Sample records for interstitial metallic needle

  1. Small-Polaronic Diffusion of Light Interstitials in bcc Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Emin; M. I. Baskes; W. D. Wilson

    1979-01-01

    The small-polaronic diffusion associated with simple models of light interstitials in bcc metals has been investigated. By transcending the simplifications which are often introduced in studying electronic small-polaron transport, we calculate diffusion coefficients which are reasonably consistent with available data. In particular, an explanation of the \\

  2. [Pronounced progression of interstitial pneumonia in a precious metal worker].

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, K; Yamaguchi, T; Amano, H; Nakagawa, A; Takao, T; Tamaki, M; Joh, T; Murota, Y; Kawabata, Y

    1999-07-01

    A 43-year-old man who had been engaged in the precious-metal processing industry for 18 years was admitted to our hospital because of shortness of breath on exertion. Chest roentgenograms disclosed ground glass opacities and annular-nodular shadows in the basal area of the right lung field and almost all of the left lung field. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed, and histologic examination disclosed usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Mineral analysis revealed high modes of silicon and aluminum, two elements consistent with the materials used in the patient's factory. The histopathological findings indicated interstitial pneumonia caused by the inhalation of dust particles. After corticosteroid therapy, computed tomographic scans disclosed that the ground glass opacities had subsided, but that honeycomb shadows remained. A chest roentgenogram taken 2 years earlier demonstrated only minute granular lesions in the basal area of right lung field. The interstitial shadows had progressed significantly over the intervening 2-year span. The findings in this case should be of value to the etiologic study of UIP. PMID:10481461

  3. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125. PMID:25979330

  4. Fabrication of a hollow needle structure by dicing, wet etching and metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Hasada, Takehiko; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We previously proposed a novel fabrication process, which combined mechanical dicing and anisotropic wet etching, to reduce the cost of micro-electro-mechanical system devices, and fabricated various solid-type microneedle structures using this process for trans-dermal drug delivery systems. The current research involved us enhancing our previous processes by applying metal plating and using a minimum number of photolithography steps, and we fabricated a hollow-type micro-needle structure, in which a flow channel was formed at the center of the needle projection, for supplying medical solutions from the area behind the needle. We fabricated two different shaped needle structures, pyramidal and flattened needles. The height and pitch of both needle types were 120-250 µm and 230-280 µm, respectively. The developed process is useful for producing disposable microneedles for bio-medical applications.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE METHODS FOR COLLECTING INTERSTITIAL WATER FOR TRACE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METAL ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several common materials and methods used to collect interstitial water were evaluated to determine their effect on the accuracy and precision of measured concentrations of selected organic compounds and metals. e compared the concentration of pollutants in doses seawater before ...

  6. Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Steinnes; A. Gos

    Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and juniper (Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses

  7. Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D ?eburnis; E Steinnes

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and juniper (Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses

  8. Properties of High Tc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Microscope with High ?-Metal Needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Matsuda, Kazuka; Yamazaki, Osamu; Natsume, Miyuki; Ota, Hajime; Mizoguchi, Takahiro

    2001-05-01

    A new type of superconducting interference device (SQUID) microscope was designed and fabricated. A direct-coupled SQUID magnetometer with a high ?-metal needle was used and the substrate was machined to create a dimple for the needle at the center of the pick-up loop. One end of the needle penetrated through the superconducting pick-up loop in a vacuum; the needle was fixed in the vacuum window with the other end at room temperature in the outside atmosphere. As a demonstration, a laser printed output was scanned by the microscope. Line bars with a line width of 100 ?m and a spacing between lines of 200 ?m were clearly imaged.

  9. Phonons in quantum solids with defects. [lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    A formalism was developed for temperature-dependent, self-consistent phonons in quantum solids with defects. Lattice vacancies and interstitials in solid helium and metallic hydrogen, as well as electronic excitations in solid helium, were treated as defects that modify properties of these systems. The information to be gained from the modified phonon spectrum is discussed.

  10. Ultralow contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott A; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Peter V; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chongmin; Browning, Nigel D

    2013-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of Cr metal on Nb-doped SrTiO?(001) is accompanied by Cr diffusion to interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes, an anchoring of the Cr film to the substrate, charge transfer from Cr to Ti, and metallization of the near-surface region, as depicted in the figure. The contact resistance of the resulting interface is exceedingly low. PMID:23649872

  11. Thermodynamics of Interstitial Impurities Removal from Refractory Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. KRISHNAMURTHY; A. TEKIN; C. K. GUPTA

    2001-01-01

    The applied thermodynamic aspects of removing hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and silicon from vanadium, niobium and tantalum metals by pyrovacuum treatments are considered in this paper. Two major processes operate in refining by pyrovacuum treatment. One is distillation and the other is degassing. Distillation is mainly used to remove substitutional impurities that are either already present in the metal or

  12. Thermodynamics of Interstitial Impurities Removal from Refractory Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. KRISHNAMURTHY; A. TEKIN; C. K. GUPTA

    2002-01-01

    The applied thermodynamic aspects of removing hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and silicon from vanadium, niobium and tantalum metals by pyrovacuum treatments are considered in this paper. Two major processes operate in refining by pyrovacuum treatment. One is distillation and the other is degassing. Distillation is mainly used to remove substitutional impurities that are either already present in the metal or

  13. Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ? < 1?mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70?µm on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

  14. A molecular loop with interstitial channels in a chiral environment and study of formation of metal-metal bonds in dinickel, dipalladium and dititanium complexes 

    E-print Network

    Ibragimov, Sergey

    2006-08-16

    This dissertation consists of two independent topics: (1) a molecular loop with interstitial channels in a chiral environment; (2) study of formation of metal-metal bonds in dinickel, dipalladium and dititanium complexes On ...

  15. Hard metal interstitial pulmonary disease associated with a form of welding in a metal parts coating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, S.; Gerstenhaber, B.; Welch, L.; Klimstra, D.; Smith, G.J.; Beckett, W. (Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We describe two cases of hard metal pulmonary disease (one fatal) in workers employed in the same area of a metal coating plant using the detonation gun process for applying a durable metal surface to metal parts. In this form of welding, a mixture of powdered metals, including tungsten carbide and cobalt, is heated by ignition of a flammable gas and propelled from the end of the gun' at high temperature and velocity to form a welded metal coating. This process is done in an enclosed chamber and with each application, large volumes of fine aerosols are created. Inhalation exposure to hard metal may occur during the mounting and removal of the metal parts between applications, in spite of engineering controls and industrial hygiene surveillance. One of the cases presented with minimal chest x-ray abnormalities and an obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing, although subsequent open lung biopsy showed diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. The fact that two cases of hard metal pulmonary interstitial disease occurred where thorough exposure control procedures and a surveillance program for cobalt were in place may indicate the need for revisions of the current technology used when hard metal is applied in the detonation gun process.

  16. On the interaction between a vacancy and interstitial loops in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Puigvi, Mary Angels [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; de Diego, Nieves [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool

    2007-01-01

    Atomic-scale computer simulation is used to study interaction between a vacancy and clusters of self-interstitial atoms in metals with hcp, fcc and bcc crystal structure: -zirconium, copper and -iron. Effects of cluster size, atomic structure, dislocation nature of the cluster side and temperature are investigated. A vacancy can recombine with any interstitial in small clusters and this does not affect cluster mobility. In large clusters interaction depends on whether the cluster sides dissociate into partial dislocations. A vacancy recombines only on undissociated sides and corners created with undissociated segments. Vacancies inside the cluster perimeter do not recombine but restrict cluster mobility. Temperature enhances recombination by either increasing the number of recombination sites or assisting vacancy diffusion towards such sites. The results are relevant to differences in bcc, fcc and hcp metals microstructure evolution under irradiation observed experimentally and studied by theoretical or higher level modelling techniques.

  17. Range of forces on host-metal atoms around interstitial hydrogen in Pd and Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, C.; Fähnle, M.; Schimmele, L.; Chan, C. T.; Ho, K. M.

    1994-08-01

    Forces on the host-metal atoms surrounding a hydrogen atom at different interstitial positions in palladium and niobium are calculated from first principles in the local-density approximation with a mixed-basis pseudopotential supercell approach. For supercells PdnH (n=1,4,8,16,32) previously reported results are reanalyzed and corrected based on a recently noticed simplification in the computational method. Results are presented for supercells NbnH (n=1,2,4,8,16). In both elements the displacement forces decay dominantly within the range of one lattice constant. The elastic force-dipole tensors are determined from the first-principles forces. The results for octahedral occupation of H in Pd and tetrahedral occupation of H in Nb support the picture of static occupation of distinct interstitial sites.

  18. Metal-metal bonding and interstitials in reduced rare-earth metal halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Corbett; D. S. Dudis; J. E. Ford; S. J. Hwu; G. Meyer; S. Wijeyesekera

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory research in recent years has shown the rare-earth elements in their highly reduced halides exhibit a remarkable ability to undergo cluster formation, some as isolated units and others as infinite chains or slabs containing double-metal layers. Only a few of the elements have been studied in any detail, principally scandium, yttrium and gadolinium. Many of these new compounds are

  19. Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide normalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The authors investigated the utility of interstitial water concentrations of metals and simultaneously extracted metal/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to explain the biological availability of sediment-associated divalent metals to benthic organisms exposed in the laboratory to sediments from five saltwater and four freshwater locations in the US, Canada, and China. The amphipod Ampelisca abdita or the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were exposed to 70 sediments from the five saltwater locations, and the amphipod Hyalella azteca or the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to 55 sediments from four freshwater locations in 10-d lethality tests. Almost complete absence of toxicity in spiked sediments and field sediments where metals were the only known source of contamination and where interstitial water toxic units (IWTUs) were < 0.5 indicates that toxicity associated with sediments having SEM/AVS ratios < 1.0 from two saltwater locations in industrial harbors was not metals-related as these sediments contained <0.5 IWTU. Metals-associated toxicity was absent in 100% of sediments from the remaining three saltwater field locations, where metals were the only known source of contamination and SEM/AVS ratios were {le} 1.0. Two-thirds of 45 sediments from seven saltwater and freshwater field locations having both IWTUs > 0.5 (55%) were used alone. The difference between the molar concentrations of SEM and AVS (SEM-AVS) can provide important insight into the extent of additional available binding capacity, the magnitude by which AVS binding has been exceeded, and, when organism response is considered, the potential magnitude of importance of other metal binding phases. SEM-AVS should be used instead of SEM/AVS ratios as a measure of metals availability. In published experiments with both metal-spiked and field sediments, SEM-AVS and IWTUs accurately identified absence of sediment toxicity and with less accuracy identified the presence of toxicity.

  20. Theory of light interstitials in bcc metals. I. Self-trapped state of hydrogen and muons in Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Fukai, Yuh

    1980-07-01

    A quantum-mechanical calculation has been performed on the self-trapped state of hydrogen isotopes and positive muons in Nb. By solving a Schrödinger equation for these light interstitials in the field of interaction with surrounding metal atoms, the energy and the wave function of the interstitials and the displacements of metal atoms have been derived. It is concluded, in particular, that hydrogen isotopes occupy tetrahedral (T) sites, and positive muons occupy octahedral (O) sites in Nb. The origin of the systematic variation of the relative stability of O sites vs T sites is clarified. Some calculations performed on the excited state are also described.

  1. Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) growing nearby different industrial sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fangfang; Wen, Dazhi; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Jiong; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from industrial activities pose a serious threat to human health and impose the need for monitoring both inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial areas. We selected Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) as potential biomonitor and collected the current (C) and previous year (C+1) needles from three industrial sites dominated by petrochemical, ceramics manufacturing, and iron and steel smelting plants and one remote site to determine heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni and Co) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in unwashed and water-washed needles. Both unwashed and washed C+1 needles showed generally higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than C needles, although the washed needles more clearly spotlighted the accumulation effect of PAHs over exposure time. Water-washing resulted in a significant decrease in needle PAH concentrations with more significant effects shown in C needles. By contrast, needle heavy metal concentrations were much less affected by washing. Although heavy metals and PAHs might differ in adsorption and uptake strategies, their higher concentrations in the needles at the industrial sites indicated conspicuous contamination due to industrial emissions there. The PAH distribution patterns in pine needles accorded with the real types of energy consumption in the study sites and were efficiently used for pinpointing local pollutant sources. PMID:21174990

  2. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Berry; D. J. Hansen; W. S. Boothman; J. D. Mahony; D. L. Robson; D. M. di Toro; B. P. Shipley; B. Rogers; J. M. Corbin

    1996-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that dry weight concentrations of metals in sediments cannot be used to predict toxicity across sediments. However, several studies using sediments from both freshwater and saltwater have shown that interstitial water concentration or normalization involving acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) can be used to predict toxicity in sediments contaminated with cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, or zinc across a

  3. EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

  4. The Detection of Cold Dust in Cas A: Evidence for the Formation of Metallic Needles in the Ejecta

    E-print Network

    Eli Dwek

    2004-01-08

    Recently, Dunne et al. (2003) obtained 450 and 850 micron SCUBA images of CasA, and reported the detection of 2-4 M_sun of cold, 18K, dust in the remnant. Here we show that their interpretation of the observations faces serious difficulties. Their inferred dust mass is larger than the mass of refractory material in the ejecta of a 10 to 30 M_sun star. The cold dust model faces even more difficulties if the 170 micron observations of the remnant are included in the analysis, decreasing the cold dust temperature to ~ 8K, and increasing its mass to > 20 M_sun. We offer here a more plausible interpretation of their observation, in which the cold dust emission is generated by conducting needles with properties that are completely determined by the combined submillimeter and X-ray observations of the remnant. The needles consist of metallic whiskers with metal-rich layers of the star in an asymmetric explosion. The needles are collisionally heated by the shocked gas to a temperature of 8K. Taking the destruction of needles into account, a dust mass of only 1E-4 to 1E-3M_sun is needed to account for the observed SCUBA emission. Aligned in the magnetic field, needles may give rise to observable polarized emission. The detection of submillimeter polarization will therefore offer definitive proof for a needle origin for the cold dust emission. Supernovae may still be proven to be important sources of interstellar dust, but the evidence is still inconclusive.

  5. Production of needle-type liquid-metal ion sources and their application in a scanning ion muscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Helmut; Rübesame, Detlef; Niedrig, Heinz

    1991-07-01

    A tungsten wire is electrochemically etched in NaOH to produce tip radii of 4-10 ?m for use in liquid-metal ion sources (LMIS). To ensure complete wetting of the needle with the liquid metal (Sn, Ga), the needle has to be annealed at 800-1000°C by electron bombardment in a vacuum. It is then immediately dipped into the liquid metal in the same vacuum chamber. An anode prepared in this way is part of a triode system, followed by an octupole stigmator, an electrostatic einzel lens and the scanning unit. Upon application of a high voltage the liquid metal will form a Taylor cone at the needle tip. In the resulting high electrical field ions are extracted through field evaporation. Typical beam current and spot size values during scanning ion muscope (SIM) operation are 2.5 ?A and 10 ?m respectively. An Everhart-Thornley detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer are available to allow analysis of secondary particles emitted from the target.

  6. Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?eburnis, D.; Steinnes, E.

    Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and juniper ( Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses indicated that accumulation processes may be similar, but mosses appear to be clearly preferable as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition because of their higher elemental concentrations and more quantitative reflection of deposition rates. Precipitation in the open field and under the canopy was investigated at two stations with respect to the same metals. The canopy was shown to retain a considerable part of lead, whereas elements such as Zn and Mn were enriched in precipitation under the canopy. Study of metal concentrations in moss growing, respectively, below and outside the canopy showed that none of so studied elements was significantly retained by the canopy. Most of the metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, V) were leached from the canopy to a smaller or greater extent.

  7. Determination of the interstitial electron density in liquid metals: Basic quantity to calculate the ion collective-mode velocity and related properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, L.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2014-07-01

    Considering that various investigations identified a correlation between the interstitial electron density in crystalline metals and some ground-state properties, including the compressibility, we propose a procedure to estimate the interstitial electron density in liquid metals starting from the experimental static structure factor. From the calculated electron density, starting from the standard approximation, which describes a liquid metal as made up of a homogeneous classic ion plasma with Coulomb interaction and a homogeneous interacting electron gas, we determine the ion collective mode velocity. The so-derived collective mode velocity is compared to the experimental data and a coherent view in different metallic systems at the melting point is obtained. Some guess about the collective mode damping is also presented because of the connection to the local static fluctuations of the interstitial electron density.

  8. ROLE OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AND INTERSTITIAL WATER METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY OF CADMIUM AND NICKEL FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS TO THE MARINE POLYCHAETE NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. end exposures were conducted with sediments,...

  9. Stabilization and annealing of interstitials formed by radiation in binary metal oxides and fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Schwartz, K.; Vasil'chenko, E.; Kärner, T.; Kudryavtseva, I.; Isakhanyan, V.; Shugai, A.

    2008-06-01

    The manifestations of non-impact creation mechanisms of Frenkel defects have been revealed in MgO and ?-Al 2O 3 crystals irradiated at 295 K by 2.20-2.4-GeV U ions providing an extremely high density of electronic excitations. Besides F and F + centers, the creation of anion vacancies has been detected in both ion-irradiated crystals by measuring the emission spectra at the excitation by 5-keV electrons at 9 K. In MgO, the stabilization of oxygen interstitials is conducted by their association with the holes localized near cation vacancies. The creation, stabilization and annealing of F centers, impurity defects and trifluorine F3- molecules have been investigated in LiF:Mg, Ti irradiated by X-rays or 10-17 eV photons. The role of separated electrons and holes, anion excitons and near-impurity excitations in the formation of thermally stimulated luminescence at 350-750 K has been clarified. Stabilization (up to 650 K) of H interstitials in LiF occurs via the formation of F3- molecules.

  10. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  11. NEXAFS investigations of transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, sulfides and other interstitial compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Chen

    1997-01-01

    Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, transition metal compounds, especially transition metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides, have been the subject of many surface science investigations. In this article we will review applications of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) technique in the investigations of electronic and structural properties of transition metal compounds. This review covers NEXAFS

  12. The role of acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water metal concentrations in determining bioavailability of cadmium and nickel from contaminated sediments to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Pesch, C.E.; Hansen, D.J.; Boothman, W.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Berry, W.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mahony, J.D. (Manhattan Coll., Bronx, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.)

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and interstitial water (IW) metal concentrations on bioavailability and toxicity of Cd and Ni to an infaunal sediment-ingesting marine worm, Neanthes Arenaceodentata. Ten-d exposures were conducted with sediments, contaminated primarily with Cd and Ni, from Foundry Cove (Hudson River, NY), and with uncontaminated sediments spiked with Cd or Ni. Molar ratios of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS ranged from < 0.02 to 44 for Cd-spiked, 0.02 to 241 for Ni-spiked, and <0.06 to 125 for Foundry Cove sediments. In all experiments, significant mortality was not observed when SEM/AVS ratios were <1.0 and interstitial water toxic units (IWTU) were <1.0. In the Cd and Ni-spiked experiments, when SEM/AVS ratios or IWTUs were >1.0, sediments were either lethal or worms did not burrow. Mortality of worms in Foundry Cove sediments was [le] 20%, and worms burrowed in all these sediments. However, IW contained <1.0 TU (Ni + Cd) in all Foundry Cove sediments except one (IWTU = 1.69). Metal concentrations in worms generally increased with increases in sediment metal concentration, SEM/AVS molar ratio, and IW metal concentration. The presence of metal in worms from sediments from SEM/AVS ratios <1.0 may be evidence of release of Cd or Ni from oxidized metal sulfide (a result of burrowing), uptake of metal from ingested sediment, or adsorption to body surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that when the concentration of AVS in sediments exceeds that of divalent metals sediments will not be acutely toxic. However, a greater number of sediments was correctly predicted to be nontoxic when interstitial water metal concentration of <1.0 TU was used.

  13. [Computer-assisted system for interstitial hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Kneschaurek, P; Weisser, M

    1987-03-01

    The combination of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia is more promising in the treatment of tumors than one of these methods alone. The unit developed by us uses the afterloading needles for heating up the tumor tissue with ohm current and for controlling the distribution of temperature in the target volume. Up to twelve needles are provided by one commutator with the R.F. current controlled by the computer. The temperature is measured by three thermistors per needle which are arranged at an axial distance of 2 cm each. The linearization of the thermistor characteristics and the control of cummutator and R.F. generator is performed by the computer over an interface constructed by us. In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of temperature in the target volume and to avoid hot spots, we have examined several needle configurations by measuring in an homogeneous phantom. PMID:3563878

  14. Thermodynamic and transport properties of interstitial hydrogen isotopes in metal systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Brown

    1977-01-01

    Three problems are reviewed. The first is the inclusion of multiple scattering corrections to the single-site density states N(E) for liquid Pd. A liquid metal band structure calculation is used. Second, calculation of the superconducting transition temperature T\\/sub c\\/ in the non-stoichiometric hydrides and deuterides of Pd is discussed. Third, work done in studying electronic transport in the 3d transition

  15. Interstitial nephritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis) Autoimmune disorders such as anti-tubular basement membrane disease, Kawasaki’s disease, Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Wegener’s granulomatosis Infections Long-term use ...

  16. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine. Your doctor may have you take an oral medicine called pentosan polysulfate. This medicine helps protect the ... wall from the toxic parts of urine. Another oral medicine used to treat interstitial cystitis is an antihistamine ...

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF AMMONIA, METALS AND NONPOLAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE TOXICITY OF SEDIMENT INTERSTITIAL WATER FROM AN ILLINOIS RIVER TRIBUTARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxi...

  18. Evidence for a large enrichment of interstitial oxygen atoms in the nanometer-thick metal layer at the NbO/Nb (110) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, I.; Guillot, C.; Cousty, J.; Antoine, C.

    2002-06-01

    The oxide/metal interface induced by surface segregation of oxygen during the annealing of a Nb single crystal in UHV has been studied by photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. With 260 and 350 eV photons, four well-resolved peaks A, B, C, D are found in spectra within the 200-210 eV range of binding energy. One couple of peaks (A and C) is associated with 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 core levels of Nb atoms in the metal while the other one (B and D), shifted by 1.4 eV when compared to A and C, corresponds to 3d levels of oxidized Nb atoms. The metal peak A at 202.3 eV is formed by three 3d5/2 components: a peak due to a metallic state (202.1 eV) and two components shifted by 0.2 and 0.5 eV, which are attributed to Nb6O and Nb4O compounds due to interstitial atoms of oxygen, respectively. The estimated concentration of the interstitial oxygen atoms in the nanometer-thick metal skin underlying the NbO/Nb interface corresponds to a large enrichment when compared to the one in the Nb bulk.

  19. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Arnfield; J. Tulip; M. Chetner; M. S. McPhee

    1989-01-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which

  20. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan; Gerald T. Ankley

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran

  1. THE EFFECT OF INTERSTITIAL ATOM-DISLOCATION INTERACTIONS ON THE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF SOME BODY-CENTERED-CUBIC METALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    The strain aging behavior of arc-melted niobium and tantalum, 1020 ; steel, and hydrogenated niobium was investigated using yield-point return and ; dynamic modulus of elasticity measurements to study the aging process. ; Comparison of activation energies for strain aging with those for interstitial ; diffusion revealed that hydrogen was responsible for dislocation locking in ; niobium, and probably in

  2. Effects of interstitial impurities on phase equilibria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. N. Carlson; J. F. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Because interstitial elements are ubiquitous in the environment, it is inevitable that they will be present as contaminants\\u000a in most metals unless unusual precautions are taken in preparing and\\/or handling them. Data are available which show that\\u000a the common interstitial elements (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen) interact with most metals to modify both the electron\\u000a distributions and the vibrational behavior.

  3. Ab initio investigation of radiation defects in tungsten: Structure of self-interstitials and specificity of di-vacancies compared to other bcc transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventelon, Lisa; Willaime, F.; Fu, Chu-Chun; Heran, M.; Ginoux, I.

    2012-06-01

    The results of DFT calculations on radiation point defects in tungsten are presented. The lowest energy configuration of the self-interstitial has exactly the <1 1 1> orientation and no tilt from this direction is observed when using appropriate cell geometry and pseudopotential. The present DFT calculations confirm that in pure tungsten the interactions between two vacancies are unexpectedly repulsive until the fifth nearest-neighbor and that the second nearest-neighbor di-vacancy is the most repulsive. The electronic entropy contribution to the free energy makes the nearest-neighbor configuration attractive at high temperature. A comparison with other bcc metals shows that the binding energies between two vacancies are strongly metal dependent and that tungsten leads to the largest deviation from empirical potential predictions. In tungsten, the effect on vacancy properties of alloying by tantalum and rhenium has been investigated using the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA). The effect of these alloying elements is essentially to change the filling of the d-band and the vacancy formation energy is found to be maximal and the relaxation to be minimal when the Fermi level is at the minimum of the pseudo-gap, as predicted by previous tight-binding calculations. Di-vacancies are shown to become attractive at first and second nearest-neighbor upon tantalum alloying and even more repulsive upon rhenium alloying.

  4. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-min; Kim, Young-Kon

    2010-01-01

    Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations. PMID:19098297

  5. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on insterstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association - www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - www.kidney.niddk. ...

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of interstitial hydrogen isotopes in metal systems. Progress report, April 1, 1976March 31, 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Three problems are reviewed. The first is the inclusion of multiple scattering corrections to the single-site density states N(E) for liquid Pd. A liquid metal band structure calculation is used. Second, calculation of the superconducting transition temperature T\\/sub c\\/ in the non-stoichiometric hydrides and deuterides of Pd is discussed. Third, work done in studying electronic transport in the 3d transition

  7. Buffon's Needle Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates Buffon's needle experiment and the corresponding approximation of pi. The event of interest is that the needle crosses a crack. The length of the needle can be varied. The applet illustrates a random experiment, the sample space, random variables, probability, and relative frequency.

  8. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. (Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  9. [Occupational interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Paul; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2007-12-31

    Pneumoconioses are induced by the inhalation of mineral or metallic dust. The incidence has decreased in the industrialized countries, but these diseases still exist. Diseases diagnosed nowadays may result from exposures that date back several decades. Besides, industry continuously creates new types of exposure and produces novel materials and alloys. Unusual exposures, sometimes in small workshops or in independent workers, may still cause severe diseases. In case of exposure to some metals, like beryllium, diseases may occur in susceptible subjects even at low levels of exposure. Medical and social consequences of misdiagnosis may be important. The diagnostic contribution of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan is very important, as this technique is sensitive and specific. Pathological, mineralogical, and immunological techniques are useful in the differential diagnosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a granulomatous interstitial disease of the lungs due to immune reactions following chronic inhalation of antigens, to which the subject has been previously sensitised. Diagnosis is based on associated clinical and paraclinical signs which are not specific. Clinical approach is essential. It allows to suspect the diagnosis in view of respiratory symptoms, inspiratory crackles and the identification of a hazardous environment. Serological tests, bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT scan are required to confirm diagnosis. Early removal of exposure prevents the occurrence of chronic respiratory failure. Corticosteroids can be used in severe forms during few weeks. PMID:18320747

  10. Examination of surface conditions and other physical properties of commonly used stainless steel acupuncture needles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi Min; Xu, Shanqing; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries. Methods Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out. Results The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users. PMID:24522003

  11. Ab initio investigation of radiation defects in tungsten: Structure of self-interstitials and specificity of di-vacancies compared to other bcc transition metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Ventelon; F. Willaime; Chu-Chun Fu; M. Heran; I. Ginoux

    The results of DFT calculations on radiation point defects in tungsten are presented. The lowest energy configuration of the self-interstitial has exactly the ?111? orientation and no tilt from this direction is observed when using appropriate cell geometry and pseudopotential. The present DFT calculations confirm that in pure tungsten the interactions between two vacancies are unexpectedly repulsive until the fifth

  12. Surgical management of neonatal interstitial emphysema.

    PubMed

    Zerella, J T; Trump, D S

    1987-01-01

    In the past 6 years, 50 patients with interstitial emphysema in our newborn nursery were treated with open operative procedures to remove interstitial air. Thirty-one were critically ill newborns with severe progressive pulmonary interstitial emphysema treated with pleurotomies. Five underwent pleurotomies on both sides, for a total of 36 operations in the 31 patients. All of the 31 patients underwent aggressive medical management to reduce airway pressure before resorting to operation. Ventilator manipulations, selective bronchial intubation, Forgerty catheter occlusion of the bronchus, and percutaneous lung needling were among the methods used to reduce emphysema in these patients. The operation for all 31 patients consisted of multiple linear pleurotomies to lyse blebs. The hilum was skeletonized to release perihilar blebs. A downhill course was reversed by the operation in over 50% of patients. The operation almost always permanently cured the tension emphysema on that side. Seventeen of the 31 patients lived. Eight of ten patients with unilateral disease lived. All of those patients who died had either very low birth weight, severe preoperative hypoxia, shock, or a combination of these problems. PMID:3819990

  13. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar rf applicators: computer-aided therapy control and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Stein; Kai Desinger; Andre Roggan; Gerhard J. Mueller

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of the temperature and damage distribution during a bipolar RFITT (radio-frequency current induced interstitial thermotherapy) application has been developed. The electric field and the heat transfer is calculated by the Finite Difference Method. The program calculates the distribution of electrical power density (heat generating term), temperature and tissue damage using standard and cooled bipolar needle applicators and

  14. Voltammetric method for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni in interstitial water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy Golimowski; Teresa Szczepa?ska

    1996-01-01

    To determine heavy metals in interstitial water from Baltic sea sediments a sampling method with subsequent voltammetric determination is described. Copper, lead, zinc and cadmium are determined in the UV-digested samples of interstitial water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry while nickel is determined by adsorption voltammetry. The determination of five metals in one sample in a wide concentrations range

  15. Mesalazine induced interstitial nephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Thuluvath; M Ninkovic; J Calam; M Anderson

    1994-01-01

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has structural similarities to both phenacetin and aspirin, which are known to cause 'analgesic nephropathy'. Because of the increasing use of 5-ASA, this paper draws attention to two cases of severe interstitial nephritis resulting from 5-ASA and emphasises the importance of monitoring renal functions of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases who are receiving 5-ASA preparations.

  16. Ipilimumab granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Thajudeen, Bijin; Madhrira, Machaiah; Bracamonte, Erika; Cranmer, Lee D

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced interstitial nephritis is a recognized cause of acute and chronic renal failure. Some of them lead to the formation of granulomata. T-cell-mediated immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis. Here, we describe the case of a 74-year-old male patient with metastatic melanoma who was referred to our clinic with a history of rash and worsening renal function. Because of subacute onset, progressively worsening renal function in the presence of skin rash, elevated liver enzymes, and in the background of exposure, medication-induced interstitial nephritis was suspected. He received 3 doses of ipilimumab, a novel drug used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma within 3 months before the onset of renal failure. A renal biopsy was done, which showed granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Renal biopsy findings, temporal relation between renal failure and exposure to medication, and review of the literature supported a diagnosis of ipilimumab-induced renal failure. He was started on steroids, and renal function recovered in the next 1 month. Immune-related adverse reaction is one of the common side effects of ipilimumab. Ipilimumab-induced hepatitis and colitis has been previously reported in the literature. This is the first ever case report of ipilimumab-induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis. PMID:24067875

  17. [Exploration on eye needling manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ying; Tian, Wei-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The 40-year experiences in the clinical application of eye acupuncture in our hospital are summarized. The manipulation of needle insertion, withdrawal and puncture procedure is analyzed. The keys of the techniques of eye acupuncture are explained. The basic needling manipulations are determined. In the insertion of needle, professor Peng stressed on the stability, accuracy and fast, without lifting, thrusting, rotating, and opening/closing techniques involved. TIAN Wei-zhu emphasizes the gentle insertion, pain avoiding, apparent needling sensation and needling sensation transmission. In terms of acupuncture operation, skin stretching, patient's attention shifting, quick insertion of needle and slow-down moving of needle body are required. The outside orbit transverse needling method is recommended basically. PMID:24298770

  18. Dealing With Needles

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a change - Use this tool to play your ... Teens > Flu Center > Prevention > Dealing With Needles (Video) Print ...

  19. Needle ban vetoed.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    An appropriations bill with seven provisions, one of which barred the District of Columbia from spending money on needle-exchange programs, was vetoed by President Clinton. He called it objectionable and disruptive to the District's preventions efforts. The bill previously passed the House by a slim margin. Republicans objected to a contentious provision of the bill dealing with medicinal marijuana. PMID:11367272

  20. Needle visualization using photoacoustic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Jae; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Choti, Michael A.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a novel needle visualization using the PA effect to enhance needle-tip tracking. An optical fiber and laser source are used to generate acoustic waves inside the needle with the PA effect. Acoustic waves are generated along the needle. Some amount of acoustic energy leaks into the surrounding material. The leakage of acoustic waves is captured by a conventional US transducer and US channel data collection system. Then, the collected data are converted to a PA image. The needle-tip can be visualized more clearly in this PA image than a general US brightness mode image.

  1. Robot-Assisted Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation. PMID:23028210

  2. Mesalazine induced interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Thuluvath, P J; Ninkovic, M; Calam, J; Anderson, M

    1994-01-01

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has structural similarities to both phenacetin and aspirin, which are known to cause 'analgesic nephropathy'. Because of the increasing use of 5-ASA, this paper draws attention to two cases of severe interstitial nephritis resulting from 5-ASA and emphasises the importance of monitoring renal functions of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases who are receiving 5-ASA preparations. Images p1494-a PMID:7959212

  3. Magnetic resonance-guided interstitial therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: aviswanathan@partners.org; Cormack, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Holloway, Caroline L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tanaka, Cynthia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); O'Farrell, Desmond C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tempany, Clare [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and to describe the acute toxicity of a real-time intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR)-image guided interstitial approach to treating vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 to April 2005, 10 patients with recurrent endometrial cancer underwent MR-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Parameters evaluated included needle placement, dose-volume histograms (DVH), and complications. Results: Magnetic resonance-image guidance resulted in accurate needle placement. Tumor DVH values included median volume, 47 cc; V100, 89%; V150, 61%; V200, 38%; D90, 71 Gy; and D100, 60 Gy. DVH of organs at risk resulted in a median D2cc of external beam and brachytherapy dose (% of brachytherapy prescription): bladder, 75Gy{sub 3} (88%); rectum, 70Gy{sub 3} (87%); and sigmoid, 56Gy{sub 3} (41%). All patients experienced either a Grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity related to the radiation; only 1 patient had Grade 3 toxicity. No toxicities were attributable to the use of MR guidance. Conclusions: Real-time MR guidance during the insertion of interstitial needles reduces the likelihood of an inadvertent insertion of the needles into the bladder and the rectum. Three-dimensional dosimetry allows estimation of the dose to organs at risk. Toxicities are limited.

  4. Theory of Light Interstitials in BCC Metals. II. Localized Vibration Spectra of H and D on T-Sites in V, Nb and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hidehiko; Fukai, Yuh

    1981-11-01

    The energy and wave functions of the ground and excited states have been calculated for hydrogen isotopes (H and D) self-trapped on the tetrahedral (T) site in bcc metals V, Nb and Ta. Results of the calculation account well for all features of localized vibration spectra observed by inelastic neutron scattering, including the excitation energy and the relative intensity of peaks. In addition, it has been shown that the excitation energy varies sensitively with displacements of surrounding metal atoms, leading to the interpretation that the observed broadening of the peaks is caused by lattice deformation arising from lattice vibration and the presence of other H (D)-atoms.

  5. Uptake of IgG in osteosarcoma correlates inversely with interstitial fluid pressure, but not with interstitial constituents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C de Lange; Engesæter, B Ø; Haug, I; Ormberg, I W; Halgunset, J; Brekken, C

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of therapeutic macromolecules in solid tumours is assumed to be hindered by the heterogeneous vascular network, the high interstitial fluid pressure, and the extracellular matrix. To study the impact of these factors, we measured the uptake of fluorochrome-labelled IgG using confocal laser scanning microscopy, interstitial fluid pressure by the ‘wick-in-needle’ technique, vascular structure by stereological analysis, and the content of the extracellular matrix constituents collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronan by colourimetric assays. The impact of the microenvironment on these factors was studied using osteosarcomas implanted either subcutaneously or orthotopically around the femur in athymic mice. The uptake of IgG was found to correlate inversely with the interstitial fluid pressure and the tumour volume in orthotopic, but not subcutaneous tumours. No correlation was found between IgG uptake and the level of any of the extracellular matrix constituents. The content of both collagen and glycosaminoglycans depended on the site of tumour growth. The orthotopic tumours had a higher vascular density than the subcutaneous tumours, as the vascular surface and length were 2–3-fold higher. The data indicate that the interstitial fluid pressure is a dominant factor in controlling the uptake of macromolecules in solid tumours; and the site of tumour growth is important for the uptake of macromolecules in small tumours, extracellular matrix content and vascularization.© 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747342

  6. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  7. [Interstitial pacemaker cells].

    PubMed

    Niziaeva, N V; Shchegolev, A I; Mare?, M V; Sukhikh, G T

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to interstitial Cajal cells (syn. telocytes, interstitial pacemaker cells, IPC). First those cells were discovered by C.R Cajal in the muscle coat of the gut in 1893. Nowadays they have revealed in all parts of digestive systems (from esophagus to rectum), urinary and biliary tracts, prostate, liver, the walls of arteries and lymphatics, as well Fallopian tube, myometrium, mammary glands. Characteristic ultrastructural features are elongated spindle shape, length from 40 to 100 ?m, the thickness of 0.2-0.5 ?m, the presence of 2-5 processes. Length of them rangingfrom tens to hundreds of micrometers, some of them have secondary and tertiary branching, forming a three-dimensional network. IPC having spontaneous electrical (pacemaker) activity are cause to contraction of smooth muscle cells. Depending on the location of IPC have different morphological and ultrastructural characteristics. Characteristic immunohistochemical markers are CD117, CD34, S100, vimentin. IPC replay to acetylcholine, norepinephrine, estrogen, progesterone, and nitric oxide by influence ofcorresponding receptors. IPC have specific gap junctions with lymphocytes, basophiles, eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells and dendritic cells. Grave pathology of those cells are forming gastrointestinal stromal tumors. PMID:25563000

  8. Voltammetric method for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni in interstitial water.

    PubMed

    Golimowski, J; Szczepa?ska, T

    1996-03-01

    To determine heavy metals in interstitial water from Baltic sea sediments a sampling method with subsequent voltammetric determination is described. Copper, lead, zinc and cadmium are determined in the UV-digested samples of interstitial water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry while nickel is determined by adsorption voltammetry. The determination of five metals in one sample in a wide concentrations range is possible using a low cost apparatus. The profiles of the metal concentrations in interstitial water of subsequent layers of sediments, sampled from Puck Bay, Gda?sk Bay, the Bornholm area and the S?upsk area are presented. PMID:15067482

  9. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River. PMID:11367025

  10. Silicon self-interstitial clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, L.; Bongiorno, A.; Rosati, M.

    1999-07-01

    A tight-binding molecular dynamics investigation on the structure and energetics of self-interstitial clusters in silicon is presented. The authors discuss how a small number of self-interstitial atoms give rise to the formation of tetrahedrally-shaped clusters, while a larger number of defects exhibit a self-organization mechanism driving the system to form rod-like defects.

  11. A carbon nanotube needle biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yun, YeoHeung; Bange, Adam; Shanov, Vesselin N; Heineman, William R; Halsall, H Brian; Dong, Zhongyun; Jazieh, Abdul; Tu, Yi; Wong, Danny; Pixley, Sarah; Behbehani, Michael; Schulz, Mark J

    2007-07-01

    A carbon nanotube needle biosensor was developed to provide fast, cost effective and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of biomolecules. The sensor was fabricated based on an array of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. A bundle of nanotubes in the array was welded onto the tip of a tungsten needle under a microscope. The needle was then encased in glass and a polymer coating leaving only the tip of the needle exposed. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to examine the redox behavior of the nanotube needle. The cyclic voltammetry results showed a steady-state response attributable to radial diffusion with a high steady-state current density. An amperometric sensor was then developed for glucose detection by physically attaching glucose oxidase on the nanotube needle. The amperometric response of these nanotube needles showed a high sensitivity with a low detection limit. It is expected that the nanotube needle can be sharpened to increase the sensitivity to the point where the current is almost too small to measure. The simple manufacturing method should allow commodity level production of highly sensitive electronic biosensors. PMID:17663243

  12. Needle-free vaccine delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin L. Giudice; James D. Campbell

    2006-01-01

    The search for methods of vaccine delivery not requiring a needle and syringe has been accelerated by recent concerns regarding pandemic disease, bioterrorism, and disease eradication campaigns. Needle-free vaccine delivery could aid in these mass vaccinations by increasing ease and speed of delivery, and by offering improved safety and compliance, decreasing costs, and reducing pain associated with vaccinations. In this

  13. Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENE M. LANGEVIN; DAVID L. CHURCHILL; JAMES R. FOX; GARY J. BADGER; BRIAN S. GARRA; MARTIN H. KRAG

    2001-01-01

    Krag. Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans. J Appl Physiol 91: 2471-2478, 2001.—During acu- puncture treatments, acupuncture needles are manipulated to elicit the characteristic \\

  14. Inelastic Scattering from Interstitial Hydrogen in Niobium Superconducting Point Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Paul; Reinertson, Randall; Smith, Charles; Slobodzian, Eugene

    1997-03-01

    Electrical characteristics of normal metal : superconductor point contacts of silver on niobium containing interstitial hydrogen, were measured as a function of temperature, below superconducting critical temperature. Data show that the inelastic scattering parameter is essentially temperature independent and increases monotonically with increasing hydrogen content. Comparison with predictions of the BTK theory, modified to include inelastic scattering effects, will be made.

  15. Inelastic Scattering from Interstitial Hydrogen in Niobium Superconducting Point Contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dolan; Randall Reinertson; Charles Smith; Eugene Slobodzian

    1997-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of normal metal : superconductor point contacts of silver on niobium containing interstitial hydrogen, were measured as a function of temperature, below superconducting critical temperature. Data show that the inelastic scattering parameter is essentially temperature independent and increases monotonically with increasing hydrogen content. Comparison with predictions of the BTK theory, modified to include inelastic scattering effects, will be

  16. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    SciTech Connect

    Beleggia, M. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F. [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungzentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-14

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  17. Radio-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (rf-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-12-01

    For the interstitial treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology, the method of interstitial laser photocoagulation and the monopolar RF- needle coagulation can be used as well as other methods, e.g. the microwave exposure, alcohol injection, ultrasound or hot water irrigation. This article will present latest results of interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency alternating current in bipolar technique. Therefore basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. THe efficiency of the developed applicators were examined using egg white and in in vitro experiments with porcine liver tissue. Bipolar needles with different diameters were built and tested. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through an integrated central flushing port. A bipolar needle has been developed for the treatment of concha hyperplasia which can be used as the monopolar pendant with similar results in partial tissue coagulation but without current flow in the sensitive head region. First pathologic investigations pointed out that with the use of the bipolar technique the surface of the concha with the ciliary epithelium is less affected due tot he limited spatial current distribution. Furthermore the design of a multi-electrode needle is presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode enables the surgeon the use of a partial application of radio frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that a neutral electrode is not needed. Thus a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  18. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco [M.E. Mueller Research Center, University of Bern, Stauffacherstr. 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland); Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rain 34, CH-5000 Aarau (Switzerland); M.E. Mueller Research Center, University of Bern, Stauffacherstr. 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland); Inselspital, Department of ORL, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  19. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis: technical report

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Kazushi; Tamura, Shinji; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Noda, Yasutaka; Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Morio; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. FDG PET-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis. PMID:22843376

  20. Investigation of lattice dynamics in interstitial solid solutions niobium-oxygen and niobium-vanadium-oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Danilkin; V. P. Minaev; V. V. Sumin

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of measuring NbO(0.03) and NbV(0.03)O(0.03) slow neutron inelastic scattering spectra. Frequency spectra of metal atoms and interstitial atoms are presented. Deformation of a frequency distribution of metal atoms is observed, which is caused by interstitial atoms, i.e., displacement and broadening of features of a spectrum and spectrum boundary displacement to a higher energy range.

  1. Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lorenser, D; Yang, X; Kirk, R W; Quirk, B C; McLaughlin, R A; Sampson, D D

    2011-10-01

    We present the smallest reported side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design, fabrication, optical characterization, and initial application of a 30-gauge (outer diameter 0.31 mm) needle probe are demonstrated. Extreme miniaturization is achieved by using a simple all-fiber probe design incorporating an angle-polished and reflection-coated fiber-tip beam deflector. When inserted into biological tissue, aqueous interstitial fluids reduce the probe's inherent astigmatism ratio to 1.8, resulting in a working distance of 300 ?m and a depth-of-field of 550 ?m with beam diameters below 30 ?m. The needle probe was interfaced with an 840 nm spectral-domain OCT system and the measured sensitivity was shown to be only 7 dB lower than that of a comparable galvo-scanning sample arm configuration. 3D OCT images of lamb lungs were acquired over a depth range of ~600 ?m, showing individual alveoli and bronchioles. PMID:21964133

  2. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at [minus]55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  3. Interstitial embrittlement in vanadium laser welds

    SciTech Connect

    Strum, M.J.; Wagner, L.M.

    1992-02-24

    Efficiencies of interstitial absorption during pulsed ND:YAG laser welding of vanadium were compared for nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Influence of interstitial levels on the embrittlement of vanadium laser welds was also measured. For 1000 ppM contaminant levels in the weld atmosphere, weld hydrogen content increased 9 ppM, nitrogen content increased 190 ppM, and oxygen content increased from 500 ppM relative to baseplate levels. Welds in ultrahigh-purity argon atmospheres contained 3 ppM hydrogen, 40 ppM nitrogen, and 250 ppM oxygen. Longitudinal all-weld tensile specimens and notched-plate specimens were used to measure weld metal tensile properties at {minus}55C. All of the laser weld notch-strength ratios exceeded unity and weld metal tensile strengths all exceeded the baseplate values. For 1000 ppM atmosphere contaminant levels, the only significant decrease in ductility, as measured by reduction-in-area at fracture was for the weld atmosphere containing oxygen. Weld atmospheres containing 1% nitrogen also reduced the weld ductility, and resulted in the onset of cleavage fracture.

  4. Needle insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niki Abolhassani; Rajni Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

    2007-01-01

    Needle insertion in soft tissue has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its application in minimally invasive percutaneous procedures such as biopsies and brachytherapy. This paper presents a survey of the current state of research on needle insertion in soft tissue. It examines the topic from several aspects, e.g. modeling needle insertion forces, modeling tissue deformation and needle

  5. On-line monitoring of multi-component strain development in a tufting needle using optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehura, Edmon; Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Huet, Tristan; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic loadings induced on a tufting needle during the tufting of dry carbon fibre preform via a commercial robot-controlled tufting head were investigated in situ and in real-time using optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors bonded to the needle shaft. The sensors were configured such that the axial strain and bending moments experienced by the needle could be measured. A study of the influence of thread and thread type on the strain imparted to the needle revealed axial strain profiles which had equivalent trends but different magnitudes. The mean of the maximum axial compression strains measured during the tufting of a 4-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fibre dry preform were - 499 ± 79 ??, - 463 ± 51 ?? and - 431 ± 59 ?? for a needle without thread, with metal wire and with Kevlar® thread, respectively. The needle similarly exhibited bending moments of different magnitude when the different needle feeding configurations were used.

  6. [Interstitial gamma therapy of recurrences and metastases of cancer of the uterus and rectum to the vagina].

    PubMed

    Androsov, N S; Melenchuk, I P; Shpikalov, V L

    1984-01-01

    The authors devised a technique of interstitial radiation therapy for locally disseminated vaginal recurrences and metastases that occur after the use of various therapeutic methods for uterine and rectal cancer. Indications and counterindications to interstitial radiation therapy with 60Co as an independent method or the main therapeutic component in combined or multimodality treatment, were determined. Methods of the topometric and dosimetric planning of treatment, methods of needle administration and fixation by the system of manual afterloading were developed. Interstitial radiation therapy was given to 22 patients with a complete tumor regression in 17 of them. Interstitial radiation therapy is recommended as a method of choice for the therapy of vaginal recurrences and metastases. PMID:6694544

  7. Outpatient combined intracavitary and interstitial cervical brachytherapy: barriers and solutions to implementation of a successful programme - a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Tan, Poh Wee; Koh, Vicky Y; Tang, Johann I

    2015-06-01

    Involvement of parametrial disease in locally advanced cervical patients poses a challenge for women undergoing brachytherapy. Current use of the Fletcher suit applicator may not adequately cover the high risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), especially in the parametrial region due to the physical qualities of brachytherapy from the inverse square law and the need to respect organs at risk (OAR) constraints, and leads to lower local control rates. Combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy with the use of 1 or 2 interstitial needles allows adequate coverage of the HR CTV and the clinical evidence have demonstrated a correlation with better clinical results. This procedure is often resource intensive, requiring inpatient stay and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) planning. In departments where such resources are limited, there is a poor uptake of interstitial brachytherapy. This article discusses the technique of combined intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy in an outpatient setting, and explores the issues and barriers for implementation and suggestions to overcome such barriers. PMID:26207117

  8. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    MedlinePLUS

    ... up to 30 minutes. Fluoroscopy and ultrasound allow real-time monitoring of the needle and are often easier ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database. Interventional radiology: For ...

  9. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  10. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia with mutation in surfactant protein C in familial pulmonary fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajni Chibbar; Francis Shih; Monica Baga; Emina Torlakovic; Kumar Ramlall; Robert Skomro; Donald W Cockcroft; Edmond G Lemire

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, a recently described form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, is characterized by uniform involvement of the alveolar septae with interstitial inflammation and variable amounts of fibrosis. Histological observations differentiate nonspecific interstitial pneumonia from usual interstitial pneumonia and clinically, patients with a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern show better prognosis than those with usual interstitial pneumonia. We have genetically analyzed

  11. Surgical treatment for intra-thoracic migration of acupuncture needles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Soo-Cheol; Youn, Hyo Chul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce the experience of diagnosis and treatment for patients with migrated acupuncture needle to pleural cavity and or lung parenchyma. We had treated 5 patients who had acupuncture needles in their thoracic cavity from January 2000 to September 2009. The mean age was 55.8 yr old. All patients suffered from the sequelae of the cerebrovascular accident and had been treated with acupuncture. They had drowsiness and hemiplegic or quadriplegic motor activity. Fever and dyspnea were main symptoms when referred to us. Diagnosis was made by the chest radiography and chest computed tomography which revealed straight metallic materials in their thoracic cavity. The needles were removed via thoracotomy or thoracoscopic procedures. Pleural decortications were also needed in four patients. Thoracoscopic surgery was successfully performed in two patients. After the removal all patients became symptomless. Although we experienced only five patients who have migrated acupuncture needles in thoracic cavity, we suggest that thoracoscopic removal of the needle with or without pleural decortication is the most optimal modality of treatment in those patients. PMID:22379339

  12. Interstitial bipolar rf-thermotherapy (RFITT): therapy planning by computer simulation and MRI monitoring--a new concept for minimally invasive procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Desinger; T. Stein; Gerhard J. Mueller; Martin G. Mack; Thomas J. Vogl

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and an economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using 3 different types of probes: standard, flushed and

  13. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  14. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  15. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Ali; Cheung, Wang; Kamino, Hideko; Soter, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman with a history of arthritis presented for a long-standing history of symmetric, indurated plaques on her thighs and lateral aspects of the trunk. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsy specimens was consistent with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, and a diagnosis of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis was made. Administration of topical potent glucocorticoids, intralesional glucocorticoids, and narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy, in addition to continuation of systemic glucocorticoids and methotrexate, resulted in improvement of her cutaneous and musculoskeletal disease. PMID:19891930

  16. Boron Diffusion and Silicon Self-Interstitial Recycling between SiGeC layers M. S. Carroll1

    E-print Network

    Boron Diffusion and Silicon Self-Interstitial Recycling between SiGeC layers M. S. Carroll1 J. C-interstitial formation at the surface or in the silicon bulk. Boron marker layers above, below and in between two Si for advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). A necessity for simulation of dopants like boron

  17. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  18. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, H. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L.; Larson, Richard S.; Flynn, Edward R.

    2007-07-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood.

  19. Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nomden, Christel N., E-mail: c.nomden@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS{sub clinical}) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC{sub study}). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1-6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4-35%) and 7% (range, 2-14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC{sub study} and the IC/IS{sub clinical} were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10}, respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy{sub {alpha}/{beta}10} for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic resonance imaging-guided (pre)treatment planning with the IC/IS Utrecht applicator.

  20. Mesalazine-associated interstitial nephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Stevens; M. A. Ashton; D. J. Rainford

    Background. When used for oral treatment of inflam- matory bowel disease, Asacol (a coated form of mesala- zine = 5-aminosalicylic acid) can cause interstitial nephritis. The spectrum of severity, frequency of occur- rence and the best renal function test to detect this complication are not known. The value of immunosup- pression in addition to drug withdrawal is similarly undetermined. Methods.

  1. Interstitial Vascularity in Fibrosing Alveolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta A. Renzoni; David A. Walsh; Michael Salmon; Athol U. Wells; Andrew G. Nicholson; Srihari Veeraraghavan; Anne E. Bishop; Hanna M. Romanska; Panagiotis Pantelidis; Carol M. Black

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate interstitial vascularity in crypto- humoral autoimmunity, is often associated with lung involve- genic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) and in fibrosing alveolitis associated ment. Vascular involvement in SSc is exemplified by the with systemic sclerosis (FASSc). Open lung biopsies from eight pa- typical changes of nailfold capillaries, which include enlarged tients with CFA, nine

  2. Laminar Free Convection from Vertical Thin Needles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jai P. Narain; Mahinder S. Uberoi

    1972-01-01

    A similarity solution is obtained for the problem of free-convection heat transfer over a thin vertical needle with uniform heat flux at the surface. A few errors in previous papers on “isothermal” needles have been modified.

  3. Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

  4. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  5. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  6. Forming limit diagram for Indian interstitial free steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the suitability of interstitial free steel sheets of thickness 0.6 and 1.6mm for press forming operations were examined by obtaining the forming limit diagram. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were studied. Forming limit diagrams (FLD) were evaluated for the above sheet metals of two different thicknesses and they were compared. Strain distribution profiles were

  7. Finding a needle in the common carotid artery 3 years after ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Marie; Couchet, Geoffroy; Carrieres, Caroline; Ribal, Jean-Pierre; Rosset, Eugenio

    2014-07-01

    A woman presented with an ischemic stroke involving the right middle cerebral artery. Investigations revealed a foreign body in the cervical area. It was identified as a metal needle, perforating the posterior pharyngeal wall and migrating into the right common carotid artery (CCA). Three years previously, this patient had complained of odynophagia, brought on by needle ingestion. Three days before her stroke, she had hematemesis, caused by migration of the needle into the CCA. The stroke was caused by migration of the thrombus. This type of event is rarely encountered in Europe. Early recognition could avoid dangerous vascular complications. PMID:24447848

  8. Effect of heavy interstitials on anelastic properties of Nb1.0 wt% Zr alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armando Cirilo de Souza; Carlos Roberto Grandini; Odila Florêncio

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of metals with bcc structure, such as niobium and its alloys, have changed significantly with the\\u000a introduction of heavy interstitial elements. These interstitial elements (nitrogen, for example), present in the alloy, occupy\\u000a octahedral sites and constitute an elastic dipole of tetragonal symmetry and might produce anelastic relaxation. This article\\u000a presents the effect of nitrogen on the anelastic

  9. Multivacancies, interstitials, and self-interstitial migration in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelides, S. T.; Ivanov, I.; Scheffler, M.; Vigneron, J. P.

    1983-02-01

    Irradiation of Si with highly energetic particles creates vacancies, interstitials, multivacancies, and other complex defects. Several multivacancies have been identified from EPR signals by assuming that their localized states can be constructed as linear combinations of the so-called dangling bonds on the surrounding atoms. Theoretical investigations have so far been carried out only for divacancies, most of them using Extended-Hückel Theory (EHT) cluster calculations. model have been indirect and tenuous. In this paper, we report a theoretical scheme which gives a systematic description of the electronic energy-level structure of multivacancies of any size and shape. We obtain a direct connection between the results of Green's-function calculations and the dangling-bond model and reformulate the latter in a way that gives it quantitative predictive power. We identify the driving force for vacancy clustering and suggest that some of the observed rod-like defects may be vacancy chains. In the case of self-interstitials, we report self-consistent Green's-function calculations whose results are in sharp contrast with earlier results obtained by extended-Hückel cluster calculations. These results and other theoretical considerations led us to suggest that self-interstitial migration in Si is more likely to occur through the low-electron-density channels rather than through bond sites, as suggested earlier on the basis of the extended-Hückel calculations.

  10. Determination of the oxygen and nitrogen interstitial diffusion coeficient in niobium by mechanical spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odila Florêncio; Paulo Sergio da Silva Jr.; Thais França Stefanini; Carlos Roberto Grandini

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy measurements have been extensively used in the last decades to obtain information about many aspects of the behavior of solutes in metallic materials. Metals of body-centered cubic lattice that contain heavy interstitial elements (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) in solid solution, present anelastic relaxation peaks when submitted to cyclic tensions, due to process know stress-induced ordering. Internal friction and

  11. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan, E-mail: pavcnikd@ohsu.edu; Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  12. Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination with pneumatic, needle-free vaccination for sheep.

    PubMed

    Mousel, M R; Leeds, T D; White, S N; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M

    2008-06-01

    Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response as traditional needle vaccinations, has been hampered due to variable wool length. Vaccine delivery, injection time, and antibody response were evaluated for a prototype pneumatically powered, needle-free injector and for traditional needle injections. To determine optimal pressure for vaccine delivery with the pneumatic, needle-free injector, two 8-mo-old wethers were injected at pressures from 207 to 414 kPa in increments of 69 kPa. Injection time and antibody responses were evaluated using one hundred 8-mo-old wethers given primary and secondary inoculations of ovalbumin. Serum samples were collected before and after the inoculations on d 0, 14, 28, and 42. Optimal pressure to deliver a s.c. inoculation with the pneumatic, needle-free injector was 207 to 276 pKa. Inoculation of 100 wethers required 60% less time with the pneumatic, needle-free injector than with needle injections when a new needle was used on every animal. Antibody titers were the same (P > 0.12) for the pneumatic, needle-free and the needle injections on d 14, 28, and 42. In addition, antibody titers increased after primary and secondary inoculations, as expected. This study indicated that a pneumatic, needle-free injector can be used to elicit the same antibody response in sheep as a needle injection, and the pneumatic, needle-free injector was faster. The pneumatic, needle-free injector also would be expected to reduce lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases, and will save time, eliminate biohazard waste (e.g., used needles), and eliminate accidental needle sticks for livestock handlers when vaccinating sheep. PMID:18310489

  13. Interstitial inflammation in Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Jan; Soleiman, Afschin; Draganovici, Dan; Mandelbaum, Jana; Ziegler, Urs; Regele, Heinz; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Gross, Oliver; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Segerer, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerular disease linked to structural abnormalities of collagen IV. In a mouse model of Alport syndrome, the interstitial lymphocyte influx was important for disease progression. CXCR3 is a chemokine receptor involved in lymphocyte recruitment to the kidney. We hypothesized that CXCR3-positive T cells might be involved in human Alport syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies from 17 patients with Alport syndrome, 10 with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, and 11 healthy donor kidneys. We investigated the expression of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV to confirm the morphologic diagnosis, the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CD3-positive T cells. Alport syndrome biopsies demonstrated a complete loss of the alpha5 chain of collagen IV from the glomerular basement membrane and the morphologic features consistent with Alport syndrome on electron microscopy. A prominent number of CXCR3-positive cells were found in the tubulointerstitium. Most of the CXCR3-positive cells were CD3-positive T cells, demonstrated by double-labeling in selected biopsies. The number of CXCR3-positive cells in kidneys with Alport syndrome correlated with serum creatinine (P < .05) and with morphologic features of a progressive disease (eg, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy). The severity of interstitial CXCR3-positive cell influx was similar in Alport syndrome as compared to immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The noninflammatory glomerular lesion of Alport syndrome is associated with prominent interstitial accumulation of CD3- and CXCR3-positive lymphocytes. The degree of infiltration correlated with renal function. We speculate that targeting T lymphocytes, for example, by CXCR3 blocking agents, might be a novel approach to inhibit disease progression in patients with Alport syndrome. PMID:20004949

  14. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada)

    2005-04-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

  15. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. PMID:22006671

  16. Interstitial radiotherapy for the treatment of advanced or recurrent vulvar and distal vaginal malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.; Greenberg, S.; Greenberg, H.; Fiorica, J.V.; Roberts, W.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Noriega, B.K.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa (USA))

    1990-05-01

    From March 1, 1985 to April 30, 1988 10 patients with locally advanced primary or recurrent vulvar or distal vaginal malignancy were managed with interstitial radiotherapy with or without teletherapy. One patient died of complications of a total pelvic exenteration for radionecrosis 8 months after completion of radiotherapy. The remaining nine patients were alive at a mean follow-up of 28 months (14 to 50 months). Recurrent disease developed within a bed of severe radionecrosis in two patients at 13 and 47 months after completion of radiotherapy. The remaining seven patients have remained without evidence of recurrent disease. Of the 10 total patients severe radionecrosis developed in six at a median of 8.5 months (6 to 26 months) after radiotherapy. We conclude from our data that the use of interstitial needles, mainly combined with external radiotherapy, for the treatment of locally advanced primary or recurrent vulvar and introital malignancy is highly effective but also highly morbid.

  17. Super-oscillatory optical needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Edward T. F.; Savo, Salvatore; Lindberg, Jari; Roy, Tapashree; Dennis, Mark R.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2013-01-01

    Super-oscillatory optical lenses have recently been shown to achieve subwavelength focusing and have been used for super-resolution imaging. However, the subwavelength hotspots created by these lenses are always accompanied by sidebands containing a significant fraction of the optical energy and are highly localised in the axial direction. Here, we report a class of super-oscillatory lenses that form extended subwavelength optical needles on a 15? field of view.

  18. Interstitial fluid pressure within the coronary dermis of the horse with chronic laminitis 

    E-print Network

    Olivier, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Table 4. Models for two by two factorial analysis of variance used in the study. Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 M P M?P Error G M G*M Error F M F+M Error M = mass exerted on mass plate; 1:50-80 kg, 2:150-180 kg. P = position of catheter& 1:Toe... have to pressure sores in man was hypothesized, relating a possible increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) at the coronary band to pressure-induced ischemia. A modified wick-in-needle technique was used to determine the IFP at two positions...

  19. Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B; Okamura, Allison M; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%. PMID:21643451

  20. Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%. PMID:21643451

  1. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Chopra, Supriya, E-mail: schopra@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  2. Split interstitials in computer models of single-crystal and amorphous copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konchakov, R. A.; Khonik, V. A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of interstitial atoms in a dumbbell configuration on elastic moduli of single crystal copper has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that shear components of the dipole tensor and ?-tensor increase when the concentration of split interstitials exceeds 0.6-0.7%. This is associated with their interaction responsible for a significant change in the distribution of orientations of split interstitials and, hence, for a change in the type of the induced local symmetry breakings of the face-centered cubic structure. It has been found that, in the model of amorphous copper, there are "defects" (elastic dipoles) with properties similar to those of split interstitials in the single crystal. The deviatoric component of their ?-tensor is more than an order of magnitude greater than the dilatation component and is responsible for the decreased value of the shear modulus and thermal effects in noncrystalline metallic materials.

  3. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  4. Internal friction peaks due to interstitials in bcc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, O.; Carlson, O.N.; Indrawirawan, H.; Brasche, L.J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Richter's and Snoek's original works established the existence of an anelastic relaxation produced by a stress-induced interstitial reorientation in bcc metals. This anelastic relaxation, now referred to as a Snoek peak, has been studied extensively and well characterized in the past for the interstitials carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The existence of a hydrogen Snoek peak in bcc metals has been a matter of some controversy, however. We have studied relaxation peaks in V, Nb, and V-Nb alloys recently. The alloys have complete mutual solubility and are of interest since they have an extremely high room temperature solid solubility for hydrogen. They also have, over a certain composition range, not shown any hydride phase precipitation at temperatures as low as 4K. Thus, if a hydrogen Snoek peak does exist, it should be found in such alloys. Indeed there is evidence now of a spectrum of hydrogen relaxation peaks below room temperature. Furthermore, there is a large misfit of V in Nb and Nb in V and, possibly, some chemical interaction such that trapping (or antitrapping) of the interstitials at the substitutional sites, causing solute-interstitial peaks, can be characterized. The present paper provides an overview of our observations regarding: the effect of hydrogen on the oxygen and nitrogen Snoek peaks in pure V and Nb, The oxygen relaxation peaks in V-Nb alloys, The hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys, and the effect of oxygen on the hydrogen relaxation spectrum in V-Nb alloys. 52 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effect of the silicon/oxide interface on interstitials: Di-interstitial recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, M. E.; Haddara, Y. M.; Jones, K. S.

    1998-10-01

    Interstitials can recombine at an oxide/silicon interface. Previous experimental work produces contradictory results. Transient enhanced diffusion experiments suggest a nearly infinite surface recombination rate, while oxidation enhanced diffusion suggests a much weaker recombination rate. A di-interstitial mechanism is investigated, and analytic solutions are developed. This is compared to the more commonly used interstitial mechanism. The di-interstitial mechanism can account for most of the discrepancy in the data.

  6. Investigation of lattice dynamics in interstitial solid solutions niobium-oxygen and niobium-vanadium-oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilkin, S. A.; Minaev, V. P.; Sumin, V. V.

    The paper deals with the results of measuring NbO(0.03) and NbV(0.03)O(0.03) slow neutron inelastic scattering spectra. Frequency spectra of metal atoms and interstitial atoms are presented. Deformation of a frequency distribution of metal atoms is observed, which is caused by interstitial atoms, i.e., displacement and broadening of features of a spectrum and spectrum boundary displacement to a higher energy range. When introducing vanadium into NbO(0.03) the frequency of near impurity oscillations rises.

  7. Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group

    E-print Network

    Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

  8. INTERSTITIAL-DISLOCATION INTERACTION IN NIOBIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Boone; C. A. Wert

    1963-01-01

    Interstitial-dislocation interactions in niobium were investigated using ; the cold-work and Snoek internal friction peaks. Both the temperature of the ; cold-work peak and its height were found to depend on the amount of nitrogen ; removed from solution by dislocations in deformed specimens. Interstitial oxygen ; had only a minor effect and deformations beyond 5% were found to change

  9. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Samecka-Cymerman; G. Kosior; A. J. Kempers

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring

  10. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...electromyograph needle electrode. (a) Identification. A diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device is intended for...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 ...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section...Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended...nozzle) of a piston syringe or an intravascular...

  18. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section...Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended...nozzle) of a piston syringe or an intravascular...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section...Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that...

  20. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil. PMID:24707414

  1. Needle-free vaccine injection.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Mark A F

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people die each year from infectious disease, with a main stumbling block being our limited ability to deliver vaccines to optimal sites in the body. Specifically, effective methods to deliver vaccines into outer skin and mucosal layers--sites with immunological, physical and practical advantages that cannot be targeted via traditional delivery methods--are lacking. This chapter investigates the challenge for physical delivery approaches that are primarily needle-free. We examine the skin's structural and immunogenic properties in the context of the physical cell targeting requirements of the viable epidermis, and we review selected current physical cell targeting technologies engineered to meet these needs: needle and syringe, diffusion patches, liquid jet injectors, and microneedle arrays/patches. We then focus on biolistic particle delivery: we first analyze engineering these systems to meet demanding clinical needs, we then examine the interaction of biolistic devices with the skin, focusing on the mechanical interactions of ballistic impact and cell death, and finally we discuss the current clinical outcomes of one key application of engineered delivery devices--DNA vaccines. PMID:20217531

  2. Needle stick and other safety issues.

    PubMed

    Berry, Arnold J

    2004-09-01

    Percutaneous injuries such as accidental needle sticks are associated with the greatest risk for occupational transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV. This article presents data on the risk of transmission of these viruses after needle sticks, offers strategies for prevention of injuries from sharp objects, and discusses postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. PMID:15325715

  3. Paris System for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinello, Ginette

    The Paris System is a complete dosimetric system which greatly facilitates brachytherapy, using iridium 192 sources at low, pulsed or high dose-rate. The aim of this chapter is to present briefly the part of the system dedicated to interstitial brachytherapy. After a short description of the sources which can be used, the three basic principles of the Paris System are presented together with its particular mode of dose specification within the implanted volume, and the fixed value of the Reference Isodose (RI) equal to 85% of the Basal Dose-rate (BD), representative of the arithmetic mean of the minimal dose-rates in the central region of the implant. The method to calculate the treatment time is given. Simple relationships which can be used to predict the minimal dimensions of the treated volume (volume encompassed by the RI) at the very moment of the implant are presented.

  4. Finite quasiparticle lifetime effects in superconducting point contacts of niobium containing interstitial hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene V. Slobodzian; Charles W. Smith; Paul J. Dolan Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental measurements of normal metal : superconductor point contacts for silver on niobium were made as a function of temperature. To enhance inelastic scattering, hydrogen was introduced interstitially into the niobium by either thermal diffusion or electrolytic migration. Data show that the inelastic scattering parameter increases monotonically with hydrogen content. Quasiparticle lifetime effects will be discussed using a modification to

  5. Plasma needle: a non-destructive atmospheric plasma source for fine surface treatment of (bio)materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Stoffels; A J Flikweert; W W Stoffels; G M W Kroesen

    2002-01-01

    A non-thermal plasma source (`plasma needle') generated under atmospheric pressure by means of radio-frequency excitation has been characterized. Plasma appears as a small (sub-mm) glow at the tip of a metal pin. It operates in helium, argon, nitrogen and mixtures of He with air. Electrical measurements show that plasma needle operates at relatively low voltages (200–500 V peak-to-peak) and the

  6. High-frequency current application in bipolar technique for interstitial thermotherapy (HF-ITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-05-01

    For a minimally invasive treatment of pathologic tissue, e.g. tumors, the benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or the concha hyperplasia in otorhinolaryngology (ENT), next to the laser- induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) or the monopolar HF- surgery the interstitial thermotherapy with high-frequency alternating current (HF-ITT) in bipolar technique is a good alternative. Investigation results are presented which prove the feasibility and show the performance of this technique. Bipolar needles of different geometries, adapted to the various application fields, such as palliative treatment of metastatic carcinomas in liver and concha hyperplasia, were built and tested. Basic investigations of the thermal field distribution in in vitro samples were performed. The efficiency of the developed applicators were examined in in vitro experiments with porcine liver, turkey breast and porcine concha. Coagulation volumes of different needle diameters and power settings are show. Carbonization and dehydration can be avoided by irrigation of the tissue during treatment through integrated flushing ports and thus the performance is increased. For the treatment of concha hyperplasia special designs are presented which could probably offer an additional increase of safety and a simplification of performing a concha coagulation procedure. The new design of a bipolar needle electrode permits the surgeon the use of a partial application of high frequency current for ITT. Less power is needed due to the limited current distribution at the immediate operation site, which means that it is not necessary to fix the neutral electrode to the patient. Thus an easy to handle and a highly safe procedure can be performed by the surgeon.

  7. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-06-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  8. Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24960482

  9. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  10. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kosior, G; Kempers, A J

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring of serious heavy metal pollution was investigated. In the examined area current and previous year pine needles can be considered suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution for Cu and Zn and bark for only Cu. Bioaccumulation abilities of Cd and Cu in P. schreberi and P. sylvestris current and previous year needles were similar. Current and previous year needles were better accumulators of Mn, Ni, and Zn compared to the moss P. schreberi. Bark was a better accumulator of Cd, Cu, and Ni and an inferior accumulator of Mn compared to P. schreberi in the examined area. PMID:16029892

  11. OXYGEN PRESSURES IN THE INTERSTITIAL SPACE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AND TUMORS IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David F.; Lee, William M.F.; Makonnen, Sosina; Apreleva, Sophia; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2008-01-01

    A new Oxyphor (Oxyphor G3) has been used to selectively determine the oxygen pressure in interstitial (pericellular) spaces. Oxyphor G3 is a Pd-tetrabenzoporphyrin, encapsulated inside generation 2 poly-arylglycine (AG) dendrimer, and therefore is a true near infrared oxygen sensor, having a strong absorption band at 636nm and emission near 800nm. The periphery of the dendrimer is modified with oligoethylene glycol residues (Av. MW 350) to make the probe water soluble and biologically inert. Oxyphor G3 was injected along “tracks” in the tissue using a small needle (30gage or less) and remained in the pericellular space, allowing oxygen measurements for several hours with a single injection. The oxygen pressure distributions (histograms) were compared with those for Oxyphor G2 in the intravascular (blood plasma) space. In normal muscle, in the lower oxygen pressure region of the histograms (capillary bed) the oxygen pressure difference was small. At higher oxygen pressures in the histograms there were differences consistent with the presence of high flow vessels with oxygen pressures substantially above those of the surrounding interstitial space. In tumors, the oxygen pressures in the two spaces were similar but with large differences among tumors. In mice, anesthesia with ketamine plus xylazine markedly decreased oxygen pressures in the interstitial and intravascular spaces compared to awake or isoflurane anesthetized mice. PMID:18290314

  12. Oxygen pressures in the interstitial space of skeletal muscle and tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David F; Lee, William M F; Makonnen, Sosina; Apreleva, Sophia; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2008-01-01

    A new Oxyphor (Oxyphor G3) has been used to selectively determine the oxygen pressure in interstitial (pericellular) spaces. Oxyphor G3 is a Pd-tetrabenzoporphyrin, encapsulated inside generation 2 poly-arylglycine (AG) dendrimer, and therefore is a true near infrared oxygen sensor, having a strong absorption band at 636nm and emission near 800nm. The periphery of the dendrimer is modified with oligoethylene glycol residues (Av. MW 350) to make the probe water soluble and biologically inert. Oxyphor G3 was injected along "tracks" in the tissue using a small needle (30gage or less) and remained in the pericellular space, allowing oxygen measurements for several hours with a single injection. The oxygen pressure distributions (histograms) were compared with those for Oxyphor G2 in the intravascular (blood plasma) space. In normal muscle, in the lower oxygen pressure region of the histograms (capillary bed) the oxygen pressure difference was small. At higher oxygen pressures in the histograms there were differences consistent with the presence of high flow vessels with oxygen pressures substantially above those of the surrounding interstitial space. In tumors, the oxygen pressures in the two spaces were similar but with large differences among tumors. In mice, anesthesia with ketamine plus xylazine markedly decreased oxygen pressures in the interstitial and intravascular spaces compared to awake or isoflurane anesthetized mice. PMID:18290314

  13. Phase Transformations during Spot Welding of InterstitialFree Steel

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Phase Transformations during Spot Welding of Interstitial­Free Steel H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia the resistance spot­welding of interstitial­free steels are exceptionally problematic, not only because that form when interstitial free steels are resistance spot­welded. Interstitial­free steels do in reality

  14. Interstitial computing : utilizing spare cycles on supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, Scott Harvey (Woodside, CA); Kleban, Stephen David

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of utilizing unused cycles on supercomputers through the use of many small jobs. What we call 'interstitial computing,' is important to supercomputer centers for both productivity and political reasons. Interstitial computing makes use of the fact that small jobs are more or less fungible consumers of compute cycles that are more efficient for bin packing than the typical jobs on a supercomputer. An important feature of interstitial computing is that it not have a significant impact on the makespan of native jobs on the machine. Also, a facility can obtain higher utilizations that may only be otherwise possible with more complicated schemes or with very long wait times. The key contribution of this paper is that it provides theoretical and empirical guidelines for users and administrators for how currently unused supercomputer cycles may be exploited. We find that that interstitial computing is a more effective means for increasing machine utilization than increasing native job run times or size.

  15. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  16. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  17. Segregation of Mn2+ Dopants as Interstitials in SrTiO3 Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hao; Kotula, Paul G.; Sato, Yukio; Chi, Miaofang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-10-03

    Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to substitute Ti in bulk SrTiO3, but Mn2+ segregates inside grain boundaries at both Sr and interstitial sites. Mn interstitial doping has never been reported, but is found possible with the formation of Sr vacancies. This finding is significantly different from the amphoteric doping of Mn2+ substituting Sr and Mn4+ substituting Ti sites, therefore leads to different understanding on the defect mediated electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped perovskites.

  18. Needle polyamine concentrations and potassium nutrition in Scats pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TYTTI SARJALA; SEPPO KAUNISTO

    Summary The response of free polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in needles of Scats pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) to varying needle potassium concentrations was investigated in two potassium fertilization experiments on drained peatlands. A significant negative correlation was observed between putrescine and potassium concentrations in needles. Putrescine responded more sensitively to decreasing needle K concentrations during the growing season than

  19. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  20. Interstitial lung disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172

  1. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  2. Compact Raman needle probe with fine needle aspiration biopsy for solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents a label-free vibrational spectroscopic technique for studying the biochemical and biomolecular compositions of human body. Raman probe is a key component to facilitate the in vivo diagnosis by using Raman spectroscopy. We investigated a compact Raman needle probe design to be integrated into a device that can also take biopsies of solid tissues for cytological assessment, enabling concurrent Raman spectroscopic interrogation and fine needle aspiration biopsy with a single needle penetration. We described the fabrication of the Raman needle probe and its assembly with the biopsy device. Example Raman spectra of various solid tissues are given.

  3. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  4. Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection

    E-print Network

    Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

  5. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  6. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The device may have a handle attached...out in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. [61 FR...

  7. Effect of thinning on anatomical adaptations of Norway spruce needles.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Roman; Volarík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2011-10-01

    Conifers and other trees are constantly adapting to changes in light conditions, water/nutrient supply and temperatures by physiological and morphological modifications of their foliage. However, the relationship between physiological processes and anatomical characteristics of foliage has been little explored in trees. In this study we evaluated needle structure and function in Norway spruce families exposed to different light conditions and transpiration regimes. We compared needle characteristics of sun-exposed and shaded current-year needles in a control plot and a thinned plot with 50% reduction in stand density. Whole-tree transpiration rates remained similar across plots, but increased transpiration of lower branches after thinning implies that sun-exposed needles in the thinned plot were subjected to higher water stress than sun-exposed needles in the control plot. In general, morphological and anatomical needle parameters increased with increasing tree height and light intensity. Needle width, needle cross-section area, needle stele area and needle flatness (the ratio of needle thickness to needle width) differed most between the upper and lower canopy. The parameters that were most sensitive to the altered needle water status of the upper canopy after thinning were needle thickness, needle flatness and percentage of stele area in needle area. These results show that studies comparing needle structure or function between tree species should consider not only tree height and light gradients, but also needle water status. Unaccounted for differences in needle water status may have contributed to the variable relationship between needle structure and irradiance that has been observed among conifers. PMID:21891783

  8. Preliminary work of a smart needling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kaiguo; Liu, Tien-I.; Ling, Keck Voon; Yu, Yan; O'Dell, Walter; Sing, Ng Wan

    2005-04-01

    Precise needle placement is vital for the success of a wide variety of percutaneous surgical procedures. Insertions into soft tissues can be difficult to learn and to perform, due to tissue deformation, needle deflection and limited visual feedback. Little quantitative information is known about the interaction between needles and soft tissues during puncture. We are carrying out a "smart needling" project in which a fairly long, but slender biopsy needle will be controlled to hit the target that is inside human body, automatically and precisely. This paper reports the preliminary work which is to prove that translational oscillation of the needle can reduce target movement, and at the same time to find the optimal settings of the important factors that will produce the least target movement. The experiment platform comprises of an oscillatory needle restricted to translate horizontally. A position-trackable catheter was embedded in the phantom to act as the target. Two-Level factorial design was adopted and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) approach was used for analysis. The final results showed that oscillation at high frequency band from 2kHz to 20kHz can reduce target movement. Translation speed, oscillation frequency and amplitude are all important factors. But phantoms with different elasticities may have different best settings of these factors. For example, for soft phantoms, lower frequency, higher speed and smaller amplitude are desired for minimal target movement. Optimization searching engine will be designed correspondingly to control the needle in optimal working conditions that can produce minimal target movement.

  9. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  10. Dominant hand operating probe vs needle: a comparison study of ultrasound-guided needle placement in phantom models.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D F; Stafford, M

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a replicated crossover design study to assess if using one's dominant hand for operating a probe vs directing a needle would affect the time taken, the number of needle passes and the accuracy of an ultrasound-guided procedure in phantom models. Twenty ultrasound-novice participants completed the task 10 times for each hand arrangement (alternating between attempts). The time taken and number of needle passes required for both dominant hand-probe and hand-needle decreased over time (p = 0.001). Dominant hand-needle had a lower mean time used (p = 0.001) and fewer needle passes (p = 0.02) compared with hand-probe. Sixty-five per cent of participants preferred using their dominant hand to direct the needle. When learning ultrasound-guided needle procedures on phantom models, use of the dominant hand to operate the needle is associated with a shorter procedure time and fewer needle passes. PMID:25846452

  11. Needle-type lactate biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Atanasov, P; Wilkins, E

    1999-02-01

    A needle-type lactate biosensor has been developed for continuous intravascular lactate monitoring. The sensor employs poly(1,3-phenylenediamine) as the inner layer on the platinum electrode in order to eliminate the interference from oxidizable physiological substances. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde was used for enzyme immobilization. Dithiothreitol was used as the stabilizer of lactate oxidase. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was chosen as the external diffusion control membrane. Sensor performance was evaluated in vitro and the sensor shows a sensitivity of 10-15 nA/mM, and a linear range from 1 mM to at least 15 mM lactate. Evaluation of the sensor response in blood plasma showed similar sensitivity and linear range as indicated by the calibration curves obtained in buffer solution. The sensor has a short response time of approximately 1 minute. The sensors were operated continuously for 7 days in phosphate buffer containing solution with a concentration at the physiological lactate level. No significant change in sensor sensitivity and its linear range has been observed. Sensors show a minimum change in its performance when stored in buffer at 4 degrees C for at least 9 months. PMID:10101841

  12. Divalent ions released from stainless steel hypodermic needles reduce neuronal calcium currents.

    PubMed

    Nam, S C; Hockberger, P E

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of saline solutions exposed to stainless steel hypodermic needles on their ability to reduce voltage-dependent calcium currents in chick dorsal root ganglion neurons and rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. Salines exposed to needles with brass hubs, but not those with plastic hubs, for as little as 2-3 sec reduced calcium currents in both cell types. The amplitude of the response was exposure-dependent and reversible. Elemental analysis of the exposed salines using inductively-coupled-plasma atomic emission spectroscopy revealed that Cu and Zn (but not Cd, Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni or Pb) were released from the brazed needles. The amount of Cu plus Zn released in 30 sec was estimated to be 12-26 microM, depending upon the specific needle examined. Longer exposures produced proportionately higher concentrations of the metals. Dose-response curves for Cu or Zn ions applied directly to cells confirmed that similar concentrations of these ions reduced neuronal calcium currents. Our results indicate that divalent ions released from stainless steel hypodermic needles with brass hubs can interfere with measurements of calcium currents. In addition the results contribute new information regarding potential physiological and pathological actions of copper and zinc ions in biological tissues. PMID:1553256

  13. Needle-in-Needle Technique for Percutaneous Retrieval of a Fractured Biopsy Needle during CT-Guided Biopsy of the Thoracic Spine.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Hamza; Thawani, Jayesh; Pukenas, Bryan

    2014-10-31

    Common complications related to CT-guided percutaneous thoracic bone biopsy procedures include pneumothorax and muscular hematoma. Serious, but rare complications include paralysis, nerve injury, CSF leak, and aortic injury. Device failure has not been well documented in the literature. We discuss our experience with biopsy needle breakage during retrieval of a core specimen and the technique used to help retrieve an embedded needle using a CT fluoroscopic-guided, needle-in-needle approach. A 43 year-old man with Stage IIIa NSCLC was found to have a T11 vertebral body lesion as seen on PET, CT, and MR imaging. The patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy in the prone position. The T11 vertebral body was localized and cannulated using the percutaneous Bonopty(®) (Apriomed, Upsala, Sweden) needle device. After fine needle aspiration samples were obtained, a core needle biopsy was attempted with a 16-gauge device. The needle fractured 4 cm deep to the skin during removal of a sclerotic lesion, leaving a retained portion within the pedicle and vertebral body. Using CT-guided fluoroscopy, a large diameter Murphy M2 needle was advanced over the distal portion of the fractured Bonopty needle. The Murphy M2 needle was advanced distal to the tip of the Bonopty needle and removed, capturing the broken Bonopty penetration needle along with a core specimen. Larger-bore biopsy needle systems and/or a coaxial system should be used to perform core biopsies in sclerotic lesions to prevent device fracture. If there is device fracture, a larger-bore needle may be used to help capture the fractured needle and prevent open surgery. PMID:25363270

  14. Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

    2009-02-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

  15. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFR?+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFR?+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  16. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia with mutation in surfactant protein C in familial pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chibbar, Rajni; Shih, Francis; Baga, Monica; Torlakovic, Emina; Ramlall, Kumar; Skomro, Robert; Cockcroft, Donald W; Lemire, Edmond G

    2004-08-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, a recently described form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, is characterized by uniform involvement of the alveolar septae with interstitial inflammation and variable amounts of fibrosis. Histological observations differentiate nonspecific interstitial pneumonia from usual interstitial pneumonia and clinically, patients with a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern show better prognosis than those with usual interstitial pneumonia. We have genetically analyzed a family with a history of usual interstitial pneumonia. Most of the patients presented as adults and their biopsies showed a pattern consistent with usual interstitial pneumonia. However, three family members presented in early childhood and their biopsies revealed a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. The inheritance pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. DNA sequence analyses of the surfactant protein C gene in children with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and adults with usual interstitial pneumonia exhibit a common heterozygous mutation located in exon 5. The mutation causes a Leu188 to Gln188 change in the carboxy-terminal region of prosurfactant protein C, possibly affecting peptide processing. These observations suggest that individuals with this particular mutation in surfactant protein C gene might be at increased risk of interstitial lung disease of variety of types. PMID:15133475

  17. Core needle biopsy of palpable breast lump: the influence of needle size.

    PubMed

    Wong, T E; Hisham, A N

    2003-08-01

    The diagnostic value of core needle biopsy is increasingly being preferred because of its better characterization of benign and malignant lesions and lower frequency of insufficient samples. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and complication rates with 2 different gauges of core biopsy needle in the preoperative diagnosis of palpable breast lumps. A total of 150 consecutive core biopsies were included in this prospective non-randomised study of palpable breast lump from May 2000 to May 2001. The tissue diagnosis made from the core biopsy specimen was compared with the final histopathology reports from the excised specimen. However, if the lump is not excised, a presumptive diagnosis of benign lesion was made only after at least 6 months follow up with no change in the breast lump. The data were analysed for sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, diagnostic accuracy and complications. The results from the 2 different sizes of core needle biopsies were compared accordingly and a statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared test. Ninety-six core specimens were acquired with 14 G needle while the other 54 with 16 G needle. There was no significant statistical difference between the accuracy of both needle sizes. However, 4 complications occurred with the larger size 14 G needle while none with the 16 G needle, but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion the size 16 G core biopsy needle provided an accurate diagnostic reliability that is comparable to the larger size 14 G needle in the preoperative diagnosis of palpable breast lump. PMID:14750380

  18. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece)] [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom) [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  19. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  20. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  1. Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in liver were 73cc, 84cc, and 140cc for 3, 4, and 5 placements, respectively. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of combining real-time spatially tracked image guidance with directional interstitial ultrasound ablation. Interstitial ultrasound ablation delivered on multiple needles permit the size and shape of the ablation zone to be "sculpted" by modifying the angle and intensity of the active US elements in the array. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first system incorporating thermal treatment planning and integration of a novel interstitial acoustic ablation device with integrated 3D electromagnetic tracking and guidance strategy.

  2. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  3. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22365253

  4. Microengineered needle micro-coils for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Ahmad, M. M.; Young, I. R.; Gilderdale, D. J.; Collins, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    A process for batch fabrication of low-cost needle-shaped micro-coils for magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy is demonstrated. The conductors are embedded inside a cross-section designed to avoid the signal cancellation effects that can occur with completely immersed detectors. Simple models are developed for the sensitivity of an immersed coil and for the electrical performance of coils on silicon substrates. Conductors are fabricated on oxidized Si by electroplating metals inside a deep photoresist mould, and then capped with a thick layer of plastic. Through-wafer deep reactive ion etching is used to define needle shapes. At 63.8 MHz frequency, Q-factors obtained on Si are comparable to those on glass, and resonators based on single-turn coils have Q-factors of ap14. Total immersion 1H MR imaging and spectroscopy are demonstrated in a 1.5 T magnetic field using tomato fruits. Q-factors are raised at higher frequencies (to >30 at 255 MHz) using thick polymer isolation, and hybrid integration of additional circuitry is demonstrated.

  5. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J., E-mail: l.haseler@griffith.edu.au [Griffith University, Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute (Australia); Sibbitt, Randy R., E-mail: THESIBB2@aol.com [Montana Interventional and Dgnstc Radiation (United States); Sibbitt, Wilmer L., E-mail: wsibbitt@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Michael, Adrian A., E-mail: adrian_a_michael@yahoo.com [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Gasparovic, Charles M., E-mail: chuck@unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MIND Institute at the University of New Mexico (United States); Bankhurst, Arthur D., E-mail: abankhurst@salud.unm.edu [University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  6. 78 FR 78296 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Needles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...Establishment of Class E Airspace; Needles, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Needles, CA, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument...Needles VORTAC navigation aid, Needles, CA. This action would contain aircraft...

  7. Migration and directional change of interstitial clusters in ?-Fe: searching for transition states by the dimer method.

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Heinisch, Howard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Kurtz, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Hoagland, R.G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2005-01-01

    The interstitial clusters produced by cascades in metals have very high mobility and exhibit thermally activated, one-dimensional glide along <1 1 1> directions. Only small interstitial clusters (<4) are observed to change their glide direction during the period of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ({approx}10 ns), but the directional change for larger clusters is inaccessible to MD due to the limited time-scale. In order to overcome the 'time barrier' in MD simulations, the dimer method is employed to search for possible transition states of interstitials and small interstitial clusters in {alpha}-Fe. The method uses only the first derivatives of the potential energy to find saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition. The possible transition states are studied as a function of interstitial cluster size, and the lowest energy barriers correspond to defect migration along <1 1 1> directions, as seen in MD simulations. Small clusters change their direction by a <1 1 0> fragment mechanism involving rotation of each crowdion into and out of the <1 1 0> dumbbell configuration, whereas the directional change for larger clusters is a two-step process consisting of translation along a <1 0 0> direction and rotation into an equivalent <1 1 1> direction. The mechanism of changing direction for a tri-interstitial cluster is also investigated using MD simulations.

  8. Migration and Directional Change of Interstitial Clusters in ?-Fe: Searching for Transition States by the Dimer Method

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Hoagland, Richard G.

    2005-02-01

    The interstitial clusters produced by cascades in metals have very high mobility and exhibit thermally activated, one-dimensional glide along the crowdion direction, as revealed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Only small interstitial clusters (<4) are observed to change their glide direction during the period of MD simulations ({approx} 10 ns), but the directional change for larger clusters is inaccessible to MD due to the limited time-scale. In order to overcome the ''time barrier'' in MD simulations, the dimer method is employed to search for possible transition states of interstitials and small interstitial clusters in alpha-Fe. The method uses only the first derivatives of the potential energy to find saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition. The possible transition states are studied as a function of interstitial cluster size, and the lowest energy barriers correspond to defect migration along (111) directions, as seen in MD simulations. Small clusters change their direction by a (110) fragment mechanism involving rotation of each crowdion into and out of the (110) dumbbell configuration, whereas the directional change for larger clusters is a two-step process consisting of translation along a <100> direction and rotation into an equivalent (111) direction. The mechanism of changing direction for a tri-interstitial cluster is also investigated using MD simulations.

  9. Needle suspension procedures: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Trockman, B A; Leach, G E

    1996-06-01

    This article reviews the history, evolution, and future of transvaginal needle suspension procedures for stress urinary incontinence. Although numerous technical modifications to the original Pereyra transvaginal needle suspension procedure have been described, the true success rates of these procedures are difficult to ascertain. In general, outcomes reported in the literature are variable, and few long-term studies exist. Only the results of well-designed, prospective, and long-term studies will determine whether recent advances in patient selection and continuing technical modifications will improve the outcome of bladder neck suspension procedures. PMID:8740381

  10. [King Injo's disease and burnt needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy and King Injo's disease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign) to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 in King Injo's reign), right before his death, King Injo was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have?Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon ear, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease. The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mothe Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant rebellions and treasons threatened King Injo. The king suspected that Queen Mother Inmok and Princess Jeongmyeong were involved in homeopathic magic cases because both figures could affect major rebellions and treasons. Homeopathic magic is a kind of ideological belief and psychological suspicion. Accordingly, burnt needle therapy could have an actual effect on treating the diseases of the body. It could have a psychological effect in treating pathogenic factors as well. As burnt needles were often used for the king's disease, remarkable development of acupuncture and moxibustion during the King Injo's era was a characteristic in the history of medical science in the Joseon Dynasty. PMID:15726754

  11. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a)...

  16. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha, E-mail: sbando@cgcri.res.in

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  17. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), or other assisted reproduction procedures to obtain...

  18. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. Tissue Cooperation in a Proteolytic Cascade Activating Human Interstitial Collagenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengshi He; Scott M. Wilhelm; Alice P. Pentland; Barry L. Marmer; Gregory A. Grant; Arthur Z. Eisen; Gregory I. Goldberg

    1989-01-01

    We present a cascade of proteolytic events catalyzed by the proteases secreted by cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts that results in the activation of interstitial procollagenase. Cultured human skin fibroblasts constitutively secrete interstitial collagenase and stromelysin as proenzymes. In contrast, interstitial collagenase found in serum-free skin organ culture conditioned medium is activated. Cocultivation of the major cellular components of skin organ

  20. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  1. Interstitial leukocyte migration and immune function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Weigelin; Peter Friedl

    2008-01-01

    The trafficking of leukocytes into and within lymphoid and peripheral tissues is central to immune cell development, immunosurveillance and effector function. Interstitial leukocyte trafficking is the result of amoeboid polarization and migration, guided by soluble or tissue-bound chemoattractant signals for positioning and local arrest. In contrast to other migration modes, amoeboid movement is particularly suited for scanning cellular networks and

  2. Treatment of interstitial lung disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Dinwiddie

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of interstitial lung disease in children depends on the nature of the underlying pathology. In approximately 50% of cases a specific aetiology can be found such as: chronic viral infection, an auto-immune process, sarcoidosis or alveolar proteinosis. In the remainder, the process is idiopathic and the pathological findings are based on the descriptive morphological features seen in the

  3. Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Vogl; Katrin Eichler; Martin G. Mack; Stephan Zangos; Christopher Herzog; Axel Thalhammer; Kerstin Engelmann

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-investigated locoregional cancer treatment in which a systemically administered photosensitizer is activated locally by illuminating the diseased tissue with light of a suitable wavelength. PDT offers various treatment strategies in oncology, especially palliative ones. This article focuses on the development and evaluation of interstitial PDT for the treatment of solid tumors, particularly liver tumors. The

  4. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Desinger; T. Stein; A. Boehme; Martin G. Mack; Gerhard J. Mueller

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode

  5. Integration of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function to determine the effect of their interaction on interstitial fluid volume

    E-print Network

    Dongaonkar, Ranjeet Manohar

    2009-05-15

    role in interstitial fluid balance?it determines how much interstitial fluid pressure rises with an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Three related concepts follow. First, the extraordinarily high interstitial compliance reported for the lung...). Although it is recognized that cyclical contraction of muscular lymphatic vessels can propel lymph, external compression is the only means of propulsion in the intestinal wall, skeletal muscle, heart, and lung, where lymphatic microvessels are devoid...

  6. Ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of high-interstitial Fe-Cr-Mn alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoungchul Hwang; Tae-Ho Lee; Sung-Joon Kim

    2012-01-01

    The ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of high-interstitial Fe-Cr-Mn alloys with different N and C contents is discussed in terms of the deformation microstructure and the mode of brittle fracture. The combined addition of N?+?C improved the low-temperature toughness by decreasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, compared to the addition of N alone, by effectively increasing the free-electron concentration and enhancing the metallic

  7. Ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of high-interstitial Fe-Cr-Mn alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoungchul Hwang; Tae-Ho Lee; Sung-Joon Kim

    2011-01-01

    The ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of high-interstitial Fe-Cr-Mn alloys with different N and C contents is discussed in terms of the deformation microstructure and the mode of brittle fracture. The combined addition of N?+?C improved the low-temperature toughness by decreasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, compared to the addition of N alone, by effectively increasing the free-electron concentration and enhancing the metallic

  8. An optical smart needle : point-of-care technologies for integrated needle guidance using optical frequency domain ranging

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Brian, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining accurate needle placement is of critical importance in many medical scenarios. In the setting of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), manual palpation is often the only cue for determining the optimal position ...

  9. Uranium associations and migration behaviour at the Needle’s Eye natural analogue site in SW Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Xiaolu

    2015-06-30

    This thesis investigated uranium (U) migration behaviour at the Needle?s Eye natural analogue site, located close to Southwick Water, South West Scotland. The results of this study are important for the prediction of U ...

  10. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar rf applicators: computer-aided therapy control and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Thomas; Desinger, Kai; Roggan, Andre; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of the temperature and damage distribution during a bipolar RFITT (radio-frequency current induced interstitial thermotherapy) application has been developed. The electric field and the heat transfer is calculated by the Finite Difference Method. The program calculates the distribution of electrical power density (heat generating term), temperature and tissue damage using standard and cooled bipolar needle applicators and displays the results graphically in real time. Whereby the changes of the tissue parameters due to the heating process are also taken into account. The computer program can not only be a means for therapy planning but as well for on-line therapy control. For this the program has the option to measure the output power of the RF-surgery generator and the tissue impedance via an A/D-converter. This gives more accurate simulation results. Furthermore the power output of the RF- generator can be controlled by the program via a D/A- converter. The option of measuring and steering the generator power allows the possible implementation of various control algorithms with the aim of performing an interstitial coagulation with high efficiency.

  11. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  12. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  13. Light scattering by dielectric needles and disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schiffer; K. O. Thielheim

    1979-01-01

    Light-scattering properties of very thin or flat dielectric particles are approximately calculated by means of a method which combines Rayleigh-Gans and Rayleigh scattering. For the approximation to be valid the shortest diameter of the particle, Rmin, must be small compared to the longest diameter Rmax and to the wavelength lambda of the incident radiation. The method is applied to needles

  14. Buffon Needle Problem Application to Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    A. V. Sedelnikov

    2010-06-01

    In this article the possibility of application of classical Buffon needle problem to the investigation of orientation engine firing problem has been investigated. Such an approach makes it possible to get a reliable EP of this undesired event without using a more complicated analysis.

  15. The hard metal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cugell, D W

    1992-06-01

    Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure. PMID:1511554

  16. Use of transrectal ultrasound for high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy for patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Goura Kisor; Thulkar, Sanjay; Kumar, Sunesh; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Julka, Parmod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been widely used for guiding prostate implants, but not much for interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) of cervix cancer. The aim of our study is to report our experience with TRUS guided high dose rate (HDR) IBT in patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix. Methods During the year 2005-2006, 25 patients of cervical cancer not suitable for intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT), were enrolled in this prospective study. We used B-K Medical USG machine (Falcon 2101) equipped with a TRUS probe (8658) having a transducer of 7.5 MHz for IBT. Post procedure, a CT scan was done for verification of needle position and treatment planning. Two weekly sessions of HDR IBT of 8-10 Gy each were given after pelvic external beam radiation therapy. Results A total of 40 IBT procedures were performed in 25 patients. Average duration of implant procedure was 50 minutes. There was no uterine perforation in any of 11 patients in whom central tandem was used. CT scan did not show needle perforation of bladder/rectum in any of the patients. During perioperative period, only 1 procedure (2.5%) was associated with hematuria which stopped within 6 hours. Severe late toxicity was observed in 3 (12%) patients. Overall pelvic control rate was 64%. Conclusion Our experience suggests that TRUS is a practical and effective imaging device for guiding the IBT procedure of cervical cancer patients. It helps in accurate placements of needles thus avoiding the injury to normal pelvic structures. PMID:20379442

  17. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  18. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  19. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  20. Mumps interstitial nephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kabaku?, N; Aydino?lu, H; Bakkalo?lu, S A; Yekeler, H

    1999-11-01

    Mumps is still a common childhood disease in rural areas where mumps vaccination is not widespread. A 14-year-old girl with fatal interstitial nephritis as a complication of mumps is reported. The patient had not been vaccinated with mumps vaccine and had contracted mumps during a village epidemic. The illness began with parotitis, and renal insufficiency developed within a week. The patient's renal function rapidly deteriorated and the outcome was fatal. The postmortem renal necropsy sample demonstrated interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, edema, and focal tubular epithelial cell damage, confirming the clinical diagnosis. In developing countries routine mumps vaccination may help to prevent possible fatal complications of mumps. Furthermore, patients with mumps, especially complicated cases, should be followed closely. PMID:10603152

  1. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line monitoring of temperature. Beyond these engineering considerations, our clinical experience demonstrates that following interstitial routes for applying HIFU is an interesting therapeutic option when targeted sites cannot be reached from outside the patient.

  2. Finite quasiparticle lifetime effects in superconducting point contacts of niobium containing interstitial hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodzian, Eugene V.; Smith, Charles W.; Dolan, Paul J., Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Experimental measurements of normal metal : superconductor point contacts for silver on niobium were made as a function of temperature. To enhance inelastic scattering, hydrogen was introduced interstitially into the niobium by either thermal diffusion or electrolytic migration. Data show that the inelastic scattering parameter increases monotonically with hydrogen content. Quasiparticle lifetime effects will be discussed using a modification to the BTK theory for normal metal : superconductor point contacts, that includes inelastic scattering. Comparison will be made for scattering from vacancies in work hardened niobium.

  3. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  4. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  5. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  6. Skinny needle pyelography. An advance in uroradiology.

    PubMed

    Hare, W S; McOmish, D

    1981-08-01

    Diagnostic puncture of the renal pelvis with a fine-gauge needle inserted under radiological and ultrasound control, has been performed in more than 100 cases. The method is safe, easy to perform for those trained in imaging modalities, and causes little discomfort. Pyelography and pressure flow studies can be made and urine specimens obtained from the upper urinary tract. Skinny needle pyelography is indicated in unilateral non-visualization of the ureter on intravenous pyelography, in acute oliguric renal failure when ultrasound reveals dilated ureters, and when retrograde pyelography is not feasible. The method is cost-effective, as it can be performed on outpatients as a follow-on procedure after intravenous pyelography or renal ultrasound scanning. PMID:7026995

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Endocrine Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ema A. Dragoescu; Celeste N. Powers

    \\u000a Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe, accurate, and minimally invasive technique for sampling of endocrine organs. It is\\u000a widely used for both palpable and non-palpable thyroid nodules. Parathyroid and adrenal glands can be approached with image-guidance,\\u000a preferably with a cytopathologist onsite for preliminary interpretation. The specific information obtained is used for definitive\\u000a diagnosis or to triage patients and avoid

  8. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aigen Li

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite\\/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process

  9. First-principles study of diffusion of interstitial and vacancy in ? U-Zr.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Yang; Wirth, Brian D

    2011-05-25

    Metallic uranium-zirconium alloys are of interest for a variety of fast reactor designs, and there is substantial experience with the behavior of metallic fuels. Yet, there remain a number of questions regarding the mechanisms controlling fission-gas-driven swelling in these alloys. Here we present results of ab initio calculations of the diffusion behavior of interstitial and vacancy point defects in ? U-Zr alloys. The formation energy and migration barrier of vacancy and interstitial defects, and the influence of Zr on these values, is obtained and compared with experimental results. Our results confirm that self-diffusion in pure ? U is via a simple vacancy mechanism, and shows anisotropic character. The calculated values of activation energy are consistent with the experimental results in the literature. For interstitial diffusion, the kick-out mechanism was found to have the smallest energy barrier. The calculations of point defects, and later Xe, in U-Zr alloys will provide a foundation for computational modeling of fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. PMID:21540501

  10. First-principles study of diffusion of interstitial and vacancy in ? U-Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gui-Yang; Wirth, Brian D.

    2011-05-01

    Metallic uranium-zirconium alloys are of interest for a variety of fast reactor designs, and there is substantial experience with the behavior of metallic fuels. Yet, there remain a number of questions regarding the mechanisms controlling fission-gas-driven swelling in these alloys. Here we present results of ab initio calculations of the diffusion behavior of interstitial and vacancy point defects in ? U-Zr alloys. The formation energy and migration barrier of vacancy and interstitial defects, and the influence of Zr on these values, is obtained and compared with experimental results. Our results confirm that self-diffusion in pure ? U is via a simple vacancy mechanism, and shows anisotropic character. The calculated values of activation energy are consistent with the experimental results in the literature. For interstitial diffusion, the kick-out mechanism was found to have the smallest energy barrier. The calculations of point defects, and later Xe, in U-Zr alloys will provide a foundation for computational modeling of fission gas bubble nucleation and growth.

  11. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5?mA, 60?min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100?mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  12. The incidence of coring with blunt versus sharp needles.

    PubMed

    Wani, Tariq; Wadhwa, Anupama; Tobias, Joseph D

    2014-03-01

    With the advent of safety needles to prevent inadvertent needle sticks in the operating room (OR), a potentially new issue has arisen. These needles may result in coring, or the shaving off of fragments of the rubber stopper, when the needle is pierced through the rubber stopper of the medication vial. These fragments may be left in the vial and then drawn up with the medication and possibly injected into patients. The current study prospectively evaluated the incidence of coring when blunt and sharp needles were used to pierce rubber topped vials. We also evaluated the incidence of coring in empty medication vials with rubber tops. The rubber caps were then pierced with either an18-gauge sharp hypodermic needle or a blunt plastic (safety) needle. Coring occurred in 102 of 250 (40.8%) vials when a blunt needle was used versus 9 of 215 (4.2%) vials with a sharp needle (P < 0.0001). A significant incidence of coring was demonstrated when a blunt plastic safety needle was used. This situation is potentially a patient safety hazard and methods to eliminate this problem are needed. PMID:24582180

  13. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Y?ld?z, Mustafa; Akil, E?ref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ? 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  14. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ricker, R. E.; Pitchure, D. J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. MS 8553, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Myneni, G. R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2007-08-09

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium samples to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify diffusible interstitial content. Time series and spectral analysis were used to evaluate behavior during plastic flow. Dynamic modulus analysis and strain relaxation/recovery experiments were used to evaluate anelastic relaxations during elastic loading. Serrations during plastic flow were found to occur at discrete frequency ranges with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. Anelastic relaxations were found at specific temperatures or time constants with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. The results indicate that with considerable research and development, mechanical properties could be used to measure the diffusible interstitial content of niobium and partition the total interstitial content between diffusible (harmful) and non-diffusible (non-harmful) forms.

  15. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R. E.; Pitchure, D. J.; Myneni, G. R.

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium samples to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify diffusible interstitial content. Time series and spectral analysis were used to evaluate behavior during plastic flow. Dynamic modulus analysis and strain relaxation/recovery experiments were used to evaluate anelastic relaxations during elastic loading. Serrations during plastic flow were found to occur at discrete frequency ranges with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. Anelastic relaxations were found at specific temperatures or time constants with amplitudes that varied with interstitial content. The results indicate that with considerable research and development, mechanical properties could be used to measure the diffusible interstitial content of niobium and partition the total interstitial content between diffusible (harmful) and non-diffusible (non-harmful) forms.

  16. Electronic structure calculations of substitutional and interstitial hydrogen in Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khowash, Pradeep; Gowtham, S.; Pandey, Ravindra

    2012-05-01

    We report the results of a theoretical study on the effects of substitutional and interstitial hydrogen atoms in niobium. We confirm that any contaminated hydrogen will occupy the interstitial site over the substitutional site in niobium. For interstitial hydrogens, the lattice deformation increases with the percentage content of hydrogen, though it is negligible at low concentrations. Substitutional hydrogens are found to prefer off-center sites in the host lattice.

  17. On the Hazard Caused by the Heat of Acupuncture Needles in Warm Needling (??W?n Zh?n)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Wen-Jiuan; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity and convenience, acupuncture has become popular as a complementary therapy. In this Chinese medicine, doctors have to find the traditional meridian acupuncture points before puncturing the needles into them. Moxibustion (?? Ài Ji?) is also an important part of the acupuncture remedy. Treatment by acupuncture can be classified roughly into two types – direct moxibustion and indirect moxibustion. Warm-needling acupuncture (??? W?n Zh?n Ji?) is classified under the method of indirect moxibustion. In the present study, 10 standard stainless steel acupuncture needles with 10 pieces of cylinder-shaped moxa cone (?? Ài Zhù) as the heat source of warm needles were used. In order to prevent the practitioners from getting burns, it is necessary to study the temperature changes in some designated parts of the needles. Two sizes, 0.6 g and 1.0 g, of moxa cones were used for comparison of the measured temperatures. The needles are typically divided into two parts – the handle part and the needle body. In our experiment, the temperatures of WNA at different parts of the needles were measured. The larger the size of moxa cone is, the longer is the burning time. Based on the observations we suggest that when 0.6 g moxa is used, the physicians should better pick out the needles around 9 min after ignition; however, while using the 1 g moxa, it might be safer to pick out the needles around 13 min after ignition. PMID:24716166

  18. The effect of needle dimensions and infusion rates on injection pressures in regional anaesthesia needles: a bench-top study.

    PubMed

    Patil, J J; Ford, S; Egeler, C; Williams, D J

    2015-02-01

    Animal studies have shown that injection pressures > 75 kPa indicate probable intrafascicular needle tip position. This study describes the flow/pressure characteristics of seven common needle systems. A syringe pump delivered flow rates of 5, 6.67, 10, 13.3, 15 and 20 ml.min(-1) through these needle systems, while keeping the needle tips open to atmosphere. A pressure transducer connected between the syringe and needle provided a real-time graphical display for analysis. Mean plateau pressures increased linearly with flow and with decreasing needle diameter (2.7-92 kPa). Flow rates > 17 ml.min(-1) and needle sizes 22 G and smaller produced mean plateau pressures > 75 kPa. Pressure monitors upstream from the needle may produce false-positive alarms at high flow rates due to needle resistance, and unreliable readings due to non-laminar flow. We recommend injection rates ? 15 ml.min(-1) (0.25 ml.s(-1) ) to reduce the effect of factors upstream from the needle tip as a cause of high pressure readings. PMID:25290190

  19. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined. PMID:23358940

  20. Idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a rare form of interstitial lung disease in children. Respiratory symptoms appear progressively, are often subtle, and diagnosis is often delayed by a mean of 6 months after onset. High resolution chest computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for demonstrating and identifying interstitial pneumonia. The typical histologic pattern of desquamative interstitial pneumonia, with prominent clustered alveolar macrophages, diffuse reactive alveolar epithelial hyperplasia and globular proteinaceous material, is diagnostic. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in children can be idiopathic, though it is mostly related to an inborn error of surfactant metabolism. Case presentation We present the complex clinical course and pathologic findings of a 30-months-old Mauritian and Senegalese girl with idiopathic desquamative interstitial pneumonia and multiple extrapulmonary manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of desquamative interstitial pneumonia to occur as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement. Conclusion We believe that desquamative interstitial pneumonia is not always associated with mutations of the surfactant proteins, and can still be idiopathic, especially when occurring as part of a syndrome with multiple organ involvement, as described in other interstitial lung diseases. PMID:24954625

  1. Bistability of Cation Interstitials in II-VI Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S. H.; Dalpian, G. M.

    2005-11-01

    The stability of cation interstitials in II-VI semiconductors is studied using ab initio methods. We find that interstitials in the neutral charge state are more stable in the tetrahedral interstitial site near the cation, whereas in the (2+) charge state, they are more stable near the anion. The diffusion energy barrier changes when the defect charge state changes. Therefore, if electrons/holes are taken from the defect level by light, changing its charge state, the interstitial atom will be able to diffuse almost spontaneously due to a reduced diffusion barrier.

  2. Needle-shape quality control by shadowgraphic image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairesse, Fabrice; Sliwa, Tadeusz M.; Roy, Michaël; Voisin, Yvon

    2011-02-01

    We propose a needle-shape quality-control method. To this end, we have devised a new acquisition system that combines a camera and a backlight. Needle measurements are carried out at a micrometric scale using shadowgraphic image processing. Our method not only distinguishes good needles from bad ones, but also allows classifying flawed needles into various categories of defects. This classification is important because some categories of defects can affect the entire production, whereas others do not. The results of our needle-shape quality-control method are validated using real samples directly off the manufacturing line. Needles are correctly classified at >97%, and accurate measurements on global shape characteristics such as straightness and sharpness are obtained.

  3. Fallibility of transthoracic needle biopsy of anterior mediastinal masses.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, L. A.; Dobson, J. R.; Bierman, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Percutaneous transthoracic core needle biopsy has been advocated as a highly accurate technique for the diagnosis of anterior mediastinal masses. A patient is described with a large anterior mediastinal mass in whom the diagnosis of mediastinal carcinoid tumour was made by transthoracic core needle biopsy. At definitive surgical resection the tumour proved to be a B cell lymphoma. This case illustrates one of the important limitations of needle biopsy with its potential for sampling error. Images PMID:7491564

  4. Puncture of elastomer membranes by medical needles. Part II: Mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Thang Nguyen; Toan Vu-Khanh; Patricia I. Dolez; Jaime Lara

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to puncture by medical needles is becoming one of the most critical mechanical properties of rubber membranes,\\u000a which are heavily used in protective gloves. Yet the intrinsic material parameters controlling the process of puncture by\\u000a medical needles are still unknown. In a first paper presenting this two-part study, it has been shown that puncture by medical\\u000a needles proceeds gradually

  5. Diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. The definition has expanded over the years to encompass painful bladder syndrome. It is disease state that is often delayed in its diagnosis and difficult to manage. Treatment options include oral and intravesical therapies as well as both minor and major surgical options. Also, a patient can improve symptoms by following self-management recommendations that focus on both diet and stress management. Treatment options should be periodically evaluated with validated questionnaires to insure they are improving the patient's symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach is best to manage the patient. PMID:25155121

  6. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. (National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  7. Diffuse Interstitial Pulmonary Infiltrates in Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, Jens; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Frille, Armin; Wirtz, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Only a few cases of sarcoidosis-like reaction to a pharmacologic compound have been reported in patients with melanoma in the literature. Long-term treatment with interferon alpha may be assumed. We report a case of a 25-y-old man who presented to our department with diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrates and slightly enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes as determined by computed tomography. He had a history of malignant melanoma with 18 months of interferon alpha-2 therapy. Histological analysis of a transbronchial biopsy revealed sarcoidosis-like reactions. PMID:25587168

  8. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1385 Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. (a)...

  10. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  11. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E., E-mail: tem4@hi.is; Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Mantovan, R. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via Olivetti 2, 20846 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via Olivetti 2, 20846 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Johnston, K. [PH Department, ISOLDE/CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Langouche, G. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralings fysika, University of Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sielemann, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  12. Interstitial and glomerular renal involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, Hayet; Fatma, Lilia Ben; Beji, Soumaya; Jeribi, Ahmed; Maiz, H Ben; Moussa, Fatma Ben; Goucha, Rym; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by chronic granulomatous inflammation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was reported in less than 1% of patients of sarcoidosis. The prevalence of tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) in sarcoidosis varies from 7 to 27%. In this retrospective study, we present 15 patients with interstitial or glomerular renal involvement secondary to sarcoidosis diagnosed in our center from 1975 to 2006. Patients were 13 (96.6%) females and two males with a mean age of 56.5 years. CKD was present in 14(93.3%) patients, proteinuria in 13(96.6%), and nephrotic syndrome in one. Pulmonary involvement was present in 10 (66.6%) patients. Renal biopsy performed in 12 (80%) patients revealed TIN lesions in 10 (66.6%) patients, extracapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) in one, and membranous GN type 2 in another. Corticosteroid therapy using prednisolone 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day was used in 12(80%) patients. Ten (66.6%) patients were followed up for a mean period of 25 months (ranged from 2 to 48 months). The outcome was favorable with 7 (46.6%) patients improved their renal function, 6 (40%) remained with a moderate CKD, one normalized his renal function, and one died suddenly after 2 months of initiating the treatment corticosteroids. We conclude that corticosteroid treatment is efficient in TIN and variably efficient in GN. Patients with sarcoidosis may cause advanced renal failure, which renders it a serious nephrological condition. PMID:18087126

  13. Serial computed tomographic evaluation in desquamative interstitial pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Akira; S. Yamamoto; H. Hara; M. Sakatani; E. Ueda

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) may represent the early stage and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) the late stage of the same disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) features of DIP, to evaluate the changes in pattern and extent of disease over time, and to determine whether the appearances of DIP on the CT

  14. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; G. R. Myneni

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium samples to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify diffusible interstitial content. Time series and spectral analysis were used to evaluate behavior during plastic flow. Dynamic modulus analysis and strain relaxation\\/recovery experiments

  15. Effect of interstitial impurities on internal friction measurements in niobium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Florêncio; C. R. Grandini; W. J. Botta F; P. R. Guedes; P. S. Silva Jr

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of internal friction as a function of temperature were carried out in samples of niobium containing different amounts of interstitial solutes (oxygen and nitrogen) and one sample of niobium containing initially only nitrogen as interstitial solute. The experimental spectra of internal friction as a function of temperature were obtained with a torsion pendulum of the inverted Kê-type and resolved,

  16. Design of a robust, intuitive piston interface for a needle free injection system

    E-print Network

    Nawrot, Michael Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The MIT BioInstrumentation Lab's linear Lorentz force actuator based needle free injection system has been shown to have numerous benefits over needle-based and other needle-free drug delivery systems in a research ...

  17. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use....

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5009 - Control of hypodermic needles and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. 109-27.5009 Section...5009 Control of hypodermic needles and syringes. Effective procedures...physical security of hypodermic needles and syringes to prevent illegal use....

  19. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    PubMed Central

    Maarek, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be. Materials and methods The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode. Current scientific knowledge EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (? parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e?]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation). Results For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid’s acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response). Conclusion After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements. PMID:23166454

  20. Interactions between Vacancy and Glissile Interstitial Clusters in Iron and Copper.

    SciTech Connect

    Puigvi, Mary Angels [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

    2004-01-01

    Reactions between defect clusters and point defects are the main mechanism of clusters growth and shrinkage under different conditions and therefore they are necessary input of any model for prediction of microstructure evolution. Traditionally such reactions are treated as the evolution of size distribution of defect clusters where the change in size is considered to be a simple reaction independent of the atomic structure. For example, the interaction between a vacancy and a self-interstitial cluster is treated as an annihilation reaction. However, recent atomistic studies have demonstrated that such reactions could be more complicated. In this paper, we present the results of atomic level modelling of the interaction between clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and a vacancy in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. It is shown that vacancies annihilate only with interstitials at the cluster edge. Vacancies inside the cluster glide prism do not recombine but prevent cluster mobility. There are significant differences in the interaction related to the differences in the atomic structure of clusters in particular metals.

  1. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  2. ORBIT PERTURBATION ANALYSIS OF WEST FORD NEEDLES CLUSTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Bowman; William N. Barker; William G. Schick

    The West Ford package placed in orbit in 1963 contained almost 500 million copper dipoles. Due to a delay in releasing the needles in orbit a number of clusters of needles formed. Analysis of 34 years of mean orbital elements of 20 different clusters has revealed perturbations of 10 km or more in the semi- major axis due to direct

  3. CPT DESCRIPTION 10021 Fine needle aspiration; without imaging guidance

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    , needle core 19101 Biopsy of breast, open incisional 19102 Biopsy of breast, percutaneous, needle core arm or elbow area; superficial 24066 Biopsy, soft tissue of upper arm or elbow area; deep 24100 Arthrotomy, elbow; with synovial biopsy only 24200 Removal of FB, upper arm or elbow; subcu 24200 Inj proc

  4. A Novel Manipulator for Percutaneous Needle Insertion: Design and Experimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmanpreet S. Bassan; Rajni V. Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a novel 5-DOF manipulator for percutaneous needle insertion. The requirements of the manipulator have been instigated by a relatively common medical procedure: low-dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate. The manipulator can perform orientation, insertion, and rotation of the needle and linear motion of the stylet to drop radioactive seeds contained in a

  5. Trajectory generation for robotic needle insertion in soft tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niki Abolhassani; Rajni Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

    2004-01-01

    Accurate needle insertion in soft, inhomogeneous tissue has been a major concern in several recent studies involving robot-assisted percutaneous therapies. In procedures that involve multiple needle insertions such as transrectal ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy, it is important to reduce tissue deformation before puncture and during insertion. In order to reduce this deformation, we have studied the effect of different trajectories

  6. Buttonhole needling of ateriovenous fistulae: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Joyce; Allan, Anne; Peel, Robert K; Lambie, Stewart H

    2010-01-01

    Buttonhole needling of arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) was first described 30 years ago, but little evidence has been reported to show how it might differ from the standard rope-ladder technique. We carried out a randomized control trial comparing these two techniques. All suitable patients within the region were considered for recruitment. Patients were then randomized to continue with traditional rope-ladder needling or changed to buttonhole needling. A mean of 13.7 (median, 11) sharp needles were required to create a track. Nine of 22 patients in the buttonhole group reduced or stopped local anesthetic (LA) for needle insertion compared with one of 25 in the traditional group. The diameter of the buttonhole AVFs remained unchanged, whereas the control group increased in size by 30% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), equivalent to an absolute increase of 5 mm. There was no difference in bleeding times, but there was a preference for the buttonhole technique with 21 of the 22 patients and 15 of 23 nurses preferring buttonhole needling. Buttonhole needling is preferred by both patients and staff, reduces discomfort during needling and reduces AVF enlargement. There is a low level of complication. PMID:20418768

  7. MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

  8. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanson; Richard E

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification

  9. Instability of needle crystals in anisotropic dendritic growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong Liu; Nigel Goldenfeld

    1990-01-01

    The linear stability of steady-state needle crystals in dendritic growth is studied in the presence of anisotropies in both surface tension and interfacial kinetics. The needle crystals are linearly unstable for certain ranges of values of the surface tension and kinetic coefficients. This instability results in complex tip-splitting and sidebranching events that lead to morphological transitions.

  10. Needle and lichen sulphur analyses on two industrial gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Manninen; S. Huttunen; H. Orvela

    1991-01-01

    Total S concentrations in Scots pine (Pine sylvestris L.) needles and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in southern Finland and a steel works in northern Finland were used as a bioindicator for SO2 deposition. The mean total S concentration in the youngest pine needles decreased by 22% (p 2 emissions in 1985. The

  11. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  12. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  13. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    was 100%. Tumor size and lymph node status were weak prognosticators compared with nuclear features and lymph node status (p=0.11). Conclusions: Computer technology will improve breast fine­needle aspiration1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg

  14. Interactive needle insertions in 3D nonlinear material

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    refinement scheme. This approach can also be applied to both the 3D situation and nonlinear material modelsInteractive needle insertions in 3D nonlinear material Han-Wen Nienhuys A. Frank van der Stappen.cs.uu.nl #12;Interactive needle insertions in 3D nonlinear material Han-Wen Nienhuys and A. Frank van der

  15. Biocompatible Polymer Needle Coating For Improved Patient Safety

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    tracks to prevent unwanted movement of cells after biopsy or impede backflow of drugs during infusions. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure for tumors in which a needle is used to extract cells from a lump or mass for microscopic evaluation. One safety concern

  16. Parenchymal and Vascular Interactions in the Pathogenesis of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Systemic Sclerosis and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Franco de Carvalho; Edwin Roger Parra; Romy de Souza; Alexandre Muxfeldt A’b Saber; Vera Luiza Capelozzi

    2008-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease is a well-recognized prognostic factor in systemic sclerosis (SSc). As the prognosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has been described to be better in collagen vascular disorders compared to the idiopathic forms, we hypothesize that the mechanisms of repair and remodeling are different between these 2 forms of the disease. Objectives: To compare the mechanisms of

  17. THE DIAGNOSIS OF INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS REVISITED: LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS DATABASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP M. HANNO; J. RICHARD LANDIS; YVONNE MATTHEWS-COOK; JOHN KUSEK; LEROY JR. NYBERG

    1999-01-01

    PurposeThe lack of a precise working definition of interstitial cystitis may have resulted in the de facto use of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) “research” definition by clinicians. We evaluated these strict criteria in light of the broader inclusion criteria for patients evaluated in the Interstitial Cystitis Database study to determine their utility in clinical

  18. Phase ordering of hard needles on a quasicrystalline substrate.

    PubMed

    Kählitz, Philipp; Stark, Holger

    2012-05-01

    Quasicrystals possess long-range positional and orientational order. However, they cannot be periodic in space due to their non-crystallographic symmetries such as a 10-fold rotational axis. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional hard-needle systems subject to a quasiperiodic substrate potential. We determine phase diagrams as a function of density and potential strength for two needle lengths. With increasing potential strength short needles tend to form isolated clusters that display directional order along the decagonal directions. Long needles create interacting clusters that stabilize the nematic phase. At large potential strengths the clusters position themselves on two interwoven Fibonacci sequences perpendicular to the cluster orientation. Alternatively, one obtains extended domains of needle clusters which are aligned along all decagonal symmetry directions. PMID:22583263

  19. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  20. Transport and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Soil Interstitial Water Across Forested, Montane Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, M. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Barnard, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of compounds formed from the degradation of both terrestrial and microbial material. The abundance and composition of the DOM present in stream water is important to stream processes such as UV light attenuation, nutrient supply and metal sorption. However, an excess of DOM can cause reactions with chlorination compounds at drinking water treatment plants, creating potentially harmful disinfection byproducts. Currently, little is known regarding the influence of soil interstitial water on stream DOM composition. In this study, we explore the role of interstitial water on DOM transport and transformation from the hillslope to the stream in a montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory in Colorado. We installed a suite of tension lysimeters located within the rooting zone across representative north- and south-facing slopes. Interstitial water and stream samples were collected daily for approximately seven weeks during the 2013 spring snow melt period and analyzed for DOM composition using fluorescence spectroscopy. To date, we have used fluorescence index (FI) to evaluate differences between microbial and terrestrial DOM inputs and humification index (HIX) to assess degree of humification undergone by the DOM. Preliminary results indicate that FI was significantly correlated with hillslope aspect (p<.01), with higher FI on north-facing slopes, suggesting more microbial precursor material. Stream samples reveal greater humification throughout the snowmelt period (p<.01). This increase could suggest a transition from deeper groundwater sources to shallow soil interstitial water inputs into the stream during snowmelt. These preliminary results suggest that changes in DOM composition through the catchment during snowmelt can be linked to hydrologic transport. Further site specific model development will reveal explicit changes in the DOM chemistry and will increase our understanding of fundamental nutrient cycling processes at the hillslope to catchment scale.

  1. Interstitial-interstitial interaction of oxygen atoms in a Nb-based ternary body-centered-cubic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liming; Yin, Fuxing; Ping, Dehai; Liu, Yongchang

    2011-06-01

    An extended statistical mechanical treatment is suggested to calculate the interstitial-interstitial interaction in a ternary bcc system. With the assumption of the first-order quasichemical approximation and the conservative condition of the interstitial solutes concentration, the numerical solution of the interstitial interaction can be determined by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated results for a Nb-M (V or Ti)-O system shown that the O-O interaction in Nb-based alloys exhibits a repulsive effect, and is markedly influenced by the substitutional solute concentration. These results can be applied as useful information for the description and understanding of the interstitials atoms' behaviors in ternary alloy systems.

  2. Interstitial lung disease: progress and problems

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, S J

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease involves all areas of medicine as it often occurs in patients with comorbidities or as a consequence of systemic diseases and their treatment. Typically the physician is faced with a breathless patient, a diffusely abnormal chest radiograph, and a wide differential diagnosis. Progress has been made in using high resolution computed tomography as the key investigation in characterising the pattern and extent of the disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage is particularly important in excluding infection as a cause of diffuse lung infiltrates. Surgical lung biopsies have led to a new classification system for the range of histopathological patterns of disease that were previously known by the collective term cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Problems persist in deciding when a surgical lung biopsy is clinically justified, in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and in finding more effective treatments. PMID:16891438

  3. Clinical approach to interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Scholand, Mary Beth

    2002-08-01

    The term interstitial lung disease (ILD) encompasses a large variety of entities. The clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is a multidisciplinary process. Achieving the correct diagnosis often involves 3 elements: a clinical impression, radiologic evaluation, and a pathologic opinion. All 3 components play a critical role. Frequently, the goal is differentiating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) from more treatable entities. This article provides an overview of the input provided by the 3 specialties cited earlier, as well as the interrelationship among these specialties in the diagnosis of ILD. Additional consideration is given to the decision-making process involved in determining when to obtain a biopsy specimen from a patient with ILD, and a review of current treatment strategies. PMID:12465684

  4. Bortezomib-induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Leung, Nelson; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2015-07-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from inflammatory tubulointerstitial injury induced by medications, infections and systemic diseases. Bortezomib has been increasingly used especially in renal related indications such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Severe allergic reactions from bortezomib treatment including AIN have not been described in the literature. We report a 47-year-old white man who developed biopsy-proven allergic AIN after treatment with bortezomib for his C3 glomerulonephritis. The patient's kidney function improved after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib, but worsened with recurrent AKI episode after re-initiation of bortezomib. His renal function improved after glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biopsy-proven AIN from bortezomib. PMID:26109684

  5. Evaluation of limiting strains and strain distribution for interstitial free steel sheets while forming under different strain conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, forming limit diagrams (FLDs) were experimentally evaluated for the interstitial free steel sheets of different thickness namely 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.6mm. The limiting strains for these sheets under different strain conditions were studied. The forming limit diagrams for the above sheet metals were compared. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were experimentally determined and

  6. Hybrid reflection type metasurface of nano-antennas designed for optical needle field generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-01

    We propose a reflection type metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurface composed of hybrid optical antennas for comprehensive spatial engineering the properties of optical fields. Its capability is illustrated with an example to create a radially polarized vectorial beam for optical needle field generation. Functioning as local quarter-wave-plates (QWP), the MIM metasurface is designed to convert circularly polarized incident into local linear polarization to create an overall radial polarization with corresponding binary phases and desired normalized amplitude modulation ranged from 0.07 to 1. To obtain enough degrees of freedom, the optical-antenna layer comprises periodic arrangements of double metallic nano-bars with perpendicular placement and single nano-bars respectively for different amplitude modulation requirements. Both of the antennas enable to introduce ?/2 retardation while reaching the desired modulation range both for phase and amplitude. Through adjusting the antennas' geometry and array carefully, we shift the gap-surface plasmon resonances facilitated by optical antennas to realize the manipulation of vectorial properties. Designed at 1064 nm wavelength, the particularly generated vectorial light output can be further tightly focused by a high numerical aperture objective to obtain longitudinally polarized flat-top focal field. The so-called optical needle field is a promising candidate for novel applications that transcend disciplinary boundaries. The proposed metasurface establishes a new class of compact optical components based on nano-scale structures, leading to compound functions for vectorial light generation.

  7. Fabrication of anti-reflective micro-structure at terahertz frequency by using Chinese acupuncture needles.

    PubMed

    Li, YunZhou; Cai, Bin; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-06-15

    A terahertz (THz) anti-reflective structure on a polystyrene layer was fabricated by using a handmade metallic mold comprising a bunch of Chinese acupuncture needles. Polystyrene was spin-coated onto a silicon substrate and then deformed by the mold via a hot-embossing process. The deformed layer yielded gradient refractive index profiles on the substrate. Compared with a common single antireflective layer, we observed an increase of ?20% in the transmittance. We also observed broader bandwidth properties compared with the single layer structure. The process imposes no substrate limiting, i.e., it can be applied onto various THz device surfaces for antireflection purpose. PMID:26076295

  8. Ozone production of hollow-needle-to-mesh negative corona discharge enhanced by dielectric tube on the needle electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, Stanislav

    2014-12-01

    For the hollow-needle-to-mesh negative corona discharge in air, we studied the effect of placing the dielectric tube on the needle electrode and the effect of various positions of the end of this tube with respect to the tip of the needle electrode on the concentration of ozone produced by the discharge, the ozone production yield and the discharge V-A characteristics. We found that the placement of the dielectric tube on the needle electrode with a suitable position of this tube end with respect to the tip of the needle electrode for a particular discharge power led to a more than fourfold increase in the concentration of ozone produced by the discharge and also, for a constant airflow, the ozone production yield.

  9. Feasibility of shear modulus imaging technique for monitoring the effectiveness of the interstitial rf electromagnetic wave thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Takegahara, Shinichi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2001-06-01

    It is well known that the static mechanical properties of living soft tissues reversibly or irreversibly change by the degree of the thermal energy exposure, several researchers including us applied various ultrasonic elasticity imaging techniques to visualize variously energy-induced thermal tissues. Particularly, in this report we proposed that our previously developed ultrasonic strain measurement-based shear modulus imaging technique is used for monitoring the effectiveness of the interstitial RF electromagnetic wave thermal treatment. Since previously through in vivo experiment on human breast tissues we could confirm that the technique has high potential as the practical tool for differentiating early stage malignancies, we in novel realized the thermal applicator using only needle-type electrodes. Since we would also apply this therapy to deeply situated tissues, we also confirmed on in vivo human liver that shear modulus image could be stably obtained. Furthermore, to verify the feasibility as the monitoring technique we performed heating/imaging on the fresh in vitro calf liver. This imaging could specify the spatial and temporal change of elasticity due to tissue heating and cooling down. We believe that this monitoring technique will allow this type interstitial RF electromagnetic wave thermal therapy to be widely performed on various tissues. Moreover, low-invasively obtained insights about tissue thermal properties will significantly contribute to heightening the treatment efficiencies of various type thermal therapy systems.

  10. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute interstitial nephritis Symptoms: Difficulty breathing • headache • numbness • oliguria Medication: Methylprednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasma exchange Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Case Report: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. Conclusions: This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  11. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis associated with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2012-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with an eruption of pruritic erythematous plaques on his lower extremities of 6 months' duration that were unresponsive to antifungal cream or topical corticosteroid. His medical history was notable for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), which was diagnosed 1 year prior to presentation and was associated with lower extremity weakness and imbalance of 3 years' duration. Punch biopsy of lesional skin showed a superficial and deep perivascular and interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with abundant interstitial neutrophils and rare eosinophils. He was diagnosed with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD), and the eruption improved with the initiation of oral dapsone 50 mg twice daily. PMID:22908730

  12. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  13. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Snider, Douglas B; Gardner, Dale R; Janke, Bruce H; Ensley, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors' knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion. PMID:25428187

  14. Comparison of vertebroplasty using directional versus straight needle

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Ryan K; Timothy, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that can be performed to treat pain and immobility associated with vertebral compression fractures. Previous studies have shown that a single injection can achieve adequate fill across the midline of the vertebral body. Purpose To compare the radiological outcomes of using a novel steerable needle with using a conventional, straight needle in unipedicular vertebroplasty. Material and Methods Data were collected from 19 patients who were operated at our institute between 1 September 2010 and 31 March 2011. Outcomes were measured in terms of radiological evidence of midline crossing of cement. The available pre- and postoperative pain scores and complications were reviewed. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean cement projection across the midline in both groups with P?needle (58%) compared with the straight needle (35%) (P?=?0.046). Cement leakage was higher with the steerable needle (44% versus 30%); however no clinical complications were reported in either group. Conclusion Percutaneous vertebroplasty using a directional needle is an excellent example of advancement and refinement in spinal surgery without increased clinical risk. Our results indicate that the novel technique can potentially provide better radiological outcomes when compared with a straight needle. A larger, randomized multicenter prospective trial would be valuable in confirming these findings. PMID:25815210

  15. Carbon Nanotube Micro-Needles for Rapid Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradley; Aria, Adrianus Indrat; Gat, Amir; Cosse, Julia; Montemayor, Lauren; Beizaie, Masoud; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    By catalyst patterning, bundles of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be assembled to create 2D arrays of hollow micro-needles with feature size as small as a few microns. For transdermal drug delivery, the most challenging mechanical requirement is to make the CNT micro-needle small enough so that delivery is painless yet large enough so that the micro-needle can achieve skin penetration. By taking advantage of capillary action and the nanoporosity of CNT bundles, we can wick high strength polymer into the inter-spacing between nanotubes to augment the stiffness of our micro-needles. For low viscous polymers, the large ratio between the micron sized center hole of the micro-needle and the nanopores of the surrounding CNT allow us to wick polymer through the nanotubes while maintaining an open central hole for drug transport. For a transdermal patch prototype with a delivery area less than 1cm x 1cm square, we can fabricate 50 CNT micro-needles that produces a total flow rate up to 100 uL/s with actuation pressure provided by a mere finger tap. From in vitro experiments, we will demonstrate that CNT micro-needles provide a much faster convective delivery of drugs than conventional topical diffusion based patches. We acknowledge Zcube s.r.l for their support of this work.

  16. Levels of extractable organohalogens in pine needles in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Diandou; Zhong, Weike; Deng, Linlin; Chai, Zhifang; Mao, Xueying

    2003-01-01

    Pine needles can accumulate organohalogens from the ambient air, which are, hence, able to serve as a biomonitor to evaluate the levels of organochlorinated contaminants in the atmospheric environment. Extractable organochlorine (EOCl), the most abundant of the extractable organohalogens (EOX) in environmental samples, has received much attention as a parameter for evaluation of total contamination levels of organochlorinated compounds (OCs). However, few data concerning EOCl in vegetation are available. In this study, we selected pine needles from 17 different areas in China as a sampling matrix to reflectthe regional distribution of OCs. EOX (EOX = EOCl + EOBr + EOI) were measured by instrument neutron activation analysis for their concentrations and distribution in pine needles. The concentrations of EOX were on the order of EOCl > EOBr > EOI. About 5-38% of EOCl remained as sulfuric acid-resistant organochlorine (EPOCl). The relatively high concentrations of EPOCl in pine needles from remote areas suggested that EPOCl mainly originated from long-range atmospheric transport and contaminated soil. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, aldrin, heptachlor, and chlordanes) to total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.3-5.2% and 1.4-19.8%, respectively, which implied that a major portion of the EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. The EPOX accumulation rates were preliminarily estimated under the natural condition, which suggested that the "young" needle accumulated EPOX more quickly than the "old" and more than 94% of EPOX was accumulated at the first year of pine needles. PMID:12542283

  17. Long term follow-up of patients with Cushing's disease treated by interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, L.M.; Richards, N.T.; Carr, D.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    The first 86 patients with Cushing's disease treated with interstitial irradiation (by needle implantation) as the sole therapy were reviewed. In the 82 patients who were reassessed 1 yr after treatment 63 (77%) achieved remission. This study comprises the outcome and complications in the 54 patients who had a remission and whom we were able to follow. The follow-up period ranged from 3-26 yr (mean, 10.5) from the time of remission. No instance of clinical or radiological relapse has occurred. Of these 54 patients, yttrium-90 alone was used in 32, of whom 12 (37%) required corticosteroid or T4 replacement therapy in a mean time of 3.5 months; in 7 of these 12 we elected to give an ablative dose. Gold-198 alone was used in 15 patients, of whom 7 (47%) developed hypopituitarism in a mean time of 76 months. Both isotopes were used in 7 patients. A diurnal serum cortisol rhythm was found in 28 of the 31 patients who were not receiving corticosteroid therapy. In 5 of the 7 patients with an initially abnormal pituitary fossa, serial radiological studies revealed remodelling in 3. There have been no complications in the last 17 years. Pituitary implantation with yttrium-90 is an effective alternative to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, with a high remission rate, no recurrence (as yet), no operative complications, and avoidance of hormone replacement in the majority.

  18. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  19. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the design optimization and construction of the first prototype directional source. Potential clinical applications and potential benefits of directional sources have been shown for prostate and breast tumors.

  20. Mobile interstitials in niobium near 4.5 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fuss; H. Schultz

    1979-01-01

    New resistivity recovery experiments including radiation doping and damage-rate measurements on high purity niobium following 3 MeV electron irradiation indicate long range migration of interstitial atoms already near 4.5 K.

  1. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Effects of interstitial flow on tumor cell migration

    E-print Network

    Polacheck, William J. (William Joseph)

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial flow is the convective transport of fluid through tissue extracellular matrix. This creeping fluid flow has been shown to affect the morphology and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, cancer cells, endothelial ...

  3. Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

  4. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y., E-mail: cyhsu00@gmail.com [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  5. 3,5,11 needles: looking for the perfect number of needles--a randomized and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ceccherelli, Francesco; Marino, Elena; Caliendo, Antonio; Dezzoni, Rossana; Roveri, Antonella; Gagliardi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture has been successfully used in myofascial pain syndromes. However, the number of needles used, i.e. the "dose" of acupuncture stimulation, to obtain the best antinociceptive efficacy, is still a matter of debate. The question was addressed comparing the clinical efficacy of 3 different therapeutic schemes, mainly characterized by different numbers of needles used on 90 patients affected by a painful cervical myofascial syndrome. Patients were divided into 3 groups; the first group of 30 patients was treated with 11 needles, the second group of 30 patients was treated with 5 needles and the third group of 30 patients was treated with 3 needles. Each group underwent eight cycles of somatic acupuncture. In each session and in each group, all needles were stimulated until the pain tolerance threshold was reached; "pain tolerance is the amount of pain a person can handle without breaking down, either physically or emotionally". Pain intensity was evaluated before therapy, immediately after, and at 1 and 3 months follow-up by means of both the Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Pain and the repercussion of pain on the patient's quality of life (DOPE- Descriptors Of Pain Effects) were also measured using a test we developed, administered at each session. In all groups, needles were inserted superficially, except for the two most painful trigger points that were deeply inserted. All groups, independently from the number of needles used, obtained a good and significant therapeutic effect without clinically relevant differences among groups. For this pathology and patients of this kind, the number of needles, 3 or 5 or 11, seems not to be an important variable in determining the therapeutic effect. PMID:25693307

  6. The trapping of hydrogen in niobium by nitrogen interstitials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pfeiffer; H. Wipf

    1976-01-01

    The trapping of hydrogen in niobium by nitrogen interstitials was investigated by resistance measurements. The results showed that only about one hydrogen atom can be trapped per nitrogen interstitial at low temperatures and that the trapping enthalpy is 0.12+or-0.02 eV. Due to the trapping process the hydrogen-induced resistivity increase is reduced by about 40% and the occurrence of precipitations is

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

    2004-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

  8. Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Thomas; Takeshi F. Andoh; Raimund H. Pichler; Stuart J. Shankland; William G. Couser; William M. Bennett; Richard J. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Accelerated apoptosis characterizes cyclosporine-associated interstitial fibrosis. Recently we developed a model of cyclosporine nephropathy in rats characterized by tubulointerstitial (TI) injury, macrophage infiltration, and progressive interstitial fibrosis1,2. To determine if the TI injury accompanying cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy was associated with accelerated apoptosis and ischemia, we treated rats for five weeks with CsA with or without losartan (to block angiotensin

  9. Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: similarity and difference.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Thomas; Sundaram, Baskaran; Khanna, Dinesh; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2014-02-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are increasingly recognized in patients with systemic diseases. Patients with early ILD changes may be asymptomatic. Features of ILD overlap among systemic diseases and with idiopathic variety. High-resolution computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing ILDs. Imaging features are often nonspecific. Therapy- and complication-related lung changes would pose difficulty in diagnosing and classifying an ILD. Biology and prognosis of secondary ILDs may differ between different disease-related ILDs and idiopathic variety. Combination of clinical features, serological tests, pulmonary and extrapulmonary imaging findings, and pathology findings may help to diagnose ILDs. PMID:24480141

  10. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  11. Quantitative CT Imaging of Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Raghunath, Sushravya; Karwoski, Ronald A; Moua, Teng; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Maldonado, Fabien; Decker, Paul A; Robb, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High-Resolution chest CT (HRCT) is essential in the characterization of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The HRCT features of some diseases can be diagnostic. Longitudinal monitoring with HRCT can assess progression of ILD; however, subtle changes in the volume and character of abnormalities can be difficult to assess. Accuracy of diagnosis can be dependent on expertise and experience of the radiologist, pathologist or clinician. Quantitative analysis of thoracic HRCT has the potential to determine the extent of disease reproducibly, classify the types of abnormalities and automate the diagnostic process. Materials and Methods Novel software that utilizes histogram signatures to characterize pulmonary parenchyma was used to interrogate chest HRCT data, including retrospective processing of clinical CT scans and research data from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC). Additional information including physiologic, pathologic and semi-quantitative radiologist assessment was available to allowcomparison of quantitative results with visual estimates of disease, physiologic parameters and measures of disease outcome. Results Quantitative analysis results were provided in regional volumetric quantities for statistical analysis as well as a graphical representation. Analysis suggests that quantitative HRCT analysis can serve as a biomarker with physiologic, pathologic and prognostic significance. Conclusion It is likely that quantitative analysis of HRCT can be used in clinical practice as a means to aid in identifying probable diagnosis, stratifying prognosis in early disease, and consistently determining progression of disease or response to therapy. Further optimization of quantitative techniques and longitudinal analysis of well-characterized subjects would be helpful to validate these methods. PMID:23966094

  12. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy for recurrent or persistent tumours.

    PubMed

    Lam, K; Astrahan, M; Langholz, B; Jepson, J; Cohen, D; Luxton, G; Petrovich, Z

    1988-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1986, 31 sites in 27 patients with biopsy proven tumours were treated with a combination of interstitial microwave hyperthermia (HT) and iridium 192 implants (RT). The 31 sites treated included fifteen (48 per cent) head and neck, six (20 per cent) breast, four (13 per cent) vagina and cervix, and six (20 per cent) others. All patients had prior surgery, RT, or chemotherapy. Of the 31 sites treated, 19 (61 per cent) had complete response (CR) with no recurrence in the volume treated. Additionally, eight patients remained free of tumour from 3 to 24 months. Partial response (PR) was seen in 11 (36 per cent) sites while one (3 per cent) had lesser degree tumour regression. Tumour control rate correlated well with the dose of radiation, p = 0.02, and tumour volume, p = 0.02, but not with thermal dose. Treatment complications of significance occurred in one (3 per cent) site, which developed soft tissue necrosis. This study again has demonstrated the effectiveness of RT-HT combination in treatment of recurrent tumours. PMID:3385222

  13. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

  14. Self-Interstitial Transport in Vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Rottler, J; Wirth, B D; Car, R; Srolovitz, D J

    2005-01-13

    We study the diffusion of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and SIA clusters in vanadium via molecular dynamics simulations with an improved Finnis-Sinclair potential (fit to first-principles results for SIA structure and energetics). The present results demonstrate that single SIAs exist in a <111>-dumbbell configuration and migrate easily along <111> directions. Changes of direction through rotations into other <111> directions are infrequent at low temperatures, but become prominent at higher temperatures, thereby changing the migration path from predominantly one-dimensional to almost isotropically three-dimensional. SIA clusters (i.e., clusters of <111>-dumbbells) can be described as perfect prismatic dislocation loops with Burgers vector and habit planes of 1/2<111>{l_brace}220{r_brace} that migrate only along their glide cylinder. SIA clusters also migrate along <111>-directions, but do not rotate. Both single SIAs and their clusters exhibit a highly non-Arrhenius diffusivity, which originates from a combination of a temperature dependent correlation factor and the presence of very low migration barriers. At low temperature, the diffusion is approximately Arrhenius, while above room temperature, the diffusivity is a linear function of temperature. A simple model is proposed to describe these diffusion regimes and the transition between them.

  15. Diode laser and antitumoral interstitial hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Guilhem; Tang, Jing; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Prudhomme, Michel; Salathe, Rene-Paul

    1994-07-01

    A randomized study of interstitial hyperthermia with diode laser was performed on 40 Swiss nu/nu mice. The series was divided as follows: group 1 a control group; and group 2 treated by diode laser. The tumor model was a subcutaneous HT29 colonic carcinoma treated at the same size. The diode laser (830 nm) was applied through a 300 micrometers optic fiber implanted in the tumor and delivered at a power output of 200 mW and 1800 sec exposure time (360 J). The temperature range was 46 degree(s)C in the center of tumor and 42 degree(s)C in its peripheral part. In both groups, the tumor was removed 3 days after laser treatment. The tumor volume (TV) was evaluated and compared using nonparametric tests (Kruskal Wallis). Microscopic examination of tumors showed extensive and complete necrosis in group 1. By day 30 after removal the tumoral recurrence rate was 20% in group 2 versus 55% in group 1. The technical advantages of diode laser are pointed out.

  16. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. CASE REPORT We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. CONCLUSIONS This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  17. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  18. Percutaneous needle decompression in treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting-Hui; Sun, Xian-Jun; Chen, Yue; Cheng, Hui-Qin; Fang, Shi-Ming; Jiang, Hao-Sheng; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Yan; Wu, Shao-Qiu; Mao, Ai-Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous needle decompression in the treatment of malignant small bowel obstruction (MSBO). METHODS: A prospective analysis of the clinical data of 52 MSBO patients undergoing percutaneous needle decompression was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous needle decompression was successful in all 52 patients. Statistically significant differences were observed in symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal distension and abdominal pain before and after treatment (81.6% vs 26.5%, 100% vs 8.2%, and 85.7% vs 46.9%, respectively; all P < 0.05). The overall significantly improved rate was 19.2% (11/52) and the response rate was 94.2% (49/52) using decompression combined with nasal tube placement, local arterial infusion of chemotherapy and nutritional support. During the one-month follow-up period, puncture-related complications were acceptable. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous needle intestinal decompression is a safe and effective palliative treatment for MSBO. PMID:25741156

  19. House seeks end to needle swaps in District of Columbia.

    PubMed

    1998-08-21

    If the Senate approves a House-passed spending bill that shuts down all needle-exchange programs in the District of Columbia, it may be vetoed by President Clinton. H.R. 4300, an amendment to the District's appropriations bill by Representative Todd Tiahrt, would prohibit any agency receiving Federal funding from operating a needle-exchange program, even if the money for the program comes from private sources. This is the second time this year that the House has officially opposed needle-exchange programs. If the ban becomes law, it could cause many complications by forcing places, such as the Whitman-Walker Clinic, to choose between ending their needle-exchange programs or losing their Federal funding. PMID:11365679

  20. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to sense bioelectrical signals. The device...electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  1. Needle aspiration in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Windle, R.; Finlay, D.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of percutaneous needle aspiration of pancreatic pseudocyst using ultrasound imaging as a guide is reviewed. A modification of this technique has been used in a child with a post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:6614775

  2. Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pressure valve for needle gate valve control. June 13, 1913. Photocopy of original drawing. Drawing on file at the Salt River Project Archives. Phoenix, Arizona - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  4. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually. PMID:24195225

  5. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAMGUY CONNECTION AND PIVOTS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM-GUY CONNECTION AND PIVOTS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAMGUY CONNECTIONS, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM-GUY CONNECTIONS, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. Integration of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function to determine the effect of their interaction on interstitial fluid volume 

    E-print Network

    Dongaonkar, Ranjeet Manohar

    2009-05-15

    Although the physics of interstitial fluid balance is relatively well understood, clinical options for the treatment of edema, the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, are limited. Two related reasons for this failure ...

  11. Migration of an acupuncture needle into the medulla oblongata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Abumi; H. Anbo; K. Kaneda

    1996-01-01

    A case of a delayed lesion of the medulla oblongata caused by migration of an acupuncture needle is presented. The patient was a 60-year-old woman who had undergone embedded-type acupuncture needle treatment around 1975. In 1993 she was admitted to our hospital with a 3-week history of progressive motor and sensory disturbance of her right upper extremity. CT demonstrated that

  12. An augmented reality simulator for ultrasound guided needle placement training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek R. Magee; Y. Zhu; Rish Ratnalingam; P. Gardner; David Kessel

    2007-01-01

    Details are presented of a low cost augmented-reality system for the simulation of ultrasound guided needle insertion procedures\\u000a (tissue biopsy, abscess drainage, nephrostomy etc.) for interventional radiology education and training. The system comprises physical elements; a mannequin, a mock ultrasound probe and a needle, and software elements; generating virtual ultrasound anatomy and allowing data collection. These two elements are linked

  13. Naturally occurring monoterpenoids in needles of Picea abies (L.) Karst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roswitha Schiinwitz; Lydia Merk; H. Ziegler

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was made of the effects of different sampling and extraction techniques on the amounts and pattern of monoterpenoids isolated from needles of Norway spruce. The following isolation and analysis procedure was finally adopted: liquid nitrogen-cooled needles were pulverized by a microdismembrator, extracted with pentane overnight at 2°–3°C and concentrated to a volume not less than 3 ml\\/g fresh

  14. Microbiologic evaluation of needleless and needle-access devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Arduino; Lee A. Bland; Lisa E. Danzig; Sigrid K. McAllister; Sonia M. Aguero

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine whether needleless intravenous access devices are more likely to allow microorganisms to enter the fluid pathway than intravenous needle-access devices.Methods: A laboratory study was conducted with two needleless and one intravenous needle-access devices and Enterococcus faecium as a bacterial challenge. Inocula of E. faecium were prepared on the basis of the numerical

  15. Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors

    PubMed Central

    Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs. PMID:19643014

  16. Nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy treating ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe. PMID:25796147

  17. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  18. Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Parikshaa; Dey, Pranab; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case. PMID:25745290

  20. The effects of interstitials and hydrogen-interstitial interactions on low temperature hardening and embrittlement in V, Nb, and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzig, W. A.; Owen, C. V.; Scott, T. E.

    1986-07-01

    The effects of combined C and H on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and ductility of V, Nb, and Ta have been investigated at temperatures between 295 and 78 K. Because of the limited solubility of C in these metals, there was little solid solution hardening (S.S.H.). The combined effect of C and H on ductility was similar to that of H alone. There was no correlation between the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the temperature where hydrides formed ( T s. Comparison of the effects of C, N, and O on strengthening in both nonhydrogenated and hydrogenated V, Nb, and Ta showed that in general the contributions of C, N, or O and H were additive. C, N, and O produced athermal S.S.H. whereas the H contribution to the strengthening was thermally activated. The effect of these interstitials on ductility in nonhydrogenated V, Nb, and Ta was minimal, while their effect in hydrogenated V, Nb, and Ta was to decrease T s but have very little effect on the DBTT, which was determined primarily by the H content. There was no common correlation between the DBTT and T s or between the temperature where pronounced strengthening occurred and T s in the different alloys. Comparison of the results indicated that current models based on either hydride precipitates or H in solution as the cause of strengthening or embrittlement are incapable of explaining the observed effects of H on both the yield stress and the ductility in V, Nb, and Ta.

  1. Theory of Defect Interactions in Metals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thetford, Roger

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The static relaxation program DEVIL has been updated to use N-body Finnis-Sinclair potentials. Initial calculations of self-interstitial and monovacancy formation energies confirm that the modified program is working correctly. An extra repulsive pair potential (constructed to leave the original fitting unaltered) overcomes some deficiencies in the published Finnis-Sinclair potentials. The modified potentials are used to calculate interstitial energies and relaxations in the b.c.c. transition metals vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. Further adaptation enables DEVIL to model dislocations running parallel to any lattice vector. Periodic boundary conditions are applied in the direction of the dislocation line, giving an infinite straight dislocation. The energies per unit length of two different dislocations are compared with experiment. A study of migration of point defects in the perfect lattice provides information on the mobility of interstitials and vacancies. The possible reorientation of split dumbbell interstitials in a migration step comes under scrutiny. The total energy needed to form and migrate an interstitial is compared with that required for a vacancy. The interaction between point defects and dislocations is studied in detail. Binding energies for both self-interstitials and monovacancies at edge dislocations are calculated for the five metals mentioned above. Formation energies of the point defects in the neighbourhood of the edge dislocation are calculated for niobium, and the extent of the regions from which the defects are spontaneously absorbed are found. For split dumbbell interstitials, the size and shape of the absorption region depends on the orientation of the dumbbell. Migration of both interstitials and vacancies into the absorption zone is studied; the presence of the dislocation has a particularly dramatic effect on vacancy migration. The results on absorption zones are related to the dislocation sink strengths vital in radiation damage theory.

  2. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  3. An innovative surgical suture and needle evaluation and selection program.

    PubMed

    Szarmach, Robin R; Livingston, Jean; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Edlich, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an innovative suture and needle clinical evaluation program jointly designed by hospital representatives of Consorta, Inc., a healthcare resource management and group purchasing organization, and United States Surgical/Davis & Geck Sutures (USS/D&G), manufacturer of surgical biomaterials. Nineteen Consorta shareholder hospitals enrolled 699 surgeons to participate in Phase I of this nonexperimental observational study of the clinical performance of surgical needles and sutures. Performance characteristics of the sutures and needles produced by USS/D&G, which were evaluated in 3407 surgical procedures, included packaging and ease of opening, needle strength and sharpness, tissue drag, knot security, tensile strength, and clinically acceptable and unacceptable determinations. In these 30-day studies, the surgeons concluded that the needles and sutures were clinically acceptable in 98.1% of the evaluations. The general, cardiothoracic, and orthopedic surgeons, who performed 73.8% of the product evaluations, reported that the suture and needle products were clinically acceptable in 97.2% of the evaluations. More than half (50.1%) of the evaluations involved the POLYSORB* braided synthetic sutures,which received a clinically acceptable rating in 98.4% of the evaluation. The next most frequently used sutures were the SOFSILK*, followed by the monofilament nylon suture. SOFSILK* was found to be clinically acceptable in 98.7% of the evaluations, whereas the monofilament nylon was noted to be clinically acceptable in 96.3% of the evaluations. Surgical needles made by USS/D&G had a 97.9% clinical acceptability rating. PMID:12627784

  4. Can elastography replace fine needle aspiration?

    PubMed

    Popescu, Alexandru; S?ftoiu, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the best diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive tract and surrounding organs. Whereas EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for providing histological confirmation for previously hard to reach lesions, elastography is aiming to obtain a "virtual biopsy" by assessing differences in elasticity between the normal and pathological - usually malignant - tissue. A question that arises is whether EUS-elastography has reached a stage where it might successfully supplant the use of EUS-FNA in some of its clinical indications. The main indications of EUS-guided FNA are listed in this article and published data on the usage of elastography in these settings is reviewed for each one. In some of the indications, a plethora of studies have been published, notably for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, while in others there is little relevant data (submucosal masses, left liver lesions, left adrenal masses), or elastography simply is not suitable as a diagnostic means (cystic lesions). Our conclusion is that elastography is not yet ready to replace EUS-FNA in its indications, but should complement it in various settings, especially for the assessment of lymph nodes. It can only be considered an alternative on a case-by-case basis, in situations where FNA is regarded as a contraindication. Furthermore, it could be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced EUS, in order to further improve the accuracy of non-invasive EUS assessment, possibly making the case for a more limited or targeted use of EUS-FNA in selected cases. PMID:24955340

  5. Can elastography replace fine needle aspiration?

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Alexandru; S?ftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is one of the best diagnostic methods for diseases of the digestive tract and surrounding organs. Whereas EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been very useful for providing histological confirmation for previously hard to reach lesions, elastography is aiming to obtain a “virtual biopsy” by assessing differences in elasticity between the normal and pathological – usually malignant – tissue. A question that arises is whether EUS-elastography has reached a stage where it might successfully supplant the use of EUS-FNA in some of its clinical indications. The main indications of EUS-guided FNA are listed in this article and published data on the usage of elastography in these settings is reviewed for each one. In some of the indications, a plethora of studies have been published, notably for the evaluation of solid pancreatic masses and lymph nodes, while in others there is little relevant data (submucosal masses, left liver lesions, left adrenal masses), or elastography simply is not suitable as a diagnostic means (cystic lesions). Our conclusion is that elastography is not yet ready to replace EUS-FNA in its indications, but should complement it in various settings, especially for the assessment of lymph nodes. It can only be considered an alternative on a case-by-case basis, in situations where FNA is regarded as a contraindication. Furthermore, it could be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced EUS, in order to further improve the accuracy of non-invasive EUS assessment, possibly making the case for a more limited or targeted use of EUS-FNA in selected cases. PMID:24955340

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, Alan R.; Higuchi, Nobuya; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jakab, Peter D.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1990-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the detection of reversible and irreversible changes on MR images oflaser energy deposition and tissue heating and cooling1. It is possible to monitor and control energy deposition during interstitial laser therapy. This presentation describes some first steps toward optimizing the power and total energy deposited in various tissues in vivo, by analyzing the irreversible tissue changes and their spatial distribution as revealed by spin echo imaging. We used various power settings of an Nd.YAG laser delivered by a fiber optic inserted into several tissues (brain, muscle, liver) of anesthetized rats and rabbits. MR imaging was performed at 1.9 T. Photothermally-produced lesions were seen on both T1- and Ta-weighted images. The overall size of the lesions correlated with the magnitude of the energy applied. The MR image appearance depended not only on the laser energy but also on the way it was delivered, on the type of tissue, and the MR pulse sequence applied. While Ti-weighted images adequately demonstrated an area of tissue destruction, T2- weighted images showed a more heterogeneous and more extensive lesion which could be better correlated with the complex histological representation of these lesions. Typically, when rabbit brain, liver, and muscle had been exposed to laser power of 2.5 Watts for a range of 55 to 120 seconds, depending on the tissue, a central area of signal void was surrounded by an inner hypointensity and an outer hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The 3D extent of the lesions was well demonstrated on multislice images, providing correlation of the affected volumes seen on MRI with volumes seen in histological or histochemical preparations. We are developing an analytical model of laser heating and its effect on MR images to assess whether heating during imaging will produce unacceptable artifacts during surgery. The effect of heating is modeled as a change in magnetization during image acquisition. The region in which the change occurs is blurred by the Fourier transform of the change in magnetization as a function of time. Thus, blurring is minimized when changes occur slowly, compared to image acquisition times. We conclude that MRI can demonstrate the 3D extent of the lesions induced by lasers and can be used to investigate and optimize the control of induced tissue change within the affected volume.

  7. A Randomized Trial Comparing Buttonhole with Rope Ladder Needling in Conventional Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Atkar, Rajneet; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Buttonhole needling is reported to be associated with less pain than standard needling. The purpose of this study was to compare patient perceived pain and fistula complications in buttonhole and standard needling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this study, 140 conventional hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to buttonhole or standard needling. The primary outcome was patient perceived pain with needling at 8 weeks. Fistula complications of hematoma, bleeding postdialysis, and infection were tracked. Results Median pain score at 8 weeks using a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 cm was similar for standard and buttonhole needling (1.2 [0.4–2.4] versus 1.5 [0.5–3.4]; P=0.57). Rate of hematoma formation in standard needling was higher (436 versus 295 of 1000 hemodialysis sessions; P=0.03). Rate of no bleeding postdialysis was 23.6 and 28.3 per 1000 in standard and buttonhole needling, respectively (P=0.40). Rate of localized signs of infection in standard versus buttonhole needling was 22.4 versus 50 per 1000 (P=0.003). There was one episode of Staphylococcal aureus bacteremia during the 8 weeks with buttonhole needling and no episodes with standard needling (P=1.00). Within 12 months of follow-up, another two buttonhole needling episodes developed S. aureus bacteremia, and nine buttonhole needling episodes had needling site abscesses requiring intravenous antibiotics versus zero standard needling episodes (P=0.003). Conclusions Patients had no difference in pain between buttonhole and standard needling. Although fewer buttonhole needling patients developed a hematoma, there was an increased risk of bacteremia and localized signs of infection. Routine use of buttonhole needling is associated with increased infection risk. PMID:22822010

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis–associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Radiologic Identification of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Assayag, Deborah; Elicker, Brett M.; Urbania, Thomas H.; Colby, Thomas V.; Kang, Bo Hyoung; Ryu, Jay H.; King, Talmadge E.; Collard, Harold R.; Lee, Joyce S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the histopathologic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern in rheumatoid arthritis–associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Materials and Methods All patients were enrolled into institutional review board-approved longitudinal cohorts at their respective institution, and informed consent was obtained at the time of enrollment. Images of patients with surgical lung biopsy-proved RA-ILD (n = 69) were collected from three tertiary care centers. Two experienced thoracic radiologists independently reviewed the CT scans. The CT pattern was categorized as definite UIP, possible UIP, or inconsistent with UIP in accordance with published criteria. Findings of biopsies were reviewed by an experienced lung pathologist. The sensitivity and specificity of definite CT UIP pattern to histopathologic UIP pattern were determined. The agreement between radiologists was assessed by calculating a ? score. Results The histopathologic UIP pattern was present in 42 of 69 (61%) patients. Men were more likely than women to have a histopathologic UIP pattern (P = .02). Twenty patients (29%, 20 of 69) had a definite UIP pattern on CT scans. The specificity of CT UIP pattern was 96% (26 of 27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81%, 100%), with a negative predictive value of 53% (26 of 49). The sensitivity of CT UIP pattern was 45% (19 of 42; 95% CI: 30%, 61%), with a positive predictive value of 95% (19 of 20). The agreement between radiologists for definite UIP pattern versus not was 87% (? = 0.67, P < .0001). Conclusion Definite UIP pattern on a CT scan in RA-ILD is highly specific and moderately sensitive for histopathologic UIP pattern. CT can therefore help accurately identify the UIP pattern in RA-ILD. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24126367

  9. Energetic evaluation of possible interstitial compound formation of BaSi2 with 2p-, 3s-, and 3d-elements using first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yoji; Sohma, Mitsugu; Suemasu, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The energy changes in the formation of interstitially doped BaSi2, caused by doping with Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne, are calculated using the Perdew–Wang generalized gradient approximations of the density functional theory. It is predicted that the majority of the elements, apart from Na, Mg, Zn, and Ne, are capable of forming interstitially doped compounds with BaSi2, if these elements are provided as an isolated atom. However, the energetic stabilities of the standard states of these elements (metals, diatomic gases, etc.) exceed the energy gain accompanying the formation of the interstitial compounds and, therefore, the conventional diffusion method using metals or gaseous source materials cannot produce the interstitial compounds. From the energetic perspective, B, C, N, O, and F appear to be favorably inserted into the BaSi2 lattice, but the observed behavior of B-implanted BaSi2 suggests that substitution of B for Si may occur.

  10. Effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: Role of interstitial cadmium and acid volatile sulfide in bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.; Berry, W.; Benyi, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J. [Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Corbin, J. [TNRCC, Austin, TX (United States); Pratt, S.; Able, M. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of interstitial cadmium and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked with cadmium to achieve simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/AVS molar ratios of 0. 0 (control), 0.1, 0.8 and 3.0 in this 118-day test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within two to four weeks resulted in sulfide profiles similar to those occurring naturally in local sediments. In the nominal 0.1 SEM/AVS treatment, measured SEM was always less than AVS. Interstitial cadmium concentrations (< 3--10 {micro}g/L) were below those likely to cause biological effects. No significant biological effects were detected. In the nominal 0.8 SEM/AVS treatment, measured SEM commonly exceeded AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm of sediment. Interstitial cadmium concentrations (24--157 {micro}g/L) were likely of toxicological significance to sensitive species. Shifts were observed in presence/absence of species, and there were fewer macrobenthic polychaetes (Mediomastus ambiseta, Strebloapio benedicti and Podarke obscura) and unidentified meiofaunal nematodes. In the nominal 3.0 SEM/AVS treatment, concentrations of SEM were always greater than AVS throughout the sediment column. Interstitial cadmium ranged from 28,000 to 174,000 {micro}g/L. In addition to the effects above, these sediments were colonized by fewer macrobenthic species, polychaete species and harpacticoids; had lower densities of diatoms; lacked bivalve molluscs and exhibited other impacts. The observed biological responses were consistent with measured SEM/AVS ratios in surficial sediments and interstitial water cadmium concentrations, further supporting their utility in predicting metals bioavailability.

  11. Evaluation of an automatic needle-loading system.

    PubMed

    Morrier, Janelle; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Chrétien, Mario; Beaulieu, Luc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dosimetric capabilities and the radiation protection (RP) performance of a new automatic needle-loading system for permanent prostate implants, the Isoloader (Mentor Corp.). The unit has been used in more than 100 clinical cases at our institution. The Isoloader is a computerized workstation that allows automated seed testing by a solid-state CdZnTe radiation detector and loading in surgical needles. The seeds are received in a shielded and ready-to-use cartridge. Radiation protection measurements were done on a cartridge filled with 67 (125)I seeds and during dosimetric seed verification and needle loading. The reproducibility of the detector was tested and its accuracy was determined by comparison to specified activities of six calibration seeds and to their measurements in a calibrated well-chamber (WC). Finally, the times required to complete dosimetric verification and needle loading were evaluated. The cartridge was found to be adequately shielded, since no significant amount of radiation was detected around it. Radiation during seed assay was found to be worst at the cartridge's bottom, where it has a value of 15.2 microSv/h (1.4 microSv/h at 10 cm). For the needle-loading task, measurements were performed with a typical needle (three seeds) at the shielded needle holder surface yielding 307.2 microSv/h (8.3 microSv/h at 20 cm). Seed dosimetric verification takes an average of 15 s/seed, while it takes a mean time of 50 s/needle to complete the loading task. Measurements of the six seed activities were within 0.65% of the ordered activities and 1.9% higher on average than those from the WC (min = 0.7%; max = 3.5%). The reproducibility of the measurements of the CdZnTe detector was excellent, with an average of 0.01% of deviation from a reference measurement (N = 120; = 1.9%). We therefore conclude that the Isoloader is a safe, fast, and effective needle-loading system. PMID:15738915

  12. Robotic Ultrasound and Needle Guidance for Prostate Cancer Management: Review of the Contemporary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Stoianovici, Dan; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent advances in needle guidance and robotic ultrasound technology which are used for prostate cancer diagnosis and management. Recent findings Prostate biopsy technology has remained relatively unchanged. Improved needle localization and precision would allow for better management of this common disease. Robotic ultrasound and needle guidance is one strategy to improve needle localization and diagnostic accuracy of PCa. This review focuses on recent advances in robotic ultrasound and needle guidance technologies and their potential impact on prostate cancer diagnosis and management Summary The use of robotic ultrasound and robotic-assisted needle guidance has the potential to improve prostate cancer diagnosis and management. PMID:24257431

  13. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. (l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  14. Needle-tip localization using an optical fibre hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging is frequently used for guiding needles during minimally invasive procedures, but accurate identification of the needle tips can be challenging, even for experienced practitioners. In this study, a novel method for tracking needles inside the human body was developed. This method, called ultrasonic device tracking (UDT), involved the detection of ultrasound pulses from the external imaging probe with an optical fibre hydrophone integrated into the needle cannula. Two methods for estimating the needle tip position that were based on the maximum and the centroid of the optical fibre hydrophone signal were tested. The variability of the position estimates is measured at different distances to the electronic focus. The maximum longitudinal variability was less than 80 ?m for all distances. The lateral variability remains below 500 ?m in a 20 mm region around the focus, but increases up to several mm away from the electronic focus. In the close proximity of the electronic focus, the lateral and longitudinal variability lower down to 22 ?m and less. This study suggests that UDT allows for safer and more efficient procedures in a manner that is compatible with the current clinical workflow.

  15. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  16. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine. PMID:18755523

  17. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  18. Point defect dynamics in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rottler, Joerg; Srolovitz, David J.; Car, Roberto [Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We present an analysis of the time evolution of self-interstitial atom and vacancy (point defect) populations in pure bcc metals under constant irradiation flux conditions. Mean-field rate equations are developed in parallel to a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. When only considering the elementary processes of defect production, defect migration, recombination and absorption at sinks, the kMC model and rate equations are shown to be equivalent and the time evolution of the point defect populations is analyzed using simple scaling arguments. We show that the typically large mismatch of the rates of interstitial and vacancy migration in bcc metals can lead to a vacancy population that grows as the square root of time. The vacancy cluster size distribution under both irreversible and reversible attachment can be described by a simple exponential function. We also consider the effect of highly mobile interstitial clusters and apply the model with parameters appropriate for vanadium and {alpha}-iron.

  19. Highly Coherent Electron Beam from a Laser-Triggered Tungsten Needle Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehberger, Dominik; Hammer, Jakob; Eisele, Max; Krüger, Michael; Noe, Jonathan; Högele, Alexander; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We report on a quantitative measurement of the spatial coherence of electrons emitted from a sharp metal needle tip. We investigate the coherence in photoemission triggered by a near-ultraviolet laser with a photon energy of 3.1 eV and compare it to dc-field emission. A carbon nanotube is brought into close proximity to the emitter tip to act as an electrostatic biprism. From the resulting electron matter wave interference fringes, we deduce an upper limit of the effective source radius both in laser-triggered and dc-field emission mode, which quantifies the spatial coherence of the emitted electron beam. We obtain (0.80 ±0.05 ) nm in laser-triggered and (0.55 ±0.02 ) nm in dc-field emission mode, revealing that the outstanding coherence properties of electron beams from needle tip field emitters are largely maintained in laser-induced emission. In addition, the relative coherence width of 0.36 of the photoemitted electron beam is the largest observed so far. The preservation of electronic coherence during emission as well as ramifications for time-resolved electron imaging techniques are discussed.

  20. Model-based needle control in prostate percutaneous procedures.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Arash; Jahed, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    In percutaneous applications, needle insertion into soft tissue is considered as a challenging procedure, and hence, it has been the subject of many recent studies. This study considers a model-based dynamics equation to evaluate the needle movement through prostate soft tissue. The proposed model estimates the applied force to the needle using the tissue deformation data and finite element model of the tissue. To address the role of mechanical properties of the soft tissue, an inverse dynamics control method based on sliding mode approach is used to demonstrate system performance in the presence of uncertainties. Furthermore, to deal with inaccurate estimation of mechanical parameters of the soft tissue, an adaptive controller is developed. Moreover, through a sensitivity analysis, it is shown that the uncertainty in the tissue mechanical parameters affects the system performance. Our results indicate that the adaptive controller approach performs slightly better than inverse dynamics method at the expense of fine-tuning the additional gain parameter. PMID:23516956

  1. New, innovative packaging system for surgical sutures and needles.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Pavlovich, L J; Towler, M A; Thacker, J G; Rodeheaver, G T

    1993-01-01

    A new, innovative packaging system for surgical needles and sutures has been developed that meets the special needs of emergency physicians, surgeons, and operating personnel. This packaging system consists of an overwrap, or breather pouch, as well as an innerwrap containing the needle swaged to a surgical suture. The flaps of the overwrap are offset and serrated to facilitate the opening and sterile transfer of the inner packet to the sterile field. The inner packet contains either a plastic labyrinth or craft board that maintains the suture as straight as possible until knot construction. The needle swaged to a suture is parked in foam to protect its sharp cutting edges and point. PMID:8445188

  2. An anatomic study of retrobulbar needle path length.

    PubMed

    Katsev, D A; Drews, R C; Rose, B T

    1989-08-01

    One hundred twenty human orbits were measured to determine orbital depth and the position of orbital structures in relation to the length of needles used for retrobulbar anesthesia. The distance from the inferior temporal orbital rim to the nasal entrance of the optic foramen ranged from 42 to 54 mm. Taking into account the size of the optic nerve, the common 38-mm (1.5-in) retrobulbar needle could perforate the optic nerve where it is fixed in front of the foramen in over 11% of the population. The authors recommend that needles be placed less than 31 mm (1.25 in) behind the orbital rim for both retro- and peribulbar anesthesia. PMID:2797726

  3. Biocompatible optical needle array for antibacterial blue light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Caio; An, Jeesoo; Humar, Matjaz; Goth, Will; Yun, Andy

    2015-03-01

    Biocompatible Optical Needle Array (BONA) is showing to be a powerful tool complementing the novel antibacterial blue light therapy. BONA is able to deliver light to deeper skin tissue layers successfully as shown in experiments. In this study, we will discuss BONA's design, mechanical and optical properties, production method, plus propose improvements to optimize it all. A special skin phantom with photosensitizer was developed in order to investigate how light is delivered inside the tissue. The phantom shows the light scattering pattern through photobleach, allowing us to determine length, thickness and spacing between needles. Other quantitative optical properties as penetration depth were determined using a different phantom (using PDMS). Mechanical properties as needle resistance were determined using one axis of a custom biaxial tensile strain device. The results led us to conclude that besides the great results, there is still room for improvements regarding tip sharpness and manufacturing time and cost, which would be solved with the enhanced fabrication method proposed.

  4. Application of a dislocation based model for Interstitial Free (IF) steels to typical stamping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho Resende, T.; Balan, T.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Bouvier, S.; Sablin, S.-S.

    2010-06-01

    With a view to environmental, economic and safety concerns, car manufacturers need to design lighter and safer vehicles in ever shorter development times. In recent years, High Strength Steels (HSS) like Interstitial Free (IF) steels which have higher ratios of yield strength to elastic modulus, are increasingly used for sheet metal parts in automotive industry to meet the demands. Moreover, the application of sheet metal forming simulations has proven to be beneficial to reduce tool costs in the design stage and to optimize current processes. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is quite successful to simulate metal forming processes but accuracy largely depends on the quality of the material properties provided as input to the material model. Common phenomenological models roughly consist in the fitting of functions on experimental results and do not provide any predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Therefore, the use of accurate plasticity models based on physics would increase predictive capability, reduce parameter identification cost and allow for robust and time-effective finite element simulations. For this purpose, a 3D physically based model at large strain with dislocation density evolution approach was presented in IDDRG2009 by the authors [1]. This model allows the description of work-hardening's behavior for different loading paths (i.e. uni-axial tensile, simple shear and Bauschinger tests) taking into account several data from microstructure (i.e. grain size, texture, etc…). The originality of this model consists in the introduction of microstructure data in a classical phenomenological model in order to achieve work-hardening's predictive character for different metals from the same grade. Indeed, thanks to a microstructure parameter set for an Interstitial Free steel, it is possible to describe work-hardening behavior for different loading paths of other IF steels by only changing the mean grain size and the chemical composition. During sheet metal forming processes local material points may experience multi-axial and multi-path loadings. Before simulating actual industrial parts, automotive manufacturers use validation tools—e.g. the Cross-Die stamping test. Such typical stamping tests enable the evaluation of a complex distribution of strains. The work described is an implementation [2] of a 3D dislocation based model in ABAQUS/Explicit and its validation on a Finite Element (FE) Cross-Die model. In order to assess the performance and relevance of the 3D dislocation based model in the simulation of industrial forming applications, the results of thinning profiles predicted along several directions and the strain distribution were obtained and compared with experimental results for IF steels with grain sizes varying in the 8-22 ?m value range.

  5. Electromagnetic needle tracking during simulated right internal jugular cannulation.

    PubMed

    Faulke, D J; Hall, T H; Nixon, C

    2015-07-01

    This study used three-dimensional information from Stealth navigation technology during simulated right internal jugular vein cannulation to define the initial needle trajectory taken when using three approaches: landmark (LM), short-axis (SAX) ultrasound and long-axis (LAX) ultrasound. Nineteen volunteers indicated the entry site and needle direction (track) they would use in performing right internal jugular vein cannulation by the three approaches. The likelihood of cannulation success, arterial puncture and needle direction were recorded. Volunteers were asked to assess the suitability of the simulation system for validity and educational benefit. The SAX track crossed the jugular vein more frequently than the LAX and LM tracks (SAX: 94%; LAX: 80%; LM: 47% [SAX versus LM, P <0.01]). The mean indicated needle direction in the coronal plane for LM, SAX and LAX were -4, 13 and 11 degrees, respectively. The track associated with the LAX technique would have entered the carotid artery by 16% of volunteers. At needle depths of over 40 mm, the track crossed the vertebral artery at the following rates (LM: 11%; SAX: 16%; LAX: 16%). The use of Stealth technology to provide three-dimensional feedback of the needle path taken during simulated right internal jugular cannulation was considered realistic (16/19) and of benefit for 18 of 19 (95%) respondents. The SAX track was associated with the highest likelihood of successful jugular cannulation and the lowest cross rate of the carotid artery. The simulation model using Stealth was considered to be valuable and realistic by participants despite some limitations. PMID:26099763

  6. The intra-tumoral relationship between microcirculation, interstitial fluid pressure and liposome accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Shawn; Milosevic, Michael; Tannock, Ian F; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A

    2015-08-10

    The heterogeneous intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes has been linked to both the chaotic tumor microcirculation and to elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we explored the relationship between tumor microcirculation, IFP, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Measurements of the tumor microcirculation using perfusion imaging, IFP using a novel image-guided robotic needle positioning system, and the intra-tumoral distribution of liposomes using volumetric micro-CT imaging were performed in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors. Intra-tumoral perfusion and IFP were substantially different between the two tumor implantation sites. Tumor perfusion and not vascular permeability was found to be the primary mediator of the intra-tumoral accumulation of CT-liposomes. A strong relationship was observed between the radial distribution of IFP, metrics of tumor perfusion, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Tumors with elevated central IFP that decreased at the periphery had low perfusion and low levels of CT-liposome accumulation that increased towards the periphery. Conversely, tumors with low and radially uniform IFP exhibited higher levels of tumor perfusion and CT-liposome accumulation. Both tumor perfusion and elevated IFP exhibit substantial intra-tumoral heterogeneity and both play an integral role in mediating the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes through a complex interactive effect. Measuring IFP in the clinical setting remains challenging and these results demonstrate that tumor perfusion imaging alone provides a robust non-invasive method to identify factors that contribute to poor liposome accumulation and may allow for pre-selection of patients that are more likely to respond to nanoparticle therapy. PMID:26070245

  7. Laparoscopic removal of a needle from the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit; Nag, Hirdaya Hulas; Goel, Neeraj; Gupta, Nikhil; Agarwal, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas. PMID:23741114

  8. First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

    2011-05-01

    He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

  9. Fast Needle Insertion to Minimize Tissue Deformation and Damage Mohsen Mahvash and Pierre E. Dupont

    E-print Network

    Dupont, Pierre

    events that produce substantial deformation and tend to drive the needle off course. In this paper, we, may necessitate backing up the needle. Furthermore, they can cause dangerous penetration of sensitive

  10. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic printing of silver nanoparticle ink via commercial hypodermic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongjun; Jang, Shin; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the needle shape on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was investigated by comparing flat outlet needles and hypodermic needles. Line fabrication was performed to confirm the tendency of jetting stability and the printed line width with various driving voltage and stage speed by using Ag nanoparticle ink as a jetting solution on a hydrophobic surface. We verified that the hypodermic needle greatly improves the resolution in EHD printing. The ink slips down the inner wall of the hypodermic needle, and a very small meniscus is generated at the tip of the needle. Due to this phenomenon, high-resolution printing can be accomplished. The narrowest line that was fabricated using a hypodermic needle has a line width of 0.7 ?m, and it is smaller than 1% of the needle inner diameter.

  11. A Lorentz-force actuated controllable needle-free drug delivery system

    E-print Network

    Hemond, Brian D. (Brian David Thomson)

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of delivering injections via needle-free methods are numerous. However, conventional methods for needle-free injection lack sufficient control over depth of penetration and shape of injection. Thus, a ...

  12. [Incidence of a needle stick injury occurring in a needleless intravenous system].

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Nanako; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2008-05-01

    A needle stick injury occurred with a needleless intravenous system. When a nurse picked up a disposable glove left on the floor of an operating room to discard it, there was an intravenous needle left under the glove and caused a needle stick injury to the nurse. Although the needle was designed as a needleless intravenous system, we found after a close observation that there is a potential hazard for a needle stick injury regarding the needle. The incidence happened due to the negligence of standard precaution by another health care provider (a doctor); leaving the contaminated needle on the floor. Unfortunately, the disposable glove fell on the needle for some reason and concealed it. Should the doctor follow the standard precaution properly, i.e. discard it in a puncture-resistant sharps container immediately, this incidence might not have happened. Any safety device may not prevent incidence 100%, we have to always heed and follow a standard precaution. PMID:18516895

  13. NIOBIUM-BEARING INTERSTITIAL-FREE STEELS: PROCESSING, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd M. Osman; C. Isaac Garcia

    The relationships between metallurgy and the production of niobium-bearing interstitial-free steels are reviewed. Processing-structure-property relationships are discussed, beginning with modern steelmaking processes and continuing through subsequent thermomechanical processing. Interstitial-free stabilization, microstructural development, and mechanical properties of niobium -bearing interstitial-free steels are reviewed as well as the influence of niobium on coating characteristics.

  14. Seven cases of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in the absence of extrarenal sarcoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Robson; Debasish Banerjee; Debbie Hopster; Hugh S. Cairns

    Background. Renal disease in sarcoidosis may occur due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis. However, granulomatous interstitial nephritis in the absence of features of extrarenal sarcoid, or other causes, has been reported very rarely. In this report we describe seven such patients. Methods. Since 1995, we have identified a number of patients with biopsy-proven granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Patients were excluded if they

  15. Trace metals biogeochemistry of Kumaun Himalayan Lakes, Uttarakhand, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Purushothaman; G. J. Chakrapani

    The increasing urbanization, along with tourism, has posed a major threat to the Kumaun Himalayan Lakes, Uttarakhand, India.\\u000a The total metal concentration in the water, interstitial water, and sediments along with the metal fractionation studies were\\u000a carried out to understand the remobilization of the trace metals from the sediments of the lakes. The high concentration of\\u000a the metals in the

  16. Lupus nephritis: Correlation of interstitial cells with glomerular function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efstathios Alexopoulos; Daniel Seron; R Barrie Hartley; J Stewart Cameron

    1990-01-01

    Lupus nephritis: Correlation of interstitial cells with glomerular function. Mononuclear inflammatory cells were studied using monoclonal antibodies in the interstitium and glomeruli of 35 renal biopsy specimens from patients with lupus nephritis already taking immunosuppressants. The aims of this study were to assess the composition and significance of the infiltrate, and to assess correlations with immediate glomerular function and ability

  17. Modeling of the interstitial diffusion of boron in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, O. I.; Aksenov, V. V.; Kovaleva, A. P.

    2012-07-01

    The redistribution of ion-implanted boron in crystalline silicon under fast low-temperature annealing has been modeled. It has been shown that in the region of low impurity concentration "tails" are formed by long-range migration of interstitial boron atoms.

  18. Trace elements in the interstitial waters of marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Brooks; B. J. Presley; I. R. Kaplan

    1968-01-01

    Phosphate and eleven elements were determined in the interstitial waters of four piston cores from the continental borderland area off the coast of Southern California. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and strontium were determined directly by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phosphate was determined colorimetrically and the trace elements: cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, nickel and zinc, were determined by extraction of the chelate

  19. Oxidized Phosphatidylcholine in AlveolarMacrophages in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoshimi; Y. Ikura; Y. Sugama; S. Kayo; M. Ohsawa; S. Yamamoto; Y. Inoue; K. Hirata; H. Itabe; J. Yoshikawa; M. Ueda

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays a pathogenic role in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Macrophage- or neutrophil-derived oxidants seem to be important sources of oxidative stress in this group of inflammatory disorders. Recent experimental studies have revealed that oxidative injury during inflammation or apoptosis can change phosphatidylcholine of cell membrane into its oxidized form, which serves as a ligand

  20. Intravesical Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Refractory Interstitial Cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Morales; Laurel Emerson; J. Curtis Nickel; Mark Lundie

    1996-01-01

    PurposeBased on the assumption that interstitial cystitis results from a defective mucous lining of the bladder epithelium, we investigated the activity of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of this disease. Hyaluronic acid is an important glycosaminoglycan present in all connective tissues, including the glycosaminoglycan layer of the vesical mucosa. It exhibits a variety of pharmacological properties that enhance its appeal

  1. Formability of galvanized interstitial-free steel sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Kumar Gupta; D. Ravi Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Hot dip galvanized steel sheets are being widely used in automotive applications for better corrosion protection. Formability of hot dip galvanized steel sheets has been one of the key issues in the automotive industry's transition to more corrosion resistant vehicle parts. In the present work, formability of hot dip galvanized interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets has been characterized. Forming limit diagrams

  2. Does lung biopsy help patients with interstitial lung disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rizwan A Qureshi; Tanveer A Ahmed; Antony D Grayson; Ajaib S Soorae; M. John Drakeley; Richard D Page

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The decision to perform lung biopsy in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is based on the probability that this examination will yield a specific diagnosis, leading to a change in treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the diagnostic yield of lung biopsy for ILD. Methods: One hundred patients underwent lung biopsy

  3. Videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottavio Rena; Caterina Casadio; Francesco Leo; Roberto Giobbe; Roberto Cianci; Sergio Baldi; Marco Rapellino; Giuliano Maggi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) require lung biopsy for the diagnosis in more than 30% of patients. Open lung biopsy (OLB) was generally considered the most reliable method of biopsy and tissue diagnosis. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and safety of the videothoracoscopic lung biopsy (VTLB) in the diagnosis of ILD. Methods: During the last 5 years, 58 patients

  4. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  5. Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis associated with Chinese herbal drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chwei-Shiun Yang; Ching-Hao Lin; Shu-Horng Chang

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional

  6. Location of interstitial deuterium in Niobium by Huang diffuse scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Burkel; H. Dosch; J. Peisl

    1983-01-01

    Huang diffuse scattering experiments were performed on NbD single crystals using neutrons. So far such experiments were used to determine the strength and symmetry of the distortion field around the deuteriuml. In the present study the interstitial site occupancy has also been determined and it is found that deuterium occupies tetrahedral sites in Niobium.

  7. Location of interstitial deuterium in Niobium by Huang diffuse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkel, E.; Dosch, H.; Peisl, J.

    1983-03-01

    Huang diffuse scattering experiments were performed on NbD single crystals using neutrons. So far such experiments were used to determine the strength and symmetry of the distortion field around the deuteriuml. In the present study the interstitial site occupancy has also been determined and it is found that deuterium occupies tetrahedral sites in Niobium.

  8. Improved laser applicators for interstitial thermotherapy of brain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Ulrich, Frank; Schober, Ralf; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund; Wolbarsht, Myron L.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial thermotherapy is a new treatment for deep seated brain tumors. To destroy large tissue volumes without adverse effects (vaporization, carbonization) a new laser catheter was developed. The device combines the radiative heating of distant tissue volumes with the conductive cooling of areas close to the optical fiber tip.

  9. Interstitial laser thermotherapy: Comparison between bare fibre and sapphire probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Páll H. Möller; Lars Lindberg; Pär H. Henriksson; Bertil R. R. Persson; Karl-G. Tranberg

    1995-01-01

    A sapphire probe and a bare fibre were compared with respect to temperature control and distribution and light fluence in interstitial laser thermotherapy. Experiments were performed in processed liver using an Nd-YAG laser and output power levels of 1–4 W. The temperature was controlled at a distance of 10 mm using a feedback circuit with an automatic thermometry system and

  10. Improved laser applicators for interstitial thermotherapy of brain structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Schwarzmaier; Thomas Goldbach; Frank Ulrich; R. Schober; Thomas Kahn; Raimund Kaufmann; Myron L. Wolbarsht

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial thermotherapy is a new treatment for deep seated brain tumors. To destroy large tissue volumes without adverse effects (vaporization, carbonization) a new laser catheter was developed. The device combines the radiative heating of distant tissue volumes with the conductive cooling of areas close to the optical fiber tip.

  11. Histopathologic Variability in Usual and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEVIN R. FLAHERTY; WILLIAM D. TRAVIS; THOMAS V. COLBY; GALEN B. TOEWS; ELLA A. KAZEROONI; BARRY H. GROSS; ARVIND JAIN; ROBERT L. STRAWDERMAN; ANDREW FLINT; JOSEPH P. LYNCH; FERNANDO J. MARTINEZ

    Findings of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) are important in categoriz- ing patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We inves- tigated whether histologic variability would be evident in SLB specimens from multiple lobes in patients with IIP. SLBs from 168 patients, 109 of whom had multiple lobes biopsied, were reviewed by three pathologists. A diagnosis was assigned to each lobe. A

  12. Medical imaging systems for feedback control of interstitial laser photocoagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS R. WYMAN; BRIAN C. WILSON; DERMOT E. MALONE

    1992-01-01

    It is noted that both abdominal ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain can produce high contrast images of ILP (interstitial laser photocoagulation) lesions in real or near-real time, during and after ILP. These images provide feedback data that can be used to control dynamically the shape of the ILP lesion. Image-based feedback control of ILP requires

  13. Micro-Biocidal Activity of Yeast Cells by Needle Plasma Irradiation at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Taima, Tomohito; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    In this study, we report on the biocidal activity technique by needle helium plasma irradiation at atmospheric pressure using borosilicate capillary nozzle to apply for the oral surgery. The diameter of needle plasma was less than 50?µm, and temperature of plasma irradiated area was less than body temperature. Needle plasma showed emission due to OH and O radical. Raman spectra and methylene blue stain showed yeast cells were inactivated by needle plasma irradiation.

  14. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Confirmed by Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: Analysis of CT Findings and Review of Correlations with Underlying Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ji Young; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Mi-young; Kang, Eun-young; Oh, Yu Whan; Lee, Seung Hwa; Seo, Bo Kyung; Je, Bo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can produce unusual radiographic findings. Further, negative sputum and bronchoscopic results are common. Early diagnosis is equally as significant as treatment in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary TB. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary TB, confirmed via percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB), and to correlate these findings with coexisting, underlying, lung diseases if present. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: We selected eighty-four patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB by way of PTNB. Initially, acid-fast bacilli smear test results from these patients were negative. CT findings were reviewed to detect the presence of parenchymal abnormalities as follows: nodule(s) (<3 cm in diameter), mass (any masses ?3 cm), daughter nodules, air-space consolidation, cavitation, calcification, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and associated lung parenchymal disease. Results: The CT findings of pulmonary TB confirmed by PTNB included nodules in 44 of 84 (52.4%) cases; 15 of these 44 cases (34.1%) had daughter nodules. The second most common finding was masses in 24 cases (28.6%), nine of which also had daughter nodules. 16 cases (19.0%) displayed nonsegmental consolidation. Of these 16 cases, four had coexisting usual interstitial pneumonia; four others had emphysema. Two patients with a mass had underlying pneumoconiosis. Conclusion: Nodules or a mass mimicking lung cancer were the most common findings on CT scans in patients with pulmonary TB, confirmed via PTNB. The second most common finding was airspace consolidation. Therefore, PNTB is useful for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary TB in the following cases: airspace consolidation or mass associated with underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, emphysema mimicking lung malignancy or cases of bacterial pneumonia. PMID:25625018

  15. Theory of defect interactions in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thetford, Roger

    The static relaxation program, DEVIL, was updated to use N-body Finnis-Sinclair potentials. Initial calculations of self-interstitial and monovacancy formation energies confirm that the modified program is working correctly. An extra repulsive pair potential overcomes some deficiencies in the published Finnis-Sinclair potentials. The modified potentials are used to calculate interstitial energies and relaxations in the body centered cubic (b.c.c.) transition metals: vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. Further adaptation enables DEVIL to model dislocations running parallel to any lattice vector. Periodic boundary conditions are applied in the direction of the dislocation line, giving an infinite straight dislocation. The energies per unit length of two different dislocation are compared with experiment. A study of migration of point defects in the perfect lattice provides information on the mobility of interstitials and vacancies in a migration step comes under scrutiny. The total energy needed to form and migrate an interstitial is compared with that required for a vacancy. The interaction between point defects and dislocations is studied in detail. Binding energies for both self-interstitials and monovacancies at edge dislocations are calculated for the five metals mentioned above. Formation energies of the point defects in the neighborhood of the edge dislocation are calculated for niobium, and the extent of regions from which the defects are spontaneously absorbed are found. For split dumbbell interstitials, the size, and shape of the absorption region depends on the orientation of the dumbbell. Migration of both interstitials and vacancies into the absorption zone is studied; the presence of the dislocation has a particularly dramatic effect on vacancy migration. The results on absorption zones are related to the dislocation sink strengths vital in radiation damage theory.

  16. Respiratory effects of hard-metal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Balmes, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Workers exposed to hard-metal dust are at risk of developing interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Focusing on the lung parenchymal disorders that result, the author thoroughly reviews the background of the problem, animal studies and recent environmental data related to hard-metal disease, the clinical presentation, and finally its etiology.

  17. Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: An evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J.; Benyi, S.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Corbin, J.M. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Pratt, S.D. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Toro, D.M. di [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering]|[HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Abel, M.B. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Botany Dept.

    1996-12-01

    The role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked to achieve nominal cadmium/AVS molar ratios of 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.8, and 3.0 in this 118-d test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within 2 to 4 weeks resulted in sulfide profiles similar to those occurring naturally in local sediments. In the nominal 0.1 cadmium/AVS treatment measured simultaneously extracted metal (SEM{sub Cd}) was always less than AVS. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were less than those likely to cause biological effects. No significant biological effects were detected. In the nominal 0.8 cadmium/AVS treatment, measured SEM{sub Cd} commonly exceeded AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm of sediment. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were of likely toxicological significance to highly sensitive species. Shifts in the presence or absence over all taxa, and fewer macrobenthic polychaetes (Mediomastus ambiseta, Streblospio benedicti, and Podarke obscurea) and unidentified meiofaunal nematodes, were observed. In the nominal 3.0 cadmium/AVS treatment, concentrations of SEM{sub Cd} were always greater than AVS throughout the sediment column. Interstitial cadmium ranged from 28,000 to 174,000 {micro}g/L. In addition to the effects above, the sediments were colonized by fewer macrobenthic species, polychaete species, and harpacticoids; had lower densities of diatoms; lacked bivalve molluscs; and exhibited other impacts. Over all treatments, the observed biological responses were consistent with SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios in surficial sediments and interstitial water cadmium concentrations.

  18. Partial discharge and breakdown characteristics on needle\\/dielectrics composite electrode systems under pulse voltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sakamoto; Y. Kuninaka; H. Ueno; H. Nakayama

    2001-01-01

    Studied the discharge characteristics on the composite electrode under a pulse voltage in N2. The configuration is a needle-plane one, in which the needle is in contact with solid dielectrics, with a narrow gap. The configuration has a plurality of places of the local high field, namely a needle tip and another a triple junction. To examine a local corona

  19. Transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) in the cow: A new disposable needle guidance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. J. Bols; J. M. M. Vandenheede; A. Van Soom; A. de Kruif

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to modify the routinely used ovum pick up (OPU) devices to permit use of disposable needles and to simplify the technique and to make it more economical and practical to use. Long nondisposable needles are commonly used in transvaginal OPU despite several disadvantages. A new OPU device was developed using 19-g disposable needles to eliminate these

  20. Morphology and growth mechanism of multiply twinned AgBr and AgCl needle crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögels, G.; Buijnsters, J. G.; Verhaegen, S. A. C.; Meekes, H.; Bennema, P.; Bollen, D.

    1999-06-01

    In this study the morphology and growth mechanism of AgX (X=Cl, Br) needle crystals will be revealed. The silver halide needles are grown by two different techniques. AgBr needles are grown with an extractive crystallization in a dimethylsulfoxide-water mixture and AgCl needles are grown from the vapor phase. All needles contain nonparallel twin planes. The morphology of the AgBr needles grown from dimethylsulfoxide is the same as the needles grown in the industrial precipitation process in water. The side faces of these solution grown needles are built up of relatively slowly growing {1 1 1} faces. Both needle tops are composed of three relatively fast growing {1 0 0} faces making a ridge structure. The vapor-grown needles have two different morphologies. For both types the side faces consist of four {1 1 1} and two {1 0 0} faces. All {1 1 1} faces are linked via twin planes to a fast growing {1 0 0} face. The preferential unidirectional growth of all needles is caused by cross-twinning. The preferential growth occurs along the intersection line of the twin planes. Between the twin planes a rough growing face appears on the needle top. This face is capable of increasing the growth rate of the other top faces owing to the substep mechanism.

  1. Biomechanics-Based Curvature Estimation for Ultrasound-guided Flexible Needle Steering in Biological Tissues.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-08-01

    Needle-based procedures are commonly performed during minimally invasive surgery for treatment and diagnosis. Accurate needle tip placement is important for the success of the procedures. Misplacement of the needle tip might cause unsuccessful treatment or misdiagnosis. Robot-assisted needle insertion systems have been developed in order to steer flexible bevel-tipped needles. However, current systems depend on the information of maximum needle curvature, which is estimated by performing prior insertions. This work presents a new three-dimensional flexible needle steering system which integrates an optimal steering control, ultrasound-based needle tracking system, needle deflection model, online needle curvature estimation and offline curvature estimation based on biomechanics properties. The online and the offline curvature estimations are used to update the steering control in real time. The system is evaluated by experiments in gelatin phantoms and biological tissues (chicken breast tissues). The average targeting error in gelatin phantoms is 0.42 ± 0.17 mm, and in biological tissues is 1.63 ± 0.29 mm. The system is able to accurately steer a flexible needle in multi-layer phantoms and biological tissues without performing prior insertions to estimate the maximum needle curvature. PMID:25465619

  2. Toward Robotic Needle Steering in Lung Biopsy: A Tendon-Actuated Approach

    E-print Network

    Webster III, Robert James

    Toward Robotic Needle Steering in Lung Biopsy: A Tendon-Actuated Approach Louis B. Kratchman is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT

  3. A NOVEL METHOD FOR ENHANCED NEEDLE LOCALIZATION USING ULTRASOUND-GUIDANCE

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    identifying inserted needles with desired resolution, a new and improved system for tracking such needles be finished in real-time: (2) robustness, insensitive to noise in the ultrasound images and: (3) flexibility and control of the biopsy needle. A majority of medical care-providers utilize low resolution ultrasound units

  4. 2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form ElectroNeedle

    E-print Network

    pressed against the skin,can make rapid,multiplexed diagnostic measurements in a point-of-care setting ElectroNeedleTM Biomedical Sensor Array The ElectroNeedleTM Biomedical Sensor Array is a device that, when of the ElectroNeedleTM device,Photo by Randy Montoya, Sandia National Laboratories #12;2007 R&D 100 Award Entry

  5. Ionic wind characteristics of an EHD micro gas pump constructed with needle-ring electrode system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohyama; R. Ohyama

    2011-01-01

    An EHD micro gas pump using a needle-ring electrode system was constructed for an application of ionic wind to fluid flow operations without mechanical parts. The experimental EHD pump was consisted of a needle electrode and ring electrode which are on the same axis. The needle electrode was used as a conventional discharge electrode and the ring electrode connected to

  6. Calibration of a needle tracking device with fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. Mandal, Koushik; Parent, Francois; Martel, Sylvain; Kashyap, Raman; Kadoury, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Accurate needle placement is essential in percutaneous procedures such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors. Use of real-time navigation of an interventional needle can improve targeting accuracy and yield precise measurements of the needle tip inside the body. An emerging technology based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors has demonstrated the potential of estimating shapes at high frequencies (up to 20 kHz), fast enough for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a calibration procedure for this novel needle tracking technology using strain measurements obtained from fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Three glass fibers equipped with two FBGs each were incorporated into a 19G needle. The 3D needle shape is reconstructed based on a polynomial fitting of strain measurements obtained from the fibers. The real-time information provided by the needle tip position and shape allows tracking of the needle deflections during tissue insertion. An experimental setup was designed to yield a calibration that is insensitive to ambient temperature fluctuations and robust to slight external disturbances. We compare the shape of the 3D reconstructed needle to measurements obtained from camera images, as well as assess needle tip tracking accuracy on a ground-truth phantom. Initial results show that the tracking errors for the needle tip are under 1mm, while 3D shape deflections are minimal near the needle tip. The accuracy is appropriate for applications such as RFA of liver tumors.

  7. Effects of insertion speed and trocar stiffness on the accuracy of needle position for brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, accurate positioning of the needle tip to place radioactive seeds at its target site is critical for successful radiation treatment. During the procedure, needle deflection leads to seed misplacement and suboptimal radiation dose to cancerous cells. In practice, radiation oncologists commonly use high-speed hand needle insertion to minimize displacement of the prostate as well as the needle deflection. Effects of speed during needle insertion and stiffness of trocar (a solid rod inside the hollow cannula) on needle deflection are studied. Methods: Needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed using a 2{sup 2} factorial design (2 parameters at 2 levels), with each condition having replicates. Analysis of the deflection data included calculating the average, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: The stiffer tungsten carbide trocar is effective in reducing the average and standard deviation of needle deflection. The fast insertion speed together with the stiffer trocar generated the smallest average and standard deviation for needle deflection for almost all cases. Conclusions: The combination of stiff tungsten carbide trocar and fast needle insertion speed are important to decreasing needle deflection. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the accuracy of needle insertion during brachytherapy procedures.

  8. A systematic approach to fabricate high aspect ratio silicon micro-needles for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. B.; Shearwood, C.

    2007-12-01

    The successful development of micro-needles can help transport drugs and vaccines both effectively and painlessly across the skin. However, not all micro-needles are strong enough to withstand the insertion forces and viscoelasticity of the skin. The work here focuses on the micro-fabrication of high aspect ratio needles with careful control of needle-profile using dry etching technologies. Silicon micro-needles, 150?m in length with base-diameters ranging from 90 to 240?m have been investigated in this study. A novel, multiple-sacrificial approach has been demonstrated as suited to the fabrication of long micro-needle bodies with positive profiles. The parameters that control the isotropic etching are adjusted to control the ratio of the needle-base diameter to needle length. By careful control of geometry, the needle profile can be engineered to give a suitable tip size for penetration, as well as a broad needle base to facilitate the creation of either single or multiple-through holes. This approach allows the mechanical properties of the otherwise brittle needles to be optimized. Finite element analysis indicates that the micro-needles will fracture prematurely due to buckling, with forces ranging from 10 to 30mN.

  9. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  10. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  11. The nature of cold brittleness of metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Mezentsev; A. F. Mikhailov

    1973-01-01

    The reason for the change in the strength characteristics of metals with different types of lattices is explained by some investigators as due to the effect of impurities, since impurity atoms in a bcc lattice, forming interstitial solid solutions, may be located in the centers of faces or edges of the cube, or in the center of tetrahedrons formed by

  12. Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: An evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hansen; W. J. Berry; S. J. Benyi; J. D. Mahony; Jeffrey M. Corbin; Sheldon D. Pratt; Dominic M. Di Toro; Mary Beth Abel

    1996-01-01

    The role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked to achieve nominal cadmium\\/AVS molar ratios of 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.8, and 3.0 in this 118-d test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within 2 to 4 weeks resulted in

  13. Clinton said to be serious about vetoing ban on needles.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Congress is ready to pass an appropriations bill barring the District of Columbia from using its own funds for needle-exchange programs. The Clinton administration appears ready to veto, if the bill passes. D.C. representative, Eleanor Holmes Norton, is asking that the bill be voted down when Congress returns in September. PMID:11366911

  14. Ouch! Sharps and the needle-stick challenge.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Richard W

    2004-10-01

    Needle-sticks and related sharps exposures occur all too often in the prehospital setting. Prevention is the goal. If the unfortunate happens, report the exposure to your employer immediately, following the steps listed above, to ensure appropriate follow-up care. ESO management should establish sound policy with supporting procedures so that every provider can comply with the applicable expectations. PMID:15553537

  15. Biopsy Needle Detection in Transrectal Ultrasound Alper Ayvacia

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than-positive detection rate. Keywords: Needle detection, Interventional Guidance, Prostate, Transrectal Ultrasound, Fusion, Prior knowledge. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer affects one in six men in the western world

  16. Guarded needle for ``charge injection'' measurement and Grace Ge Jiangb)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Guarded needle for ``charge injection'' measurement Yang Caoa) and Grace Ge Jiangb) Electrical a high-field region of localized high carrier mobility during the formation of a space-charge limited high-field carrier mobility in dielectrics provides insight into transport phenomena and high

  17. Thyroid Hormone Autoantibodies Elicited by Diagnostic Fine Needle Biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALVATORE BENVENGA; LUIGI BARTOLONE; STEFANO SQUADRITO; FRANCESCO TRIMARCHI

    Based on the knowledge that diagnostic fine needle biopsy of the thyroid (FNAB) results in a prompt increase in circulating thyroglob- ulin (Tg), we evaluated whether Tg is indeed the postulated antigen for circulating antibodies against thyroid hormones (THAb). Prelim- inarily, we verified that FNAB causes the release into the blood- stream of iodinated, heterologous, and thus potentially immunogenic, molecules

  18. Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in prostate needle biopsy tissue

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P A

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major public health problem throughout the developed world. For patients with clinically localised prostate cancer, the diagnosis is typically established by histopathological examination of prostate needle biopsy samples. Major and minor criteria are used to establish the diagnosis, based on the microscopic appearance of slides stained using haematoxylin and eosin. Major criteria include an infiltrative glandular growth pattern, an absence of basal cells and nuclear atypia in the form of nucleomegaly and nucleolomegaly. In difficult cases, basal cell absence may be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains for high?molecular?weight cytokeratins (marked with antibody 34?E12) or p63, which are basal cell markers. Minor criteria include intraluminal wispy blue mucin, pink amorphous secretions, mitotic figures, intraluminal crystalloids, adjacent high?grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, amphophilic cytoplasm and nuclear hyperchromasia. Another useful diagnostic marker detectable by immunohistochemistry is ??methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR), an enzyme selectively expressed in neoplastic glandular epithelium. Cocktails of antibodies directed against basal cell markers and AMACR are particularly useful in evaluating small foci of atypical glands, and in substantiating a diagnosis of a minimal adenocarcinoma. Reporting of adenocarcinoma in needle biopsy specimens should always include the Gleason grade and measures of tumour extent in the needle core tissue. Measures of tumour extent are (1) number of cores positive for cancer in the number of cores examined, (2) percentage of needle core tissue affected by carcinoma and (3) linear millimetres of carcinoma present. PMID:17213347

  19. Technical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen

    in the short axis using the color Doppler mode of a two-dimensional ultrasound and a 12 MHz L38 probe (MicroTechnical Communication Piezoelectric Vibrating Needle and Catheter for Enhancing Ultrasound* Stephen W. Smith, PhD Ultrasound imaging has been used for performing single-injection peripheral nerve

  20. The effects of diesel injector needle motion on spray structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C. F.; Kastengren, A. L.; Liu, Z.; Fezzaa, K. (Energy Systems); ( XSD)

    2011-01-01

    The internal structure of diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the steady-state fuel distribution within the spray. However, little experimental or computational work has been performed on the dynamics of fuel injectors. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the injector nozzle, and to track changes in that geometry as the needle opens and closes in real time. This has enabled the dynamics of the injector to be compared with the dynamics of the spray, and allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to use realistic time-dependent flow passage geometries. In this study, X-ray phase-enhanced imaging has been used to perform time-resolved imaging of the needle seat area in several common-rail diesel injection nozzles. The fuel distributions of the sprays emitted by these injectors were also studied with fast X-ray radiography. Correlations between eccentric motions of the injector needle valve and oscillations in the fuel density as it emerges from the nozzle are examined. CFD modeling is used to interpret the effect of needle motion on fuel flow.

  1. Segmentation of prostate biopsy needles in transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krefting, Dagmar; Haupt, Barbara; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Miller, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Tissue extraction at different locations (biopsy) is the gold-standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer. These biopsies are commonly guided by transrectal ultrasound imaging (TRUS). Exact location of the extracted tissue within the gland is desired for more specific diagnosis and provides better therapy planning. While the orientation and the position of the needle within clinical TRUS image are limited, the appearing length and visibility of the needle varies strongly. Marker lines are present and tissue inhomogeneities and deflection artefacts may appear. Simple intensity, gradient oder edge-detecting based segmentation methods fail. Therefore a multivariate statistical classificator is implemented. The independent feature model is built by supervised learning using a set of manually segmented needles. The feature space is spanned by common binary object features as size and eccentricity as well as imaging-system dependent features like distance and orientation relative to the marker line. The object extraction is done by multi-step binarization of the region of interest. The ROI is automatically determined at the beginning of the segmentation and marker lines are removed from the images. The segmentation itself is realized by scale-invariant classification using maximum likelihood estimation and Mahalanobis distance as discriminator. The technique presented here could be successfully applied in 94% of 1835 TRUS images from 30 tissue extractions. It provides a robust method for biopsy needle localization in clinical prostate biopsy TRUS images.

  2. Failed needle decompression of bilateral spontaneous tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Bach, P T; Sølling, C

    2015-07-01

    This case report presents a young male admitted with primary bilateral spontaneous tension pneumothorax and severe respiratory distress. This is an extremely rare condition. The patient was on the verge of hypoxic cardiac arrest and the attempted needle thoracocentesis was unsuccessful. Needle thoracocentesis in the midclavicular line of the second intercostal space is widely used and recommended as first-line treatment of tension pneumothorax. Reviewing the literature, the procedure is not based on solid evidence. It has high failure rates and potentially serious complications. Alternatives to this approach are perhaps more appropriate. Correctly done, needle thoracocentesis has its place in the presence of a diagnosed or suspected tension pneumothorax when no other options are available. If needle thoracocentesis is chosen, then insertion in the mid-anterior axillary line of the 3rd-5th intercostal space is an appropriate alternative site. Otherwise, lateral thoracostomy, with or without chest tube insertion, is a safe procedure with a high success rate. It should be considered as the first-line treatment of tension pneumothorax, particularly in the unstable patient. PMID:25900313

  3. Analysis of lipophilic compounds in needles of Pinus pinea L.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of their resin canals is the basic tissue respon- sible for the production of terpenes; however cortical, sesquiterpene, neutral diterpene, fatty and resin acids were analyzed in needles of Pinus pinea. Together) and abietic, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, and dehydroabietic acids (resin acids). Fifty-six compounds

  4. Thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G; Woyke, S; Schreiber, K; Kohlberg, W; Freed, S Z

    1984-05-01

    The authors summarize the current status of thin-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate and evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this method of diagnosis. Historical developments, indications, technique, contraindications, complications, cytology of aspirates, diagnostic efficacy of aspirates, and grading of prostatic carcinomas are discussed. PMID:6203204

  5. New real time needle segmentation technique using grayscale Hough transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wu; Zhou, Hua; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    Real-time needle segmentation and tracking is very important in image-guided surgery, biopsy, and therapy. In this paper, we described an automated technique to provide real-time needle segmentation from a sequence of 2-D ultrasound images for the use of guidance of a needle to the target in soft tissues. The Hough transform is used to find straight lines or analytic curves in binary image. Hough transform is applied usually to binary images. Hence one needs to convert, initially, the gray level image to a binary one (through thresholding, edge detection, or thinning) in order to apply the HT. While in the process of binarization, some information about line segments in the image may be lost when an inappropriate threshold is used. Gray-Scale Hough Transform can detect the line without binarization. Unfortunately, its high computational cost often prevents it from being applied in real-time applications without the help of specially designed hardware. In this paper, we proposed a needle segmentation technique based on a real-time gray-scale Hough transform. It is composed of an improved Gray Hough Transformation and a coarse-fine search strategy. Furthermore, the RTGHT (Real-Time Gray-Scale Hough Transform) technique is evaluated by patient breast biopsy images. Experiments with patient breast biopsy ultrasound (US) image sequences showed that our approach can segment the biopsy needle in real time (i.e., less than 60 ms) with the angular rms error of about 1° and the position rms error of about 0.5 mm an affordable PC computer without the help of specially designed hardware.

  6. Advanced Signal Processing for Reduction of False Alarm Rate of Metal Detectors for Humanitarian Mine Clearance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Krueger; H. Ewald; T. Fechner; S. Bergeler

    2006-01-01

    Today for clearing areas from landmines, beside dogs and searching needles, almost excluding metal detectors are used. Available metal detectors, specialised for mine clearance, are highly sensitive also on small metal parts. Nevertheless, they give no further information about the buried object (depth, size, shape, material). Besides, the high false alarm rate of the hand-held detectors makes the mine clearance

  7. Handheld metal detector with online visualisation and classification for the humanitarian mine clearance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Krüger; Hartmut Ewald

    2008-01-01

    Today for clearing areas from landmines, beside dogs and searching needles, almost only metal detectors are used. Metal detectors for mine clearance are high sensitive inductive sensors which react also on small metal parts. Nevertheless, they give no further information about the buried object (depth, size, shape, material). Besides, the high false alarm rate (up to 1000 per mine) makes

  8. 25-gauge histology needle versus 22-gauge cytology needle in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided sampling of pancreatic lesions and lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogenis, Georgios; Weynand, Birgit; Sibille, Alain; Hassaini, Hocine; Deprez, Pierre; Gillain, Cédric; Warzée, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: A new 25-gauge (G) endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) device (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) has been developed, which features a hollowed-out reverse bevel to trap core samples. However, data on the differences between the diagnostic yield of the 25G EchoTip ProCore and that of a 22G standard needle are limited. Patients and methods: This pilot study included 27 patients referred during an 11-month period for EUS-FNA of pancreatic masses and enlarged lymph nodes adjacent to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Each lesion was punctured once by both a 25G EchoTip ProCore needle and a 22G standard needle (EchoTip; Cook Medical) with capillary sampling. Blinded histocytologic analyses were conducted. The final diagnosis was based on FNA findings of malignant cells, pathologic analysis of the surgical specimen, and/or radiologic and clinical follow-up of at least 7 months. Results: A total of 28 EUS-FNA procedures targeting masses of the pancreas (n?=?19) and lymph nodes (n?=?9) were performed. No complications were encountered. Single-pass sensitivity rates for pancreatic and lymph node malignancy were equal for the needle types: 89.5?% (95?%CI 66.82?–?98.39) and 66?% (95?%CI 24.1?–?94), respectively. There were no significant differences between the needles in terms of EUS visualization (P?=?0.125), amount of blood contamination (P?=?0.705), macroscopic quantity of the material (P?=?0.858), quality of the cytology (P?=?0.438), and adequacy and accuracy of the cell block material (P?=?0.220). Conclusions: Both needles were safe and successful in terms of a high diagnostic yield, with similar histocytologic results. The results of this study were presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2014, Chicago, Illinois. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (B027201316271).

  9. Autonomous real-time interventional scan plane control with a 3-D shape-sensing needle.

    PubMed

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Plata, Juan Camilo; Holbrook, Andrew B; Park, Yong-Lae; Pauly, Kim Butts; Daniel, Bruce L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrates real-time scan plane control dependent on three-dimensional needle bending, as measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible optical strain sensors. A biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure surface strains is used to estimate its full 3-D shape and control the imaging plane of an MR scanner in real-time, based on the needle's estimated profile. The needle and scanner coordinate frames are registered to each other via miniature radio-frequency (RF) tracking coils, and the scan planes autonomously track the needle as it is deflected, keeping its tip in view. A 3-D needle annotation is superimposed over MR-images presented in a 3-D environment with the scanner's frame of reference. Scan planes calculated based on the FBG sensors successfully follow the tip of the needle. Experiments using the FBG sensors and RF coils to track the needle shape and location in real-time had an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm when comparing the estimated shape to the needle profile as seen in high resolution MR images. This positional variance is less than the image artifact caused by the needle in high resolution SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled) images. Optical fiber strain sensors can estimate a needle's profile in real-time and be used for MRI scan plane control to potentially enable faster and more accurate physician response. PMID:24968093

  10. Biopsy Needle Artifact Localization in MRI-guided Robotic Transrectal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Kaushal, Aradhana; Camphausen, Kevin; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a number of robotic intervention systems for magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided needle placement in the prostate have been reported. In MRI-guided needle interventions, after a needle is inserted, the needle position is often confirmed with a volumetric MRI scan. Commonly used titanium needles are not directly visible in an MR image, but they generate a susceptibility artifact in the immediate neighborhood of the needle. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the relationship between the true position of titanium biopsy needle and the corresponding needle artifact position in MR images, thereby providing a better understanding of the influence of needle artifact on targeting errors. The titanium needle tip artifact extended 9 mm beyond the actual needle tip location with tendency to bend towards the scanner’s B0 magnetic field direction, and axially displaced 0.38 mm and 0.32 mm (mean) in scanner’s frequency and phase encoding direction, respectively. PMID:22481805

  11. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Biomedical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Departments, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 2{sup 3} factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  12. Enhanced needle localization in ultrasound using beam steering and learning-based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Charles R; Ng, Gary; Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    Segmentation of needles in ultrasound images remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for needle segmentation in 2D beam-steered ultrasound images. We used a statistical boosting approach to train a pixel-wise classifier for needle segmentation. The Radon transform was then used to find the needle position and orientation from the segmented image. We validated our method with data from ex vivo specimens and clinical nerve block procedures, and compared the results to those obtained using previously reported needle segmentation methods. Results show improved localization success and accuracy using the proposed method. For the ex vivo datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was known a priori, the needle was successfully localized in 86.2% of the images, with a mean targeting error of 0.48mm. The robustness of the proposed method to a lack of a priori knowledge of needle orientation was also demonstrated. For the clinical datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was closely aligned with the beam steering angle selected by the physician, the needle was successfully localized in 99.8% of the images, with a mean targeting error 0.19mm. These results indicate that the learning-based segmentation method may allow for increased targeting accuracy and enhanced visualization during ultrasound-guided needle procedures. PMID:25063736

  13. Toward robotic needle steering in lung biopsy: a tendon-actuated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Saunders, Justin R.; Swaney, Philip J.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2011-03-01

    Needle tip dexterity is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles. By providing intraoperative compensation for trajectory error and lesion motion, tendon-driven biopsy needles may reach smaller or deeper nodules in fewer attempts, thereby reducing trauma. An image-guided robotic system that uses these needles also has the potential to reduce radiation exposure to the patient and physician. In this paper, we discuss the design, workflow, kinematic modeling, and control of both the needle and a compact and inexpensive robotic prototype that can actuate the tendon-driven needle for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT) guidance. In a free-space targeting experiment using a discrete proportional control law with digital camera feedback, we show a position error of less than 1 mm achieved using an average of 8.3 images (n=3).

  14. The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles. PMID:21151708

  15. Needle blight of pine caused by two species of Dothistroma in Hungary By I. Barnes1,3

    E-print Network

    Needle blight of pine caused by two species of Dothistroma in Hungary By I. Barnes1,3 , T. Kirisits.barnes@fabi.up.ac.za (for correspondence) Summary Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini cause the serious pine needle disease conidiomata that split the epidermal layers of infected pine needles. These needles become necrotic, are cast

  16. Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

  17. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. (Northwest Tumor Institute, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  18. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.; Sayles, Frederick L.

    1974-01-01

    Interstitial waters from Leg 22 in the Indian Ocean revealed two unique results: Site 214, on the Ninetyeast Ridge, penetrated through a 30-meter sequence of fine-grained basalt and reentered hard, silty clay containing carbonate skeletal debris. Such a basalt layer may well have been impervious and extensive enough to seal off underlying (fossil) seawater of Paleocene age. However, except for a marked increase in calcium and a slight increase in chloride, no appreciable changes in pore fluid chemistry could be confirmed. Site 217, at the northernmost end of the Ninetyeast Ridge, demonstrated record concentrations of interstitial calcium in clayey nannofossil oozes and a relatively small but significant increment in chloride with depth. Presumably, these increments signal the existence of evaporitic sediments or evaporite-influenced brines at considerably greater depth than penetrated.

  19. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  20. [Fibrotic interstitial pneumopathies. Collagenolytic activity of the alveolar fluid].

    PubMed

    Cordier, J F; Lasne, Y; Benzerara, O; Lasne, F; Hartmann, D; Touraine, R

    1983-05-14

    Collagenolytic enzyme release in alveolar structures is probably one of the initial events leading to impaired balance between collagen synthesis and degradation in the connective matrix of the lung, resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. The collagenolytic activity was determined in the bronchoalveolar fluid of 40 normal subjects or patients with miscellaneous pulmonary diseases and was found to be present in seventeen, viz.: 7/7 patients with interstitial fibrosis, irrespective of its origin: 4/4 patients with radiation pneumonitis; 4/15 patients with sarcoidosis and 2/2 patients with transient eosinophilic pneumopathy. There was no evidence of fibrosis in the 23 patients who showed no collagenolytic activity. Thus, collagenolytic enzymes are present in the alveolar structures of patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases of diverse origin capable of leading to fibrosis. Monitoring the release of this enzyme by bronchoalveolar lavage could be useful to evaluate the risk of fibrosis in such patients. PMID:6222316

  1. 3D polymer gel dosimetry and Geant4 Monte Carlo characterization of novel needle based X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Sozontov, E.; Safronov, V.; Gutman, G.; Strumban, E.; Jiang, Q.; Li, S.

    2010-11-01

    In the recent years, there have been a few attempts to develop a low energy x-ray radiation sources alternative to conventional radioisotopes used in brachytherapy. So far, all efforts have been centered around the intent to design an interstitial miniaturized x-ray tube. Though direct irradiation of tumors looks very promising, the known insertable miniature x-ray tubes have many limitations: (a) difficulties with focusing and steering the electron beam to the target; (b)necessity to cool the target to increase x-ray production efficiency; (c)impracticability to reduce the diameter of the miniaturized x-ray tube below 4mm (the requirement to decrease the diameter of the x-ray tube and the need to have a cooling system for the target have are mutually exclusive); (c) significant limitations in changing shape and energy of the emitted radiation. The specific aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept for an insertable low-energy needle x-ray device based on simulation with Geant4 Monte Carlo code and to measure the dose rate distribution for low energy (17.5 keV) x-ray radiation with the 3D polymer gel dosimetry.

  2. Temporal Isotopic Variations of Leaf Water in Pine Needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Feng, X.; Faiia, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Understanding the isotopic variations in a plant's leaf water is important for a number of climatological and biogeochemical studies. Leaf water isotopic composition is affected by the isotopic composition of the source water and the relative humidity of the air, both of which are related to climate. This dependency is the basis for climate reconstruction using isotopic compositions of tree-ring cellulose. The isotopic composition of leaf water is also important for the assessment of terrestrial biological productivity and the quantification of the Dole effect. We have studied the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations in leaf water of biennial needles from red pine (Pinus resinosa) and white pine (Pinus strobes) in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. We have examined the leaf water ?D and ?18O values along pine needles from base to tip, and the isotopic differences between young and old leaves. Within a needle, progressive enrichments of both oxygen-18 and deuterium were observed toward the tip, ranging for ?D from -60.1 to 9.4 permil in white pine and -67.1 to -34.9 permil in red pine, and for ?18O from -3.1 to 19.1 for white pine and -7.3 to 5.5 permil in red pine. For both species, ?D and ?18O were higher in old leaves than in young leaves. The isotopic difference between old and young leaves was most pronounced earlier in the growing season; the gap narrowed with time and finally disappeared in early fall. Early in the growing season, the ?D values of young needles were -21 and -30 permil in white and red pine, respectively, and that of old needles were -3.0 and -8.0 permil, respectively. The ?18O values showed similar trends, and the ?D vs. ?18O slope for the young leaves decreased from 3.6 in spring to ~1 in early autumn. Our observations can be simulated using the progressive isotopic enrichment model proposed by Barnes and Farquhar for monocotyledoneous leaves. Two variables, the transpiration rate and length of the needle, can explain the observed isotopic variations. These two variables can be combined into one parameter in the model as the longitudinal Peclet number of the leaf. In addition, the model can also explain the change in the slope of the ?D vs. ?18O relationship in leaf water.

  3. Interstitial nephritis from mesalazine: case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois J. Arend; James E. Springate

    2004-01-01

    We report a new case of biopsy-confirmed mesalazine-induced interstitial nephritis in an 18-year-old male with ulcerative colitis. His renal function improved with drug discontinuation and corticosteroid treatment. An English literature review revealed an additional 22 cases of this complication that, taken together, showed (1) a male predominance, (2) an absence of specific symptoms or findings on urinalysis, (3) a 61%

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis due to deferasirox: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godela Brosnahan; Neriman Gokden; Sundararaman Swaminathan

    2008-01-01

    Deferasirox is a new oral iron chelator used to treat transfu- sional iron overload. Pre-marketing clinical trials revealed little organ-specific toxicity. Increases in serum creati- nine were noted in one-third of patients but were mild and non-progressive. We describe a 62-year-old man with myelodysplasticsyndromewhodevelopedaprogressivede- cline in renal function after starting deferasirox. A kidney biopsy showed acute interstitial nephritis with increased

  5. Incommensurate strain-induced ordering of interstitial oxygen in Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurta, R. P.; Bugaev, V. N.; Stierle, A.; Dosch, H.

    2008-07-01

    We present a semi-phenomenological theory of the strain-induced interaction between interstitial oxygen dissolved in Nb and predict an incommensurate oxygen ordering wave which is mediated by the intrinsic bcc instability at k = 2/3(111). We discuss the stability range of this ordering phenomenon, which may play a role in the performance of Nb radio frequency (RF) cavities for high energy particle accelerators.

  6. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren L Fruchter; Iakovina Alexopoulou; Keith K Lau

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While\\u000a antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have\\u000a been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent\\u000a renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction

  7. Molecular dynamic simulations of self-interstitials in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, Maen Ahmed

    Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations in periodic supercells containing 64 up to 216 Si host atoms were used to study the static and dynamic properties of neutral self-interstitial aggregates, I n, in silicon. The lowest energy configurations for In, n < 5, have been identified. Each of I and I 2 has one local minimum, while the potential energy surface for aggregates of three or more I's have 2 several local minima, leading to a range of metastable configurations. Constant temperature runs show that I2 and the most stable Ia3 clusters are highly mobile. In these complexes, all the self-interstitials are located around a single bond centered site, a feature that greatly facilitates exchange process and is responsible for the rapid diffusion. Simulations of Ib3 show that the three I's exchange sites with each other, but the center of the defect remains at the same place. Simulations of I and I4 show no diffusion or exchange on the same time scale. Next, the highly mobile Ia3 'units' are assumed to be the building blocks for self-interstitial precipitates. We study the interactions Ia3+Iae?I 6 and I6+Ia3?I9 by bringing an Ia3 toward either Ia3 or I6 along various crystalline directions in 216 host silicon atoms supercells. The calculations show that these reactions occur at a substantial gain in energy and that the stacking along some directions is energetically preferred over others. The results suggest that precipitation mechanisms involving rapidly moving self-interstitial clusters could play an important role in the formation of extended defects.

  8. Interstitial lung disease in patients with small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko Miyazaki; Hiroaki Satoh; Koichi Kurishima; Ryota Nakamura; Hiroichi Ishikawa; Katsunori Kagohashi; Nobuyuki Hizawa

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and lung cancer are two of the most common respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was\\u000a to demonstrate the prognostic significance of the presence of ILD in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). All the\\u000a patients with SCLC who were admitted to our hospitals over a 23-year period up to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.

  9. Cytomegalovirus infection of murine testicular interstitial Leydig cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, J F; Stanat, S C; Huang, E S

    1983-01-01

    We studied the susceptibility of mouse testicular interstitial Leydig cells to cytomegalovirus both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo studies included intratesticular and intraperitoneal infection of 6-week-old mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV); the in vitro studies involved an MCMV-Leydig cell interaction using a Leydig tumor cell line (I-10). MCMV-specific antigens were detected in interstitial Leydig cells in sections of MCMV-inoculated testes by an indirect immunofluorescence test. MCMV DNA was also localized in the same testes cells derived from mice, which received intratesticular and intraperitoneal MCMV inoculations, respectively, by in situ DNA-RNA hybridization. Cytopathic effects were seen in MCMV-infected I-10 cell cultures 2 or more days after exposure to MCMV. The infected cells showed intranuclear inclusions characteristic of cytomegalovirus when stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain. The indirect immunofluorescence test was also positive with MCMV-infected I-10 cells. MCMV DNA was detected in these cells by in situ DNA-RNA cytohybridization, and the presence of viral particles in MCMV-infected I-10 cells was confirmed by electron microscopy. Thus, we conclude that the interstitial Leydig cell is susceptible to MCMV infection both in vivo and in vitro. Images PMID:6302003

  10. Clinical Significance of Serum Autoantibodies in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Roh, Jae Hyung; Song, Jin Woo; Lee, Chang Keun; Kim, Miyoung; Jang, Se Jin; Colby, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    Although autoantibodies are routinely screened in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, there are no reliable data on their clinical usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of autoantibodies for predicting the development of new connective tissue disease in these patients and also mortality. We conducted retrospective analysis of the baseline, and follow-up data for 688 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (526 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 85 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and 77 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia) at one single tertiary referral center. The median follow-up period was 33.6 months. Antinuclear antibody was positive in 34.5% of all subjects, rheumatoid factor in 13.2%, and other specific autoantibodies were positive between 0.7%-6.8% of the cases. No significant difference in patient survival was found between the autoantibody-positive and -negative groups. However, the presence of autoantibodies, especially antinuclear antibody with a titer higher than 1:320, was a significant predictor for the future development of new connective tissue diseases (relative risk, 6.4), although the incidence was low (3.8% of all subjects during follow-up). In conclusion, autoantibodies are significant predictors for new connective tissue disease development, although they have no prognostic value. PMID:23678265

  11. [Two cases of AIDS diagnosed by onset of interstitial pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, Hirochiyo; Nakajima, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Sigenori; Konishi, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    Case 1: A 35-year-old man admitted for fever and respiratory failure during several weeks was found in chest computed tomography (CT) to have interstitial pneumonia, and the plasma beta-D-glucan level indicated Pneumocystis jiverocii pneumonia. Psoriasis from second-stage syphilis raised the suspicion of HIV infection. Serum anti-HIV-1 antibody proved positive and CD4-positive lymphocytes in peripheral blood were 18/microL. The man died despite treatment. Autopsy confirmed P. jiverocii pneumonia. Case 2: A 28-year-old man seen for a fever and respiratory failure was found in chest CT to have mild interstitial pneumonia. We checked for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, etc. The plasma beta-D-glucan level indicated possible P. jirovecii pneumonia and immunodeficiency. Serum anti-HIV-1 antibody proved positive and CD4-positive lymphocytes in peripheral blood were 34/microL. The man was treated successfully, using trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole for his interstitial pneumonia. His clinical symptoms were compatible with P. jirovecii pneumonia. P. jirovecii pneumonia with AIDS may present with more subacute or subtle symptoms than other immunosuppressive diseases, making it difficult to diagnose. Medical professionals should thus make it a point to familiarize themselves with AIDS prevention. PMID:17338319

  12. The Multifaceted Aspects of Interstitial Lung Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Vittorio; Scorletti, Eva; Crepaldi, Gloria; Caporali, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation. PMID:24205507

  13. An augmented reality haptic training simulator for spinal needle procedures.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Colin; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Sellens, Rick; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the prototype for an augmented reality haptic simulation system with potential for spinal needle insertion training. The proposed system is composed of a torso mannequin, a MicronTracker2 optical tracking system, a PHANToM haptic device, and a graphical user interface to provide visual feedback. The system allows users to perform simulated needle insertions on a physical mannequin overlaid with an augmented reality cutaway of patient anatomy. A tissue model based on a finite-element model provides force during the insertion. The system allows for training without the need for the presence of a trained clinician or access to live patients or cadavers. A pilot user study demonstrates the potential and functionality of the system. PMID:23269747

  14. Atrial fibrillation and pneumothorax after transthoracic needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander; Southern, Iain; Nicol, Edward

    2012-01-01

    An obese 65-year-old male smoker with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed an iatrogenic pneumothorax with pulmonary haemorrhage during an elective transthoracic needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Successful re-inflation was achieved with a chest drain which was then removed before transfer to the medical ward. He later developed persistent atrial fibrillation with breathlessness and haemoptysis. He was treated empirically for a pulmonary embolus, which was subsequently ruled out with CT pulmonary angiogram. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated recurrence of his pneumothorax and a chest drain was re-inserted. His atrial fibrillation was erroneously managed as supraventricular tachycardia, which was resistant to vagal manoeuvres and adenosine but later responded to intravenous amiodarone before a further relapse. Upon successful management of the pneumothorax, his atrial fibrillation terminated. This case highlighted the persistent and serious nature of complications posttransthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:22665868

  15. Postoperative interstitial brachytherapy in eyelid cancer: long term results and assessment of Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy scale

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Trinanjan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Chaukar, Devendra; Nadkarni, Mandar; GN, Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyse feasibility and safety of postoperative interstitial brachytherapy (IBRT) in patients of eyelid cancer treated primarily by surgical excision. Material and methods In this series, 8 patients with eyelid cancer were treated using postoperative interstitial brachytherapy. Patients were followed up for local control, cosmetic outcome, and acute and late toxicities. Cosmetic outcome was measured using a 6 point indigenous Cosmesis After Interstitial Brachytherapy (CAIB) scale. Results The patients were between 23-82 years (median: 71 years). There were 3 females and 5 males, and 3 patients had lesions in upper eyelid. Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy was used in all with 2 catheters implanted in most of them (6 out of 8). Local control was calculated from end of treatment to last follow-up. At last follow-up, all patients remained locally controlled. Two patients had nodal recurrence 6 months after interstitial brachytherapy and were salvaged effectively by external beam radiotherapy. At last follow-up, 7 patients were loco-regionally controlled and one was lost to follow up. All patients had Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 acute toxicity and 2 had grade 1 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version.3 late toxicities. The cosmesis score for the whole group ranged between 0-1 indicating excellent to very good cosmesis. Conclusions Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy resulted in excellent disease control and cosmesis without significant acute or late toxicities. It is an effective modality for treatment of eyelid cancers in selected patients. Future prospective studies with the validation of CAIB scale would give us more insight to this effective yet often ignored modality of IBRT. PMID:25834578

  16. The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Sun Sung; Sung-Wook Seo; Min-Soo Shon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal\\u000a lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There\\u000a were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s\\u000a exact

  17. Radio frequency needle hyperthermia of normal and cancerous animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalhav, Arieh; Ramon, J.; Goldwasser, Benad; Nativ, Ofer; Cherniack, Ramy; Zajdel, Liliana

    1994-12-01

    Capacitative radio frequency (RF) was met with little success when used to treat human cancer. Conductive rf needle hyperthermia (RFNH) is used successfully for human tissue ablation in neurosurgery, cardiology, and recently in urology. RFNH ablates tissue by causing thermal damage limited to the vicinity of the rf needle. We conducted a series of studies to evaluate the effect of RFNH on cancerous and normal tissue. RFNH was applied to normal porcine livers during open surgery. Liver function tests were elevated two days post treatment, then returned to normal. Pigs were sequentially sacrificed. RFNH induced lesions were found to be maximal in size on days 2 - 4 post treatment and later became smaller as liver regenerated. Phase 2 included mice bearing two subcutaneous murine bladder tumors (MBT2). The rf needle was inserted into both tumors of each mouse, but rf current was applied to one tumor only. Energies of 3 to 7.5 watts were applied for 30 seconds to 5 minutes using a 0.02 inch needle. Mice were sacrificed 0, 1, and 3 days after treatment. Necrotic lesions 0.5 - 1.2 cm in diameter were found within the treated tumors. In phase 3, mice bearing a single 8 - 18 mm subcutaneous tumor were treated by RFNH aiming for complete tumor destruction. All control mice died of huge tumors within 31 days. Treated mice were alive with no signs of tumor when sacrificed 60 days after treatment. In phase 3 RFNH is capable of complete tumor eradication with little damage to surrounding normal tissue. It may have clinical applications for percutaneous endoscopic and laparoscopic treatment of tumors.

  18. Effect of simulated acid fog on needles of fir seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Igawa; Hideki Kameda; Fumitaka Maruyama; Hiroshi Okochi; Ichiro Otsuka

    1997-01-01

    Fir seedlings (Abies firma) were treated with simulated acid fog from September 1992 to April 1995. The simulated acid fog was at pH 3 and consisted of 1 mM nitric acid, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 1 mM ammonium sulfate. In 1993 spring, needles of the seedlings treated with the simulated acid fog became greener than those of the control,

  19. Intraperitoneal infusion as a complication of needle catheter feeding jejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Blebea, J; King, T A

    1985-01-01

    The needle catheter feeding jejunostomy is being increasingly utilized for postoperative nutritional support. We report a case of catheter dislodgement with intraperitoneal infusion of an elemental diet with subsequent peritonitis and death. A review of the literature reveals this complication to occur in 1.5% of patients, even when the serosa of the small bowel has been attached to the anterior abdominal wall. Recommendations are made regarding the prevention and management of such complications. PMID:4068198

  20. Oven melting encapsulization of hypodermic needles by syringes.

    PubMed

    Fortner, T; Wynn, H; Heffner, H; Colton, J

    2009-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the time and temperature conditions necessary to melt standard injection syringes are presented. The polypropylene syringes are melted to form a solid block of material encapsulating the attached stainless steel hypodermic needles, making them appropriate for further processing into other products. The desired result was obtained after two hours at 200 degrees C and can be replicated easily in a location such as a rural clinic in a developing nation. PMID:19848854

  1. Organohalogenated compounds in pine needles from Beijing city, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diandou Xu; Linlin Deng; Zhifang Chai; Xueying Mao

    2004-01-01

    Pine needles collected from 22 sites of six areas in Beijing city, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic extraction for extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The concentrations of EOX (EOX=EOCl+EOBr+EOI) were in the order of EOCl?EOBr>EOI. About 1.6–34% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric

  2. Needle Enzyme Electrode for Lactate Measurement In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zimei Rong; Eugenia Leitao; Jonathan Popplewell; BurÇak Alp; Pankaj Vadgama

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical lactate needle enzyme electrodes were fabricated based on lactate oxidase with a conventional hydrogen peroxide detection regimen with a linear range up to 7 mM, response time ~ 3 min, and sensitivity ~ 1 nA\\/mM. A negatively charged inner (sulphonated polyether ether sulphone-polyether sulphone) membrane was applied for ensuring selectivity by limiting oxidazible anion diffusion to the Pt working

  3. Ethylene triggers needle abscission in root-detached balsam fir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mason T. MacDonald; Rajasekaran R. Lada; Alex I. Martynenko; Martine Dorais; Steeve Pepin; Yves Desjardins

    2010-01-01

    Post-harvest needle abscission is a major challenge for Christmas tree and greenery industries. It was hypothesized that ethylene\\u000a triggers abscission in balsam fir. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In experiment 1, 70 balsam fir\\u000a branches were collected, placed in water, and ethylene evolution was observed over time. In experiment 2, a 2 × 5 factorial\\u000a experiment was designed to

  4. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  5. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  6. Wound closure sutures and needles: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Gubler, K; Wallis, Anne G; Clark, Jamie J; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Long, William B

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, the choice of the suture material should be based on the biological interaction of the materials employed, the tissue configuration, and the biomechanical properties of the wound. Measurements of the in vivo degradation of sutures separate them into two general classes: absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures. The nonabsorbable sutures and absorbable sutures are classified according to their origin. When considering an absorbable suture's tensile strength in vivo, we recommend that the manufacturer provides specific recommendations of its holding strength, rather than the percentage retained of its initial tensile strength. The newest advance in nonabsorbable sutures is polybutester suture, which is a block copolymer that contains butylene terephthalate (84%) and polytetramethylene ether glycol terephthalate (16%). The expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) suture has been expanded to produce a porous microstructure that is approximately 50% air by volume. The clinical performance of polybutester suture has been enhanced by coating its surface with a unique absorbable polymer. A search for a synthetic substitute for absorbable collagen sutures led to the development of the POLYSORB™ sutures that can reliably approximate tissues with a low risk for infection. The latest innovation in the development of monofilament absorbable sutures has been in the rapidly absorbing CAPROSYN™ suture. A new high-nickel stainless steel, SURGALLOY™, has been used recently to manufacture surgical needles. Biomechanical performance studies of cutting edge needles made of S45500 stainless steel alloy and SURGALLOY™ stainless steel demonstrated that needles made of SURGALLOY™ had superior performance characteristics over those made of S45500. PMID:21284597

  7. The flow field near a venous needle in hemodialysis: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Fulker, David; Kang, Martin; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2013-10-01

    The vascular access used in hemodialysis can suffer from numerous complications, which may lead to failure of the access, patient morbidity, and significant costs. The flow field in the region of the venous needle may be a source of damaging hemodynamics and hence adverse effects on the fistula. In this study, the venous needle flow has been considered, using three-dimensional computational methods. Four scenarios where the venous needle flow could potentially influence dialysis treatment outcome were identified and examined: Variation of the needle placement angle (10°, 20°, 30°), variation of the blood flow rate settings (200, 300, 400 mL/min), variation of the needle depth (top, middle, bottom), and the inclusion of a back eye in the needle design. The presence of the needle has significant effect on the flow field, with different scenarios having varying influence. In general, wall shear stresses were elevated above normal physiological values, and increased presence of areas of low velocity and recirculation-indicating increased likelihood of intimal hyperplasia development-were found. Computational results showed that the presence of the venous needle in a hemodialysis fistula leads to abnormal and potentially damaging flow conditions and that optimization of needle parameters could aid in the reduction of vascular access complications. Results indicate shallow needle angles and lower blood flow rates may minimize vessel damage. PMID:23448433

  8. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  9. A GIS-based methodology for improving needle exchange service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Peter J.; Scholar, Shoshanna; Howe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background A variety of legal, social and logistical factors can prevent individuals from accessing formal needle exchange programs. One common solution to this problem is satellite exchange, which involves collaborating with people who already use an exchange to deliver needles and other supplies to those unable to access the exchange. While this approach can be very successful, one potential problem is that those most willing to deliver needles to their peers are often members of social networks that are already well connected with the needle exchange, leading to duplication of effort. In this paper we describe a simple and novel method for identifying groups of people who are demonstrably in need of improved access to needles, and for re-targeting efforts to meet the needs of those people. The method described was piloted at the Homeless Youth Alliance, San Francisco, USA, and further refined at Clean Needles Now, Los Angeles, USA. Methods People accessing needle exchange sites were asked to participate in a survey with two questions: “where were you and what time was it last time someone borrowed a needle from you?” and “where were you and what time was it last time you had to borrow a needle from someone else?” Responses were geocoded, and maps produced showing ‘hotspots’ where people were frequently finding themselves without needles. Results Satellite needle exchange was refined from an ad-hoc activity into one which focused on delivering needles to those with empirically demonstrable need. Maps produced in the process also proved valuable in discussions with local officials and other agencies about funding, as well as needle provision policy and practices. Conclusion We describe a method for rapidly assessing, describing, and responding to unmet and under-met need among injecting drug users. The method is particularly well-suited to organizations with extremely limited resources. PMID:21112757

  10. Sulfates-based nanothermites: an expanding horizon for metastable interstitial composites.

    PubMed

    Comet, Marc; Vidick, Geoffrey; Schnell, Fabien; Suma, Yves; Baps, Bernard; Spitzer, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Metal sulfates (Ba, Bi, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn, Zr) were used as oxidizers in reactive compositions with Al nanopowder. These new kinds of nanothermites have outstandingly high reaction heats (4-6?kJ?g(-1) ) compared to conventional Al/metal oxides (1.5-4.8?kJ?g(-1) ) and also have good combustion velocities (200-840?m?s(-1) vs 100-2500?m?s(-1) ). These compositions are extremely insensitive to friction making their preparation and handling easy and safe. The sulfate hydration water increases the reaction heats and has a significant effect on the sensitivity to impact and to electrostatic discharge. The reaction of Al with water is easier to initiate than the one with sulfate which leads to two possible decomposition modes for samples exposed to an open flame. The pyrotechnical properties observed with sulfates have also been found for other sulfur oxygenates (SO3 (2-) , S2 O3 (2-) , S2 O8 (2-) ) which opens up new horizons in the domain of metastable interstitial composites. PMID:25702633

  11. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ?25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ?70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  12. First principles study of foreign interstitial atom (carbon, nitrogen) interactions with intrinsic defects in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Song, Chi; Fang, Q. F.; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.; Liu, C. S.

    2012-11-01

    We performed a series of first-principles calculations to investigate the foreign interstitial atom (FIA) interactions with intrinsic defects in tungsten. We found the following: (i) The introduction of the FIA reduces the vacancy formation energy, resulting in the increase of the equilibrium concentration of vacancies. (ii) The positive binding energy between two FIAs suggests that the FIA can attract other FIAs. (iii) The FIA is easily trapped by the vacancy, and a single vacancy can accommodate up to 4 and 6 atoms in a stable manner for carbon and nitrogen, respectively. (iv) There is an attraction interaction between the FIA and the self-interstitial atom (SIA), and the FIA can reduce the SIA jump frequency and enhance the formation of SIA clusters in tungsten. Moreover, the difference between carbon and nitrogen are also discussed with respect to the formation of FIA-FIA covalent bond and the accumulation around the saturated -, where d is the ith nearest-neighbor (inn) solute-tungsten distance before relaxation and ?di=(di-d) is the change in distance due to relaxation. The calculated relaxations are presented in Table 3. The relaxations of 1nn of octahedral interstitial carbon and nitrogen atoms are 23.30% and 22.42%, respectively, which are greatly larger than the relaxations of other nearest-neighbor atoms (0.1-2%). These results indicate that the influence range of FIA is very local. The lattice distortions introduced by the octahedral interstitial carbon or nitrogen atom can be characterized by determining the dipolar tensor from Kanzaki forces. Here, to obtain the dipolar tensor, we adopt a similar calculation procedure as used in Ref. [14], where the dipolar tensor P is calculated from the Kanzaki forces on all the tungsten atoms. The detailed procedure could be found in Ref. [14]. Due to the symmetry of the configuration, the dipolar tensor has two independent values: P11 and P33, which are listed in Table 3. Similarly with Ref. [14], approximate values of dipolar tensor only can be obtained due to the small supercell. However, it appears clearly that the dipolar tensor is highly anisotropic. Whatever the FIA nature, the values of P33 are much larger than the values of P11. The reason is that the coordination polyhedron of the octahedral site is not a regular octahedron. To summarize, the introduction of an FIA in an octahedral site in tungsten leads to a tetragonal distortion to the neighboring tungsten lattice. A similar phenomenon has been found in other bcc metals, such as Fe [14], when a carbon or nitrogen atom is placed at the octahedral site.The vacancy formation energy is the energy required to take an atom from inside the crystal, and place it into a reservoir of the same atoms. In the perfect supercell, it can be calculated by Eq. (1). In the supercell with an FIA, the vacancy formation energy of the nearest-neighbors of octahedral interstitial carbon or nitrogen atom is defined as [34]: Ef'V=E(W127FIA1)-E(W128FIA)+{E(W128)}/{128}. The calculated vacancy formation energies of the nearest-neighbors of the FIA are summarized in Table 3. The vacancy formation energies of the 1nn of the octahedral interstitial carbon and nitrogen atoms are 1.23 eV and 0.73 eV, respectively, which are remarkably lower than that in the perfect tungsten supercell (3.2 eV). For other nearest-neighbors, the vacancy formation energies are a bit lower than that in the perfect tungsten supercell. These results show that the octahedral interstitial carbon and nitrogen can decrease the energies needed to form a vacancy around them. The effect of vacancy formation energy on the equilibrium concentration of vacancies can be expressed as c0=exp(-EfV/kT). Therefore, the introduction of carbon and nitrogen can increase the equilibrium concentration of vacancies.In order to explore the mechanisms of the FIA reducing the vacancy formation energy, the electronic charge density difference is plotted in the (1 1¯ 0) plane with the FIA in the center, as presented in Fig. 2. The differential charge density is defined as the difference b

  13. Vacancies and interstitials in indium nitride: Vacancy clustering and molecular bondlike formation from first principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Duan; C. Stampfl

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the structural and electronic properties and formation energies of vacancy, interstitial, and antisite defects, as well as complex formation, in wurtzite InN using first-principles calculations. The N interstitial, which forms a split-interstitial configuration with a N2 -like bonding, has the lowest formation energy under N-rich conditions in p -type material, where it is a triple donor. We find

  14. High short-term mortality following lung biopsy for usual interstitial pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Utz; J. H. Ryu; W. W. Douglas; T. E. Hartman; H. D. Tazelaar; J. L. Myers; M. S. Allen; D. R. Schroeder

    2001-01-01

    High short-term mortality following lung biopsy for usual interstitial pneumonia. J.P. Utz, J.H. Ryu, W.W. Douglas, T.E. Hartman, H.D. Tazelaar, J.L. Myers, M.S. Allen, D.R. Schroeder. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a specific histological pattern of interstitial pneumonia most often associated with the clinical syndrome of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). There is controversy regarding the

  15. Arsenic concentrations in successive needle age classes of Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.).

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, A; Bajo, S; Tobler, L

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic has been determined in needles of Norway spruce by neutron activation analysis. Trees from 8 sites grown under different soil and environmental situations have been sampled. Trees and needle age classes have been treated individually. Endogenous As concentrations in needles <100 ng/g have been detected. Concentrations increased linearly with the needle age class. This biodynamic behaviour is attributed tentatively to a predominant foliar uptake. Concentrations at the various sites differed by a factor of 7. No connection could be found between As concentrations in needles and total As in the soil or pH of the soil. However, the strong correlation between the endogenous and the exogenous concentrations, and differences of As concentrations in needles between different sites are thought to be due mainly to different inputs of As from the atmosphere. PMID:15067468

  16. Distribution of Persistent Organohalogen Compounds in Pine Needles from Selected Locations in Kentucky and Georgia, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bommanna G. Loganathan; Kurunthachalam Senthil Kumar; Kosta D. Seaford; Kenneth S. Sajwan; Nobuyasu Hanari; Nobuyoshi Yamashita

    2008-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of pine needles accumulates organic pollutants from the atmosphere, and the pine needle samples have been\\u000a used for monitoring both local and regional distributions of semivolatile organic air pollutants. One-year-old pine needles\\u000a collected from residential and industrial locations in western Kentucky and the vicinity of Linden Chemicals and Plastics,\\u000a a Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, were analyzed for

  17. Measurements of Ion Current from a Corona-needle Charger Using a Faraday Cup Electrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panich Intra; Nakorn Tippayawong

    Corona-needle charger is widely used to impose a known net charge distribution on the aerosol particles for the electrical mobility particle sizer. However, the corona discharge and charging processes in the corona-needle charger at different operating conditions is not well understood. In the present paper, measurement of ion current from a corona-needle charger using a Faraday cup electrometer was performed

  18. CO Digital Subtraction Splenoportography with the 'Skinny' Needle: Experimental Study in a Swine Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung J. Cho; David R. Cho

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and the effectiveness of CO splenoportography with the 'skinny' needle. Methods: A flexible, 22 gauge needle ('skinny' needle) was introduced into the exteriorized spleens of five pigs. After checking the intrasplenic positioning withCO injection, increasing doses of CO (10-60cm³) were injected using a dedicated COinjector with digital imaging. The puncture sites were observed during and

  19. Is a Musical Intervention Effective In the Reduction of Needle Related Procedural Pain in Children?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Good Heather B. PA-S

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Trypanophobia, or the fear of needles and needle pain is a very common occurrence in children, one that can have significant impacts into adulthood and on an individual’s lifelong healthcare. The objective of this systematic review is to determine whether or not a musical intervention is effective in the reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children. The author searched OVID

  20. Oblique Needle Segmentation for 3D Trus-Guided Robot-Aided Transperineal Prostate Brachytherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhouping Wei; Lori Gardi; Dónal B. Downey; Aaron Fenster

    2004-01-01

    3D TRUS-guided robot-aided prostate brachytherapy provides tools for dynamic re-optimization of a dose plan by freeing needle insertions from parallel trajectory constraints, i.e., needle trajectories can be positioned with considerable flexibility including oblique. However, oblique insertion results in the needle intersecting the 2D TRUS image and appearing as a dot, leading to blind guidance. Here, we propose a method for

  1. Local lattice distortions around interstitial oxygen in niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbéris, P.; Beuneu, B.; de Novion, C.-H.

    1992-06-01

    The elastic neutron diffuse scattering has been measured on a quenched NbO{0.023} single crystal in the [1bar 1 0] reciprocal plane. Because of the large inelastic contribution due to low-energy phonons, a deconvolution method has been developed which increases the time-of-flight analysis accuracy. The coherent elastic diffuse intensity is composed of a diffuse Huang scattering around the Bragg peaks, a strong maximum near the (1.3 1.3 1.3) position and a coherent diffuse signal in the whole plane. There is no clear evidence for a short-range order between interstitials. The first neighbours of the oxygen interstitisls are so short-range order between interstitials. The first neighbours of the oxygen interstitials are so strongly repulsed that the usual analytic developments are not justified and the data have been analysed within a simple model assuming that the defects are isolated and considering only the perturbation over the four first neighbouring shells. La diffusion diffuse élastique de neutrons dans un cristal NbO{0,023} a été mesurée dans le plan [ 1bar 1 0] du réseau réciproque. Une méthode de déconvolution des spectres a permis d'améliorer les performances d'analyse du temps de vol près des pics de Bragg où la contribution inélastique due aux phonons de faible énergie est importante. On observe une diffusion Huang autour des pics de Bragg, un maximum marqué près de (1,3 1,3 1,3) est un signal diffus cohérent dans tout le plan. Il n'apparaît pas de manifestation claire d'un ordre local entre impuretés. Les premiers voisins des interstitiels d'oxygène sont si fortement repoussés que les développements analytiques habituels sont inutilisables ; les données ont donc analysées à l'aide d'un modèle simple supposant les défauts isolés et ne considérant que les perturbations sur les quatre premières couches de voisins.

  2. On the Origin of Large Interstitial Clusters in Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Calder F [University of Liverpool; Barashev, Aleksandr [University of Liverpool; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  3. A retired shipyard worker with rapidly progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Moy, E V; Hu, H; Christiani, D C

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of progressive interstitial fibrosis in a retired shipyard worker who was exposed to asbestos during the postwar era of the late 1940s and 1950s, when asbestos exposures in the workplace were not regulated. Forty years later, at 63 years of age, the patient presented with restrictive lung disease. The patient was diagnosed with asbestos-related pleural disease and parenchymal asbestosis. He remained stable for the next 7 years, but then he began to manifest rapid clinical progression, which raised the possibility of an unusual variant of asbestosis, a concomitant interstitial process, or an unrelated disease. Lung biopsy was not undertaken because of the patient's low pulmonary reserve and limited treatment options. An empiric trial of oral steroids was initiated, but his pulmonary status continued to deteriorate and he died of pulmonary failure at 72 years of age. Many diseases result in pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Ideally, open lung biopsy should be performed, but this procedure inevitably causes complications in many patients with end-stage restrictive lung disease. Furthermore, while the presence of asbestos bodies in tissue sections is a sensitive and specific marker of asbestos exposure, neither this finding nor any other charge is a marker indicative of asbestosis or the severity of asbestosis. With the enactment of the Asbestos Standard in the United States, asbestos exposures have been decreasing in this country. However, industries that produce asbestos products and wastes continue to expand in developing countries. Prevention of asbestos-related lung disease should be a global endeavor, and asbestos exposures should be regulated in both developed and developing countries. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090713

  4. Interstitial-Mediated Diffusion in Germanium under Proton Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracht, H.; Schneider, S.; Klug, J. N.; Liao, C. Y.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Haller, E. E.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Bougeard, D.; Posselt, M.; Wündisch, C.

    2009-12-01

    We report experiments on the impact of 2.5 MeV proton irradiation on self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge). Self-diffusion under irradiation reveals an unusual depth independent broadening of the Ge isotope multilayer structure. This behavior and the observed enhanced diffusion of B and retarded diffusion of P demonstrates that an interstitial-mediated diffusion process dominates in Ge under irradiation. This fundamental finding opens up unique ways to suppress vacancy-mediated diffusion in Ge and to solve the donor deactivation problem that hinders the fabrication of Ge-based nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Exchange of deeply trapped and interstitial hydrogen in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Van de Walle, C.G. [Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)] [Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Adams, J.B. [Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)] [Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Using {ital ab initio} density-functional calculations, we examine possible exchange mechanisms between an interstitial hydrogen atom and a deeply bound H at a silicon-hydrogen bond. We determine a low-energy pathway for exchange, which involves an intermediate, metastable {equivalent_to}SiH{sub 2} complex with both hydrogen atoms strongly bound to the silicon atom. The energy barrier for the exchange process is E{sub ex}{lt}0.2 eV, consistent with observations of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a-Si:H(D) films. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Management of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Sandra; Fischer, Aryeh

    2015-05-01

    A thorough, often multidisciplinary assessment to determine extrathoracic versus intrathoracic disease activity and degrees of impairment is needed to optimize the management of connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Pharmacologic intervention with immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of CTD-ILD, but should be reserved for those that show clinically significant and/or progressive disease. The management of CTD-ILD is not yet evidence based and there is a need for controlled trials across the spectrum of CTD-ILD. Nonpharmacologic management strategies and addressing comorbidities or aggravating factors should be included in the comprehensive treatment plan for CTD-ILD. PMID:25836643

  7. Rituximab-associated interstitial lung disease in fibrillary glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Prestel, Valeria; Hernandez-Perez, Jesus; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Milicua-Muñoz, José María; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20+ B cells increasingly used to treat kidney disorders. RTX-induced pulmonary disease has been reported in patients treated for haematological disorders, and a few cases have been observed in patients with underlying rheumatological conditions. We report a case of non-infectious interstitial pneumonitis associated with RTX use in a 49-year-old patient with primary (fibrillary) glomerulonephritis. As typically observed, discontinuation of the drug and prompt initiation of glucocorticoids led to resolution of pulmonary manifestations. However, fatalities have been reported and nephrologists treating glomerulonephritis patients with RTX should be aware of the existence of this potentially lethal complication.

  8. Levetiracetam-induced severe acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Jim; Ismail, Kasim; Griffith, Neil; Liu, Michael; Makris, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is an uncommon cause of renal failure, which may be caused by drugs. Levetiracetam is an increasingly used anti-epileptic medication that is not known to cause renal toxicity in adults. To our knowledge, levetiracetam has not previously been reported as a cause of GIN. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who developed haemodialysis-requiring acute renal failure after commencement of treatment with levetiracetam, which was shown to be GIN by renal biopsy. She made a complete recovery with cessation of levetiracetam and treatment with steroids.

  9. [Ultrastructure of the interstitial cells of the rat kidney medulla].

    PubMed

    Miklós, S; György, L; Jenö, S

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructure of the interstitial cells of the internal zone of the medulla of kidney in rats is detailly described. Electronmicroscopical feature of these cells may be connected with several functions i.e. urine-concentration, electrolyte-transport, production of intercellular matrix and vasodepressor-lipids. Ultrastructural picture of production and elimination of lipid droplets is not yet cleared out. Authors stress, that for the appropriate fixation of zones of different ion-concentration of the medulla special fixatives of an appropriate osmotic pressure are necessary. PMID:1256460

  10. Unexpected Dynamics for Self-Interstitial Clusters in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estreicher, S. K.; Gharaibeh, M.; Fedders, P. A.; Ordejón, Pablo

    2001-02-01

    Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of self-interstitial clusters in Si show that I2 and the most stable of the I3 (`` Ia3'') clusters diffuse extremely fast. In these clusters, the I's share a single bond-centered (BC) site. The metastable Ib3 cluster involves three adjacent BC sites. Simulations show that the three I's exchange sites with each other, but the center of the defect remains at the same place. Simulations with I1 and I4 show no diffusion on the same time scale.

  11. Hyaluronan treatment of interstitial cystitis\\/painful bladder syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus R. Riedl; Paul F. Engelhardt; Kurosch L. Daha; Nike Morakis; Heinz Pflüger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of intravesical hyaluronan therapy in interstitial cystitis\\/painful bladder\\u000a syndrome (IC\\/PBS). One hundred twenty-six patients with IC\\/PBS and an average disease duration of 6.1 years were treated with\\u000a weekly instillations of a 50-cm3 phosphate-buffered saline solution containing 40 mg sodium hyaluronate. To be eligible for hyaluronan treatment, a positive\\u000a modified potassium test was

  12. Behavior of Vacancies and Interstitials at Semicoherent Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolluri, Kedarnath; Demkowicz, Michael J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Using atomistic simulations on a model semicoherent interface, we show that the formation, migration, and clustering of vacancies and interstitials at semicoherent interfaces depend on the structure of the misfit dislocation network of the interface. Interfacial point defects trap at misfit dislocation intersections and migrate from one intersection to another along misfit dislocations by a multistage process. Interfacial point defect clusters are thermodynamically less stable than individual defects and the largest cluster size depends on the spacing between misfit dislocation intersections. Our results show that the behavior of interfacial point defects is intimately connected to interface structure.

  13. Needle position estimation from sub-sampled k-space data for MRI-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Choli, Morwan; Overhoff, Heinrich M.

    2015-03-01

    MRI-guided interventions have gained much interest. They profit from intervention synchronous data acquisition and image visualization. Due to long data acquisition durations, ergonomic limitations may occur. For a trueFISP MRI-data acquisition sequence, a time sparing sub-sampling strategy has been developed that is adapted to amagnetic needle detection. A symmetrical and contrast rich susceptibility needle artifact, i.e. an approximately rectangular gray scale profile is assumed. The 1-D-Fourier transformed of a rectangular function is a sinc-function. Its periodicity is exploited by sampling only along a few orthogonal trajectories in k-space. Because a needle moves during intervention, its tip region resembles a rectangle in a time-difference image that is reconstructed from such sub-sampled k-spaces acquired at different time stamps. In different phantom experiments, a needle was pushed forward along a reference trajectory, which was determined from a needle holders geometric parameters. In addition, the trajectory of the needle tip was estimated by the method described above. Only ca. 4 to 5% of the entire k-space data was used for needle tip estimation. The misalignment of needle orientation and needle tip position, i.e. the differences between reference and estimated values, is small and even in its worst case less than 2 mm. The results show that the method is applicable under nearly real conditions. Next steps are addressed to the validation of the method for clinical data.

  14. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  15. The Effect of Needle-embedding Therapy and Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Patients with Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Ju Kim; Min-Chul Kim; Chang-Hyun Lee; Jong-Uk Kim; Tae-Han Yook

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of traditional Korean medical therapy, consisting of needle-embedding therapy and pharmacopuncture therapy, on patients with urinary incontinence.

  16. Changes in metal mobility associated with bark beetle-induced tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Mikkelson, Kristin M; Bearup, Lindsay A; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2014-05-01

    Recent large-scale beetle infestations have caused extensive mortality to conifer forests resulting in alterations to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling, which in turn can impact metal mobility through complexation. This study analyzed soil-water samples beneath impacted trees in concert with laboratory flow-through soil column experiments to explore possible impacts of the bark beetle infestation on metal release and transport. The columns mimicked field conditions by introducing pine needle leachate and artificial rainwater through duplicate homogenized soil columns and measuring effluent metal (focusing on Al, Cu, and Zn) and DOC concentrations. All three metals were consistently found in higher concentrations in the effluent of columns receiving pine needle leachate. In both the field and laboratory, aluminum mobility was largely correlated with the hydrophobic fraction of the DOC, while copper had the largest correlation with total DOC concentrations. Geochemical speciation modeling supported the presence of DOC-metal complexes in column experiments. Copper soil water concentrations in field samples supported laboratory column results, as they were almost twice as high under grey phase trees than under red phase trees further signifying the importance of needle drop. Pine needle leachate contained high concentrations of Zn (0.1 mg l(-1)), which led to high effluent zinc concentrations and sorption of zinc to the soil matrix representing a future potential source for release. In support, field soil-water samples underneath beetle-impacted trees where the needles had recently fallen contained approximately 50% more zinc as samples from under beetle-impacted trees that still held their needles. The high concentrations of carbon in the pine needle leachate also led to increased sorption in the soil matrix creating the potential for subsequent carbon release. While unclear if manifested in adjacent surface waters, these results demonstrate an increased potential for Zn, Cu, and Al mobility, along with increased deposition of metals and carbon beneath beetle-impacted trees. PMID:24664178

  17. Ageing and maintenance of the interstitial fluid traffic: possible roles of initial lymphatics and circadian hormones.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2005-01-01

    It is here proposed that the interstitial fluid traffic depends on the widespread system of initial lymphatics without valves. The filtered fluid forced by the interstitial hydrostatic pressure enters initial lymphatics through loose junctions in segments that are near arterial ends of blood capillaries. Loose junctions might also allow fluid to leave initial lymphatics in segments that are near the venous ends of blood capillaries. Thus, initial lymphatics help daily transfer of 24 L of interstitial fluid from points of filtration to the points of resorption. Muscle contractions compress initial lymphatics and force the intraluminal content to enter collecting lymphatics. Contractions are needed to re-establish initial lymphatics as interstitial fluid shortcuts. Even small differences in interstitial flow can become important and lead to uneven flow distribution that might damage tissue and accelerate ageing. The proposed model of interstitial traffic maintenance requires three separate effects: (a) Thyroid hormones and control of tissue metabolism. It directly affects the cell shape and size, synthesis or degradation of interstitial material. Thyroid hormones control metabolic rates and prevent accumulation of interstitial material, as can be seen in severe hypothyroidism. (b) Somatotropin anabolic effects. Somatotropin increases number and volumes of cells, synthesis of interstitial material. These actions increase interstitial flow resistance. (c) Cortisol catabolic action. A cortisol induced tissue catabolism reduces the interstitial flow resistance toward normal. The presented idea is that known rhythms of GH and cortisol (GH during night sleep and cortisol in the morning) separate anabolic and catabolic actions in time, or otherwise they would diminish each other. The model predicts that the maintenance would be best during growth, when GH surges are higher. GH and cortisol are secreted together in cases of trauma, stress or starvation. Since this would probably block the proposed mechanism, a possible speculation is that frequent repetitions of stressful conditions accelerate ageing. The same prediction can be made for the long term glucocorticoid administration. PMID:15607572

  18. Simple Core-Needle Biopsy for Thyroid Nodule, Complicated Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Beaudoin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Background Fine-needle aspiration is the procedure of choice for evaluating thyroid nodules. Core-needle biopsy (CNB) is not included in the American Thyroid Association recommendations for evaluating such nodules. CNB complications are classically bleeding and hematomas. To our knowledge, no case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) secondary to a CNB has been reported, nor has any case of tinnitus secondary to a post-CNB AVF. Objectives To make the clinician aware of possible vascular complications caused by CNB and the possibility of difficult pathology reading caused by previous CNB. Methods A 44-year-old female is described who was referred to our tertiary care center for left-sided pulsatile tinnitus. She did report having had a CNB right before the tinnitus appeared. Conventional angiography demonstrated a focal AVF originating from the left vertebral artery, with reflux to the left vertebral venous plexus. A 6-mm stent was placed over the site of the fistula via an endovascular approach, which solved both the radiological and clinical documented problems. Moreover, CNB greatly complicated pathology reading once total thyroidectomy was later performed. The suspected area of invasion was an artifact due to the previous biopsies. Conclusion Although many authors recommend a CNB as an alternative modality in cases of inconclusive cytology with fine-needle aspiration, it is not in the American Thyroid Association recommendations. In cases of iatrogenic AVFs caused by a CNB, angiography is recommended both as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Stenting the fistula with an endoprosthesis can correct the problem immediately. PMID:25114877

  19. The diagnostic value of needle biopsy for musculoskeletal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ki-Sun; Shon, Min-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. Between 2004 and 2007, 309 biopsies (ultrasound 151, computed tomography 89, and fluoroscopy 69) were included. There were 142 soft tissue and 167 bony lesions. Diagnostic yields and accuracies were assessed using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni’s correction when necessary. Overall diagnostic yield was 90.6% for all 309 lesions (bone 91.6% vs. soft tissue 89.3%, p?=?0.5125). The diagnostic accuracy of the 185 core needle biopsies, which were confirmed by definitive surgical biopsies, was 84.3% (bone 88.9% vs. soft tissue 79.1%, p?=?0.0669). The yields of homogenous bone tumours (96.8%) were not significantly higher than those of bone tumours with a heterogenic architecture (86.4%, p?=?0.0794). The difference between accuracies for homogenous bone tumours (89.1%) and heterogenous bone tumours (85.0%) was not significant (p?=?0.6930). However, for soft tissue tumours, homogenous tumours had a significantly higher diagnostic yield than heterogenous tumours (97.5% vs. 81.4%, p?=?0.0036). Diagnostic accuracy for homogenous tumours was also significantly higher than that for heterogenous soft tissue tumours (94.4% vs. 60.6%, p?needle biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions is a safe and effective procedure if it is performed selectively in soft tissue tumours with homogenous architectures. PMID:19655141

  20. Transseptal fine needle aspiration of a large left atrial tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wing; Ruygrok, Peter; Sutton, Timothy; Ding, Patricia; van Vliet, Chris; Occleshaw, Christopher; Smith, Warren

    2010-07-01

    The diagnosis of cardiac tumours is often based on images without tissue diagnosis or tissue obtained at surgery. Percutaneous myocardial biopsy via a transvenous approach has been described in literatures but this technique is not feasible with left atrial tumours. We report a patient presenting with heart failure and left atrial tumour. The diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was established pre-operatively via successful transseptal fine needle aspiration of cells from a left atrial tumour. We believe this technique worth consideration to aid pre-surgery diagnosis. PMID:19656723