commercially available interstitial microwave (MW) system operating at 915 MHz. Most patients were heated intraoperatively for 30 minutes, aiming for a minimum measured intratumoral temperature (Tmin) of 42 degrees C. The implant was occasionally preceded by external irradiation, and after hyperthermia, the catheters were afterloaded with 192Ir for brachytherapy. Tmin exceeded 42 degrees, 42.5 degrees, 43 degrees, and 44 degrees in 25, 16, 12, and 3, respectively, of 70 patients with temperature data available, and the probability of successful heating was independent of tumor volume or site. Twenty-five of 69 (36%) evaluable patients achieved a complete response (CR). Probability of CR demonstrated a significant univariate dependence upon Tmin, radiation dose, site treated, and tumor volume, but multivariate analysis showed only three significant predictor variables: tumor volume, radiation dose, and Tmin. The probability of a CR ranged from 95% for patients with small tumors receiving high doses of radiation and adequate heat, to 5% for patients with large tumors receiving low radiation doses and less than adequate heat. Of 25 patients with CR, 10 relapsed; median response duration was less than 18 months, depended marginally upon disease site, and was independent of Tmin, radiation dose, and tumor volume. Seventeen patients sustained a complication, of which nine were severe enough to require hospitalization or surgery. All severe complications occurred in patients with pelvic tumors. The probability of a complication of any severity had a significant univariate association with maximum intratumoral temperature (Tmax) and tumor size. We conclude that interstitial thermoradiotherapy offers the promise of heating large tumors in locations where externally applied hyperthermia has not been successful. PMID:2303367

Shimm, D S; Kittelson, J M; Oleson, J R; Aristizabal, S A; Barlow, L C; Cetas, T C

1990-02-01

414

Solving the puzzle of <100> interstitial loop formation in bcc Iron.  

PubMed

The interstitial loop is a unique signature of radiation damage in structural materials for nuclear and other advanced energy systems. Unlike other bcc metals, two types of interstitial loops, 1/2<111> and <100>, are formed in bcc iron and its alloys. However, the mechanism by which <100> interstitial dislocation loops are formed has remained undetermined since they were first observed more than fifty years ago. We describe our atomistic simulations that have provided the first direct observation of <100> loop formation. The process was initially observed using our self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo method, and subsequently confirmed using molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of <100> loops involves a distinctly atomistic interaction between two 1/2<111> loops, and does not follow the conventional assumption of dislocation theory, which is Burgers vector conservation between the reactants and the product. The process observed is different from all previously proposed mechanisms. Thus, our observations might provide a direct link between experiments and simulations and new insights into defect formation that may provide a basis to increase the radiation resistance of these strategic materials. PMID:23848895

Xu, Haixuan; Stoller, Roger E; Osetsky, Yury N; Terentyev, Dmitry

2013-06-28

415

Interactions between Vacancy and Glissile Interstitial Clusters in Iron and Copper.  

SciTech Connect

Reactions between defect clusters and point defects are the main mechanism of clusters growth and shrinkage under different conditions and therefore they are necessary input of any model for prediction of microstructure evolution. Traditionally such reactions are treated as the evolution of size distribution of defect clusters where the change in size is considered to be a simple reaction independent of the atomic structure. For example, the interaction between a vacancy and a self-interstitial cluster is treated as an annihilation reaction. However, recent atomistic studies have demonstrated that such reactions could be more complicated. In this paper, we present the results of atomic level modelling of the interaction between clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and a vacancy in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. It is shown that vacancies annihilate only with interstitials at the cluster edge. Vacancies inside the cluster glide prism do not recombine but prevent cluster mobility. There are significant differences in the interaction related to the differences in the atomic structure of clusters in particular metals.

Puigvi, Mary Angels [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

2004-01-01

416

Transition Metal Compounds as Cathodic Materials in Rechargeable Lithium Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison was made between rechargeable lithium batteries, based on lithium intercalation or lithium interstitial compounds of transition metal chalcogenides or oxides, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Several chalcogenides and oxides show promise as cath...

H. F. Hunger J. E. Ellison

1977-01-01

417

Heating of industrial sewing machine needles: FEA model and verification using IR radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of synthetic fabrics and threads in high speed sewing, needle heating due to friction between the needle and the fabric becomes a serious problem which limits further increase of the sewing speed. The high temperature in the needle can accelerate thread wear, cause wear at the needle eye, and damage the thread. It can also scorch the fabric, as well as temper and weaken the needle itself. Experimental methods, such as: infrared radiometry, infrared pyrometry, etc., have been applied to analyze this problem in previous studies. They revealed some important factors that affect the needle peak steady state temperature. In this study the numerical (FEA) model developed to simulate the needle heating is fine tuned and verified via infrared radiometry. The FEA model incorporates detailed needle geometry and the effects of thread on needle heating. It deals with a transient heat transfer process with time and position dependent boundary conditions. It correlates various important factors that affect the needle heating, such as needle characteristics, fabric properties, and sewing conditions to the needle temperature distribution. Given various needle geometries, sewing conditions, and fabric properties, the model can simulate the needle heating process, including the initial heating phase and the steady state. It can also predict the temperature distribution in the needle as well as the time to reach steady state. The trends of the simulation results correlate well with experiments.

Li, Qinwen; Liasi, Evangelos; Simon, Daniel L.; Du, Ruxu; Bujas-Dimitrijevic, Jasmina; Chen, Anshi

1999-03-01

418

Behavior of tip-steerable needles in ex vivo and in vivo tissue.  

PubMed

Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering through experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by prebent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P; van Vledder, Mark G; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A; Song, Danny Y; Okamura, Allison M

2012-10-01

419

Solute segregation in metals under irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model has been designed to study substitutional solute segregation during irradiation in facecentered-cubic metals. The model includes a split interstitial binding to impurities to second-neighbor distances, vacancy binding to impurities to first-neighbor distances, and the possibility of migration of the bound complexes. Also taken into account are the effects of vacancy and interstitial diffusional encounters with impurities and

Robert A. Johnson; Nghi Q. Lam

1976-01-01

420

Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.  

PubMed

The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

2009-07-01

421

A prospective controlled study of fine-needle aspiration and Tru-cut ® needle biopsy of dominant thyroid nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the relative merits of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and Tru-cut® needle biopsy (TNB), we conducted a prospective controlled trial in 384 patients who had dominant thyroid nodules. FNA had a slightly higher diagnostic yield and fewer complications than TNB. Definitive confirmation of the biopsy diagnoses was obtained in 41.1% of the patients. Both techniques achieved a very

John Boey; C. Hsu; Robert J. Collins; John Wong

1984-01-01

422

Acute interstitial nephritis due to nicergoline (Sermion).  

PubMed

We report a case of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) due to nicergoline (Sermion). A 50-year-old patient admitted to our hospital for fever and acute renal failure. Before admission, he had been taking nicergoline and bendazac lysine due to retinal vein occlusion at ophthalmologic department. Thereafter, he experienced intermittent fever and skin rash. On admission, clinical symptoms (i.e. arthralgia and fever) and laboratory findings (i.e. eosinophilia and renal failure) suggested AIN, and which was confirmed by pathologic findings on renal biopsy. A lymphocyte transformation test demonstrated a positive result against nicergoline. Treatment was consisted of withdrawal of nicergoline and intravenous methylprednisolone, and his renal function was completely recovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nicergoline-associated AIN. PMID:12372954

Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Park, Joo Hyun; Choi, Yeong Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Sung Hak; Bang, Byung Kee

2002-01-01

423

[Hypoproteinemia causing postoperative "interstitial" paralytic ileus].  

PubMed

On the basis of recent pathophysiological data and clinical observations in three patients, this paper draws attention to the commonly neglected importance of postoperative hypoproteinemia as the cause of an edema of the intestinal wall with a consequent "interstitial" paralytic ileus. The characteristic features of this syndrome are its onset between the third and the eighth postoperative day; the absence of other known causes of intestinal hypomotility; the benign, but protracted course without treatment; and the therapeutic success achieved by the correction of a hypoproteinemic fluid overload with concentrated albumin and a diuretic. In addition, parenteral hyperalimentation and Rheomacrodex-Sorbit may be indicated, but the hypoproteinemia should at any rate be corrected. PMID:581662

Scheidegger, A; Lundsgaard-Hansen, P; Küpfer, K; Stirnemann, H

1979-01-01

424

Interstitial Lung Disease in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy  

PubMed Central

The lung is one of the most common extra-muscular targets in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prevalent and often devastating manifestation of IIM. IIM-associated ILD (IIM-ILD) contributes to nearly 80% of the mortality in IIM with a reported prevalence of 65% of newly diagnosed IIM cases. Although ILD frequently accompanies clinical and laboratory findings of myositis, overt signs of muscle disease may be absent in the setting of significant lung disease. Understanding the varied scope of presentation of these diseases is essential to providing optimal patient care. This review will provide an in depth examination of ILD in IIM both from a rheumatologic and pulmonary perspective and will discuss the scope of disease, presenting features, genetic associations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, radiographic and histopathologic findings, along with biomarker assessment and a rationale for therapeutic intervention.

Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ascherman, Dana P.; Cottin, Vincent; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Danoff, Sonye K.; Oddis, Chester V.

2011-01-01

425

From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain  

PubMed Central

There are still many things to be found out about interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) because the pathological processes underlying the condition are not yet elucidated, biological markers of the condition are not yet available, and the type and severity of symptoms can vary, so, clearly defining the condition is not yet possible. For example, it is not clearly understood whether IC/PBS represents a systemic disease, if it is localized in the bladder, or if it was initially localized in the bladder and it later evolved into a systemic disease. This condition is best managed by using a multidisciplinary approach. Management requires a good integration and knowledge of all pelvic organ systems and other systems including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychiatric systems.

Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Blaj, I; Jinga, V; Geavlete, P

2010-01-01

426

Interstitial lung disease: progress and problems  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease involves all areas of medicine as it often occurs in patients with comorbidities or as a consequence of systemic diseases and their treatment. Typically the physician is faced with a breathless patient, a diffusely abnormal chest radiograph, and a wide differential diagnosis. Progress has been made in using high resolution computed tomography as the key investigation in characterising the pattern and extent of the disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage is particularly important in excluding infection as a cause of diffuse lung infiltrates. Surgical lung biopsies have led to a new classification system for the range of histopathological patterns of disease that were previously known by the collective term cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Problems persist in deciding when a surgical lung biopsy is clinically justified, in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and in finding more effective treatments.

Bourke, S J

2006-01-01

427

[Occupational asthma and interstitial cobalt-induced changes in a dental technician: a case report].  

PubMed

It is a case report on a 55-year-old non-smoking female, dental technician, with a 36-year history of cobalt exposure. The patient suffered from dyspnea, coughing and decrease in physical load tolerance about 20 years after the first occupational contact with cobalt-containing metal dentures. Skin tests performed with a battery of common allergens (metals: nickel, chrome, cobalt; acrylates; disinfectants; and natural rubber latex) were negative. In the patient, interstitial radiological changes, respiratory insufficiency and decrease in diffusion capacity were observed. While performing a provocation test with 0.05% cobaltous chloride, the patient developed dyspnea with concomitant decrease in 1 second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and peak respiratory flow (PEF) from the beginning of the 3rd hour after provocation and maximum intensity at the 8th hour. These symptoms persisted until the 24th hour. The authors conclude that occupational exposure of the dental technician to cobalt dust derived from metal dentures may cause chronic airway disease with interstitial inflammation, fibrosis and occupational asthma. PMID:12923999

Wittczak, Tomasz; Walusiak, Jolanta; Krakowiak, Anna; Pa?czy?ski, Cezary

2003-01-01

428

Atomistic studies of stress effects on self-interstitial diffusion in ?-titanium*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion anisotropy of intrinsic point defects is an important factor governing the behavior of the HCP metals bombarded by energetic particles. The effects of stress on the diffusion and its anisotropy, although known to be important, have not been well understood. In this paper, we use a combination of molecular dynamics and molecular statics methods to investigate energy states of a self-interstitial in ?-titanium, a typical HCP metal. Our calculation shows that the most stable configuration of the self-interstitial is the basal-split dumbbell configuration on the basal plane. Compression along the [0001] or the [1¯100] directions leads to an insignificant change in the migration energies, while compression along the [11¯20] direction leads to a larger migration energy. A significant change of the diffusion anisotropy is observed when a uni-axial compressive stress of 200 MPa is applied along the [11¯20] direction. Similar stress along the other two directions does not produce substantial changes of the anisotropy. We also show that an applied hydrostatic stress can significantly change the diffusion anisotropy of HCP metals and alloys. Thus, under irradiation, a hydrostatic stress can produce a significant creep-like deformation (i.e., with a deviatoric strain rate) through a stress-dependent change of the growth rate.

Wen, M.; Woo, C. H.; Huang, Hanchen

2000-05-01

429

Transport and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil Interstitial Water Across Forested, Montane Hillslopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of compounds formed from the degradation of both terrestrial and microbial material. The abundance and composition of the DOM present in stream water is important to stream processes such as UV light attenuation, nutrient supply and metal sorption. However, an excess of DOM can cause reactions with chlorination compounds at drinking water treatment plants, creating potentially harmful disinfection byproducts. Currently, little is known regarding the influence of soil interstitial water on stream DOM composition. In this study, we explore the role of interstitial water on DOM transport and transformation from the hillslope to the stream in a montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Colorado. We installed a suite of tension lysimeters located within the rooting zone across representative north- and south-facing slopes. Interstitial water and stream samples were collected daily for approximately seven weeks during the 2013 spring snow melt period and analyzed for DOM composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. To date, we have used fluorescence index (FI) to evaluate differences between microbial and terrestrial DOM inputs and humification index (HIX) to assess degree of humification undergone by the DOM. Preliminary results indicate that FI was significantly correlated with hillslope aspect (p<.01), with higher FI on north-facing slopes, suggesting more microbial precursor material. Stream samples reveal greater humification throughout the snowmelt period (p<.01). This increase could suggest a transition from deeper groundwater sources to shallow soil interstitial water inputs into the stream during snowmelt. These preliminary results suggest that changes in DOM composition through the catchment during snowmelt can be linked to hydrologic transport. Further site specific model development will reveal explicit changes in the DOM chemistry and will increase our understanding of fundamental nutrient cycling processes at the hillslope to catchment scale.

Burns, M. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.

2013-12-01

430

Can elastography replace fine needle aspiration?  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the best diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive tract and surrounding organs. Whereas EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for providing histological confirmation for previously hard to reach lesions, elastography is aiming to obtain a “virtual biopsy” by assessing differences in elasticity between the normal and pathological – usually malignant – tissue. A question that arises is whether EUS-elastography has reached a stage where it might successfully supplant the use of EUS-FNA in some of its clinical indications. The main indications of EUS-guided FNA are listed in this article and published data on the usage of elastography in these settings is reviewed for each one. In some of the indications, a plethora of studies have been published, notably for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, while in others there is little relevant data (submucosal masses, left liver lesions, left adrenal masses), or elastography simply is not suitable as a diagnostic means (cystic lesions). Our conclusion is that elastography is not yet ready to replace EUS-FNA in its indications, but should complement it in various settings, especially for the assessment of lymph nodes. It can only be considered an alternative on a case-by-case basis, in situations where FNA is regarded as a contraindication. Furthermore, it could be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced EUS, in order to further improve the accuracy of non-invasive EUS assessment, possibly making the case for a more limited or targeted use of EUS-FNA in selected cases.

Popescu, Alexandru; Saftoiu, Adrian

2014-01-01

431

Failure induced by thermomigration of interstitial Cu in Pb-free flip chip solder joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure induced by thermomigration in Pb-free SnAg flip chip solder joints has been investigated by electromigration tests under 9.7×103 A/cm2 at 150 °C. The fast interstitial diffusion of Cu atoms from underbump metallization into Sn matrix caused void formation at the passivation opening on the chip side. The Cu diffusion was driven by a large thermal gradient and led to void formation even in the neighboring unpowered bumps. When the thermal gradient is above 400 °C/cm, theoretical calculation indicates that the thermomigration force is greater than the electromigration force at 9.7×103 A/cm2 stressing.

Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Chih; Tu, King-Ning

2008-09-01

432

Zone Refining of Rare Earth Metals. II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In work reported at the 13th Rare Earth Conference, zone melting was shown to move impurities in commercial purity rare earth metals. The interstitial impurities O and N moved in the opposite direction from the zone while metallic impurities moved with th...

D. Fort B. J. Beaudry D. W. Jones K. A. Gschneidner

1979-01-01

433

Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model to simulate the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-01-01

434

Electrical resistivity due to interstitial oxygen in the system TiOc (0<=c<=0.5)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistivity of the interstitial metallic alloys TiOc has been measured as a function of concentration in the range 0

A. Filion; J. P. Nerou; P.-E. Girard

1975-01-01

435

From the Cover: Microfabricated needles for transdermal delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles: Fabrication methods and transport studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of micrometer-scale needles could be used to deliver drugs, proteins, and particles across skin in a minimally invasive manner. We therefore developed microfabrication techniques for silicon, metal, and biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays having solid and hollow bores with tapered and beveled tips and feature sizes from 1 to 1,000 ?m. When solid microneedles were used, skin permeability was increased in vitro by orders of magnitude for macromolecules and particles up to 50 nm in radius. Intracellular delivery of molecules into viable cells was also achieved with high efficiency. Hollow microneedles permitted flow of microliter quantities into skin in vivo, including microinjection of insulin to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. transdermal drug delivery | skin | microelectromechanical systems | solid microneedle | hollow needle injection

McAllister, Devin V.; Wang, Ping M.; Davis, Shawn P.; Park, Jung-Hwan; Canatella, Paul J.; Allen, Mark G.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2003-11-01

436

Approaches for modeling interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumors within or adjacent to bone: Theoretical and experimental evaluations  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objectives of this study were to develop numerical models of interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumors within or adjacent to bone, to evaluate model performance through theoretical analysis, and to validate the models and approximations used through comparison to experiments. Methods 3D transient biothermal and acoustic finite element models were developed, employing four approximations of 7 MHz ultrasound propagation at bone/soft tissue interfaces. The various approximations considered or excluded reflection, refraction, angle-dependence of transmission coefficients, shear mode conversion, and volumetric heat deposition. Simulations were performed for parametric and comparative studies. Experiments within ex vivo tissues and phantoms were performed to validate the models by comparison to simulations. Temperature measurements were conducted using needle thermocouples or MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Finite element models representing heterogeneous tissue geometries were created based on segmented MR images. Results High ultrasound absorption at bone/soft tissue interfaces increased the volumes of target tissue that could be ablated. Models using simplified approximations produced temperature profiles closely matching both more comprehensive models and experimental results, with good agreement between 3D calculations and MRTI. The correlation coefficients between simulated and measured temperature profiles in phantoms ranged from 0.852 to 0.967 (p-value < 0.01) for the four models. Conclusions Models using approximations of interstitial ultrasound energy deposition around bone/soft tissue interfaces produced temperature distributions in close agreement with comprehensive simulations and experimental measurements. These models may be applied to accurately predict temperatures produced by interstitial ultrasound ablation of tumors near and within bone, with applications toward treatment planning.

Scott, Serena J.; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter D.; Cam, Richard N.; Han, Misung; Rieke, Viola; Burdette, E. Clif; Diederich, Chris J.

2014-01-01

437

Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.  

PubMed

We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150 mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3 mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2 mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution. PMID:23674421

Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

2013-10-01

438

Interstitial myofibroblasts: predictors of progression in membranous nephropathy.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the role of interstitial myofibroblasts in the progression of membranous nephropathy; and to assess the predictive value of quantifying myofibroblasts in determining long term renal outcome. METHODS: All cases of membranous nephropathy, diagnosed by renal biopsy at University Hospital of South Manchester between 1984 and 1987, were studied retrospectively. The biopsy specimens (n = 26) were reviewed and analysed morphometrically to measure interstitial volume as a proportion of the total volume of renal cortex, and numbers of interstitial myofibroblasts (cells positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin within the interstitium). Clinical data, with a follow up of seven to eight years, was available for 24 patients, and renal outcome was correlated with pathological changes in the initial diagnostic biopsy specimen. RESULTS: The number of myofibroblasts and interstitial volume were inversely correlated with creatinine clearance at the initial biopsy, and at the end of follow up. Percentage sclerosed glomeruli or stage of glomerular disease, assessed by electron microscopy, did not correlate with renal function at initial biopsy or during follow up. The number of myofibroblasts, but not interstitial volume, correlated with severity of proteinuria at initial biopsy. Of 15 biopsy specimens showing no or mild interstitial fibrosis, four showed a notable increase in the number of interstitial myofibroblasts. All of these patients developed chronic renal failure, compared with three of 11 patients whose specimens showed no or a mild increase in myofibroblast numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial myofibroblasts play a role in the development of interstitial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in membranous nephropathy. Increased numbers of myofibroblasts in biopsy specimens showing only mild fibrosis may predict subsequent chronic renal failure. Images

Roberts, I S; Burrows, C; Shanks, J H; Venning, M; McWilliam, L J

1997-01-01

439

Long term follow-up of patients with Cushing's disease treated by interstitial irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The first 86 patients with Cushing's disease treated with interstitial irradiation (by needle implantation) as the sole therapy were reviewed. In the 82 patients who were reassessed 1 yr after treatment 63 (77%) achieved remission. This study comprises the outcome and complications in the 54 patients who had a remission and whom we were able to follow. The follow-up period ranged from 3-26 yr (mean, 10.5) from the time of remission. No instance of clinical or radiological relapse has occurred. Of these 54 patients, yttrium-90 alone was used in 32, of whom 12 (37%) required corticosteroid or T4 replacement therapy in a mean time of 3.5 months; in 7 of these 12 we elected to give an ablative dose. Gold-198 alone was used in 15 patients, of whom 7 (47%) developed hypopituitarism in a mean time of 76 months. Both isotopes were used in 7 patients. A diurnal serum cortisol rhythm was found in 28 of the 31 patients who were not receiving corticosteroid therapy. In 5 of the 7 patients with an initially abnormal pituitary fossa, serial radiological studies revealed remodelling in 3. There have been no complications in the last 17 years. Pituitary implantation with yttrium-90 is an effective alternative to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, with a high remission rate, no recurrence (as yet), no operative complications, and avoidance of hormone replacement in the majority.

Sandler, L.M.; Richards, N.T.; Carr, D.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

1987-09-01

440

A Randomized Trial Comparing Buttonhole with Rope Ladder Needling in Conventional Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Buttonhole needling is reported to be associated with less pain than standard needling. The purpose of this study was to compare patient perceived pain and fistula complications in buttonhole and standard needling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this study, 140 conventional hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to buttonhole or standard needling. The primary outcome was patient perceived pain with needling at 8 weeks. Fistula complications of hematoma, bleeding postdialysis, and infection were tracked. Results Median pain score at 8 weeks using a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 cm was similar for standard and buttonhole needling (1.2 [0.4–2.4] versus 1.5 [0.5–3.4]; P=0.57). Rate of hematoma formation in standard needling was higher (436 versus 295 of 1000 hemodialysis sessions; P=0.03). Rate of no bleeding postdialysis was 23.6 and 28.3 per 1000 in standard and buttonhole needling, respectively (P=0.40). Rate of localized signs of infection in standard versus buttonhole needling was 22.4 versus 50 per 1000 (P=0.003). There was one episode of Staphylococcal aureus bacteremia during the 8 weeks with buttonhole needling and no episodes with standard needling (P=1.00). Within 12 months of follow-up, another two buttonhole needling episodes developed S. aureus bacteremia, and nine buttonhole needling episodes had needling site abscesses requiring intravenous antibiotics versus zero standard needling episodes (P=0.003). Conclusions Patients had no difference in pain between buttonhole and standard needling. Although fewer buttonhole needling patients developed a hematoma, there was an increased risk of bacteremia and localized signs of infection. Routine use of buttonhole needling is associated with increased infection risk.

Ahmed, Sofia B.; Atkar, Rajneet; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2012-01-01

441

Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases\\u000a include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary\\u000a Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the\\u000a detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD.

Alberto Hidalgo; Tomás Franquet; Ana Giménez; Ramón Bordes; Rosa Pineda; Marta Madrid

2006-01-01

442

Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

2014-01-01

443

Entropic origins of stability in silicon interstitial clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of entropy in the thermodynamic properties of small interstitial clusters in crystalline silicon is investigated using an empirical potential. It is shown that both vibrational and configurational entropies are potentially important in setting the properties of small silicon interstitial clusters and, in particular, contribute to the formation of ``magic'' sizes that exhibit special stability, which have been inferred by experimental measurements of dopant diffusion. The results suggest that a competition between formation energy and entropy of small clusters could be linked to the selection process between various self-interstitial precipitate morphologies observed in ion-implanted crystalline silicon.

Kapur, Sumeet S.; Sinno, Talid

2008-12-01

444

Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

2014-04-01

445

Laryngeal chondrosarcoma diagnosed by core-needle biopsy.  

PubMed

We report a case of chondrosarcoma of the larynx, diagnosed by a percutaneous core-needle biopsy (CNB). Cartilaginous tumors of the larynx are usually diagnosed by biopsy with direct laryngomicroscopy under general anesthesia. However, patients find it difficult to undergo a biopsy under general anesthesia, for physical, economic, and social reasons. Instead, we can readily detect and sample tumors of the larynx using ultrasound under local anesthesia with reduced stress. Concerning needle-puncture biopsies, including fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and CNB, some studies have reported needle track dissemination, a possible complication in patients with malignant tumors. Thus, in the head and neck region, we generally use FNAC for biopsies, not CNB. However, it can be difficult to diagnose bone tumors by cytology alone. Regarding primary bone tumors, only one study has reported needle track dissemination by CNB, in osteosarcoma of the femur. Additionally, this complication has not been reported before with chondrosarcoma anywhere in the body. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning chondrosarcoma of the larynx diagnosed by percutaneous CNB. We recommend CNB as a useful and safe diagnostic technique for primary bone tumors in the head and neck region. PMID:24746630

Miyamaru, Satoru; Haba, Koichi

2014-01-01

446

[Clinical application of the Colorado-microdissection needle in neurosurgery].  

PubMed

The steel scalpel and scalp clips have been commonly used for scalp incision in many neurosurgical procedures. Electrocautery is used mainly for subcutaneous and deep-layer dissection. The use of electrocautery on scalp incision has been avoided because of possible adverse events such as wound dehiscence and infection. We report our experience in Colorado-microdissection needle electrocautery for scalp incisions performed in our institution between November, 2006 and March, 2009. The rate of wound infection was compared in patients using the microdissection needle (100 procedures, n=93) and those using the steel scalpel/clips (n=261) during the same period. In patients using the microdissection needle, wound healing delay was not observed. Wound infection developed in only one procedure (1.0%) with the microdissection needle, and it developed in 6 procedures (2.2%) with the steel scalpel/clips, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.34). The use of electrocautery tended to cause little tissue distortion during fine dissection and it reduced blood loss. In conclusion, Colorado-microdissection needle electrocautery for scalp incisions could be safe and quite useful in neurosurgical procedures. PMID:20543227

Baba, Shiro; Matsuo, Takayuki; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Yano, Hiroki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

2010-06-01

447

NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many or fewer needles than the current HDR brachytherapy workflow. Combined with robot assisted brachytherapy, this system has the potential to reduce side effects associated with treatment. A physical trial should be done to test the implant feasibility of NPIP needle configurations.

Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 760 Davis Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, 4th Floor Sutardja Dai Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1764 (United States); Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations, University of California, Berkeley, 4141 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1777 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, 4141 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1777 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2012-07-15

448

Electromyographic Comparison of Forearm Muscle Movements for Fine Skin Suturing Between an Enlarged Pen Needle Holder and a Webster Needle Holder  

PubMed Central

Background: For surgical suturing, a Webster needle holder uses wrist supinating with supinator and extrinsic muscles, whereas a pen needle holder uses finger twisting with intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Because the latter is better suited to microsurgery, which requires fine suturing with less forearm muscle movement, we have recently adopted an enlarged pen needle holder scaled from a micro needle holder for fine skin suturing. In this study, we assessed whether the enlarged pen needle holder reduced forearm muscle movement during fine skin suturing as compared with the Webster needle holder. Methods: A fine skin-suturing task was performed using pen holding with the enlarged micro needle holder or scissor holding with the Webster needle holder by 9 experienced and 6 inexperienced microsurgeons. The task lasted for 60 seconds and was randomly performed 3 times for e